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1.
International Journal of Oral Science ; (4): 7-7, 2024.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1010720

ABSTRACT

Wnt signaling are critical pathway involved in organ development, tumorigenesis, and cancer progression. WNT7A, a member of the Wnt family, remains poorly understood in terms of its role and the underlying molecular mechanisms it entails in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). According to the Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA), transcriptome sequencing data of HNSCC, the expression level of WNT7A in tumors was found to be higher than in adjacent normal tissues, which was validated using Real-time RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry. Unexpectedly, overexpression of WNT7A did not activate the canonical Wnt-β-catenin pathway in HNSCC. Instead, our findings suggested that WNT7A potentially activated the FZD7/JAK1/STAT3 signaling pathway, leading to enhanced cell proliferation, self-renewal, and resistance to apoptosis. Furthermore, in a patient-derived xenograft (PDX) tumor model, high expression of WNT7A and phosphorylated STAT3 was observed, which positively correlated with tumor progression. These findings underscore the significance of WNT7A in HNSCC progression and propose the targeting of key molecules within the FZD7/JAK1/STAT3 pathway as a promising strategy for precise treatment of HNSCC.


Subject(s)
Animals , Humans , Squamous Cell Carcinoma of Head and Neck , Carcinogenesis/genetics , Cell Transformation, Neoplastic , Wnt Signaling Pathway , Disease Models, Animal , Head and Neck Neoplasms/genetics , Wnt Proteins , Frizzled Receptors/genetics , Janus Kinase 1 , STAT3 Transcription Factor
2.
RFO UPF ; 28(1): 115-131, 20230808.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1509418

ABSTRACT

Objetivos: Instruir e orientar ao cirurgião dentista e demais profissionais de saúde a importância da detecção e rastreio precoce de lesões pré-malignas. Revisão de Literatura: O Líquen Plano Oral é uma condição dermatológica crônica, de origem auto-imune, relativamente comum na população, que atinge o epitélio de mucosa e pele, sendo considerada, pela Organização Mundial de Saúde (OMS), uma desordem potencialmente maligna quando associado a áreas de ulceração. A revisão de literatura foi realizada nas bases de dados PubMed e Lilacs. Buscamos investigar o potencial de malignização do Líquen Plano Oral associado a condições erosivas, analisando o processo de carcinogênese no processo inflamatório. Conclusão: Conclui-se que o objeto de estudo ainda é um assunto pouco explorado pela literatura, porém há indícios etiopatológicos que enfatizam o processo de malignização oriundo de uma lesão pré-maligna como o Líquen Plano Oral. Além disso, enfatizamos a importância do diagnóstico precoce das lesões estomatognáticas, para que assim possamos aumentar as chances de cura do paciente.(AU)


Objectives: To instruct and guide dentists and other health professionals on the importance of early detection and screening of pre-malignant lesions. Literature Review: Oral Lichen Planus is a chronic dermatological condition, of autoimmune origin, relatively common in the population, which affects the epithelium of the mucosa and skin, being considered, by the World Health Organization (WHO), a potentially fatal disorder. malignant when associated with areas of ulceration. A literature review was performed on the PubMed and Lilacs databases. We sought to investigate the potential for malignancy of Oral Lichen Planus associated with erosive conditions, analyzing the process of carcinogenesis in the inflammatory process. Conclusion: It is concluded that the object of study is still a subject little explored in the literature, but there are etiopathological accusations that emphasize the process of malignancy arising from a pre-malignant lesion such as Oral Lichen Planus. In addition, we emphasize the importance of early diagnosis of stomatognathic lesions, so that we can increase the patient's chances of cure.(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Mouth Neoplasms/pathology , Carcinoma, Squamous Cell/pathology , Cell Transformation, Neoplastic/pathology , Lichen Planus, Oral/pathology , Mouth Neoplasms/diagnosis , Carcinoma, Squamous Cell/diagnosis , Lichen Planus, Oral/diagnosis , Early Detection of Cancer
3.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 253-268, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970071

ABSTRACT

Integrins are a family of transmembrane receptors that connect the extracellular matrix and actin skeleton, which mediate cell adhesion, migration, signal transduction, and gene transcription. As a bi-directional signaling molecule, integrins can modulate many aspects of tumorigenesis, including tumor growth, invasion, angiogenesis, metastasis, and therapeutic resistance. Therefore, integrins have a great potential as antitumor therapeutic targets. In this review, we summarize the recent reports of integrins in human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), focusing on the abnormal expression, activation, and signaling of integrins in cancer cells as well as their roles in other cells in the tumor microenvironment. We also discuss the regulation and functions of integrins in hepatitis B virus-related HCC. Finally, we update the clinical and preclinical studies of integrin-related drugs in the treatment of HCC.


Subject(s)
Humans , Integrins/metabolism , Carcinoma, Hepatocellular/genetics , Liver Neoplasms/genetics , Cell Adhesion , Carcinogenesis , Cell Transformation, Neoplastic , Tumor Microenvironment
4.
Chinese Journal of Industrial Hygiene and Occupational Diseases ; (12): 149-155, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970730

ABSTRACT

N-acetyl-seryl-aspartyl-lysyl-proline (Ac-SDKP) is an endogenous short peptide produced through the continuous hydrolysis of Thymosin β4 by meprin-α and prolyl oligopeptidase. It has the functions of immune regulation, promoting angiogenesis, tumorigenesis and anti-fibrosis in organs. In this paper, according to some our research results and related literatures in recent years, a review of Ac-SDKP research progress was written.


Subject(s)
Humans , Oligopeptides , Cell Transformation, Neoplastic
5.
Journal of Experimental Hematology ; (6): 306-310, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-971142

ABSTRACT

Long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) is a hot topic in the field of researching tumor pathogenesis, and the importance in hematologic malignancies has been gradually being elucidated. LncRNA not only regulates hematological tumorigenesis and progression through affecting various biological processes such as cell proliferation, differentiation, pluripotency and apoptosis; moreover, abnormal expression and mutation of lncRNA are closely related to drug resistance and prognosis. Thus lncRNA can be used as novel biomarker and potential therapeutic target for hematological tumors. In this review, we will focus on the latest progress of lncRNA in hematological tumors to provide new ideas for the clinical diagnosis, prognostic evaluation together with research and development of target drugs for hematologic malignancies.


Subject(s)
Humans , RNA, Long Noncoding/metabolism , Hematologic Neoplasms/genetics , Neoplasms , Carcinogenesis/pathology , Cell Transformation, Neoplastic/genetics , Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic
6.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 2621-2631, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1007549

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#The molecular mechanisms driving tumorigenesis have continually been the focus of researchers. Cuproplasia is defined as copper-dependent cell growth and proliferation, including its primary and secondary roles in tumor formation and proliferation through signaling pathways. In this study, we analyzed the differences in the expression of cuproplasia-associated genes (CAGs) in pan-cancerous tissues and investigated their role in immune-regulation and tumor prognostication.@*METHODS@#Raw data from 11,057 cancer samples were acquired from multiple databases. Pan-cancer analysis was conducted to analyze the CAG expression, single-nucleotide variants, copy number variants, methylation signatures, and genomic signatures of micro RNA (miRNA)-messenger RNA (mRNA) interactions. The Genomics of Drug Sensitivity in Cancer and the Cancer Therapeutics Response Portal databases were used to evaluate drug sensitivity and resistance against CAGs. Using single-sample Gene Set Enrichment Analysis (ssGSEA) and Immune Cell Abundance Identifier database, immune cell infiltration was analyzed with the ssGSEA score as the standard.@*RESULTS@#Aberrantly expressed CAGs were found in multiple cancers. The frequency of single-nucleotide variations in CAGs ranged from 1% to 54% among different cancers. Furthermore, the correlation between CAG expression in the tumor microenvironment and immune cell infiltration varied among different cancers. ATP7A and ATP7B were negatively correlated with macrophages in 16 tumors including breast invasive carcinoma and esophageal carcinoma, while the converse was true for MT1A and MT2A . In addition, we established cuproplasia scores and demonstrated their strong correlation with patient prognosis, immunotherapy responsiveness, and disease progression ( P  <0.05). Finally, we identified potential candidate drugs by matching gene targets with existing drugs.@*CONCLUSIONS@#This study reports the genomic characterization and clinical features of CAGs in pan-cancers. It helps clarify the relationship between CAGs and tumorigenesis, and may be helpful in the development of biomarkers and new therapeutic agents.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Genomics , Carcinogenesis , Carcinoma , Breast Neoplasms , Cell Transformation, Neoplastic , Nucleotides , Tumor Microenvironment
7.
Chinese Journal of Lung Cancer ; (12): 207-213, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928799

ABSTRACT

Cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) and tumor-infiltrating immune cells are the most essential components of the tumor microenvironment (TME). They communicate with each other in tumor microenvironment and play a critical role in tumorigenesis and development. CAFs are very heterogeneous and different subtypes of CAFs display different functions. At the same time, it can contribute to the regulation of the function of tumor-infiltrating immune cells and eventually result in the carcinogenesis, tumor progression, invasion, metastasis and other biological behaviors of tumors by producting various growth factors and cytokines etc. Based on the current research results at home and abroad, this paper reviews the recent research progress on the regulation of CAFs on infiltrating immune cells in tumor microenvironment.
.


Subject(s)
Humans , Cancer-Associated Fibroblasts/metabolism , Carcinogenesis , Cell Transformation, Neoplastic/metabolism , Lung Neoplasms/metabolism , Tumor Microenvironment
8.
International Journal of Oral Science ; (4): 25-25, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-929153

ABSTRACT

Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) still lacks effective targeted treatment. Therefore, exploring novel and robust molecular targets is critical for improving the clinical outcome of HNSCC. Here, we reported that the expression levels of family with sequence similarity 64, member A (FAM64A) were significantly higher in HNSCC tissues and cell lines. In addition, FAM64A overexpression was found to be strongly associated with an unfavorable prognosis of HNSCC. Both in vitro and in vivo evidence showed that FAM64A depletion suppressed the malignant activities of HNSCC cells, and vice versa. Moreover, we found that the FAM64A level was progressively increased from normal to dysplastic to cancerous tissues in a carcinogenic 4-nitroquinoline-1-oxide mouse model. Mechanistically, a physical interaction was found between FAM64A and forkhead box protein M1 (FOXM1) in HNSCC cells. FAM64A promoted HNSCC tumorigenesis not only by enhancing the transcriptional activity of FOXM1, but also, more importantly, by modulating FOXM1 expression via the autoregulation loop. Furthermore, a positive correlation between FAM64A and FOXM1 was found in multiple independent cohorts. Taken together, our findings reveal a previously unknown mechanism behind the activation of FOXM1 in HNSCC, and FAM64A might be a promising molecular therapeutic target for treating HNSCC.


Subject(s)
Animals , Mice , Carcinogenesis , Cell Line, Tumor , Cell Proliferation , Cell Transformation, Neoplastic , Head and Neck Neoplasms/genetics , Homeostasis , Squamous Cell Carcinoma of Head and Neck
9.
Journal of Central South University(Medical Sciences) ; (12): 101-108, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-929011

ABSTRACT

YWHAE gene is located on chromosome 17p13.3, and its product 14-3-3epsilon protein belongs to 14-3-3 protein family. As a molecular scaffold, YWHAE participates in biological processes such as cell adhesion, cell cycle regulation, signal transduction and malignant transformation, and is closely related to many diseases. Overexpression of YWHAE in breast cancer can increase the ability of proliferation, migration and invasion of breast cancer cells. In gastric cancer, YWHAE acts as a negative regulator of MYC and CDC25B, which reduces their expression and inhibits the proliferation, migration, and invasion of gastric cancer cells, and enhances YWHAE-mediated transactivation of NF-κB through CagA. In colorectal cancer, YWHAE lncRNA, as a sponge molecule of miR-323a-3p and miR-532-5p, can compete for endogenous RNA through direct interaction with miR-323a-3p and miR-532-5p, thus up-regulating K-RAS/ERK/1/2 and PI3K-AKT signaling pathways and promoting the cell cycle progression of the colorectal cancer. YWHAE not only mediates tumorigenesis as a competitive endogenous RNA, but also affects gene expression through chromosome variation. For example, the FAM22B-YWHAE fusion gene caused by t(10; 17) (q22; p13) may be associated with the development of endometrial stromal sarcoma. At the same time, the fusion transcript of YWHAE and NUTM2B/E may also lead to the occurrence of endometrial stromal sarcoma. To understand the relationship between YWHAE, NUTM2A, and NUTM2B gene rearrangement/fusion and malignant tumor, YWHAE-FAM22 fusion gene/translocation and tumor, YWHAE gene polymorphism and mental illness, as well as the relationship between 17p13.3 region change and disease occurrence. It provides new idea and basis for understanding the effect of YWHAE gene molecular mechanism and genetic variation on the disease progression, and for the targeted for the diseases.


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , 14-3-3 Proteins/metabolism , Breast Neoplasms/genetics , Cell Line, Tumor , Cell Proliferation/genetics , Cell Transformation, Neoplastic/genetics , Colorectal Neoplasms/genetics , Endometrial Neoplasms , Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic , MicroRNAs/genetics , Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases/metabolism , Sarcoma, Endometrial Stromal/pathology , Stomach Neoplasms/genetics , Transcription Factors/genetics , Translocation, Genetic
10.
International Journal of Oral Science ; (4): 36-36, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-939855

ABSTRACT

Tumor volume increases continuously in the advanced stage, and aside from the self-renewal of tumor cells, whether the oncogenic transformation of surrounding normal cells is involved in this process is currently unclear. Here, we show that oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC)-derived small extracellular vesicles (sEVs) promote the proliferation, migration, invasion, and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) of normal epithelial cells but delay their apoptosis. In addition, nuclear-cytoplasmic invaginations and multiple nucleoli are observed in sEV-treated normal cells, both of which are typical characteristics of premalignant lesions of OSCC. Mechanistically, miR-let-7c in OSCC-derived sEVs is transferred to normal epithelial cells, leading to the transcriptional inhibition of p53 and inactivation of the p53/PTEN pathway. In summary, we demonstrate that OSCC-derived sEVs promote the precancerous transformation of normal epithelial cells, in which the miR-let-7c/p53/PTEN pathway plays an important role. Our findings reveal that cancer cells can corrupt normal epithelial cells through sEVs, which provides new insight into the progression of OSCC.


Subject(s)
Humans , Carcinoma, Squamous Cell/pathology , Cell Line, Tumor , Cell Movement , Cell Proliferation , Cell Transformation, Neoplastic , Down-Regulation , Epithelial Cells/metabolism , Extracellular Vesicles/pathology , MicroRNAs/metabolism , Mouth Neoplasms/pathology , PTEN Phosphohydrolase/metabolism , Tumor Suppressor Protein p53/metabolism
12.
Frontiers of Medicine ; (4): 178-207, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-880961

ABSTRACT

Breast cancer is one of the most common malignancies that seriously threaten women's health. In the process of the malignant transformation of breast cancer, metabolic reprogramming and immune evasion represent the two main fascinating characteristics of cancer and facilitate cancer cell proliferation. Breast cancer cells generate energy through increased glucose metabolism. Lipid metabolism contributes to biological signal pathways and forms cell membranes except energy generation. Amino acids act as basic protein units and metabolic regulators in supporting cell growth. For tumor-associated immunity, poor immunogenicity and heightened immunosuppression cause breast cancer cells to evade the host's immune system. For the past few years, the complex mechanisms of metabolic reprogramming and immune evasion are deeply investigated, and the genes involved in these processes are used as clinical therapeutic targets for breast cancer. Here, we review the recent findings related to abnormal metabolism and immune characteristics, regulatory mechanisms, their links, and relevant therapeutic strategies.


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Breast Neoplasms , Cell Proliferation , Cell Transformation, Neoplastic , Energy Metabolism , Lipid Metabolism , Signal Transduction
13.
Braz. arch. biol. technol ; 64: e21200093, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153294

ABSTRACT

HIGHLIGHTS Sodium arsenite can cause neoplastic transformation in cells. Curcumin reduced cell viability and increased LDH activity in transformed Balb/c 3T3 cells. Curcumin caused DNA damage in transformed Balb/c 3T3 cells. Curcumin may play a protective role in sodium arsenite-induced toxicity.


Abstract Arsenic is a toxic substance that spreads widely around the environment and accumulates as metalloid in the earth's crust. Arsenic and its derivatives are found in drinking water, nutrients, soil, and air. Exposure to arsenic is associated with lung, blood, skin cancer and various lesions. Curcumin is a polyphenolic compound derived from Curcuma longa (turmeric) rhizome and is one of the main curcuminoids. Curcumin is known to be antioxidant, antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, analgesic effects. This study aimed to investigate the potential of sodium arsenite to transform embryonic fibroblast cells and to evaluate the cytotoxic and genotoxic effects of curcumin in neoplastic transformed cells. Neoplastic cells transformation was induced by sodium arsenite in Balb/c 3T3 cells at the end of 32 days. After transformation assay, the transformed cells were treated with various concentration of curcumin to evaluate cell viability, lactate dehydrogenase activity and DNA damage for 24h. The results revealed that curcumin decreased cell viability and increased the activity of lactate dehydrogenase enzyme in neoplastic transformed Balb/c 3T3 cells. In conclusion, the results demonstrated that curcumin has an anticancer effect on neoplastic transformed Balb/c 3T3 cells by causing DNA damage.


Subject(s)
Animals , Mice , Arsenic/toxicity , DNA Damage , Cell Transformation, Neoplastic , Curcumin/pharmacology , Fibroblasts/drug effects , BALB 3T3 Cells , Fibroblasts/pathology
14.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 54(5): e10637, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153548

ABSTRACT

Transcription factors control, coordinate, and separate the functions of distinct network modules spatially and temporally. In this review, we focus on the transcription factor 21 (TCF21) network, a highly conserved basic-helix-loop-helix (bHLH) protein that functions to integrate signals and modulate gene expression. We summarize the molecular and biological properties of TCF21 control with an emphasis on molecular and functional TCF21 interactions. We suggest that these interactions serve to modulate the development of different organs at the transcriptional level to maintain growth homeostasis and to influence cell fate. Importantly, TCF21 expression is epigenetically inactivated in different types of human cancers. The epigenetic modification or activation and/or loss of TCF21 expression results in an imbalance in TCF21 signaling, which may lead to tumor initiation and, most likely, to progression and tumor metastasis. This review focuses on research on the roles of TCF21 in development and tumorigenesis systematically considering the physiological and pathological function of TCF21. In addition, we focus on the main molecular bases of its different roles whose importance should be clarified in future research. For this review, PubMed databases and keywords such as TCF21, POD-1, capsulin, tumors, carcinomas, tumorigenesis, development, and mechanism of action were utilized. Articles were selected within a historical context as were a number of citations from journals with relevant impact.


Subject(s)
Humans , Basic Helix-Loop-Helix Transcription Factors/genetics , Basic Helix-Loop-Helix Transcription Factors/metabolism , Carcinogenesis/genetics , Signal Transduction , Cell Differentiation , Cell Transformation, Neoplastic/genetics
15.
Rev. ADM ; 77(2): 70-79, mar.-abr. 2020. ilus, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1100338

ABSTRACT

Las enfermedades autoinmunes tienen múltiples manifestaciones en estomatología, entre las más frecuentes se encuentra el liquen plano oral (LPO), se trata de una enfermedad crónica con manifestaciones clínicas en piel y mucosas. Se agrupa en dos formas anatomoclínicas, la de curso evolutivo benigno identificado como típico y la susceptible de transformación maligna, identificada como atípico. Histológicamente, la degeneración vacuolar del estrato basal del epitelio es el signo histomorfológico patognomónico seguido de apoptosis celular. La apoptosis es un evento esencial entre los fenómenos del ciclo celular, sucede con la finalidad de eliminar células dañadas o inútiles. De todas las proteínas implicadas las caspasas son los responsables de la ejecución de este mecanismo, especialmente la caspasa 3 por fragmentar y activar otras caspasas responsables de la proteólisis. El potencial de transformación maligna del LPO podría estar en relación con el fallo de este mecanismo de regulación del ciclo de las células epiteliales agredidas y la persistencia de células dañadas. El presente trabajo de investigación tuvo como objetivo analizar la presencia y proporción de apoptosis en las distintas variantes de LPO con técnicas histológicas de rutina y posterior aplicación de inmunohistoquímica, utilizando como marcador la caspasa 3. Se obtuvieron 20 biopsias de LPO de cinco variedades clínicas nueve variantes típicas (VT): cinco placa, cuatro reticulares y 11 variantes atípicas (VA): dos atróficos, seis erosivos, tres ampollares. El método de evaluación fue semicuantitativo, se consideró en función del porcentaje, se realizó un recuento celular de un total de 100 células en cinco campos de gran aumento considerando las siguientes categorías según ausencia, presencia leve (< 10%), moderada (10 ≤ 25%), intensa (25 ≤ 50%), no valorables. Se encontró una buena correlación de los cambios histológicos y el grado de expresión del marcador utilizado para poner en evidencia la apoptosis, sobre todo con las muestras de LPO de variante atípica. En los casos de las variantes atípicas de liquen observados en comparación con la tinción de rutina (H/E) se observó igualdad o una disminución en algunos casos del número de queratinocitos apoptóticos. En cuanto a las variantes clínicas consideradas «típicas¼ se observó que el recuento de células en apoptosis estaba significativamente elevado. Obtuvimos excelentes resultados con el inmunomarcador caspasa 3, el cual coincide con la literatura en su alta sensibilidad como recurso para cuantificar el número de apoptosis en estas lesiones orales (AU)


Autoimmune diseases have multiple manifestations in stomatology, among the most frequent is oral lichen planus (LPO), it is a chronic disease with clinical manifestations in skin and mucous membranes. It is grouped into two anatomoclinic forms, the benign evolutionary course identified as typical and susceptible to malignant transformation, identified as atypical. Histologically, vacuolar degeneration of the basal stratum of the epithelium is the pathognomonic histomorphological sign followed by cellular apoptosis. Apoptosis is an essential event among cell cycle phenomena, it happens in order to eliminate damaged or useless cells. Of all the proteins involved, caspases are responsible for the execution of this mechanism, especially caspase-3 for fragmenting and activating other caspases responsible for proteolysis. The potential for malignant transformation of the LPO could be related to the failure of this mechanism to regulate the cycle of attacked epithelial cells and the persistence of damaged cells. This research work aimed to analyze the presence and proportion of apoptosis in the different variants of LPO with routine histological techniques and subsequent application of immunohistochemistry, using caspase as a marker 3. 20 LPO biopsies from 5 clinical varieties were obtained 9 typical variants (VT): 5 plate, 4 reticular and 11 atypical variants (VA): 2 atrophic, 6 erosive, 3 ampoules. The evaluation method was semi-quantitative considering the percentage, making a cell count of a total of 100 cells, in five large-scale fields considering the following categories according to absence, mild presence (< 10%), moderate (10 ≤ 25%), intense (25 ≤ 50%), not valuable. We found a good correlation of histological changes and the degree of expression of the marker used to highlight apoptosis, especially with the atypical variant LPO samples. In the cases of atypical variants of lichen observed, compared with routine staining (H/E) we find equality or a decrease in some cases of the number of apoptotic keratinocytes. For clinical variants considered «typical¼ it was observed that the cell count in apoptosis was significantly increased. We obtained excellent results with the caspase 3 immunomarker coinciding with the literature of its high sensitivity as a resource to quantify the number of apoptosis in these oral lesions (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Biomarkers , Cell Transformation, Neoplastic , Apoptosis , Lichen Planus, Oral/immunology , Caspase 3 , Biopsy , Immunohistochemistry
16.
International Journal of Oral Science ; (4): 23-23, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-828955

ABSTRACT

The integrity of the basal stem cell layer is critical for epithelial homoeostasis. In this paper, we review the expression of oral mucosal stem cell markers (OM-SCMs) in oral submucous fibrosis (OSF), oral potentially malignant disorders (OPMDs) and oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) to understand the role of basal cells in potentiating cancer stem cell behaviour in OSF. While the loss of basal cell clonogenicity triggers epithelial atrophy in OSF, the transition of the epithelium from atrophic to hyperplastic and eventually neoplastic involves the reactivation of basal stemness. The vacillating expression patterns of OM-SCMs confirm the role of keratins 5, 14, 19, CD44, β1-integrin, p63, sex-determining region Y box (SOX2), octamer-binding transcription factor 4 (Oct-4), c-MYC, B-cell-specific Moloney murine leukaemia virus integration site 1 (Bmi-1) and aldehyde dehydrogenase 1 (ALDH1) in OSF, OPMDs and OSCC. The downregulation of OM-SCMs in the atrophic epithelium of OSF and their upregulation during malignant transformation are illustrated with relevant literature in this review.


Subject(s)
Animals , Mice , Carcinoma, Squamous Cell , Pathology , Cell Transformation, Neoplastic , Pathology , Mouth Mucosa , Mouth Neoplasms , Pathology , Oral Submucous Fibrosis , Pathology , Stem Cells
17.
Braz. oral res. (Online) ; 34: e052, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1132707

ABSTRACT

Abstract The purpose of this study was to analyze the differential expression of DEC1 in oral normal mucosa (NM), oral leukoplakia (OLK) and oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). Surgically excised specimens from patients with OLK (n = 47), OSCC (n = 30) and oral normal mucosa (n=11) were immunostained for DEC1. The expression of DEC1 protein was evaluated, and its association with the clinicopathological features was analyzed. The expression of DEC1 in NM, OLK and OSCC tissues increased in turn, and significant differences were observed among the groups (P < 0.0001). In terms of the association between DEC1 expression and epithelial dysplasia, DEC1 expression was lower in hyperkeratosis without dysplasia (H-OLK) than in OLK with moderate to severe dysplasia (S-OLK), and these differences were significant (p < 0.05). The expression of DEC1 in OSCC with OLK was significantly higher than that in OSCC without OLK (p < 0.01). Therefore, DEC1 could be a potential biomarker of malignant transformation in the carcinogenesis of OSCC, which may provide a new research direction for the transformation of oral potentially malignant disorders (OPMDs) into OSCC.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Leukoplakia, Oral/pathology , Mouth Neoplasms/pathology , Carcinoma, Squamous Cell/pathology , Tumor Suppressor Proteins/analysis , Reference Values , Immunohistochemistry , Biomarkers, Tumor/analysis , Cell Transformation, Neoplastic/pathology , Reproducibility of Results , Risk Factors , Analysis of Variance , Age Factors , Statistics, Nonparametric , Middle Aged
18.
Arch. endocrinol. metab. (Online) ; 63(5): 536-544, Sept.-Oct. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1038502

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Thyroid cancer has been rapidly increasing in prevalence among humans in last 2 decades and is the most prevalent endocrine malignancy. Overall, thyroid-cancer patients have good rates of long-term survival, but a small percentage present poor outcome. Thyroid cancer aggressiveness is essentially related with thyroid follicular cell loss of differentiation and metastasis. The discovery of oncogenes that drive thyroid cancer (such as RET, RAS, and BRAF), and are aligned in the MAPK/ERK pathway has led to a new perspective of thyroid oncogenesis. The uncovering of additional oncogene-modulated signaling pathways revealed an intricate and active signaling cross-talk. Among these, microRNAs, which are a class of small, noncoding RNAs, expanded this cross-talk by modulating several components of the oncogenic network - thus establishing a new layer of regulation. In this context, TGFβ signaling plays an important role in cancer as a dual factor: it can exert an antimitogenic effect in normal thyroid follicular cells, and promote epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition, cell migration, and invasion in cancer cells. In this review, we explore how microRNAs influence the loss of thyroid differentiation and the increase in aggressiveness of thyroid cancers by regulating the dual function of TGFβ. This review provides directions for future research to encourage the development of new strategies and molecular approaches that can improve the treatment of aggressive thyroid cancer.


Subject(s)
Humans , Thyroid Gland/pathology , Thyroid Neoplasms/pathology , Transforming Growth Factor beta/metabolism , MicroRNAs/metabolism , Thyroid Neoplasms/metabolism , Signal Transduction , Cell Transformation, Neoplastic , Disease Progression , Neoplasm Invasiveness , Neoplasm Metastasis
19.
Rev. medica electron ; 41(3): 756-764, mayo.-jun. 2019. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1094083

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN Los melanomas mucosos son tumores poco frecuentes y de mal pronóstico. Presentan un comportamiento agresivo, y pueden tener varias localizaciones en el aparato digestivo. Este tipo de tumores es más frecuente en la región anorectal. Se presentó un caso de una paciente femenina de 59 años, con un cuadro de varios meses de evolución; caracterizado por ardor, prurito anal y sensación de masa que prolapsaba a través del ano. Se constató al examen físico masa tumoral aspecto polipoideo. Se realizó polipectomía donde la biopsia arrojó como resultados el aspecto histológico de un melanoma mucoso de canal anal.


ABSTRACT Mucous melanomas are few frequent and have a bad prognosis. They present an aggressive behavior and might have several locations in the digestive system. This kind of tumors is more frequent at the anus-rectal region. The authors presented the case of a female patient, aged 59 years, with clinical conditions of several months of evolution, characterized by burning, anal pruritus and the sensation of a mass prolapsing through the anus. A tumor mass of polypoid aspect was found at physical examination. Polypectomy was carried out and the biopsy showed the histologic aspect of a mucous melanoma of the anal canal.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adult , Anus Neoplasms/diagnosis , Anus Neoplasms/pathology , Anus Neoplasms/blood , Cell Transformation, Neoplastic , Sarcoma, Clear Cell/diagnosis , Melanocytes/metabolism , Melanoma/diagnosis , Melanoma/pathology , Melanoma/blood , Anal Canal/physiopathology , Pruritus Ani/diagnosis , Neoplasm Metastasis
20.
Medicina (B.Aires) ; 79(1): 67-70, feb. 2019. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1002590

ABSTRACT

Los teratomas son tumores germinales malignos compuestos por dos o más capas de tejido, que ocasionalmente se transforman en estirpes con crecimiento agresivo. Se presenta el caso de un paciente de 29 años con un tumor germinal gonadal localizado en testículo, cuya evolución fue desfavorable por presentar transformación en un fenotipo correspondiente a un rabdomiosarcoma. La patología aquí descripta deviene del crecimiento diferencial de un componente ya existente en el tumor original o la transformación en un linaje somático que se hace dominante. Los tumores transformados como el del caso descripto son raros y presentan características diferentes de la mayoría de las neoplasias germinales respecto del comportamiento, el pronóstico y la sensibilidad a los tratamientos establecidos.


Teratomas are malign germ cell tumors composed of two or more tissue layers. When there is specific organ differentiation they are called mature teratoma. They rarely grow aggressively. We report the case of a 29 year-old man with a diagnosis of gonadal germ cell tumor whose evolution was unfavorable owing to transformation into a different phenotype corresponding to a rhabdomyosarcoma. This phenomenon occurs through differential growth of a single histological component of the original tumor or transformation of a somatic lineage that becomes dominant. Transformed tumors such as the one herein described differ from most germ cell neoplasms regarding behavior, prognosis, and susceptibility to established treatments.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Rhabdomyosarcoma/pathology , Teratoma/pathology , Testicular Neoplasms/pathology , Cell Transformation, Neoplastic/pathology , Neoplasms, Gonadal Tissue/pathology , Teratoma/drug therapy , Testicular Neoplasms/drug therapy , Fatal Outcome
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