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1.
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1180856

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: To compare Transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) expression in various L-PRF concentrations on the hDPSC differentiation process. Material and Methods: hDPSC cell cultures were subjected to serum starvation by reducing FBS levels in the hDPSC culture media. Lysate PRF was obtained from the PRF gel, which was then incubated at 4°C for 24 h. The supernatant was dried, transferred to a 2-ml Eppendorf tube, and stored at −20°C. The evaluation of TGF-β1 expression in 1%, 5%, 10%, and 25% L-PRF samples and 10% FBS (control) during the process of hDPSC differentiation was quantified using an ELISA reader on day 7. The expression of TGF-β1 was subjected to a one-way ANOVA test, followed by Bonferroni's post hoc test with significant values (p<0.05). Results: Significant differences were noted in TGF-β1 expression between 1%, 5%, 10%, and 25% L-PRF and the control group (10% FBS). The highest TGF-β1 expression occurred with 25% L-PRF (0.645 ± 0.048), followed by 10% L-PRF (0.461 ± 0.035), 10% FBS (0.374 ± 0.013), 5% L-PRF (0.275 ± 0.045), and the lowest expression was with 1% L-PRF (0.160 ± 0.045). Conclusion: The best result of TGF-B1 expression in hDPSC differentiation was in the 25% L-PRF group.


Subject(s)
Humans , Cell Culture Techniques , Culture Media/analysis , Dental Pulp , Platelet-Rich Fibrin/microbiology , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Transforming Growth Factors , Cell Differentiation/immunology , Analysis of Variance , Indonesia
3.
Int. braz. j. urol ; 43(4): 615-627, July-Aug. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-892856

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Background In order to induce a potent cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) response in dendritic cell (DC)-based immunotherapy for bladder cancer, various tumor antigens can be loaded onto DCs. Objective The aim of this study was to establish a method of immunotherapy for male patients with non-muscle invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC), using bladder cancer-specific CTLs generated in vitro by DCs. Materials and Methods Monocyte-derived DCs from bladder cancer patients were induced to mature in a standard cytokine cocktail (IL-1β, TNF-α, IL-6, and PGE2: standard DCs, sDCs) or anα-type 1-polarized DC (αDC1) cocktail (IL-1β, TNF-α, IFN-α, IFN-γ, and polyinosinic:polycytidylic acid) and loaded with the UVB-irradiated bladder cancer cell line, T24. Antigen-loaded αDC1s were evaluated by morphological and functional assays, and the bladder cancer-specific CTL response was analyzed by cytotoxic assay. Results The αDC1s significantly increased the expression of several molecules pertaining to DC maturation, regardless of whether or not the αDC1s were loaded with tumor antigens, relative to sDCs. The αDC1s demonstrated increased production of interleukin-12 both during maturation and after subsequent stimulation with CD40L that was not significantly affected by loading with tumor antigens as compared to that of sDCs. Bladder cancer-specific CTLs targeting autologous bladder cancer cells were successfully induced by αDC1s loaded with dying T24 cells. Conclusion Autologous αDC1s loaded with an allogeneic bladder cancer cell line resulted in increased bladder cancer-specific CTL responses as compared to that with sDCs, and therefore, may provide a novel source of DC-based vaccines that canbe used in immunotherapy for male patients with NMIBC.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Aged , Urinary Bladder Neoplasms/therapy , Dendritic Cells/immunology , T-Lymphocytes, Cytotoxic/immunology , Cytokines/therapeutic use , Immunotherapy/methods , Urinary Bladder Neoplasms/immunology , Cell Differentiation/immunology , Treatment Outcome , Cell Line, Tumor , Immunotherapy/adverse effects , Middle Aged
4.
J. appl. oral sci ; 23(5): 536-546, Sept.-Oct. 2015. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: lil-764159

ABSTRACT

In Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, different serotypes have been described based on LPS antigenicity. Recently, our research group has reported a differential immunogenicity when T lymphocytes were stimulated with these different serotypes. In particular, it was demonstrated that the serotype b of A. actinomycetemcomitans has a stronger capacity to trigger Th1- and Th17-type cytokine production.Objective This study aimed to quantify the expression of different CC chemokines (CCLs) and receptors (CCRs) in T lymphocytes stimulated with the differentA. actinomycetemcomitans serotypes. In addition, the expression of the transcription factors T-bet, GATA-3, RORC2, and Foxp3, master-switch genes implied in the Th1, Th2, Th17, and T-regulatory differentiation, respectively, was analysed in order to determine T-cell phenotype-specific patterns of CCL and CCR expression upon A. actinomycetemcomitans stimulation.Material and Methods Human naïve CD4+ T lymphocytes were obtained from healthy subjects and stimulated with autologous dendritic cells primed with the differentA. actinomycetemcomitans serotypes. The expression levels for the chemokines CCL1, CCL2, CCL3, CCL5, CCL11, CCL17, CCL20, CCL21, CCL25, and CCL28, as well as the chemokine receptors CCR1, CCR2, CCR3, CCR4, CCR5, CCR6, CCR7, CCR8, CCR9, and CCR10 were quantified by qPCR. Similarly, the expression levels for the transcription factors T-bet, GATA-3, RORC2, and Foxp3 were quantified and correlated with the CCL and CCR expression levels.Results Higher expression levels of CCL2, CCL3, CCL5, CCL20, CCL21, CCL28, CCR1, CCR2, CCR5, CCR6, CCR7, and CCR9 were detected in T lymphocytes stimulated with the serotype b of A. actinomycetemcomitans compared with the other serotypes. In addition, these higher expression levels of CCLs and CCRs positively correlated with the increased levels of T-bet and RORC2 when T lymphocytes were stimulated with the serotype b.Conclusion A T-lymphocyte response biased towards a Th1- and Th17-pattern of CCL and CCR expression was detected under stimulation with the serotype b ofA. actinomycetemcomitans.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Young Adult , Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans/immunology , Antigens, Differentiation, T-Lymphocyte/analysis , Chemokines, CC/analysis , Receptors, CCR/analysis , T-Lymphocytes/immunology , Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans/genetics , Antigens, Differentiation, T-Lymphocyte/genetics , Antigens, Differentiation, T-Lymphocyte/immunology , Cell Differentiation/immunology , Cells, Cultured , Chemokines, CC/genetics , Chemokines, CC/immunology , Dendritic Cells/immunology , Flow Cytometry , Lymphocyte Activation , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Receptors, CCR/genetics , Receptors, CCR/immunology , Serogroup
5.
Rev. méd. Chile ; 143(3): 297-303, mar. 2015. graf, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-745626

ABSTRACT

Background: A secular trend towards a younger age of puberty onset has been reported in Chilean girls. Aim: To evaluate the age of onset of puberty and prevalence of early puberty in Chilean boys. Material and Methods: A pediatric endocrinologist examined 319 children attending schools in central Santiago. Pubertal development was assessed by testicular volume (TV) and genital inspection (GI) using Tanner graduation. Precocious and early puberty development was diagnosed if TV ≥ 4 ml or GI > stage 2 occurred in boys younger than 9 years and at 9-10 years of age, respectively. Results: Pubertal onset occurred at 10.2 ± 1.5 years according to TV and at 11.1 ± 1.6 years according to GI (p < 0.01). Before the age of nine, 15.2% of children had a VT ≥ 4 ml, 3% had genital changes in GI and only 3% had both changes simultaneously. Early puberty was observed in 23.8% of children according to TV and 9.5% according to GI. However, no child of less than 11 years old had a TV ≥ 4 ml, genital changes and pubic hair simultaneously. Late pubertal stages occurred at the same age according to both criteria used. Body mass index z score was not associated with the age of pubertal onset. Conclusions: Testicular enlargement occurs one year earlier than changes in genitalia according to inspection. Testicular growth, but not late stages of puberty, are occurring one year earlier than previously reported in Chile 10 years ago.


Subject(s)
Adult , Aged , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Antigen Presentation , /immunology , /immunology , Cross-Priming , Cell Differentiation/immunology , Gram-Negative Bacteria/immunology , Gram-Positive Bacteria/immunology , Adaptive Immunity , /pathology , /pathology , Immunity, Innate , Neutrophils , Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell, gamma-delta/immunology
6.
JCPSP-Journal of the College of Physicians and Surgeons Pakistan. 2014; 24 (3): 186-189
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-157537

ABSTRACT

To evaluate the diagnostic utility of Hep par-1 in differentiating hepatocellular carcinoma from metastatic carcinoma taking histopathology as a gold standard. Comparative cross-sectional study. Pathology Department, Shaukat Khanum Memorial Cancer Hospital and Research Centre, Lahore, from April 2007 to February 2008. Hep par-1 immunohistochemical stain was performed on 60 cases of liver carcinoma, 30 cases each of metastatic and hepatocellular carcinoma. Information regarding patient age, gender, sign and symptoms, radiographic findings, histological grade of tumour, and expression of Hep par-1 on hepatocellular and metastatic carcinoma were recorded on proforma sheet. Sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values, and accuracy of Hep par-1 were calculated using the formulas. Hep par-1 expression was noted in 25 out of 30 cases of hepatocellular carcinoma [83%]. Out of 30 cases of metastatic carcinoma, only one case expressed staining in < 5% tumour cells and remaining 29 cases showed no reactivity. The age of the patients with hepatocellular carcinoma ranged from 40 to 76 years with a median age of 60.5 years and 40 - 75 years for metastatic carcinomas with a median age of 57.5 years. Hep par-1 is a reliable immunohistochemical marker for cases of hepatocellular carcinoma [HCC]. It can be used along with other markers in morphologically difficult cases when differential diagnosis lies between poorly differentiated HCC and metastatic carcinoma of liver


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Carcinoma, Hepatocellular/diagnosis , Cholangiocarcinoma/diagnosis , Cell Differentiation/immunology , Cholangiocarcinoma/pathology , Carcinoma, Hepatocellular/pathology , Antibodies, Neoplasm , Antibodies, Neoplasm/immunology , Neoplasm Metastasis , Predictive Value of Tests , Sensitivity and Specificity , Biomarkers, Tumor/immunology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Diagnosis, Differential , Hepatocytes/immunology , Immunohistochemistry
7.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-147328

ABSTRACT

Myeloid-related protein (MRP)8/MRP14 is an endogenous Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) ligand and is abundant in synovial fluid (SF) of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients. Belonging to damage-associated molecular patterns, it amplifies proinflammatory mediators and facilitates a wide range of inflammatory and autoimmune diseases. Interleukin (IL)-17-producing T-helper (Th)17 cells have a crucial role in RA pathogenesis, and IL-6 is the key factor promoting Th17 differentiation. We investigated whether the level of MRP8/MRP14 is positively associated with IL-6 and IL-17 levels in RA SF and found that MRP8/MRP14 level had a significant correlation with IL-6 and IL-17 levels in RA SF. We also observed that MRP8-induced IL-17 production by peripheral blood mononuclear cells but MRP14 did not. Upon stimulation with MRP8, IL-6 production was enhanced by RA fibroblast-like synoviocytes (FLS) and was further elevated by coculturing RA FLS with activated CD4+ T cells. Moreover, we demonstrated that MRP8-activated IL-6 production by RA FLS promoted differentiation of Th17 cells using the coculture system consisting of CD4+ T cells and RA FLS. In addition, IL-6 blockade attenuated Th17 polarization of CD4+ T cells in the cocultures. Inhibitor studies revealed that MRP8 increased IL-6 production in RA FLS via TLR4/phosphoinositide 3-kinase/nuclear factor-kappaB and mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling pathways. Our results show that MRP8 has a crucial role in stimulating IL-6 expression by RA FLS, and subsequently promotes Th17 differentiation in RA, suggesting that neutralizing MRP8 level in RA synovium may be an effective therapeutic strategy in RA treatment.


Subject(s)
ATP-Binding Cassette Transporters/metabolism , Adult , Aged , Arthritis, Rheumatoid/pathology , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/metabolism , Calgranulin B/metabolism , Cell Differentiation/immunology , Fibroblasts/metabolism , Humans , Inflammation Mediators/metabolism , Interleukin-17/metabolism , Interleukin-6/biosynthesis , Middle Aged , Signal Transduction/immunology , Synovial Fluid/cytology , Synovial Membrane/metabolism , Th17 Cells/pathology , Toll-Like Receptor 4/metabolism , Up-Regulation
8.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-13096

ABSTRACT

Human amniotic membrane-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hAM-MSCs) are capable of differentiating into several lineages and possess immunomodulatory properties. In this study, we investigated the soluble factor-mediated immunomodulatory effects of hAM-MSCs. Mitogen-induced peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) proliferation was suppressed by hAM-MSCs in a dose-dependent manner as well as hAM-MSC culture supernatant. Moreover, interferon-gamma and interleukin (IL)-17 production significantly decreased from PBMC, whereas IL-10 from PBMCs and transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta) production from hAM-MSCs significantly increased in co-cultures of hAM-MSCs and PBMCs. Production of several MSC factors, including hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), TGF-beta, prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), and indoleamine 2, 3 dioxygenase (IDO), increased significantly in hAM-MSCs co-cultured with PBMCs. These results indicate that the immunomodulatory effects of hAM-MSCs may be associated with soluble factors (TGF-beta, HGF, PGE2, and IDO), suggesting that hAM-MSCs may have potential clinical use in regenerative medicine.


Subject(s)
Amnion/cytology , Cell Differentiation/immunology , Coculture Techniques , Dinoprostone/genetics , Female , Hepatocyte Growth Factor/genetics , Humans , Immunologic Factors/immunology , Immunophenotyping , Indoleamine-Pyrrole 2,3,-Dioxygenase/genetics , Interferon-gamma/immunology , Interleukin-10/analysis , Interleukin-17/analysis , Leukocytes, Mononuclear/cytology , Mesenchymal Stem Cells/cytology , Pregnancy , RNA, Messenger/chemistry , Regenerative Medicine/methods , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , Transforming Growth Factor beta/genetics
9.
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-137359

ABSTRACT

Background & objectives: HIV infection is characterized by a perturbation in T cell homeostasis, leading to alteration in T cell subsets. In addition to alteration in differentiation, HIV infection also leads to change in T cell survival and regenerative capacity, as suggested by differential expression of CD127 and CD57. We evaluated the expression patterns of CD127 and CD57 on CD4 and CD8 effector, memory and naïve T cell subsets in HIV-infected and uninfected individuals. Methods: We characterized T cell subsets based on expression of these markers, and compared their expression pattern in HIV infected subjects and uninfected controls. We further assessed therapy generated changes in these subsets and expression of CD127 and CD57 on them. Results: There was a generalized decrease in naïve CD4 and CD8 T cells in HIV infected subjects. These changes in T cell subset distribution were related to antigen load. CD127 expression was significantly reduced in T cells from HIV infected subject. In association to this, HIV infected subjects had higher percentage of T cell subsets expressing CD57. Increased CD57 and reduced CD127 expression correlated with plasma viraemia and CD8 T cell activation state. Incomplete restoration of T cell subset proportions was observed, despite suppression of viral replication and increase in CD4 T cell counts. Further, the improvement was more pronounced in CD127 expression. Interpretation & conclusions: HIV infected subjects have reduced T cell regenerative capacity along with increased senescence, highlighting decreased proliferation and effector activities.


Subject(s)
Adult , CD57 Antigens/metabolism , Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active , CD4 Lymphocyte Count , CD4-CD8 Ratio , Cell Differentiation/immunology , Female , HIV Infections/drug therapy , Humans , HIV Infections/immunology , Immunophenotyping , Interleukin-7 Receptor alpha Subunit/deficiency , Interleukin-7 Receptor alpha Subunit/metabolism , Male , Statistics, Nonparametric , T-Lymphocyte Subsets/immunology
10.
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-136324

ABSTRACT

Background & objectives: Dendritic cells (DCs) are potent antigen presenting cells which proceed from immature to a mature stage during their differentiation. There are several methods of obtaining long lasting mature antigen expressing DCs and different methods show different levels of antigen expressions. We investigated bone marrow derived DCs for the degree of maturation and genetically engineered antigen presentation in the presence of interleukin-4 (IL-4) as a maturity enhancer. Methods: DCs and transfected retrovirus were cultured together in the presence of granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor (GMCSF)-IL4, GMCSF +IL4, lipopolysaccharide (LPS). B 7.1, B7.2 and CD11c were measured by the degree of immune fluorescence using enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) shuttled retrovirus transfected antigen. Degree of MHC class I molecule with antigen presentation of antigen was also evaluated by fluorescence activated cell sorting. The antigen presenting capacity of transfected DCs was investigated. Bone marrow DCs were generated in the presence of GMCSF and IL-4 in vitro. Dividing bone marrow cells were infected with EGFP shuttled retrovirus expressing SSP2 by prolonged centrifugation for three consecutive days from day 5, 6 and 7 and continued to culture in the presence of GMSCF and IL-4 until day 8. Results: IL-4 as a cytokine increased the maturation of retrovirus transfected DCs by high expression of B 7-1 and B 7-2. Also, IL-4 induced DC enhanced by the prolonged centrifugation and it was shown by increased antigen presentation of these dendric cells as antigen presenting cell (APC). Cytolytic effects were significantly higher in cytotoxic T cell response (CTLs) mixed with transfected DCs than CTLs mixed with pulsed DCs. Interpretation & conclusions: There was an enhanced antigen presentation by prolonged expression of antigen loaded MHC class I receptors in DCs in the presence of IL-4 by prolonged centrifugation.


Subject(s)
Antigen Presentation/drug effects , Antigen Presentation/immunology , Antigen-Presenting Cells/immunology , Antigen-Presenting Cells/metabolism , B7 Antigens/genetics , B7 Antigens/metabolism , Bone Marrow/immunology , Bone Marrow/metabolism , Cell Differentiation/genetics , Cell Differentiation/immunology , Centrifugation , Dendritic Cells/drug effects , Dendritic Cells/immunology , Gene Expression Regulation/drug effects , Gene Expression Regulation/immunology , Genes, MHC Class I/immunology , Granulocyte-Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor/immunology , Granulocyte-Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor/pharmacology , Humans , Interleukin-4/immunology , Interleukin-4/pharmacology , Lipopolysaccharides/pharmacology , Peptides/genetics , Peptides/immunology , Retroviridae/genetics , T-Lymphocytes, Cytotoxic/drug effects , T-Lymphocytes, Cytotoxic/immunology , Transfection/methods
11.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-56723

ABSTRACT

The present study evaluated the effects of infected culture supernatant of erythrocytes, fractionation of culture supernatant and serum from dogs infected with Babesia gibsoni (B. gibsoni) on the maturation of canine reticulocytes in vitro. The SDS-PAGE demonstrated that significantly broader bands were generated by both the infected culture supernatant of erythrocytes and the serum from dogs chronically infected with B. gibsoni. The culture supernatant of erythrocytes infected with B. gibsoni strongly suppressed the maturation of reticulocytes. Prior studies showed that chronically infected serum had inhibitory effects on both the maturation of reticulocytes and the canine pyrimidine 5'-nucleotidase subclass I and purine-specific 5'-nucleotidase activity. In addition, serum free infected culture supernatant of erythrocytes had an inhibitory effect on the morphological maturation of reticulocytes. These results suggest that infected serum and culture supernatant of erythrocytes might accumulate excess proteins and/or metabolites as a result of the inhibited maturation of reticulocytes and decreased activity of erythrocyte 5'-nucleotidase. Furthermore, the fractions observed at >150 kDa- and 150-70 kDa- in the infected culture supernatant and serum retarded the maturation of canine reticulocytes in vitro. The results obtained from the in vitro examinations, in the present study, suggested that B. gibsoni itself and/or its metabolites might release certain proteins in the infected culture supernatant and serum from infected dogs and as a result delay morphological maturation of canine reticulocytes.


Subject(s)
Animals , Babesia/immunology , Babesiosis/blood , Cell Differentiation/immunology , Dog Diseases/blood , Dogs , Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel , Erythrocytes/immunology , Reticulocytes/immunology
12.
Indian J Pathol Microbiol ; 2006 Jul; 49(3): 341-4
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-74941

ABSTRACT

Diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is not always easy on simple hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) stain. The diagnostic problems arise when tumor shows pseudoglandular, pleomorphic or clear cell differentiation. Various tumors markers have been described with varying sensitivity and specificity. Monoclonal antibody Hep Par 1 (OCH1E5) which is specific for hepatocytes offers great help in separation of these tumors. The aim of the present study was to determine utility of Hep Par 1 (OCH1E5) in differentiating HCC from metastatic tumors and cholangiocarcinoma. Total of 62 cases of liver tumors obtained from biopsies, resected or autopsy specimens were included in the study. Slides having representative sections were subjected to immunohistochemistry with monoclonal antibody Hep Par 1 (Dako Corp) using avidin biotin technique with primary antibody dilution of 1:40. Adjacent nontumorous hepatocytes were taken as positive control. Slides were examined by experienced pathologist without any information of clinical or H&E diagnosis. Cases were considered positive for Hep Par 1 if tumor cells showed cytoplasmic brown colored granules. The intensity and distribution (diffuse/ focal) of immunoreactivity was noted. Subsequently immunohistochemistry results were correlated with histology and clinical diagnosis. Hep Par 1 antibody was positive in 26 (42 %) and negative in 36 (58 %) liver tumors. On correlating with H&E sections, out of 26 positive cases, 25 (89.2%) were HCC and one was the case of metastasis of mucin secreting adenocarcinoma. From 36 tumors with negative staining 3 were cases of HCC, 27 metastatic adenocarcinomas and 6 cholangiocarcinomas. Only one case of liver metastasis of mucin secreting adenocarcinoma showed positivity. None of the cases of cholangiocarcinoma showed positivity for Hep Par 1. The three HCCs which did not take up staining for Hep Par 1 were 2 cases of moderately differentiated HCC having pseudoglandular pattern and a case of well differentiated HCC with trabecular arrangement. In 11(44%) cases staining was diffuse while in 14 (56%) it was focal but intense. Hep Par 1 is a useful marker in differentiating HCC from metastaic tumors and cholangiocarcinoma with sensitivity and specificity of 89 % and 97 % respectively and positive predictive value of 96 %. However one should be aware of limitations of immunohistochemistry.


Subject(s)
Adult , Antibodies, Monoclonal/diagnosis , Antibodies, Neoplasm/diagnosis , Antigens, Neoplasm/immunology , Antigens, Surface/immunology , Biopsy , Carcinoma, Hepatocellular/immunology , Cell Differentiation/immunology , Diagnosis, Differential , Hepatocytes/immunology , Humans , Immunohistochemistry , Liver/metabolism , Liver Neoplasms/immunology , Neoplasm Metastasis , Sensitivity and Specificity , Biomarkers, Tumor/analysis
13.
J Cancer Res Ther ; 2006 Apr-Jun; 2(2): 35-40
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-111357

ABSTRACT

Dendritic cells are the most potent 'professional' antigen-presenting cells, with high ability of primary immune response initiation. Dendritic cells originate from bone marrow progenitors, which circulate in peripheral blood and subsequently give rise to immature dendritic cells, which reside in peripheral tissues. When dendritic cells encounter danger signals, they undergo differentiation and maturation; thereafter they migrate to lymphatic tissues, where they synapse with T-cells and initiate primary immune response. The immune response efficiency is determined by Th1/Th2 balance. Although dendritic cells represent a rare group of leukocytes, their functional and phenotypical heterogeneity confer a great challenge to immunologists. In this review, the myeloid and lymphoid development pathways of dendritic cells, are discussed. The heterogeneity of dendritic cells will be reviewed, based on their anatomical locations, phenotypes and functions. This section focuses on blood and lymphoid tissue dendritic cells. Subsequently, the roles of dendritic cells in the immunity of cancer and how cancer bypasses the dendritic cell-mediated immune responses, are discussed.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cell Differentiation/immunology , Cell Lineage/immunology , Dendritic Cells/cytology , Humans , Neoplasms/immunology
14.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 38(supl.2): 92-95, 2005. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-444168

ABSTRACT

Fetal/Neonatal immune responses are generally considered to be immature and weaker than in adults. We have sudied the cord blood T-cells of newborns congenitally-infected whith Tripanosoma cruzi, the protozoan agent of Chagas' disease. Our data demonstrate a predominant activation of CD8 T-cells expressing activation markers and armed to mediate effector functions. Indeed, we have detected parasite-specific CD8 T-cells secreting interferon-ã. Such response is enchanced in the presence of rIL-15. These findings point out that the fetal immune system is more competent than previously appreciated, since fetuses exposed to live pathogens are able to develop an adult-like immune CD8 T-cell response.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Infant, Newborn , /immunology , Fetus/immunology , Trypanosoma cruzi , Apoptosis , Cell Differentiation/immunology , Cytokines/analysis , Flow Cytometry , Fetal Blood/cytology , Fetal Blood/immunology , Fetal Blood/parasitology , Immunity, Cellular , Interferon-alpha/immunology , Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell, alpha-beta/immunology , Trypanosoma cruzi/immunology
15.
Asian Pac J Allergy Immunol ; 2003 Sep; 21(3): 153-60
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-37229

ABSTRACT

Little data exists in Thailand and other Southeast Asian countries regarding the biological characteristics of adult acute myeloid leukemia (AML). In this study, we performed a flow cytometric analysis of 267 Thai adult AML cases to delineate the pattern of leukemic cell surface antigens. Forty-eight cases (18%) were identified as acute promyelocytic leukemia (M3) and 219 cases as non-M3. The most frequent subtype of AML in Thailand was M1/M2 and the least frequent was M7. M3 immunophenotypes were characterized by their unique lack of expression of CD34 and HLA-DR as contrast to the high mean expression of 50% and 70%, respectively, in non-M3. Overall, 60% of cases expressed CD34. Aberrant lymphoid antigens were uniquely seen in specific subtypes of Thai AML, including CD19 (33% of non-M3 vs 23% of M3) and CD2 (12% of M3 vs 2% of non-M3). CD56 was frequently expressed in both M3 and non-M3 while CD16 appeared to be associated with M4/M5 (24% of cases) and CD7 with M1/M2 (21% of cases). Eighty-one percent of non-M3 expressed CD38 while only 53% of M3 did. We found that most Thai adult AML patients were on average 15-20 years younger than those of the West or Japan with only 25% of Thai cases over 60 years of age, although the immunophenotypes were not markedly different. Biological studies of acute leukemia in various countries should help to provide epidemiological clues that play a role in the pathogenesis of leukemia in different geographic regions of the world. Our study represents the largest series of AML ever investigated in the Southeast Asian region.


Subject(s)
Acute Disease , Adult , Antigens, CD/biosynthesis , Antigens, Surface/biosynthesis , Biomarkers/blood , Cell Differentiation/immunology , Female , Flow Cytometry , Glycophorins/biosynthesis , Granulocyte Precursor Cells/cytology , Granulocytes/cytology , Hemoglobins/immunology , Humans , Immunophenotyping , Leukemia, Myeloid/immunology , Leukocyte Count , Male , Middle Aged , Platelet Count , Statistics as Topic , Thailand
16.
Asian Pac J Allergy Immunol ; 2003 Jun; 21(2): 95-103
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-37086

ABSTRACT

Lymphocyte subpopulations, i.e. T, B and natural killer (NK) cells including NK cell subsets which express CD16 molecules (with or without co-expression of CD56 molecules) and NK cell subsets which express CD56 molecules (with or without co-expression of CD16 molecules) were enumerated by two color-flow cytometry in a total of 125 HIV seronegative Thai adults. The study demonstrated relatively low CD4 counts in the subjects, i.e. 26.3% of them had a CD4 count of less than 500 cells/microl. In contrast, their NK cell counts were relatively high. Statistical analyses of the percentage values showed that females had significantly higher CD3 (total T cells), but lower NK cell counts as compared to males (p < 0.05). Regarding age variation, an increase of 1.1% of CD4 cells per decade was seen. It was roughly estimated that about 86% of NK cells harbored both CD16 and CD56 molecules. Collective data from several studies including the present one suggest that high NK cell counts may be a compensation for low CD4 cell counts in Mongoloid people. Thus, the role of NK cells in the defense cascade against viral infections, especially human immunodeficiency virus infections deserves further investigation.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adult , Antigens, Differentiation, T-Lymphocyte/biosynthesis , CD4 Lymphocyte Count , Cell Differentiation/immunology , Female , Flow Cytometry , HIV Seronegativity/immunology , Humans , Killer Cells, Natural/cytology , Leukocyte Count , Lymphocyte Subsets/cytology , Male , Middle Aged , Reference Values , Sex Factors , T-Lymphocytes/cytology , Thailand/epidemiology
17.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-18567

ABSTRACT

Due to their high immunostimulatory ability as well as the critical role they play in the maintenance of self-tolerance, dendritic cells have been implicated in the pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases. The non-obese diabetic (NOD) mouse is an animal model of autoimmune type 1 diabetes, in which pancreatic beta cells are selectively destroyed mainly by T cell-mediated immune responses. To elucidate initiation mechanisms of beta cell-specific autoimmunity, we attempted to generate bone marrow-derived dendritic cells from NOD mice. However, our results showed low proliferative response of NOD bone marrow cells and some defects in the differentiation into the myeloid dendritic cells. NOD dendritic cells showed lower expressions of MHC class II, B7-1, B7-2 and CD40, compared with C57BL/6 dendritic cells. In mixed lymphocyte reactions, stimulatory activities of NOD dendritic cells were also weak. Treatment with LPS, INF-gamma and anti-CD40 stimulated NOD dendritic cells to produce IL-12p70. The amount of IL-12, however, appeared to be lower than that of C57BL/6. Results of the present study indicated that there may be some defects in the development of NOD dendritic cells in the bone marrow, which might have an impact on the breakdown of self tolerance.


Subject(s)
Animals , Autoimmune Diseases/pathology , Autoimmune Diseases/immunology , Bone Marrow Cells/pathology , Bone Marrow Cells/immunology , Bone Marrow Cells/chemistry , Cell Differentiation/immunology , Cell Differentiation/drug effects , Dendritic Cells/pathology , Dendritic Cells/immunology , Dendritic Cells/chemistry , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/pathology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/immunology , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Granulocyte-Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor/pharmacology , Interleukin-12/analysis , Interleukin-4/pharmacology , Lipopolysaccharides/pharmacology , Mice , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Mice, Inbred NOD , Obesity
18.
In. Palomo González, Iván; Ferreira Vigoroux, Arturo; Sepúlveda Carvajal, Cecilia; Rosemblatt Silber, Mario; Vergara Castillo, Ulises. Fundamentos de inmunología. Talca, Universidad de Talca, 1998. p.219-70, ilus, tab.
Monography in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-284809
19.
In. Palomo González, Iván; Ferreira Vigoroux, Arturo; Sepúlveda Carvajal, Cecilia; Rosemblatt Silber, Mario; Vergara Castillo, Ulises. Fundamentos de inmunología. Talca, Universidad de Talca, 1998. p.271-85, ilus.
Monography in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-284811
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