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1.
Asian Journal of Andrology ; (6): 549-554, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-922374

ABSTRACT

Male meiosis is a complex process whereby spermatocytes undergo cell division to form haploid cells. This review focuses on the role of retinoic acid (RA) in meiosis, as well as several processes regulated by RA before cell entry into meiosis that are critical for proper meiotic entry and completion. Here, we discuss RA metabolism in the testis as well as the roles of stimulated by retinoic acid gene 8 (STRA8) and MEIOSIN, which are responsive to RA and are critical for meiosis. We assert that transcriptional regulation in the spermatogonia is critical for successful meiosis.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cell Differentiation/genetics , Humans , Meiosis/drug effects , Spermatogenesis/physiology , Tretinoin/metabolism
2.
Braz. oral res. (Online) ; 34: e006, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1055522

ABSTRACT

Abstract Induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells could be induced into ameloblast-like cells by ameloblasts serum-free conditioned medium (ASF-CM), and bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) might be essential during the regulation of this process. The present study investigates the signal transduction that regulates the ameloblastic differentiation of iPS cells induced by ASF-CM. Mouse iPS cells were characterized and then cultured for 14 days in epithelial cell medium (control) or ASF-CM. Bone morphogenetic protein receptor II (BMPR-II) siRNA, inhibitor of Smad1/5 phosphorylation activated by activin receptor-like kinase (ALK) receptors, and inhibitors of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) phosphorylation were used to treat the iPS cells in combination with ASF-CM. Real-time PCR, western blotting, and immunofluorescent staining were used to evaluate the expressions of ameloblast markers ameloblastin, enamelin, and cytokeratin-14. BMPR-II gene and protein levels increased markedly in ASF-CM-treated iPS cells compared with the controls, while the mRNA levels of Bmpr-Ia and Bmpr-Ib were similar between the ASF-CM and control groups. ASF-CM stimulation significantly increased the gene and protein expression of ameloblastin, enamelin and cytokeratin-14, and phosphorylated SMAD1/5, p38 MAPK, and ERK1/2 MAPK compared with the controls. Knockdown of BMPR-II and inhibition of Smad1/5 phosphorylation both could significantly reverse the increased expression of ameloblastin, enamelin, and cytokeratin-14 induced by ASF-CM, while neither inhibition of p38 nor ERK1/2 phosphorylation had significant reversing effects. We conclude that smad1/5 signaling transduction, activated by ALK receptors, regulates the ameloblastic differentiation of iPS cells induced by ameloblast-conditioned medium.


Subject(s)
Signal Transduction/physiology , Smad1 Protein/physiology , Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells/cytology , Ameloblasts/cytology , Phosphorylation , Time Factors , Gene Expression , Cell Differentiation/physiology , Cell Differentiation/genetics , Cells, Cultured , Blotting, Western , Fluorescent Antibody Technique , Culture Media, Serum-Free , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , MAP Kinase Signaling System/physiology , Activin Receptors/analysis , Activin Receptors/physiology , RNA Interference , p38 Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases/analysis , p38 Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases/physiology , Bone Morphogenetic Protein Receptors, Type II/analysis , Bone Morphogenetic Protein Receptors, Type II/physiology , Smad1 Protein/analysis
3.
Braz. oral res. (Online) ; 34: e006, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1089380

ABSTRACT

Abstract Induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells could be induced into ameloblast-like cells by ameloblasts serum-free conditioned medium (ASF-CM), and bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) might be essential during the regulation of this process. The present study investigates the signal transduction that regulates the ameloblastic differentiation of iPS cells induced by ASF-CM. Mouse iPS cells were characterized and then cultured for 14 days in epithelial cell medium (control) or ASF-CM. Bone morphogenetic protein receptor II (BMPR-II) siRNA, inhibitor of Smad1/5 phosphorylation activated by activin receptor-like kinase (ALK) receptors, and inhibitors of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) phosphorylation were used to treat the iPS cells in combination with ASF-CM. Real-time PCR, western blotting, and immunofluorescent staining were used to evaluate the expressions of ameloblast markers ameloblastin, enamelin, and cytokeratin-14. BMPR-II gene and protein levels increased markedly in ASF-CM-treated iPS cells compared with the controls, while the mRNA levels of Bmpr-Ia and Bmpr-Ib were similar between the ASF-CM and control groups. ASF-CM stimulation significantly increased the gene and protein expression of ameloblastin, enamelin and cytokeratin-14, and phosphorylated SMAD1/5, p38 MAPK, and ERK1/2 MAPK compared with the controls. Knockdown of BMPR-II and inhibition of Smad1/5 phosphorylation both could significantly reverse the increased expression of ameloblastin, enamelin, and cytokeratin-14 induced by ASF-CM, while neither inhibition of p38 nor ERK1/2 phosphorylation had significant reversing effects. We conclude that smad1/5 signaling transduction, activated by ALK receptors, regulates the ameloblastic differentiation of iPS cells induced by ameloblast-conditioned medium.


Subject(s)
Signal Transduction/physiology , Smad1 Protein/physiology , Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells/cytology , Ameloblasts/cytology , Phosphorylation , Time Factors , Gene Expression , Cell Differentiation/physiology , Cell Differentiation/genetics , Cells, Cultured , Blotting, Western , Fluorescent Antibody Technique , Culture Media, Serum-Free , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , MAP Kinase Signaling System/physiology , Activin Receptors/analysis , Activin Receptors/physiology , RNA Interference , p38 Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases/analysis , p38 Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases/physiology , Bone Morphogenetic Protein Receptors, Type II/analysis , Bone Morphogenetic Protein Receptors, Type II/physiology , Smad1 Protein/analysis
4.
Int. j. morphol ; 37(3): 1132-1141, Sept. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1012409

ABSTRACT

Spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs) have self-renewal and differentiation capacity essential for sperm production throughout the male reproductive life. The electrospun polycaprolactone/gelatin (PCL/Gel) nanofibrous scaffold mimics important features of the extracellular matrix (ECM), which can provide a promising technique for the proliferation and differentiation of SSCs in vitro. The goal of the present study was to investigate the effects of PCL/Gel nanofibrous scaffold on the propagation and differentiation of neonate mouse SSCs (mSSCs). mSSCs were enzymatically isolated, and the cells were purified by differential plating method and seeded on scaffold. After 2 weeks, viability, colony number and diameter, and expression of specific spermatogonial cell genes were investigated. After mSSCs propagation, the cells were cultivated in a differentiation medium on the scaffold for another 2 weeks, and differentiating cells were analyzed by real-time PCR. The number of mSSC colony (P<0.01) and expression levels of specific spermatogonial genes Plzf and Inga6 (P<0.01) and also differentiation genes c-Kit, Tp1 and Ptm1 (P<0.05) were higher in scaffold group compared with control during the culture period. We conclude that mSSCs can be expanded and can differentiate toward spermatid cells on PCL/Gel nanofibrous scaffold with improved developmental parameters.


Las células madre espermatogónicas (CME) tienen capacidad de auto renovación y diferenciación esenciales para la producción de esperma a lo largo de la vida reproductiva masculina. El «scaffold¼ nanofibroso de policaprolactona / gelatina (PCL / Gel) electrohilado imita características importantes de la matriz extracelular (MEC), que puede proporcionar una técnica prometedora para la proliferación y diferenciación de CME in vitro. El objetivo del presente estudio fue investigar los efectos del «scaffold¼ nanofibroso PCL / Gel en la propagación y diferenciación de CME de ratones neonatos (mSSC). Los mSSC se aislaron enzimáticamente y las células se purificaron mediante un método de siembra diferencial y se sembraron en un «scaffold¼. Después de 2 semanas, se investigaron la viabilidad, el número y el diámetro de las colonias y la expresión de genes específicos de células espermatogónicas. Después de la propagación de mSSC, las células se cultivaron en un medio de diferenciación en el «scaffold¼ durante otras 2 semanas, y las células se analizaron mediante PCR en tiempo real. El número de colonias mSSC (P <0,01) y los niveles de expresión de los genes espermatogónicos específicos Plzf e Inga6 (P <0,01) y también los genes de diferenciación c-Kit, Tp1 y Ptm1 (P <0,05) fueron mayores en el grupo de «scaffold¼ en comparación con el control durante el período de cultivo. Concluimos que los mSSC pueden expandirse y diferenciarse en células espermátidas en un «scaffold¼ de nanofibras PCL / Gel con parámetros de desarrollo mejorados.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Mice , Spermatogonia/cytology , Spermatogonia/metabolism , Cell Differentiation/physiology , Cell Proliferation/physiology , Polyesters/chemistry , Cell Differentiation/genetics , Cell Survival , Fluorescent Antibody Technique , Cell Proliferation/genetics , Tissue Scaffolds , Nanofibers/chemistry , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Animals, Newborn
5.
Univ. med ; 59(3)2018. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-995004

ABSTRACT

El desarrollo neurológico humano requiere una serie de pasos que permitan orientar, regular y diferenciar los diversos componentes cerebrales, para así garantizar, de una manera bastante precisa, la correcta organización y funcionamiento de las estructuras neuronales. La neurogénesis está clásicamente dividida en cuatro etapas consecutivas: proliferación, migración, diferenciación y maduración. En los humanos, estas ocurren desde la tercera semana de gestación hasta la vida adulta y precisan de un complejo grupo de paquetes genéticos, así como de algunos factores asociados, que se han ido descubriendo gracias a los avances en la biología molecular. El artículo es una revisión acerca del desarrollo neuroembriológico humano y los componentes genéticos más relevantes encontrados en la literatura.


The human neuronal development requires a number of concrete steps which lead to orientation, regulation and differentiation of several brain components. They must be done to guarantee, in a very precise way, the correct organization and functioning of the neuronal structures. Neurogenesis is commonly divided into four consecutive stages: proliferation, migration, differentiation and maturation. In humans, those stages take place since the third week of prenatal Iife until the adult Iife. They also require a complex group of genetic packs and associated molecular factors, most of which have been recen tly discovered by the molecular biology technology. A review was made about the human neuronal and embryological development and the most relevant genetic components described by the literature so far.


Subject(s)
Cell Movement/genetics , Neurogenesis/genetics , Embryonic and Fetal Development , Cell Differentiation/genetics
6.
Int. braz. j. urol ; 41(4): 764-772, July-Aug. 2015. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-763064

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACTPurpose:RNA activation (RNAa) is a mechanism of gene activation triggered by promoter-targeted small double stranded RNAs (dsRNAs), also known as small activating RNAs (saRNAs). Myogenic regulatory factor MyoD is regarded as the master activator of myogenic differentiation cascade by binding to enhancer of muscle specific genes. Stress urinary incontinence (SUI) is a condition primarily resulted from urethral sphincter deficiency. It is thus expected that by promoting differentiation of adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) into myoblasts by activating MyoD gene through RNAa may offer benefits to SUI.Materials and Methods:Rats ADSCs were isolated, proliferated in vitro, and identified by flow cytometry. Purified ADSCs were then transfected with a MyoD saRNA or control transfected. Real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and western blotting were used to detect MyoD mRNA and protein expression, respectively. Immunocytochemical staining was applied to determine the expression of desmin protein in transfected cells. Cell viability was measured by using CellTiter 96® AQueous One Solution Cell Proliferation Assay kit.Results:Transfection of a MyoD saRNA (dsMyoD) into ADSCs significantly induced the expression of MyoD at both the mRNA and protein levels, and inhibited cell proliferation. Desmin protein expression was detected in dsMyoD treated ADSCs 2 weeks later.Conclusion:Our findings show that RNAa mediated overexpression of MyoD can promote transdifferentiation of ADSCs into myoblasts and may help treat stress urinary incontinence (SUI)–a condition primarily resulted from urethral sphincter deficiency.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Adipose Tissue/cytology , Cell Differentiation/genetics , Desmin/metabolism , MyoD Protein/genetics , Myoblasts/cytology , RNA, Double-Stranded , Stem Cells/cytology , Blotting, Western , Cell Survival , Flow Cytometry , Gene Expression , Immunohistochemistry , MyoD Protein/metabolism , Myoblasts/metabolism , Primary Cell Culture , Promoter Regions, Genetic/physiology , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Stem Cells/metabolism , Transfection , Transcriptional Activation/physiology , Urethra/pathology , Urinary Incontinence, Stress/genetics , Urinary Incontinence, Stress/metabolism
7.
ABCD arq. bras. cir. dig ; 28(1): 74-80, 2015. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-742762

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Gastric bypass is today the most frequently performed bariatric procedure,but, despite of it, several complications can occur with varied morbimortality. Probably all bariatric surgeons know these complications, but, as bariatric surgery continues to spread, general surgeon must be familiarized to it and its management. Gastric bypass complications can be divided into two groups: early and late complications, taking into account the two weeks period after the surgery. This paper will focus the early ones. METHOD: Literature review was carried out using Medline/PubMed, Cochrane Library, SciELO, and additional information on institutional sites of interest crossing the headings: gastric bypass AND complications; follow-up studies AND complications; postoperative complications AND anastomosis, Roux-en-Y; obesity AND postoperative complications. Search language was English. RESULTS: There were selected 26 studies that matched the headings. Early complications included: anastomotic or staple line leaks, gastrointestinal bleeding, intestinal obstruction and incorrect Roux limb reconstruction. CONCLUSION: Knowledge on strategies on how to reduce the risk and incidence of complications must be acquired, and every surgeon must be familiar with these complications in order to achieve an earlier recognition and perform the best intervention. .


INTRODUÇÃO: O bypass gástrico é hoje o procedimento bariátrico mais realizado, mas, apesar disso, várias complicações podem ocorrer com variada morbimortalidade. Provavelmente todos os cirurgiões bariátricos conhecem essas complicações, mas como a cirurgia bariátrica continua a se espalhar, o cirurgião geral deve estar familiarizado com essas complicações e seu manuseio. As complicações do bypass gástrico podem ser divididas em dois grupos: as precoces e tardias, tendo em conta o período de duas semanas após a operação. Este artigo irá focar as precoces. MÉTODO: Foi realizada revisão da literatura utilizando as bases Medline/PubMed, Cochrane Library, SciELO, e informações adicionais sobre sites institucionais de interesse cruzando os descritores: bypass gástrico AND complicações; seguimento AND complicações; complicações pós-operatórias AND anastomose, Roux-en-Y; obesidade AND complicações pós-operatórias. A língua usada para a busca foi o inglês. RESULTADOS: Foram selecionados 26 artigos que combinavam com os descritores. As complicações imediatas foram: fístula na linha de grampeamento, sangramento gastrointestinal, obstrução intestinal e reconstrução incorreta da alça em Roux. CONCLUSÃO: O conhecimento sobre as estratégias de como reduzir o risco e incidência das complicações deve ser adquirido ao longo do tempo, e cada cirurgião deve estar familiarizado com essas complicações, a fim de reconhecê-las precocemente e realizar a melhor intervenção. .


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Mice , B-Lymphocytes/physiology , Poly(ADP-ribose) Polymerases/physiology , Antibody Formation/drug effects , Antibody Formation/genetics , Apoptosis/genetics , Apoptosis/immunology , B-Lymphocytes/drug effects , B-Lymphocytes/metabolism , Cell Differentiation/drug effects , Cell Differentiation/genetics , Cell Survival/genetics , Immunoglobulin A/immunology , /pharmacology , Mice, Knockout , Multigene Family , Neoplasm Proteins/genetics , Neoplasm Proteins/metabolism , Neoplasm Proteins/physiology , Poly(ADP-ribose) Polymerases/chemistry , Poly(ADP-ribose) Polymerases/genetics , Poly(ADP-ribose) Polymerases/metabolism , Sequence Homology
8.
Biol. Res ; 48: 1-9, 2015. ilus, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-950823

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Theoretically human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) have the capacity to self-renew and differentiate into all human cell types. Therefore, the greatest promise of hESCs-based therapy is to replace the damaged tissues of patients suffering from traumatic or degenerative diseases by the exact same type of cells derived from hESCs. Allo-graft immune rejection is one of the obstacles for hESCs-based clinical applications. Human leukocyte antigen (HLA) II leads to CD4+ T cells-mediated allograft rejection. Hence, we focus on optimizing hESCs for clinic application through gene modification. RESULTS: Transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs) were used to target MHC class II transactivator (CIITA) in hESCs efficiently. CIITA(-/-)hESCs did not show any difference in the differentiation potential and self-renewal capacity. Dendritic cells (DCs) derived from CIITA(-/-)hESCs expressed CD83 and CD86 but without the constitutive HLA II. Fibroblasts derived from CIITA(-/-)hESCs were powerless in IFN-γ inducible expression of HLA II. CONCLUSION: We generated HLA II defected hESCs via deleting CIITA, a master regulator of constitutive and IFN-γ inducible expression of HLA II genes. CIITA(-/-)hESCs can differentiate into tissue cells with non-HLA II expression. It's promising that CIITA(-/-)hESCs-derived cells could be used in cell therapy (e.g., T cells and DCs) and escape the attack of receptors' CD4+ T cells, which are the main effector cells of cellular immunity in allograft.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Mice , Nuclear Proteins/genetics , Trans-Activators/genetics , Cell Differentiation/genetics , Gene Deletion , Deoxyribonucleases/metabolism , Human Embryonic Stem Cells/metabolism , Teratoma , Dendritic Cells/metabolism , Immunoglobulins/metabolism , Immunohistochemistry , Membrane Glycoproteins/metabolism , Tumor Cells, Cultured , Histocompatibility Antigens Class II/genetics , Antigens, CD/metabolism , Interferon-gamma/metabolism , Mice, SCID , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , Deoxyribonucleases/classification , B7-2 Antigen/metabolism , Embryoid Bodies/metabolism , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Karyotype , Fibroblasts/metabolism , Cell Self Renewal , Antigen-Presenting Cells/metabolism
9.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-190706

ABSTRACT

Analysis of the T-cell receptor (TCR) repertoire of innate CD4+ T cells selected by major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II-dependent thymocyte-thymocyte (T-T) interaction (T-T CD4+ T cells) is essential for predicting the characteristics of the antigens that bind to these T cells and for distinguishing T-T CD4+ T cells from other types of innate T cells. Using the TCRmini Tg mouse model, we show that the repertoire of TCRalpha chains in T-T CD4+ T cells was extremely diverse, in contrast to the repertoires previously described for other types of innate T cells. The TCRalpha chain sequences significantly overlapped between T-T CD4+ T cells and conventional CD4+ T cells in the thymus and spleen. However, the diversity of the TCRalpha repertoire of T-T CD4+ T cells seemed to be restricted compared with that of conventional CD4+ T cells. Interestingly, the frequency of the parental OT-II TCRalpha chains was significantly reduced in the process of T-T interaction. This diverse and shifted repertoire in T-T CD4+ T cells has biological relevance in terms of defense against diverse pathogens and a possible regulatory role during peripheral T-T interaction.


Subject(s)
Amino Acid Sequence , Animals , Antigens, Surface/metabolism , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/cytology , Cell Communication , Cell Differentiation/genetics , Clonal Evolution , Histocompatibility Antigens Class II/immunology , Immunity, Innate , Immunophenotyping , Lymphocyte Count , Mice , Mice, Knockout , Mice, Transgenic , Peptide Fragments/chemistry , Phenotype , Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell/chemistry , Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell, alpha-beta/chemistry , Spleen/cytology , Thymocytes/cytology
10.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 1036-1043, 2015.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-150480

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Spinal cord injury (SCI) is associated with permanent neurological damage, and treatment thereof with a single modality often does not provide sufficient therapeutic outcomes. Therefore, a strategy that combines two or more techniques might show better therapeutic effects. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this study, we designed a combined treatment strategy based on neural stem cells (NSCs) introduced via a neuronal cell type-inducible transgene expression system (NSE::) controlled by a neuron-specific enolase (NSE) promoter to maximize therapeutic efficiency and neuronal differentiation. The luciferase gene was chosen to confirm whether this combined system was working properly prior to using a therapeutic gene. The luciferase expression levels of NSCs introduced via the neuronal cell type-inducible luciferase expression system (NSE::Luci) or via a general luciferase expressing system (SV::Luci) were measured and compared in vitro and in vivo. RESULTS: NSCs introduced via the neuronal cell type-inducible luciferase expressing system (NSE::Luci-NSCs) showed a high level of luciferase expression, compared to NSCs introduced via a general luciferase expressing system (SV::Luci-NSCs). Interestingly, the luciferase expression level of NSE::Luci-NSCs increased greatly after differentiation into neurons. CONCLUSION: We demonstrated that a neuronal cell type-inducible gene expression system is suitable for introducing NSCs in combined treatment strategies. We suggest that the proposed strategy may be a promising tool for the treatment of neurodegenerative disorders, including SCI.


Subject(s)
Cell Differentiation/genetics , Gene Expression , Gene Regulatory Networks , Genetic Therapy , Humans , Luciferases/genetics , Neural Stem Cells , Neurons/metabolism , Phosphopyruvate Hydratase/metabolism , Promoter Regions, Genetic , Spinal Cord Injuries/therapy , Stem Cells/metabolism
11.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 47(4): 279-286, 8/4/2014. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-705770

ABSTRACT

SRY-related high-mobility-group box 9 (Sox9) gene is a cartilage-specific transcription factor that plays essential roles in chondrocyte differentiation and cartilage formation. The aim of this study was to investigate the feasibility of genetic delivery of Sox9 to enhance chondrogenic differentiation of human umbilical cord blood-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hUC-MSCs). After they were isolated from human umbilical cord blood within 24 h after delivery of neonates, hUC-MSCs were untreated or transfected with a human Sox9-expressing plasmid or an empty vector. The cells were assessed for morphology and chondrogenic differentiation. The isolated cells with a fibroblast-like morphology in monolayer culture were positive for the MSC markers CD44, CD105, CD73, and CD90, but negative for the differentiation markers CD34, CD45, CD19, CD14, or major histocompatibility complex class II. Sox9 overexpression induced accumulation of sulfated proteoglycans, without altering the cellular morphology. Immunocytochemistry demonstrated that genetic delivery of Sox9 markedly enhanced the expression of aggrecan and type II collagen in hUC-MSCs compared with empty vector-transfected counterparts. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction analysis further confirmed the elevation of aggrecan and type II collagen at the mRNA level in Sox9-transfected cells. Taken together, short-term Sox9 overexpression facilitates chondrogenesis of hUC-MSCs and may thus have potential implications in cartilage tissue engineering.


Subject(s)
Humans , Cell Differentiation/genetics , Chondrogenesis/genetics , Fetal Blood/cytology , Mesenchymal Stem Cells/cytology , SOX9 Transcription Factor/genetics , Aggrecans/biosynthesis , Blotting, Western , Cartilage/metabolism , Cell Proliferation/genetics , Chondrocytes/metabolism , Collagen Type II/biosynthesis , Flow Cytometry , Green Fluorescent Proteins , Gene Expression Regulation/physiology , Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells/cytology , Immunohistochemistry , Immunophenotyping , Primary Cell Culture , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , Tissue Engineering , Transfection
12.
Indian J Exp Biol ; 2014 Mar; 52(3): 197-206
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-150349

ABSTRACT

Peptide: N- glycanase (PNGase) enzyme is found throughout eukaryotes and plays an important role in the misfolded glycoprotein degradation pathway. This communication reports the expression patterns of the pngase transcript (as studied by the analysis of β- galactosidase reporter driven by the putative pngase promoter) and protein (as studied by the analysis of β- galactosidase reporter expressed under the putative pngase promoter as a fusion with the pngase ORF) during development and further elucidated the developmental defects of the cells lacking PNGase (png-). The results show that the DdPNGase is an essential protein expressed throughout development and β- galactosidase activity was present in the anterior part of the slug. In structures derived from a null mutant for pngase, the prestalk A and AO patterning was expanded and covered a large section of the prespore region of the slugs. When developed as chimeras with wild type, the png- cells preferentially populate the prestalk/stalk region. When the mutants were mixed in higher ratios, they also tend to form the prespore/spore cells. The results emphasize that the DdPNGase has an essential role during development and the mutants have defects in a system that changes the physiological dynamics in the prespore cells. DdPNGase play a role in development both during aggregation and in the differentiation of prespore cells.


Subject(s)
Cell Differentiation/genetics , Chimera , Dictyostelium/genetics , Dictyostelium/growth & development , Galactosidases/biosynthesis , Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental , Gene Knockout Techniques , Peptide-N4-(N-acetyl-beta-glucosaminyl) Asparagine Amidase/biosynthesis , Peptide-N4-(N-acetyl-beta-glucosaminyl) Asparagine Amidase/genetics , Spores/cytology , Spores/genetics
13.
Full dent. sci ; 4(16): 559-561, out. 2013.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, BBO | ID: lil-695729

ABSTRACT

As células-tronco mesenquimais são uma população de células adultas obtidas através da medula óssea, sangue do cordão umbilical, e estão cada vez mais sendo utilizadas para tratamentos regenerativos e pesquisas de engenharia tecidual nas mais diversas áreas da medicina, isto devido ao fato de essas células serem multipotenciais, que conseguem se diferenciar em quase todos os tipos de tecidos humanos, com exceção da placenta e anexos embrionários. Quando coletadas são criopreservadas a temperaturas abaixo de 180°C para manterem o seu potencial de proliferação e diferenciação osteogênica in vitro. Elas possuem capacidade de se autoproliferar e se diferenciar ao longo de várias linhagens, incluindo osso, cartilagem, tecido adiposo, células musculares e neurais. O objetivo deste artigo é revisar a literatura sobre a capacidade que as células-tronco possuem em se diferenciar e proporcionar o crescimento ósseo através de seu potencial osteogênico (contendo células formadoras de osso), osteoindutor (contendo substâncias osteoindutoras) e osteocondutor (servem como uma base para formação de osso). Uma variedade de opiniões a respeito do tipo de materiais que deve ser utilizado para aplicações clínicas em defeitos ósseos torna ampla a discussão sobre resultados de traumas e ressecções de tumores ósseos. Para isso, os biomateriais fornecem uma excelente base para o crescimento ósseo quando combinado com um aspirado de concentrado de medula óssea. Apesar de estar comprovado cientificamente que as células estromais podem formar ossos, ainda não há estudos clínicos suficientes.


The mesenchymal stem cells are a population of mature cells obtained from bone marrow and umbilical cord blood. These cells are being widely used on regenerative treatment and tissue engineering research in several areas of medicine. That is occurring due to the fact that these cells are multipotent, being able to differentiate themselves into almost every type of human tissues, with the exception of the placenta and embryonic annexes. When collected these cells, are cryopreserved at temperatures below -180°C to preserve their potential for proliferation and osteogenic differentiation in vitro. They also have the ability to self-proliferate and differentiate along various cell lineages, including bone, cartilage, adipose tissue, muscle, and nerve cells. The aim of this study was to review the literature on the ability that mesenchymal cells have to differentiate themselves and provide bone growth through its osteogenic potential (containing bone-forming cells), osteoinductivity potential (containing osteoinductive substances) and osteoconductive (serve as a basis for bone formation). A variety of opinions about the type of materials that should be used for clinical application in bone defects amplifies the discussion around trauma and bone tumors resections.Biomaterials provide an excellent foundation for new bone growth when combined with an aspirated bone marrow concentrate. Although, it has been scientifically proven that stromal cells can form new bones, there are not enough clinical studies about it.


Subject(s)
Stem Cells/physiology , Cryopreservation/methods , Cryopreservation , Cell Differentiation/physiology , Cell Differentiation/genetics , Osteogenesis/genetics , Bone Marrow , Bone Regeneration
14.
São Paulo; s.n; s.n; 2013. 152 p. tab, graf, ilus.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-847064

ABSTRACT

Durante o desenvolvimento do sistema nervoso, as células têm a tarefa de proliferar, migrar, diferenciar, morrer ou amadurecer de modo altamente preciso para formar estruturas complexas. Tal precisão é alcançada em decorrência da interação perfeita entre as células que se comunicam por meio de mensageiros químicos no ambiente extracelular. Nesse contexto, nosso grupo tem reportado o envolvimento da bradicinina (BK) em processos do desenvolvimento neural. Recentemente, observou-se que a BK desempenha um papel importante na determinação do destino neural, favorecendo a neurogênese em detrimento da gliogênese em diversos modelos de diferenciação, além de potencializar a migração celular observada no modelo de neuroesferas de rato (Trujillo et al, 2012). Essas descobertas motivaram, como objetivo geral dessa tese, a investigação dos mecanismos subjacentes à BK que determinam seus efeitos. Dessa forma, o principal modelo de diferenciação utilizado foi as células precursoras neurais (CPNs) isoladas do telencéfalo de embriões de camundongos. Estas células proliferam na presença dos fatores de crescimento (GFs) EGF + FGF2, mantendo-se multipotentes e formando as neuroesferas, ao passo que migram e diferenciam em neurônios e glias pela remoção desses GFs, com boa proximidade aos eventos do desenvolvimento do cortex in vivo. Como resultados do presente trabalho, observou-se, inicialmente, que a BK também influencia efetivamente na diferenciação neural no modelo de CPNs murinas. Ao término da diferenciação, observou-se que esta cinina favoreceu a migração e promoveu o enriquecimento neuronal, evidenciado pelo aumento da expressão das proteínas ß3-Tubulina e MAP2. Constatou-se também, que se observa uma baixa taxa de proliferação ao término da diferenciação na presença de BK (Trujillo et al, 2012), em consequência da grande proporção de neurônios em cultura estimulada por esta cinina. Esta relação causal foi evidenciada pelo ensaio de incorporação de EdU e concomitante imuno-detecção dos marcadores ß3-Tubulina, GFAP e Nestina. Fatores que promovem a neurogênese podem promovê-la suprimindo a proliferação celular em CPNs indiferenciadas, mais especificamente, alongando a fase G1 do ciclo celular que resulta na divisão de diferenciação. Assim, investigou-se também se a BK influencia nesse processo. Análises por citometria de fluxo demonstraram que esta cinina suprimiu a proliferação estimulada pelos GFs, levando ao acúmulo de células na fase G1 do ciclo celular. Esse acúmulo não provém do bloqueio do ciclo, uma vez que se observam grandes proporções de células nas fases subsequentes à G1, indicando que essa fase foi apenas prolongada pela BK e, assim, corroboraria no favorecimento da neurogênese. Outra face dos mecanismos adjacentes à BK para seus efeitos na diferenciação neural se refere às vias de sinalização disparadas por esta cinina. Observou-se que a BK induz a produção de AMPc por intermédio de proteínas G sensíveis à toxina pertussis (TP) (provavelmente através da subunidade ßγ de proteínas Gi) e promove a mobilização de cálcio dos estoques intracelulares, evidenciando o envolvimento da família de proteínas Gq. Esses resultados sugerem que o receptor B2 de cinina acopla-se tanto às proteínas Gi quanto às proteínas Gq em CPNs. A exposição dessas células à BK também ativou as vias da PI3K/Akt e da MAPK p38, mas não influenciou na ativação de STAT3 e JNK. Destaca-se o potencial da rota da MAPK ERK como uma das principais cascatas responsáveis por decodificar sinais de mensageiros externos em respostas celulares. O tratamento com BK em CPNs ativou a ERK por tempo prolongado e estimulou sua translocação para o núcleo. O efeito de BK na glio- e neurogênese de CPNs foi dependente da atividade de ERK, porque o bloqueio farmacológico dessa enzima impediu esse efeito de BK. Por outro lado, o favorecimento da migração induzido por esta cinina foi dependente da atividade da p38, enquanto, o seu efeito antiproliferativo foi condicionado à atividade das suas duas MAPKs, ERK e p38. Além disso, a via da PI3K/Akt ativada por BK não influenciou nos três eventos avaliados. Finalmente, utilizou-se nessa tese uma abordagem reducionista da diferenciação, porém amplamente utilizada por estudos mecanísticos de neurogênese, as células PC12. Assim, observou-se que a BK também ativa a ERK por tempo prolongado e com translocação nuclear, sendo que tal forma de ativação dessa quinase é proposta na literatura como necessária e suficiente para induzir a neurogênese dessas células. Demonstrou-se ainda que o bloqueio apenas da ativação sustentada de ERK, pela inibição das atividades das PKCs clássicas, impede o favorecimento da neurogênese por BK em células PC12. Juntos, esses resultados contribuem para elucidação dos mecanismos de ação da BK na regulação da diferenciação neural, colaborando para melhor entender esse processo e prevendo possíveis aplicações em terapias de reparo neuronal em pacientes com doenças, por exemplo, de Parkinson, Alzheimer, Esclerose Múltipla e lesões isquêmicas


During CNS development cells perform the task of proliferating, migrating, differentiating, dying or maturing in highly accurate patterns. Such accuracy is reached as a result of the perfect interaction among the cells that constantly communicate with each other through cell-cell contact or through chemical messengers present in the extracellular medium. In this context, our group has reported the involvement of bradykinin (BK) in neural differentiation of stem cell models (Trujillo et al, 2012). Recently, it has been observed that BK plays an important role in determining neural destination, favoring neurogenesis over gliogenesis in several models of differentiation, besides potentializing cell migration observed in the model of rat neurospheres. These discoveries have motivated, as the general objective of this thesis, the investigation of the mechanisms underlying BK-promoted effects on neural differentiation using neural precursor cells (NPCs) isolated from the telencephalon of mice embryos. These cells proliferate in the presence of growth factors (GFs) EGF + FGF2, remaining multipotent and forming neurospheres, while they migrate and differentiate in neurons and glias following removal of these GFs, resembling in simplified conditions events of the development of the cortex in vivo. As results of the present thesis, it was initially observed that BK also effectively influences neural differentiation fate of the mouse NPC model. This kinin favored migration and promoted neuronal enrichment, evidenced by increased expression of ß3-Tubulin and MAP2 marker proteins. Moreover, proliferation rates were largely decreased following differentiation in the presence of BK (Trujillo et al, 2012), due to the large proportion of neurons in the culture stimulated by this kinin. This causal relation was evidenced by the EdU incorporation assay and the concomitant immunodetection rates of ß3- Tubulin, GFAP and Nestin markers. Factors which promote neurogenesis can promote it by suppressing cell proliferation in undifferentiated NPCs, more specifically, prolonging the G1 phase of the cell cycle that result in the division of differentiation. Thus, it was further investigated whether BK influences this process. Flow cytometry analyses showed that this kinin suppressed the proliferation stimulated by GFs, resulting in the accumulation of cells in the G1 phase of the cell cycle. This accumulation is not caused by a cycle block, since wide proportions of cells are observed in phases subsequent to the G1, indicating that this phase was only prolonged by BK, thus corroborating for favoring neurogenesis. Another aspect of the mechanisms adjacent to BK for its effects on neural differentiation refers to the signaling pathways triggered by this kinin. Here, we show that the kinin B2 receptor couples to both Gi and Gq proteins in NPCs. BK induced the production of intracellular cAMP by activation of G proteins sensitive to pertussis toxin (PT) (probably through ßγ subunit of Gi proteins) and promoted the mobilization of calcium from intracellular stocks, demonstrating the involvement of YM-254890-sensitive Gq proteins. Exposure of these cells to BK also activated PI3K/Akt and MAPK p38 pathways, but did not affect the activation of STAT3 and JNK. It is important to note the potential MAPK-ERK route as one of the main cascades responsible for decoding signals from external messengers into cellular responses. NPC treatment with BK activated ERK for prolonged time and stimulated its translocation into the nucleus. The effect of BK on glio- and neurogenesis of NPCs depended plainly on ERK activity, because the pharmacological blockade of this enzyme prevented the BK-exerted effects. On the other hand, the favoring of migration induced by this kinin was dependent on p38 activity, while its antiproliferative effect was conditioned to the activity of both the MAPKs ERK and p38. In addition, the PI3K/Akt pathway activated by BK did not affect any of the three evaluated events. Finally, we used in this thesis a reductionist approach of differentiation based on the use of PC12 cells, which has been widely used for mechanistic studies of neurogenesis. Thus, it was observed that BK also activated ERK for prolonged time and with nuclear translocation, considering that such form of kinase activation is proposed in the literature as necessary and sufficient to induce neurogenesis in these cells. This study also demonstrated that blockade only of the sustained ERK activation, through the inhibition of the activity of classic PKCs, prevents the favoring of neurogenesis by BK in PC12 cells. Together, these results compose novel mechanisms of action of BK on events of neural development in vitro, contributing to the better understanding of this process and foreseeing possible applications in the future for neuronal repair strategies


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Female , Mice , Bradykinin/analysis , Flow Cytometry/methods , Antigens, Differentiation/classification , Cell Differentiation/genetics , Cell Proliferation/genetics , Signal Transduction/genetics
15.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-81325

ABSTRACT

Many studies have reported that an electromagnetic field can promote osteogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells. However, experimental results have differed depending on the experimental and environmental conditions. Optimization of electromagnetic field conditions in a single, identified system can compensate for these differences. Here we demonstrated that specific electromagnetic field conditions (that is, frequency and magnetic flux density) significantly regulate osteogenic differentiation of adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) in vitro. Before inducing osteogenic differentiation, we determined ASC stemness and confirmed that the electromagnetic field was uniform at the solenoid coil center. Then, we selected positive (30/45 Hz, 1 mT) and negative (7.5 Hz, 1 mT) osteogenic differentiation conditions by quantifying alkaline phosphate (ALP) mRNA expression. Osteogenic marker (for example, runt-related transcription factor 2) expression was higher in the 30/45 Hz condition and lower in the 7.5 Hz condition as compared with the nonstimulated group. Both positive and negative regulation of ALP activity and mineralized nodule formation supported these responses. Our data indicate that the effects of the electromagnetic fields on osteogenic differentiation differ depending on the electromagnetic field conditions. This study provides a framework for future work on controlling stem cell differentiation.


Subject(s)
Adipose Tissue/cytology , Alkaline Phosphatase/metabolism , Biomarkers/metabolism , Bone Matrix/metabolism , Calcification, Physiologic/genetics , Cell Differentiation/genetics , Core Binding Factor Alpha 1 Subunit/metabolism , Electromagnetic Fields , Humans , Osteogenesis/genetics , Reproducibility of Results , Stem Cells/cytology
17.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 45(10): 913-920, Oct. 2012. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-647752

ABSTRACT

The distal cytoplasmic motifs of leukemia inhibitory factor receptor α-chain (LIFRα-CT3) can independently induce intracellular myeloid differentiation in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) cells by gene transfection; however, there are significant limitations in the potential clinical use of these motifs due to liposome-derived genetic modifications. To produce a potentially therapeutic LIFRα-CT3 with cell-permeable activity, we constructed a eukaryotic expression pcDNA3.0-TAT-CT3-cMyc plasmid with a signal peptide (ss) inserted into the N-terminal that codes for an ss-TAT-CT3-cMyc fusion protein. The stable transfection of Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells via this vector and subsequent selection by Geneticin resulted in cell lines that express and secrete TAT-CT3-cMyc. The spent medium of pcDNA3.0-TAT-CT3-cMyc-transfected CHO cells could be purified using a cMyc-epitope-tag agarose affinity chromatography column and could be detected via SDS-PAGE, with antibodies against cMyc-tag. The direct administration of TAT-CT3-cMyc to HL-60 cell culture media caused the enrichment of CT3-cMyc in the cytoplasm and nucleus within 30 min and led to a significant reduction of viable cells (P < 0.05) 8 h after exposure. The advantages of using this mammalian expression system include the ease of generating TAT fusion proteins that are adequately transcripted and the potential for a sustained production of such proteins in vitro for future AML therapy.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cricetinae , Female , Humans , Cytoplasm/metabolism , Gene Products, tat/metabolism , Leukemia Inhibitory Factor Receptor alpha Subunit/metabolism , Chromatography, Affinity , Cell Differentiation/genetics , Cytoplasm/genetics , Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel , Genetic Vectors , Gene Products, tat/genetics , Leukemia Inhibitory Factor Receptor alpha Subunit/genetics , Transfection
18.
Clinics ; 67(2): 99-106, 2012. ilus, graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-614632

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Understanding the changes in chondrogenic gene expression that are involved in the differentiation of human adipose-derived stem cells to chondrogenic cells is important prior to using this approach for cartilage repair. The aims of the study were to characterize human adipose-derived stem cells and to examine chondrogenic gene expression after one, two, and three weeks of induction. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Human adipose-derived stem cells at passage 4 were evaluated by flow cytometry to examine the expression of surface markers. These adipose-derived stem cells were tested for adipogenic and osteogenic differentiation capacity. Ribonucleic acid was extracted from the cells for quantitative polymerase chain reaction analysis to determine the expression levels of chondrogenic genes after chondrogenic induction. RESULTS: Human adipose-derived stem cells were strongly positive for the mesenchymal markers CD90, CD73, CD44, CD9, and histocompatibility antigen and successfully differentiated into adipogenic and osteogenic lineages. The human adipose-derived stem cells aggregated and formed a dense matrix after chondrogenic induction. The expression of chondrogenic genes (collagen type II, aggrecan core protein, collagen type XI, COMP, and ELASTIN) was significantly higher after the first week of induction. However, a significantly elevated expression of collagen type X was observed after three weeks of chondrogenic induction. CONCLUSION: Human adipose-derived stem cells retain stem cell characteristics after expansion in culture to passage 4 and serve as a feasible source of cells for cartilage regeneration. Chondrogenesis in human adiposederived stem cells was most prominent after one week of chondrogenic induction.


Subject(s)
Humans , Adipose Tissue/cytology , Cartilage, Articular/cytology , Cell Differentiation/genetics , Chondrocytes/metabolism , Chondrogenesis/genetics , Collagen/metabolism , Mesenchymal Stem Cells , Adipogenesis/genetics , Biomarkers/metabolism , Cells, Cultured , Chondrocytes/cytology , Collagen/genetics , Elastin/genetics , Elastin/metabolism , Flow Cytometry , Gene Expression Regulation , Mesenchymal Stem Cells , Osteogenesis/genetics , RNA, Messenger/genetics , SOX9 Transcription Factor/genetics , SOX9 Transcription Factor/metabolism , Time Factors
19.
São Paulo; s.n; s.n; 2012. 171 p. tab, graf, ilus.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-846852

ABSTRACT

As fraturas e perdas ósseas representam altos riscos para o Sistema público de Saúde (SUS), além de afetar a qualidade de vida do paciente, portanto é necessário o entendimento das bases moleculares que envolvem os mecanismos de reparo ósseo. Citocinas secretadas por células do sistema imune presentes no local da inflamação, como as IL-6, IL-10 e TNFα atuam como fatores quimiotáticos para células mesenquimais, que proliferam e se diferenciam em osteoblastos pela ação autócrina e parácrina de Proteínas Morfogenéticas Ósseas (BMPs), principalmente a BMP2. Embora seja conhecido que a ação de BMP2 ocorra através de sua ligação nos receptores ActRI/BMPR, que ativam proteínas SMADS 1/5/8 efetoras, pouco se sabe sobre os mecanismos intracelulares que participam do processo de diferenciação osteoblástico. Neste estudo propôs-se analisar as diferenças no conteúdo de proteínas totais e de proteínas fosforiladas em células mesenquimais de pele induzidas à osteogênese pelo tratamento com BMP2 por diferentes períodos de tempo, utilizando-se de Isótopos Estáveis de Dimetila acoplado ao LC/MS. A partir de 150µg de material inicial, foi possível identificar 2.264 proteínas, as quais foram quantificadas nos diferentes pontos de indução, sendo que 235 são fosforiladas. Análise de motivos de quinases mostrou que diversos substratos possuem sítios fosforilados correspondentes àqueles dos motivos de fosforilação das quinases Casein Kinase, p38, CDK e JNK. A análise da ontologia gênica mostrou um aumento de processos biológicos relacionados com sinalização e diferenciação após a primeira hora de indução com rhBMP2. Além disso, proteínas envolvidas com o rearranjo do citoesqueleto e com vias de sinalização Wnt e Ras foram encontradas como tendo fosforilação diferencial durante todos os períodos estudados. Os dados revelaram novos substratos intracelulares que são fosforilados nos primeiros momentos do comprometimento com a diferenciação osteoblástica mediada pelo tratamento com rhBMP2 em células mesenquimais derivadas da pele. Além disso, clones celulares que superexpressam as proteínas recombinantes humanas BMP2 e BMP4 foram gerados, e sua atividade verificada in vitro. Paralelamente, a rhBMP7, obtida anteriormente, foi purificada por cromatografia de afinidade utilizando-se uma coluna de Heparina-Sepharose, que foi posteriormente utilizada para ensaios in vitro e in vivo, nos quais se mostrou capaz de gerar osteoblastos e tecido ósseo, respectivamente, o que abre novas possibilidades para o uso destas proteínas como biofármacos no Brasil


Bone fractures and loss represent significant costs for the public health system and often affect the patients quality of life, therefore, understanding the molecular basis for bone regeneration is essential. Cytokines, such as IL-6, IL-10 and TNFα, secreted by inflammatory cells at the lesion site, at the very beginning of the repair process, act as chemotactic factors for mesenchymal stem cells, which proliferate and differentiate into osteoblasts through the autocrine and paracrine action of bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs), mainly BMP-2. Although it is known that BMP-2 binds to ActRI/BMPR and activates the SMAD 1/5/8 downstream effectors, little is known about the intracellular mechanisms participating in osteoblastic differentiation. We assessed differences in the phosphorylation status of different cellular proteins upon BMP-2 osteogenic induction of isolated human skin mesenchymal stem cells using Triplex Stable Isotope Dimethyl Labeling coupled with LC/MS. From 150 µg of starting material, 2,264 proteins containing two or more peptides were identified and quantified at five different time points, 235 of which are differentially phosphorylated. Kinase motif analysis showed that several substrates display phosphorylation sites for Casein Kinase, p38, CDK and JNK. Gene ontology analysis showed an increase in biological processes related with signaling and differentiation at early time points after BMP2 induction. Moreover, proteins involved in cytoskeleton rearrangement, Wnt and Ras pathways were found to be differentially phosphorylated during all timepoints studied. Taken together, these data, allow new insights on the intracellular substrates which are phosphorylated early on during commitment to BMP2-driven osteoblastic differentiation of skin-derived mesenchymal stem cells. Cell clones overexpressing the human BMP 2 and 4 recombinant proteins were also generated, and their biological activity was confirmed in vitro. In parallel, chromatography-affinity purified rhBMP7, obtained using heparin-Sepharose columns, was used for in vivo and in vitro assays to evaluate the ability of this purified protein to generate osteoblasts and bone tissue, respectively, opening new avenues for the use of these proteins as biopharmaceuticals in Brazil


Subject(s)
Bone Morphogenetic Protein 1/pharmacology , Mesenchymal Stem Cells , Osteoblastoma/complications , Proteomics/methods , Cell Differentiation/genetics , Cloning, Molecular , Electroporation/methods
20.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-119839

ABSTRACT

White fat cells secrete adipokines that induce inflammation and obesity has been reported to be characterized by high serum levels of inflammatory cytokines such as IL-6 and TNF-alpha. Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a prototype of inflammatory arthritis, but the relationship between RA and obesity is controversial. We made an obese inflammatory arthritis model: obese collagen-induced arthritis (CIA). C57BL/6 mice were fed a 60-kcal high fat diet (HFD) from the age of 4 weeks and they were immunized twice with type II collagen (CII). After immunization, the obese CIA mice showed higher arthritis index scores and histology scores and a more increased incidence of developing arthritis than did the lean CIA mice. After treatment with CII, mixed lymphocyte reaction also showed CII-specific response more intensely in the obese CIA mice than lean CIA. The anti-CII IgG and anti-CII IgG2a levels in the sera of the obese CIA mice were higher than those of the lean CIA mice. The number of Th17 cells was higher and the IL-17 mRNA expression of the splenocytes in the obese CIA mice was higher than that of the lean CIA mice. Obese CIA mice also showed high IL-17 expression on synovium in immunohistochemistry. Although obesity may not play a pathogenic role in initiating arthritis, it could play an important role in amplifying the inflammation of arthritis through the Th1/Th17 response. The obese CIA murine model will be an important tool when we investigate the effect of several therapeutic target molecules to treat RA.


Subject(s)
Adipokines/immunology , Animals , Arthritis, Experimental/genetics , Cell Differentiation/genetics , Collagen Type II/administration & dosage , Disease Models, Animal , Gene Expression , Humans , Inflammation/chemically induced , Interleukin-17/metabolism , Interleukin-6/blood , Joints/immunology , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Obesity/genetics , Th17 Cells/immunology , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/blood
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