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Braz. j. microbiol ; 49(2): 407-413, Apr.-June 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-889247


Abstract Fungal infections have become a concern for health professionals, and the emergence of resistant strains has been reported for all known classes of antifungal drugs. Among the fungi causing disease, we highlight those that belong to the genus Aspergillus. For these reasons, the search for new antifungals is important. This study examines the effects of a coumarin derivative, 4-acetatecoumarin (Cou-UMB16) both alone and together with antifungal drugs, and its mode of action against Aspergillus spp. Cou-UMB16 was tested to evaluate its effects on mycelia growth, and germination of Aspergillus spp. fungal conidia. We investigated its possible action on cell walls, on the cell membrane, and also the capacity of this coumarin derivative to enhance the activity of antifungal drugs. Our results suggest that Cou-UMB16 inhibits Aspergillus spp. virulence factors (mycelia growth and germination of conidia) and affects the structure of the fungal cell wall. When applying Cou-UMB16 in combination with azoles, both synergistic and additive effects were observed. This study concludes that Cou-UMB16 inhibits mycelial growth and spore germination, and that the activity is due to its action on the fungal cell wall, and that Cou-UMB16 could act as an antifungal modifier.

Antifungal Agents/isolation & purification , Antifungal Agents/pharmacology , Aspergillus/drug effects , Coumarins/isolation & purification , Coumarins/pharmacology , Drug Synergism , Aspergillus/growth & development , Azoles/pharmacology , Cell Membrane/drug effects , Cell Wall/drug effects , Hyphae/drug effects , Hyphae/growth & development , Spores, Fungal/drug effects , Spores, Fungal/growth & development
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 279-286, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-713092


PURPOSE: The mechanisms underlying repolarization abnormalities during pregnancy are not fully understood. Although maternal serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) production is an important determinant for normal fetal development in mice, its role in mothers remains unclear. We evaluated the role of serotonin in ventricular repolarization in mice hearts via 5Htr3 receptor (Htr3a) and investigated the mechanism of QT-prolongation during pregnancy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We measured current amplitudes and the expression levels of voltage-gated K⁺ (Kv) channels in freshly-isolated left ventricular myocytes from wild-type non-pregnant (WT-NP), late-pregnant (WT-LP), and non-pregnant Htr3a homozygous knockout mice (Htr3a(−/−)-NP). RESULTS: During pregnancy, serotonin and tryptophan hydroxylase 1, a rate-limiting enzyme for the synthesis of serotonin, were markedly increased in hearts and serum. Serotonin increased Kv current densities concomitant with the shortening of the QT interval in WT-NP mice, but not in WT-LP and Htr3a(−/−)-NP mice. Ondansetron, an Htr3 antagonist, decreased Kv currents in WT-LP mice, but not in WT-NP mice. Kv4.3 directly interacted with Htr3a, and this binding was facilitated by serotonin. Serotonin increased the trafficking of Kv4.3 channels to the cellular membrane in WT-NP. CONCLUSION: Serotonin increases repolarizing currents by augmenting Kv currents. Elevated serotonin levels during pregnancy counterbalance pregnancy-related QT prolongation by facilitating Htr3-mediated Kv currents.

Action Potentials/drug effects , Animals , Cell Membrane/drug effects , Disease Models, Animal , Electrocardiography , Female , HSC70 Heat-Shock Proteins/metabolism , HSP90 Heat-Shock Proteins/metabolism , Heart Ventricles/drug effects , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Mice, Knockout , Myocytes, Cardiac/drug effects , Potassium Channels/metabolism , Pregnancy , Rabbits , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Receptors, Serotonin, 5-HT3/metabolism , Serotonin/metabolism , Serotonin 5-HT3 Receptor Agonists/pharmacology
An. acad. bras. ciênc ; 89(3,supl): 2053-2073, 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-886784


ABSTRACT This study aimed to further investigate the cytotoxicity against tumor cell lines and several bacterial strains of Annona squamosa and its mode of action. Methanol extracts of A. squamosa leaves (ASL) and seeds (ASS) were used. ASL showed significant antibacterial activity against S. aureus, K. pneumoniae and E. faecalis with MIC values of 78, 78 and 39 µg/mL respectively. Moreover, ASL exhibited significant biofilm disruption, rapid time dependent kinetics of bacterial killing, increased membrane permeability and significantly reduced the cell numbers and viability. Regarding the cytotoxicity against tumor cell lines, ASS was more active against Jurkat and MCF-7 cells, with CI50 1.1 and 2.1 µg/mL, respectively. ASL showed promising activity against Jurkat and HL60, with CI50 4.2 and 6.4 µg/mL, respectively. Both extracts showed lower activity against VERO cells and reduced the clonogenic survival at higher concentrations (IC90) to MCF-7 and HCT-116 lineages. The alkaloids anonaine, asimilobine, corypalmine, liriodenine nornuciferine and reticuline were identified in extracts by UPLC-ESI-MS/MS analysis. This study reinforced that A. squamosa presents a remarkable phytomedicinal potential and revealed that its antimicrobial mechanism of action is related to bacterial membrane destabilization.

Humans , Animals , Staphylococcus aureus/drug effects , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Enterococcus faecalis/drug effects , Annona/chemistry , Klebsiella pneumoniae/drug effects , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Cell Membrane/drug effects , Chlorocebus aethiops , Cell Line, Tumor/drug effects
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 107(3): 223-229, Sept. 2016. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-796033


Abstract Background: Despite the important biological effects of jabuticaba, its actions on the cardiovascular system have not been clarified. Objectives: To determine the effects of jabuticaba hydroalcoholic extract (JHE) on vascular smooth muscle (VSM) of isolated arteries. Methods: Endothelium-denuded aortic rings of rats were mounted in isolated organ bath to record isometric tension. The relaxant effect of JHE and the influence of K+ channels and Ca2+ intra- and extracellular sources on JHE-stimulated response were assessed. Results: Arteries pre-contracted with phenylephrine showed concentration-dependent relaxation (0.380 to 1.92 mg/mL). Treatment with K+ channel blockers (tetraethyl-ammonium, glibenclamide, 4-aminopyridine) hindered relaxation due to JHE. In addition, phenylephrine-stimulated contraction was hindered by previous treatment with JHE. Inhibition of sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ ATPase did not change relaxation due to JHE. In addition, JHE inhibited the contraction caused by Ca2+ influx stimulated by phenylephrine and KCl (75 mM). Conclusion: JHE induces endothelium-independent vasodilation. Activation of K+ channels and inhibition of Ca2+ influx through the membrane are involved in the JHE relaxant effect.

Resumo Fundamentos: Embora a jabuticaba apresente importantes efeitos biológicos, suas ações sobre o sistema cardiovascular ainda não foram esclarecidas. Objetivos: Determinar os efeitos do extrato de jabuticaba (EHJ) sobre o músculo liso vascular (MLV) em artérias isoladas. Métodos: Aortas (sem endotélio) de ratos foram montadas em banho de órgãos isolados para registro de tensão isométrica. Foram verificados o efeito relaxante, a influência dos canais de K+ e das fontes de Ca2+ intra- e extracelular sob a resposta estimulada pelo EHJ. Resultados: Artérias pré-contraídas com fenilefrina apresentaram relaxamento concentração-dependente (0,380 a 1,92 mg/mL). O tratamento com bloqueadores de canais de K+ (tetraetilamônio, glibenclamida, 4-aminopiridina) prejudicaram o relaxamento pelo EHJ. A contração estimulada com fenilefrina também foi prejudicada pelo tratamento prévio com EHJ. A inibição da Ca2+ATPase do reticulo sarcoplasmático não alterou o relaxamento pelo EHJ. Além disso, o EHJ inibiu a contração causada pelo influxo de Ca2+ estimulado por fenilefrina e KCl (75 mM). Conclusão: O EHJ induz vasodilatação independente do endotélio. Ativação dos canais de K+ e inibição do influxo de Ca2+ através da membrana estão envolvidas no efeito relaxante do EHJ.

Animals , Male , Vasodilator Agents/pharmacology , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Myrtaceae/chemistry , Muscle, Smooth, Vascular/drug effects , Aorta, Thoracic/drug effects , Time Factors , Vasoconstriction/drug effects , Vasodilation/drug effects , Calcium Channel Blockers/pharmacology , Verapamil/pharmacology , Calcium Channels/drug effects , Potassium Channels/drug effects , Cell Membrane/drug effects , Reproducibility of Results , Rats, Wistar , Potassium Channel Blockers/pharmacology
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 111(8): 523-527, Aug. 2016. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-788997


Sporotrichosis is the most frequent subcutaneous mycosis in the world and its increasing incidence has led to the search for new therapeutic options for its treatment. In this study, we demonstrated that three structural analogues of miltefosine (TCAN26, TC19, and TC70) showed inhibitory activity against Sporothrix schenckii sensu stricto and that TCAN26 was more active in vitro than miltefosine against several isolates. Scanning electron microscopy showed that S. schenckii exposure to TCAN26 resulted in cells that were slightly more elongated than untreated cells. Transmission electron microscopy showed that TCAN26 treatment induced loss of the regular cytoplasmic electron-density and altered the cell envelope (disruption of the cell membrane and cell wall, and increased cell wall thickness). Additionally, TCAN26 concentrations required to kill S. schenckii cells were lower than concentrations that were cytotoxic in mammalian cells, and TCAN26 was more selective than miltefosine. Thus, the adamantylidene-substituted alkylphosphocholine TCAN26 is a promising molecule for the development of novel antifungal compounds, although further investigations are required to elucidate the mode of action of TCAN26 in S. schenckii cells.

Humans , Adamantane/pharmacokinetics , Antifungal Agents/pharmacology , Phosphorylcholine/analogs & derivatives , Sporothrix/drug effects , Adamantane/chemistry , Antifungal Agents/chemistry , Cell Membrane/drug effects , Drug Substitution , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Microscopy, Electron, Scanning , Microscopy, Electron, Transmission , Phosphorylcholine/chemistry , Phosphorylcholine/pharmacology , Sporothrix/classification , Sporothrix/ultrastructure
Braz. j. microbiol ; 47(2): 381-388, Apr.-June 2016. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-780828


Abstract Pan-drug resistant Gram-negative bacteria, being resistant to most available antibiotics, represent a huge threat to the medical community. Colistin is considered the last therapeutic option for patients in hospital settings. Thus, we were concerned in this study to demonstrate the membrane permeabilizing activity of colistin focusing on investigating its efficiency toward those pan-drug resistant isolates which represent a critical situation. We determined the killing dynamics of colistin against pan-drug resistant isolates. The permeability alteration was confirmed by different techniques as: leakage, electron microscopy and construction of an artificial membrane model; liposomes. Moreover, selectivity of colistin against microbial cells was also elucidated. Colistin was proved to be rapid bactericidal against pan-drug resistant isolates. It interacts with the outer bacterial membrane leading to deformation of its outline, pore formation, leakage of internal contents, cell lysis and finally death. Furthermore, variations in membrane composition of eukaryotic and microbial cells provide a key for colistin selectivity toward bacterial cells. Colistin selectively alters membrane permeability of pan-drug resistant isolates which leads to cell lysis. Colistin was proved to be an efficient last line treatment for pan-drug resistant infections which are hard to treat.

Humans , Cell Membrane/metabolism , Gram-Negative Bacterial Infections/microbiology , Colistin/metabolism , Drug Resistance, Multiple, Bacterial , Gram-Negative Bacteria/metabolism , Anti-Bacterial Agents/metabolism , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Cell Membrane/drug effects , Cell Membrane Permeability , Gram-Negative Bacterial Infections/drug therapy , Colistin/pharmacology , Gram-Negative Bacteria/isolation & purification , Gram-Negative Bacteria/drug effects , Gram-Negative Bacteria/ultrastructure , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology
Radiol. bras ; 48(2): 86-92, Mar-Apr/2015. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-746624


Objective: To evaluate the evolution of mammographic image quality in the state of Rio de Janeiro on the basis of parameters measured and analyzed during health surveillance inspections in the period from 2006 to 2011. Materials and Methods: Descriptive study analyzing parameters connected with imaging quality of 52 mammography apparatuses inspected at least twice with a one-year interval. Results: Amongst the 16 analyzed parameters, 7 presented more than 70% of conformity, namely: compression paddle pressure intensity (85.1%), films development (72.7%), film response (72.7%), low contrast fine detail (92.2%), tumor mass visualization (76.5%), absence of image artifacts (94.1%), mammography-specific developers availability (88.2%). On the other hand, relevant parameters were below 50% conformity, namely: monthly image quality control testing (28.8%) and high contrast details with respect to microcalcifications visualization (47.1%). Conclusion: The analysis revealed critical situations in terms of compliance with the health surveillance standards. Priority should be given to those mammography apparatuses that remained non-compliant at the second inspection performed within the one-year interval. .

Objetivo: Avaliar a evolução da qualidade da imagem de mamógrafos localizados no Estado do Rio de Janeiro, de 2006 a 2011, com base em parâmetros medidos e observados durante inspeções sanitárias. Materiais e Métodos: Estudo descritivo sobre a evolução de parâmetros que condicionam a qualidade da imagem focalizou 52 mamógrafos, inspecionados no mínimo duas vezes, com intervalo de um ano. Resultados: Dos 16 parâmetros avaliados, 7 apresentaram mais de 70% de conformidade: força do dispositivo de compressão (85,1%), processamento dos filmes (72,7%), resposta do filme do serviço (72,7%), detalhes lineares de baixo contraste (92,2%), visualização de massas tumorais (76,5%), ausência de artefatos de imagem (94,1%), existência de processadoras específicas para mamografia (88,2%). Importantes parâmetros apresentaram-se abaixo de 50% de conformidade: realização de testes mensais da qualidade de imagem pelo estabelecimento (28,8%) e detalhes de alto contraste, que dizem respeito à visualização de microcalcificações (47,1%). Conclusão: A análise revelou situações críticas da atuação da vigilância sanitária, cuja prioridade deveria ser dirigida aos estacionários, ou seja, os mamógrafos que permaneceram na situação de não conformidade nas inspeções realizadas com intervalo de um ano. .

Animals , Rabbits , Calcium Channels, L-Type/metabolism , Muscle Cells/metabolism , Amino Acid Sequence , Calcium Channel Agonists/pharmacology , Calcium-Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinases/metabolism , Calmodulin/metabolism , Cell Membrane/drug effects , Cell Membrane/metabolism , Electrophysiology , Heart Ventricles/cytology , Heart Ventricles/metabolism , Ion Channel Gating/physiology , Ligands , Molecular Sequence Data , Patch-Clamp Techniques , Peptides/pharmacology
ABCD arq. bras. cir. dig ; 28(1): 53-56, 2015. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-742746


BACKGROUND: In traditional laparoscopic cholecistectomy, the cystic duct and artery are commonly closed by metallic clips just before their division. Although the placement of these clips for occluding cystic artery and duct can be considered safe, biliary leaks and bleeding may occur especially by its dislodgement. AIM: To report a prospective case-series in total clipless cholecystectomy by means of harmonic shears for closure and division of the artery and cystic duct as well removal of the gallbladder from the liver. METHODS: Was evaluate a series of 125 patients who underwent laparoscopic cholecystectomy where the sealing and division of cystic artery and duct was carried out only by harmonic shears. The intact extracted gallbladder was submitted to a reverse pressure test for assessment of the technique safety by means of CO2 insuflation. RESULTS: The most common indication for surgery was gallstones. The mean operative time was 26 min and all gallbladders were dissected intact from the liver bed. There was no mortality and the overall morbidity rate was 0.8% with no hemorrhage or leaks. The reverse pressure test showed that all specimens support at least 36-mmHg of pressure without leaking. CONCLUSION: The harmonic shears is effective and safe in laparoscopic cholecystectomy as a sole instrument for sealing and division of the artery and cystic duct. The main advantages could be related to the safety and decreased operative time. .

RACIONAL: A colecistectomia laparoscópica na técnica tradicional oclui o ducto cístico e a artéria cística por clipes cirúrgicos, que podem se deslocar ou desprender no pós-operatório, possibilitando a ocorrência de fístula biliar ou hemorragia. OBJETIVO: Relato prospectivo de série de casos de colecistectomias laparoscópicas sem uso de clipe cirúrgico, sendo que a ligadura e secção da artéria cística e do ducto cístico foram realizadas por meio de bisturi ultrassônico. MÉTODO: Foram incluídos 125 pacientes submetidos à colecistectomia laparoscópica sem utilização de clipe cirúrgico metálico, onde a ligadura da artéria e do ducto cístico e também a remoção da vesícula biliar de seu leito hepático foram realizadas por meio de tesoura ultrassônica. Realizou-se teste de pressão reversa na vesícula biliar removida intacta do leito hepático para verificar a segurança da técnica. RESULTADOS: A principal indicação cirúrgica foi a colelitíase. O tempo cirúrgico médio foi de 26 min e todas as vesículas biliares foram retiradas intactas do leito hepático. Não houve mortalidade e a taxa global de morbidade foi de 0,8%, sem hemorragias ou fístulas. O teste de pressão reversa mostrou que o ducto cístico ocluído pelo bisturi harmônico suportou ao pelo menos 36 mmHg de pressão sem que ocorresse nenhum vazamento. CONCLUSÃO: O bisturi harmônico é eficaz e seguro em colecistectomias laparoscópicas eletivas como um instrumento único para ocluir e seccionar tanto a artéria cística quanto o ducto cístico. Vantagens podem ser apontadas ao método com relação a sua segurança e diminuição do tempo cirúrgico. .

Animals , Humans , Drosophila Proteins/metabolism , Drosophila melanogaster/drug effects , Drosophila melanogaster/physiology , Sodium Chloride/pharmacology , Stress, Physiological/drug effects , Symporters/metabolism , Bacterial Proteins/metabolism , Carbohydrate Metabolism/drug effects , Cell Membrane/drug effects , Cell Membrane/metabolism , Drosophila melanogaster/cytology , Drosophila melanogaster/genetics , Feeding Behavior/drug effects , Genes, Insect , Gene Expression Regulation/drug effects , Ion Transport/drug effects , Luminescent Proteins/metabolism , Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis , Organ Specificity/drug effects , Phylogeny , Reproducibility of Results , RNA Interference/drug effects , Survival Analysis , Sodium Chloride, Dietary/pharmacology , Time Factors
ABCD arq. bras. cir. dig ; 28(1): 24-27, 2015. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-742761


BACKGROUND: Acute pancreatitis is an inflammatory disease of the pancreas due to enzymatic autodigestion which can cause necrosis or multiple organ failure; its pathophysiology is not fully known yet. AIM: To evaluate the correlation between clinical and therapeutic data in patients with mild acute pancreatitis. METHODS: A retrospective study in 55 medical records of patients admitted with acute mild pancreatitis was realized to analyze the association between age, leukocytosis, serum glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase and lactate dehydrogenase, glucose, antibiotics, time admission and Ranson´s scores. RESULTS: There was a positive association between less intensive care (strict hydration, analgesia and monitoring of vital signs), early antibiotic therapy (monotherapy), early return to diet after 48 hours and laboratory control of the serum amylase and lipase (high in the first week and decreasing after 10 days, without any prognostic value). CONCLUSIONS: Changes in the management of patients with mild acute pancreatitis, such as enteral nutrition, rational use of lower spectrum antibiotics and intensive care, have contributed significantly to the reduction of hospitalization time and mortality. .

RACIONAL: Pancreatite aguda consiste de doença inflamatória do pâncreas por autodigestão enzimática que pode ocasionar necrose ou mesmo falência múltipla de órgãos e de fisiopatologia ainda não totalmente conhecida. OBJETIVO: Avaliar as correlações existentes entre dados clínicos e terapêuticos em pacientes com pancreatite aguda leve. MÉTODOS: Foi realizado estudo retrospectivo em 55 prontuários de pacientes internados por pancreatite aguda leve para análise de associação entre idade, leucocitose, dosagem sérica de transaminase glutâmico-oxalacética e de desidrogenase lática, glicemia, antibioticoterapia, tempo de internação e escores de Ranson. RESULTADOS: Houve associação positiva entre cuidados intensivos menores (hidratação rigorosa, analgesia e monitorização de sinais vitais), antibioticoterapia precoce (monoterapia), retorno precoce da dieta após 48 horas e controle laboratorial dos níveis séricos de amilase e lipase (elevados na primeira semana e decrescentes após 10 dias, porém sem valor prognóstico). CONCLUSÕES: Mudanças no manejo de pacientes com pancreatite aguda leve, tais como nutrição enteral, uso racional de antibióticos de menor espectro e cuidados intensivos têm contribuído significativamente para a redução do tempo de internação e mortalidade. .

Animals , Male , Rats , /antagonists & inhibitors , /metabolism , /metabolism , N-Methylaspartate/pharmacology , Peptides/pharmacology , Poly(ADP-ribose) Polymerases/metabolism , Retinal Neurons/physiology , Cell Death/drug effects , Cell Membrane/drug effects , Cell Survival/drug effects , Enzyme Activation/drug effects , Necrosis , Phenanthrenes/pharmacology , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Retinal Neurons/cytology , Retinal Neurons/drug effects , Signal Transduction/drug effects
Rev. bras. parasitol. vet ; 23(4): 428-434, Oct-Dec/2014. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-731249


Three hemoplasma species are recognized in domestic cats: Mycoplasma haemofelis, ‘Candidatus Mycoplasma haemominutum’ and ‘Candidatus Mycoplasma turicensis’. We report the prevalence and hematological abnormalities of hemoplasma infection in 369 domestic cats from three different populations (blood donors, hospitalized cats and shelter cats) from Southern Brazil. Complete blood counts were performed at the time of blood collection, and DNA was extracted and tested by conventional PCR for each hemoplasma species. A total of 79 samples (21.40%) were positive for at least one species. The most prevalent hemoplasma was ‘Candidatus Mycoplasma haemominutum’, with 50/369 (13.55%) positive cats, followed by ‘Candidatus Mycoplasma turicensis’, 10/369 (2.71%), and Mycoplasma haemofelis, 8/369 (2.16%). Mycoplasma haemofelis and ‘Candidatus Mycoplasma haemominutum’ coinfection was observed in 4/369 (1.08%), whereas ‘Candidatus Mycoplasma haemominutum’ and ‘Candidatus Mycoplasma turicensis’ in 5/369 (1.35%). Three cats (0.81%) were infected with all three hemoplasmas. There was no association between infection and the different populations. Anemia was associated with Mycoplasma haemofelis and ‘Candidatus Mycoplasma haemominutum’, but not with ‘Candidatus Mycoplasma turicensis’. Male cats and cats with outdoor access were more likely to be infected. Although ‘Candidatus Mycoplasma haemominutum’ is believed to cause minimal or no hematological alterations, the infected cats studied herein were more likely to be anemic.

Três espécies de hemoplasmas são reconhecidas em gatos domésticos: Mycoplasma haemofelis, ‘Candidatus Mycoplasma haemominutum’ e ‘Candidatus Mycoplasma turicensis’. A prevalência e alterações hematológicas associadas à infecção por hemoplasmas foi estudada, em 369 gatos domésticos de três populações distintas (doadores de sangue, hospitais e gatos de abrigo) do Sul do Brasil. Foram realizados hemogramas completos no momento da coleta de sangue e as amostras tiveram seu DNA extraído e testado por PCR convencional para cada espécie de hemoplasmas. Setenta e nove amostras (21,40%) foram positivas para pelo menos uma espécie. O mais prevalente foi ‘Candidatus Mycoplasma haemominutum’ com 50/369 (13,55%) gatos positivos, seguidos por ‘Candidatus Mycoplasma turicensis’ com 10/369 (2,71%) e Mycoplasma haemofelis com 8/369 (2,16%). Coinfecção por Mycoplasma haemofelis e ‘Candidatus Mycoplasma haemominutum’ foi observada em 4/369 (1,08%), enquanto ‘Candidatus Mycoplasma haemominutum’ e ‘Candidatus Mycoplasma turicensis’ coinfectaram 5/369 (1,35%) gatos. Três (0,81%) gatos apresentaram infecção pelos três hemoplasmas. Não houve associação entre a infecção e as diferentes populações. Anemia foi associada com a infecção por Mycoplasma haemofelis e ‘Candidatus Mycoplasma haemominutum’, mas não com ‘Candidatus Mycoplasma turicensis’. Gatos machos e com acesso à rua apresentaram maior probabilidade de serem infectados. Embora se acredite que ‘Candidatus Mycoplasma haemominutum’ possa causar alterações hematológicas mínimas ou ausentes, gatos infectados encontrados neste estudo foram mais propensos à anemia.

Animals , Male , Rats , Hepatocytes/drug effects , Mitochondria, Liver/drug effects , NAD(P)H Dehydrogenase (Quinone)/metabolism , Oxidative Stress/drug effects , Ubiquinone/pharmacology , Cells, Cultured , Cytoprotection , Cell Membrane/drug effects , Cell Survival/drug effects , Glutathione/metabolism , Hepatocytes/enzymology , Membrane Potentials/drug effects , Mitochondria, Liver/enzymology , NAD , Oxidation-Reduction , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Reactive Oxygen Species/metabolism , Rotenone/toxicity , Uncoupling Agents/toxicity , /pharmacology
Braz. dent. j ; 25(6): 571-575, Nov-Dec/2014. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-732261


This case report describes root canal filling performed over a large S1 ProTaper file fragment in a second mandibular molar with irreversible pulpitis. An S1 ProTaper file was fractured during the instrumentation of the mesiobuccal canal. Approximately 10 mm of file fragment remained in the apical and middle thirds of the canal. The obturation was performed over this fragment using thermomechanically compacted gutta-percha and sealer. Radiographic findings and the absence of clinical signs and symptoms at 3-year follow up indicated successful treatment. Cone-beam computed tomography images revealed absence of periapical lesion and details of intracanal file fragment related to root fillings and apex morphology. In this case, the presence of a large intracanal fractured instrument did not have a negative impact on the endodontic prognosis during the follow up evaluation period.

Este relato de caso descreve a obturação do canal radicular realizada sobre um grande fragmento da lima ProTaper S1 em um segundo molar inferior com pulpite irreversível. Uma lima ProTaper S1 fraturou durante a instrumentação do canal mésio-vestibular. Aproximadamente 10 mm de remanescente do fragmento da lima permaneceu nos terços apical e médio do canal. A obturação foi realizada sobre este fragmento usando guta-percha compactada termomecanicamente e cimento endodôntico. Achados radiográficos e ausência de sinais e sintomas clínicos após 3 anos de acompanhamento indicaram o sucesso do tratamento. Imagens de tomografia computadorizada de feixes cônicos revelaram a ausência de lesão periapical e detalhes do fragmento da lima intracanal relacionados à obturação do canal radicular e à morfologia do ápice. Neste caso, a presença de grande instrumento fraturado intracanal não teve impacto negativo no prognóstico endodôntico durante o período de acompanhamento.

Bacteriological Techniques , Campylobacter/ultrastructure , Centrifugation, Density Gradient , Cell Membrane/analysis , Cell Membrane/drug effects , Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel , Edetic Acid/pharmacology , Octoxynol , Polyethylene Glycols/pharmacology , Sarcosine/analogs & derivatives , Sarcosine/pharmacology
Rev. Esc. Enferm. USP ; 48(spe): 53-58, 08/2014.
Article in English | LILACS, BDENF | ID: lil-731286


Objective To understand the experiences and expectations of nurses in the treatment of women with chronic venous ulcers. Method Phenomenological research was based on Alfred Schütz, whose statements were obtained in January, 2012, through semi-structured interviews with seven nurses. Results The nurse reveals the difficulties presented by the woman in performing self-care, the perceived limitations in the treatment anchored in motivation, and the values and beliefs of women. It showed professional frustration because venous leg ulcer recurrence, lack of inputs, interdisciplinary work and training of nursing staff. There was an expected adherence to the treatment of women, and it emphasized the need for ongoing care, supported self-care and standard practices in treatment. Conclusion That treatment of chronic venous leg ulcers constitutes a challenge that requires collective investment, involving women, professionals, managers and health institutions. .

Objetivo Comprender las experiencias y expectativas de enfermeras en el tratamiento de mujeres con úlcera venosa crónica. Método Investigación fenomenológica fundamentada en Alfred Schutz, que buscó Se realizó entrevista semiestructurada con siete enfermeras, en enero del 2012. Resultados La enfermera revela dificultades presentadas por la mujer para realizar el autocuidado, percibe limitaciones en el tratamiento relacionadas con la desmotivación, los valores y las creencias de las mujeres. Refiere frustración profesional debido a la recidiva de la lesión, a la falta de insumos, al deficiente trabajo interdisciplinar y a la limitada capacitación del equipo de enfermeras. Espera la adhesión de la mujer al tratamiento y resalta la necesidad del cuidado continuo, del autocuidado apoyado y de estandarizar conductas de tratamiento. Conclusión El tratamiento de la úlcera venosa crónica es un desafío que requiere contribución colectiva, involucrando a las mujeres, a los profesionales, a los gestores y a las instituciones de salud. .

Objetivo Compreender as experiências e expectativas de enfermeiras no tratamento de mulheres com úlcera venosa crônica na Atenção Primária à Saúde. Método Pesquisa fundamentada na fenomenologia social de Alfred Schütz, com depoimentos obtidos em janeiro de 2012, por meio de entrevista semiestruturada com sete enfermeiras. Resultados As enfermeiras revelam dificuldades apresentadas pelas mulheres com úlcera venosa crônica para realizar o autocuidado, percebem limitações na terapêutica ancoradas na desmotivação e nos valores e crenças das mulheres. Referem frustração profissional em razão da recidiva da lesão, falta de insumos e tecnologia, de trabalho interdisciplinar e da capacitação da equipe de enfermagem. Esperam a adesão das mulheres ao tratamento e ressaltam a necessidade do cuidado contínuo, do autocuidado apoiado e da padronização de condutas no tratamento. Conclusão O tratamento da úlcera venosa crônica constitui-se em um desafio que requer investimento coletivo, envolvendo a mulher, os profissionais, os gestores e as instituições de saúde. .

Animals , Caenorhabditis elegans Proteins/isolation & purification , Caenorhabditis elegans/metabolism , Cell Membrane/metabolism , Ion Channels/isolation & purification , Ion Channels/metabolism , Nerve Tissue Proteins/isolation & purification , Nerve Tissue Proteins/metabolism , Nervous System/metabolism , Neurons, Afferent/metabolism , Sensation/genetics , Amino Acid Sequence/genetics , Base Sequence/genetics , Behavior, Animal/drug effects , Behavior, Animal/physiology , Caenorhabditis elegans Proteins/genetics , Caenorhabditis elegans Proteins/metabolism , Caenorhabditis elegans/cytology , Capsaicin/pharmacology , Cell Compartmentation/genetics , Cell Membrane/drug effects , Cell Membrane/ultrastructure , Gene Expression Regulation/physiology , Ion Channels/genetics , Ion Channels/ultrastructure , Molecular Sequence Data , Mutation/genetics , Nerve Tissue Proteins/genetics , Nerve Tissue Proteins/ultrastructure , Nervous System/cytology , Nervous System/drug effects , Neurons, Afferent/cytology , Neurons, Afferent/drug effects , Pain/genetics , Pain/metabolism , Pain/physiopathology , Phylogeny , Receptors, Drug/drug effects , Receptors, Drug/metabolism , Receptors, Drug/ultrastructure , Sensation/drug effects , Signal Transduction/genetics , TRPV Cation Channels , Transient Receptor Potential Channels
Braz. j. microbiol ; 44(4): 1067-1074, Oct.-Dec. 2013. graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-705252


The aim of our study was to select the optimal operating conditions to permeabilize Kluyveromyces lactis cells using ethanol as a solvent as an alternative to cell disruption and extraction. Cell permeabilization was carried out by a non-mechanical method consisting of chemical treatment with ethanol, and the results were expressed as β-galactosidase activity. Experiments were conducted under different conditions of ethanol concentration, treatment time and temperature according to a central composite rotatable design (CCRD), and the collected results were then worked out by response surface methodology (RSM). Cell permeabilization was improved by an increase in ethanol concentration and simultaneous decreases in the incubation temperature and treatment time. Such an approach allowed us to identify an optimal range of the independent variables within which the β-galactosidase activity was optimized. A maximum permeabilization of 2,816 mmol L-1 oNP min-1 g-1 was obtained by treating cells with 75.0% v/v of ethanol at 20.0 °C for 15.0 min. The proposed methodology resulted to be effective and suited for K. lactis cells permeabilization at a lab-scale and promises to be of possible interest for future applications mainly in the food industry.

Cell Membrane/drug effects , Ethanol/toxicity , Kluyveromyces/drug effects , Permeability/drug effects , Cell Membrane/physiology , Kluyveromyces/physiology , Models, Statistical , Temperature , Time Factors , beta-Galactosidase/analysis
Braz. j. microbiol ; 44(4): 1291-1298, Oct.-Dec. 2013. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-705286


The amidated analog of Plantaricin149, an antimicrobial peptide from Lactobacillus plantarum NRIC 149, directly interacts with negatively charged liposomes and bacterial membranes, leading to their lysis. In this study, four Pln149-analogs were synthesized with different hydrophobic groups at their N-terminus with the goal of evaluating the effect of the modifications at this region in the peptide's antimicrobial properties. The interaction of these peptides with membrane models, surface activity, their hemolytic effect on red blood cells, and antibacterial activity against microorganisms were evaluated. The analogs presented similar action of Plantaricin149a; three of them with no hemolytic effect (< 5%) until 0.5 mM, in addition to the induction of a helical element when binding to negative liposomes. The N-terminus difference between the analogs and Plantaricin149a retained the antibacterial effect on S. aureus and P. aeruginosa for all peptides (MIC50 of 19 µM and 155 µM to Plantaricin149a, respectively) but resulted in a different mechanism of action against the microorganisms, that was bactericidal for Plantaricin149a and bacteriostatic for the analogs. This difference was confirmed by a reduction in leakage action for the analogs. The lytic activity of Plantaricin149a is suggested to be a result of the peptide-lipid interactions from the amphipathic helix and the hydrophobic residues at the N-terminus of the antimicrobial peptide.

Antimicrobial Cationic Peptides/metabolism , Bacteria/drug effects , Bacteriocins/metabolism , Cell Membrane/drug effects , Lipid Bilayers/metabolism , Antimicrobial Cationic Peptides/genetics , Bacteriocins/genetics , Lactobacillus plantarum/metabolism , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/drug effects , Staphylococcus aureus/drug effects
Braz. j. microbiol ; 44(3): 839-848, July-Sept. 2013. ilus, graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-699798


Ethanolic crude extracts prepared from the arils and seeds, pericarp, peels and from the whole fruit of Punica granatum, known as pomegranate, had their antifungal activity tested against Candida spp. The ethanolic crude extracts were analyzed by Mass Spectrometry and yielded many compounds such as punicalagin and galladydilacton. The extracts from the pericarp and peel showed activity against Candida spp., with MICs of 125 µg/mL. The effect of pericarp and peel extracts upon the morphological and structure of C. albicans and C. krusei were examined by scanning and transmission electron microscopy, with the visualization of an irregular membrane and hyphae, formation of vacuoles and thickening of the cell wall. The data obtained revealed potential antimicrobial activity against yeasts cells of the Candida genus, and the bioactive compounds could be responsible for changes in cell morphology and structure. The data obtained open new perspectives for future research in continuation to this study, where information such as determination of the site of action of the compounds could contribute to an alternative therapy against these organisms.

Antifungal Agents/pharmacology , Candida/drug effects , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Lythraceae/chemistry , Antifungal Agents/chemical synthesis , Antifungal Agents/isolation & purification , Candida/ultrastructure , Cell Membrane/drug effects , Cell Membrane/ultrastructure , Mass Spectrometry , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Microscopy, Electron, Scanning , Microscopy, Electron, Transmission , Organelles/drug effects , Organelles/ultrastructure , Plant Extracts/chemistry , Plant Extracts/isolation & purification
Indian J Biochem Biophys ; 2013 Aug; 50(4): 289-295
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-148610


The protective effects of novel synthesized derivatives of some amino acids — nicotinyl-L-tyrosinate and nicotinyl-L-tryptophanate schiff bases and their Cu(II) and Mn(II) chelates on growth, survival and membrane-associated ATPase activity of E. coli under X-ray irradiation were investigated. The specific growth rate and survival of E. coli were decreased at 10, 20 and 30 Gy doses. However, as 30 Gy was found to be the most effective irradiation dose, it was chosen for studying the radio-protective properties of different compounds. These compounds could increase the bacterial cell protection against X-ray irradiation in concentration-dependent manner. They had a role in stimulation of synthesis or regulation of activity of metal-dependent enzymes, required for reversing the X-ray irradiation damage. The study may prove useful for further estimation of the effectiveness of different compounds as radio-protectors on bacteria and other cells, especially mammalian cells under X-ray irradiation.

Adenosine Triphosphatases/metabolism , Amino Acids/chemical synthesis , Amino Acids/chemistry , Amino Acids/pharmacology , Cell Membrane/drug effects , Cell Membrane/enzymology , Cell Membrane/radiation effects , Chelating Agents/chemistry , Escherichia coli/cytology , Escherichia coli/drug effects , Escherichia coli/growth & development , Escherichia coli/radiation effects , Microbial Viability/drug effects , X-Rays/adverse effects
Indian J Exp Biol ; 2013 Jun; 51(6): 477-480
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-147617


Aroclor 1254, a polychlorinated biphenyl, is present in the environment in low concentration but references on its toxic effects on liver cell membrane proteins and the mechanism of actions are not abundantly available. Therefore, the present study was undertaken to investigate the low level, sub-acute dose and exposure duration dependent effects of Aroclor 1254 on total, Na+, K+, Ca2+ and Mg2+-ATPases of the mouse liver. The hypotheses tested in the present study were, (a) whether the low, environmentally available dose and the exposure durations of Aroclor 1254 affects the membrane-bound ion dependent ATPases, and (b) if a response was observed, whether it is a direct or indirect effects of the toxicant. Groups of mice were exposed to different doses (0.1 and 1mg kg-1 body weight d-1) and exposure durations (4 d, 8 d and 12 d) of Aroclor 1254. The results indicated significant exposure duration dependent changes in the specific activity of the selected membrane bound ATPases. As the observed changes were mostly enzyme stimulation after toxication through oral administration, the effects of the Aroclor were possibly indirect, through complex chain of reactions.

Adenosine Triphosphatases/drug effects , Adenosine Triphosphatases/metabolism , Animals , Antithyroid Agents/pharmacology , Cell Membrane/drug effects , Cell Membrane/enzymology , /pharmacology , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Liver/drug effects , Liver/enzymology , Male , Mice
Braz. dent. j ; 24(2): 121-127, Mar-Apr/2013. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-675665


The aim of this study was to evaluate the possibility of fluoride solutions applied to enamel to protect pulp cells against the trans-enamel and transdentinal cytotoxicity of a 16% carbamide peroxide (CP) bleaching gel. The CP gel was applied to enamel/dentin discs adapted to aicial pulp chambers (8 h/day) during 1, 7 or 14 days, followed by fluoride (0.05% or 0.2%) application for 1 min. The extracts (culture medium in contact with dentin) were applied to MDPC-23 cells for 1 h, and cell metabolism (MTT assay), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity and cell membrane damage (flow cytometry) were analyzed. Knoop microhardness of enamel was also evaluated. Data were analyzed statistically by ANOVA and Kruskal-Wallis tests (α=0.05). For the MTT assay and ALP activity, significant reductions between the control and the bleached groups were observed (p<0.05). No statistically significant difference occurred among bleached groups (p>0.05), regardless of fluoride application or treatment days. Flow cytometry analysis demonstrated 30% of cell membrane damage in all bleached groups. After 14 days of treatment, the fluoride-treated enamel presented significantly higher microhardness values than the bleached-only group (p<0.05). It was concluded that, regardless of the increase in enamel hardness due to the application of fluoride solutions, the treated enamel surface did not prevent the toxic effects caused by the 16% CP gel to odontoblast-like cells.

Resumo O objetivo do presente estudo foi avaliar o possível efeito protetor de soluções fluoretadas aplicadas sobre o esmalte dentário frente à citotoxicidade trans-amelodentinária de um gel clareador com 16% de peróxido de carbamida (PC). O gel de PC foi aplicado sobre discos de esmalte/dentina adaptados a câmaras pulpares aiciais (8 h/dia) durante períodos de 1, 7 ou 14 dias, seguido de aplicação de soluções fluoretadas (0,05% ou 0,2%) durante 1 min. Os extratos (meio de cultura em contato com a dentina) foram aplicados sobre células MDPC-23 durante 1 h, seguido de análise do metabolismo celular (teste do MTT), atividade de fosfatase alcalina (ALP) e danos à membrana celular (citometria de fluxo). A microdureza Knoop do esmalte dental foi avaliada. Os dados foram analisados pelos testes de ANOVA e Kruskal-Wallis. Para o teste do MTT e atividade de ALP, redução significante entre os grupos controle e clareados foram observados (p<0,05). Nenhuma diferença entre os grupos clareados foi observada (p>0,05), independente da aplicação das soluções fluoretadas ou tempo de tratamento. A análise por citometria de fluxo demonstrou lesão à membrana celular em torno de 30% para todos os grupos clareados. Após 14 dias de tratamento, os espécimes clareados e fluoretados apresentaram aumento significante na microdureza do esmalte (p<0,05). Pôde-se concluir que apesar do aumento na dureza do esmalte decorrente da aplicação das soluções fluoretadas, este tratamento não preveniu os efeitos tóxicos causados pelo gel com 16% de PC sobre as células odontoblastóides. .

Animals , Cattle , Dental Enamel/drug effects , Dental Pulp/drug effects , Fluorides/pharmacology , Peroxides/toxicity , Protective Agents/pharmacology , Tooth Bleaching Agents/toxicity , Urea/analogs & derivatives , Alkaline Phosphatase/drug effects , Cell Line , Cell Membrane/drug effects , Cell Survival/drug effects , Coloring Agents , Dental Pulp Cavity/drug effects , Dental Pulp/cytology , Dentin/drug effects , Hardness , Odontoblasts/drug effects , Odontoblasts/metabolism , Propidium , Succinate Dehydrogenase/drug effects , Time Factors , Urea/toxicity
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 679-685, 2013.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-193934


PURPOSE: If cholesterol in the cell membrane is depleted by treating cells with methyl-beta-cyclodextrin (MbetaCD), the activities of transmembrane receptors are altered in a cell-specific and/or receptor-specific manner. The proinflammatory cytokines, IL-1beta is potent inducers of MUC5AC mRNA and protein synthesis in human airway epithelial cells. Cells activated by IL-1beta showed increased phosphorylation of extracellular signal regulated kinase (ERK) and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK). Thus, we investigated the effects of cholesterol depletion on the expression of MUC5AC in human airway epithelial cells and whether these alterations to MUC5AC expression were related to MAPK activity. MATERIALS AND METHODS: After NCI-H292 cells were pretreated with 1% MbetaCD before adding IL-1beta for 24 hours, MUC5AC mRNA expression was determined by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and real time-PCR. Cholesterol depletion by MbetaCD was measured by modified microenzymatic fluorescence assay and filipin staining. The phosphorylation of IL-1 receptor, ERK and p38 MAPK, was analyzed by western blot. RESULTS: Cholesterol in the cell membrane was significantly depleted by treatment with MbetaCD on cells. IL-1beta-induced MUC5AC mRNA expression was decreased by MbetaCD and this decrease occurred IL-1-receptor-specifically. Moreover, we have shown that MbetaCD suppressed the activation of ERK1/2 and p38 MAPK in cells activated with IL-1beta. This result suggests that MbetaCD-mediated suppression of IL-1beta-induced MUC5AC mRNA operated via the ERK- and p38 MAPK-dependent pathway. CONCLUSION: Cholesterol depletion in NCI-H292 cell membrane may be considered an anti-hypersecretory method since it effectively inhibits mucus secretion of respiratory epithelial cells.

Cell Membrane/drug effects , Cholesterol/metabolism , Epithelial Cells/metabolism , Gene Expression , Humans , Mucin 5AC/genetics , Respiratory System/metabolism , beta-Cyclodextrins/pharmacology
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-39075


The cellular toxicities of surfactants, a solvent, and an antifreeze that are included in herbicide formulations were assessed by measuring their effects on membrane integrity, metabolic activity, mitochondrial activity, and total protein synthesis rate in a cell culture. Polyethylene glycol, propylene glycol, and monoethylene glycol exhibited no cellular toxicity even at a high concentration of 100 mM. Sodium lauryl ether sulfate and polyoxyethylene lauryl ether significantly damaged the membrane, disturbed cellular metabolic activity, and decreased mitochondrial activity and the protein synthesis rate; however, their toxicity was far below those of the severely toxic chemicals at comparable concentrations. The severely toxic category included polyoxypropylene glycol block copolymer, polyoxyethylene tallow amine, and polyoxyethylene lauryl amine ether. These surfactants were cytotoxic between 3.125 microM and 100 microM in a dose-dependent manner. However, the toxicity graph of concentration vs toxicity had a point of inflection at 25 microM. The slope of the toxicity graph was gentle when the concentration was below 25 microM and steep when the concentration was greater than 25 microM. In conclusion, our results suggest that the toxicity of surfactants be taken care of pertinent treatment of acute herbicide intoxication.

Animals , Cell Line , Cell Membrane/drug effects , Herbicides/chemistry , Mice , Mitochondria/drug effects , Polyethylene Glycols/toxicity , Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate/toxicity , Surface-Active Agents/chemistry , Toxicity Tests