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Arq. ciências saúde UNIPAR ; 26(3): 681-692, set-dez. 2022.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1399322


Com o avanço da medicina e o aumento do uso de antimicrobianos, a resistência microbiana vem se tornando um problema sério na saúde pública. Para que uma bactéria se torne resistente, são necessários vários fatores, entre eles, o uso indiscriminado e prolongado de antimicrobianos e as resistências intrínsecas e adquiridas. Nesse contexto, o objetivo do trabalho foi explorar os mecanismos de ação dos antimicrobianos, de resistência e a sua importância na saúde pública. Foram utilizadas para a presente pesquisa, as bases de dados Pubmed, Google acadêmico e Scielo. Segundo a Organização Mundial da Saúde define-se resistência ao antibiótico quando o mesmo não produz mais efeito. A inserção cada vez mais frequente de antimicrobianos favorece a resistência, onde provocam uma pressão seletiva sobre os microrganismos, tornando-os resistentes a diversas drogas. O uso indiscriminado de antimicrobianos é o principal fator de resistência microbiana, assim como o uso de antimicrobianos sem exame de cultura e teste de sensibilidade. Neste sentido, conclui-se que é de suma importância a atualização de protocolos que contenham os mecanismos de resistência bacteriana a fim de minimizar o uso indiscriminado de antimicrobianos, assim como capacitar os profissionais da saúde para este problema na saúde pública.

With the advance of medicine and the increase in the use of antimicrobials, microbial resistance has become a serious problem in public health. For a bacterium to become resistant, several factors are necessary, among them, the indiscriminate and prolonged use of antimicrobials and the intrinsic and acquired resistance. In this context, the objective of the work was to explore the mechanisms of action of antimicrobials, resistance and their importance in public health. Pubmed, Google academic and Scielo databases were used for this research. According to the World Health Organization, resistance to antibiotics is defined when it no longer has an effect. The increasingly frequent insertion of antimicrobials favors resistance, where they put selective pressure on microorganisms, making them resistant to various drugs. The indiscriminate use of antimicrobials is the main factor of microbial resistance, as well as the use of antimicrobials without culture examination and sensitivity test. In this sense, it is concluded that it is extremely important to update protocols that contain the mechanisms of bacterial resistance in order to minimize the indiscriminate use of antimicrobials, as well as to train health professionals for this problem in public health.

Con los avances de la medicina y el mayor uso de antimicrobianos, la resistencia microbiana se ha convertido en un grave problema de salud pública. Para que una bacteria se vuelva resistente son necesarios varios factores, entre ellos, el uso indiscriminado y prolongado de antimicrobianos y la resistencia intrínseca y adquirida. En este contexto, el objetivo de este trabajo fue explorar los mecanismos de acción de los antimicrobianos, la resistencia y su importancia en la salud pública. Para esta investigación se utilizaron las bases de datos Pubmed, Google Scholar y Scielo. Según la Organización Mundial de la Salud, la resistencia a un antibiótico se define cuando deja de producir efecto. El uso cada vez más frecuente de antimicrobianos favorece la resistencia, ya que provocan una presión selectiva sobre los microorganismos, haciéndolos resistentes a varios fármacos. El uso indiscriminado de antimicrobianos es el principal factor de resistencia microbiana, así como el uso de antimicrobianos sin pruebas de cultivo y sensibilidad. En este sentido, se concluye que es de suma importancia actualizar los protocolos que contienen los mecanismos de resistencia bacteriana para minimizar el uso indiscriminado de antimicrobianos, así como capacitar a los profesionales de la salud para este problema en la salud pública.

Public Health , Drug Resistance, Bacterial/drug effects , Bacteria/drug effects , Drug Resistance/drug effects , Drug Resistance, Microbial/drug effects , Pharmaceutical Preparations/analysis , Cell Wall/drug effects , Review , Biofilms/drug effects , Libraries, Digital , Anti-Infective Agents/analysis , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878924


The aim of this paper was to investigate the effect of berberine hydrochloride on the cell wall integrity of Candida albicans hypha. The minimal inhibitory concentration(MIC) of berberine hydrochloride against clinical and standard C. albicans strains was detected by micro liquid-based dilution method; the effect of berberine hydrochloride on the colony formation of C. albicans SC5314 was investigated by spot assay; the effect of berberine hydrochloride on the metabolism of C. albicans SC5314 hypha was checked by XTT reduction assay, and the viability of C. albicans SC5314 hypha was tested by fluorescent staining assay. The effect of berberine hydrochloride on the morphology of C. albicans SC5314 hypha was examined by scanning electron microscope. The changes in the cell wall of C. albicans SC5314 hypha after berberine hydrochloride treatment were detected by transmission electron microscopy. The effect of berberine hydrochloride on β-glucan from C. albicans SC5314 was detected by flow cytometry. The effect of berberine hydrochloride on hypha-specific gene ECE1 and β-glucan synthase genes FKS1 and FKS2 in C. albicans was examined by qRT-PCR. The results showed that berberine hydrochloride showed a strong inhibitory effect on both clinical and standard strains of C. albicans, and the MIC was 64-128 μg·mL~(-1). Spot assay, XTT redunction assay and fluorescent staining assay showed that with the increase of berberine hydrochloride concentration, the viability of C. albicans SC5314 gradually decreased. The transmission electron microscopy scanning assay showed that this compound could cause cell wall damage of C. albicans. The flow cytometry analysis showed the exposure degree of C. albicans β-glucan. The qRT-PCR further showed that berberine hydrochloride could significantly down-regulate hypha-specific gene ECE1 and β-glucan synthase-related gene FKS1 and FKS2. In conclusion, this compound can down-regulate C. albicans and β-glucan synthase-related gene expressions, so as to destroy the cell wall structure of C. albicans, expose β-glucan and damage the integrity of the wall.

Antifungal Agents/pharmacology , Berberine/pharmacology , Candida albicans/genetics , Cell Wall , Hyphae , Microbial Sensitivity Tests
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-820822


OBJECTIVES: Galla chinensis inhibited the adherence of planktonic oral bacteria and acid production by cariogenic bacteria. However, little is known about the relevant conditions of Galla Chinensis extract (GCE) exposure time and concentration and the effect of GCE on the structural and functional activity of cariogenic bacteria. The antibacterial effects of natural G. Chinensis extract on S. mutans , S. sanguinis, and S. oralis biofilms were evaluated in vitro.METHODS: Biofilms formed on glass surfaces were treated with different concentrations of GCE at different exposure times. The effects were assessed by examining the bactericidal activity, acidogenesis, minimum inhibitory concentration, and morphology.RESULTS: There was a statistically significant difference in the bacterial growth inhibition depending on the concentration of the GCE, with bacterial growth being inhibited as the concentration of GCE increased. A concentration of 1.0 mg/ml GCE had similar bactericidal effects against S. mutans and S. oralis biofilms to those produced by 2.0 mg/ml CHX. In the 1.0 mg/ml GCE group, incomplete septa were also observed in the outline of the cell wall, together with disruption of the cell membrane. In addition, there was also a slight exudation of the intracellular content from the bacteria in the 1.0 mg/ml GCE and 2 mg/ml CHX groups.CONCLUSIONS: These results indicate that GCE inhibits the growth of S. mutans, S. sanguinis, and S. oralis with increasing concentrations. It alters the microstructure of S. mutans biofilms. These results suggest that GCE might be a useful anti-bacterial agent for preventing dental caries.

Bacteria , Biofilms , Cell Membrane , Cell Wall , Dental Caries , Glass , In Vitro Techniques , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Plankton , Streptococcus mutans
Rev. argent. microbiol ; 51(3): 268-277, set. 2019. graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1041836


Phytophthora parasitica is an important oomycete that causes disease in a variety of plants, dimethomorph fungicides being specific for oomycetes. The aim of this study was to use RNA-seq to rapidly discover the mechanism by which dimethomorph acts in the treatment of P. parasitica. We found that the expression of 832 genes changed significantly after the dimethomorph treatment, including 365 up-regulated genes and 467 down-regulated genes. According to the Gene Ontology (GO) enrichment analysis, pathway enrichment and verification test results, the following conclusions are obtained: (i) the treatment of P. parasitica with dimethomorph causes changes in the expression levels of genes associated with the cell wall and cell wall synthesis; (ii) dimethomorph treatment results in reduced permeability of the cell membrane and changes in the expression of certain transport-related proteins; (iii) dimethomorph treatment increased reactive oxygen species and reduced the expression of genes related to the control of oxidative stress.

Phytophthora parasitica es un importante oomiceto que origina enfermedades en una variedad de plantas; el fungicida dimetomorf es específico contra oomicetos. El objetivo de este estudio fue utilizar la tecnología de RNA-seq para descubrir rápidamente el mecanismo por el que el dimetomorf actúa en el tratamiento de P. parasitica. Descubrimos que la expresión de 832 genes se modificaba significativamente tras el tratamiento con dimetomorf, incluyendo 365 genes que son sobrerregulados y 467 genes que son subrregulados. El análisis de enriquecimiento de ontología de genes (GO), análisis de enriquecimiento de las vías y pruebas de verificación permitieron extraer las conclusiones siguientes: 1) el tratamiento de P. parasitica con dimetomorf origina cambios en los niveles de expresión de los genes relacionados con la pared celular y su síntesis; 2) el tratamiento con dimetomorf origina una reducción de la permeabilidad de la membrana celular, así como cambios en la expresión de ciertas proteínas relacionadas con el transporte, y 3) el tratamiento con dimetomorf incrementó las especies reactivas del oxígeno y redujo la expresión de los genes relacionados con el control del estrés oxidativo.

Phytophthora/drug effects , RNA, Messenger/biosynthesis , Morpholines/pharmacology , Fungicides, Industrial/pharmacology , RNA-Seq , Phytophthora/genetics , Plant Diseases/parasitology , RNA, Messenger/genetics , Carrier Proteins/biosynthesis , Carrier Proteins/genetics , Cell Membrane Permeability/drug effects , Cell Membrane Permeability/genetics , Cell Wall/metabolism , Gene Expression Regulation/drug effects , Sequence Alignment , Reactive Oxygen Species , Oxidative Stress/genetics , beta-Glucans/analysis , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Gene Ontology
Biomédica (Bogotá) ; 39(supl.2): 26-31, ago. 2019. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1038825


Resumen Los pacientes con lepra lepromatosa que han recibido tratamiento durante años, usualmente requieren seguimiento con biopsias de piel para detectar lesiones persistentes o si la baciloscopia es positiva, incluso si los valores son menores que los iniciales. Se presenta el caso de una mujer de 48 años de edad con lepra lepromatosa de 15 años de evolución, índice bacilar de 4 en el extendido directo y en la biopsia, que recibió tratamiento con múltiples medicamentos durante 32 meses, aunque lo recomendado por la Organización Mundial de la Salud (OMS) es una duración de 12 meses. Se tomó una biopsia de piel para determinar si la enfermedad estaba activa. Se observó inflamación dérmica difusa con numerosas células gigantes de tipo cuerpo extraño y macrófagos vacuolados (células de Virchow). Estas células, CD68 positivas, contenían material granular ácido-alcohol resistente positivo con inmunohistoquímica para BCG. Se encontraron bacilos fragmentados y el índice bacilar fue de 2. Se interpretó como una forma residual de lepra lepromatosa y se concluyó que la paciente no requería prolongar el tratamiento con múltiples medicamentos. Este perfil histológico se ha observado en casos similares, pero sin datos clínicos estas biopsias representan un reto diagnóstico. La acumulación de lípidos en estas células gigantes se debe a la destrucción bacilar y a la fusión de macrófagos vacuolados. Se revisó el papel de los lípidos del bacilo y del huésped en la patogenia de la lepra lepromatosa. En estos casos, no es necesario extender los 12 meses de tratamiento con múltiples medicamentos recomendados por la OMS. En el seguimiento de los pacientes, se recomienda contar con los hallazgos clínicos, la baciloscopia, la biopsia anual de piel y los títulos IgM antiglucolípido fenólico.

Abstract Patients with lepromatous leprosy that have received treatment for many years usually get follow up biopsies for persistent skin lesions or positive bacilloscopy even if the values are lower than in the initial bacilloscopy. We report the case of a 48-year old woman with long-standing lepromatous leprosy of 15 years of evolution, with a bacterial index of 4 in the direct smear and the initial skin biopsy. The patient was treated with multidrug therapy for 32 months although the treatment recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO) is only for 12 months. A skin biopsy was taken to determine if there was an active disease. We observed a diffuse dermal inflammation with numerous foreign body giant cells and vacuolated macrophages (Virchow´s cells). These cells contained granular acid-fast material that was also positive with immunohistochemistry for BCG. There were fragmented bacilli and the BI was 2. These cells were also strongly positive for CD68. The biopsy was interpreted as a residual form of lepromatous leprosy that did not require further multidrug therapy. We have observed similar histological profiles in several cases. The lack of clinical data makes it a histological challenge. The accumulation of lipids in these giant cells is due to bacillary destruction and fusion of vacuolated macrophages. We discuss here the role of bacillary and host lipids in the pathogenesis of lepromatous leprosy. We concluded that there was no need to extend the 12-month multidrug therapy recommended by WHO. Clinical findings, bacilloscopy, annual skin biopsy, and anti-phenolic glycolipid-I IgM titers are recommended procedures for the follow-up of these patients.

Female , Humans , Middle Aged , Skin/pathology , Leprosy, Lepromatous/pathology , Giant Cells, Foreign-Body/pathology , Foam Cells/pathology , Skin/microbiology , Vacuoles , Biopsy , Antigens, Differentiation, Myelomonocytic/analysis , Leprosy, Lepromatous/drug therapy , Antigens, CD/analysis , Giant Cells, Foreign-Body/microbiology , Giant Cells, Foreign-Body/chemistry , Cell Wall/chemistry , Drug Therapy, Combination , Host-Pathogen Interactions , Foam Cells/microbiology , Foam Cells/chemistry , Leprostatic Agents/therapeutic use , Lipids/analysis , Mycobacterium leprae/isolation & purification , Mycobacterium leprae/chemistry
Biosci. j. (Online) ; 35(4): 1022-1032, july/aug. 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1048810


This study evaluated the effects of the sugarcane borer Diatraea saccharalis (Fabricius, 1794) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) on cultivars of sweet and biomass sorghum for the selection of resistant cultivars. The present work consisted of two trials, with natural pest infestation. In the first one, 10 sweet sorghum cultivars were analyzed for the following variables: plant height, number of healthy and damaged internodes, gallery position and size, stem infestation level and soluble solids content (°Brix). In the second trial, it was analyzed 16 genotypes of high biomass sorghum, with the same variables above mentioned, in addition to the lignin, cellulose and hemicellulose contents. Among sweet sorghum genotypes evaluated, the genotype CMSXS647 stood out due to the traits: plant height, infestation level, gallery size and soluble solids content. Among the sorghum genotypes evaluated, CMSXS7030, CMSXS7012 and CMSXS7028 presented ideal characteristics for infestation level, plant height and number of lignocellulosic compounds. Such information, in addition to supporting the bioenergy sorghum breeding program, will assist in integrated pest management for sorghum cultivation.

Foram estudados os efeitos causados pela broca-do-colmo Diatraea saccharalis (Fabricius, 1794) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), em cultivares de sorgo sacarino e biomassa visando seleção de cultivares resistentes à praga. O presente trabalho foi constituído de dois ensaios, com infestação natural da praga. No primeiro, 10 cultivares de sorgo sacarino foram analisadas quanto às seguintes variáveis: altura das plantas, quantidade de internódios sadios e com injúrias, posição e tamanho da galeria, intensidade de infestação de colmos e teor de sólidos solúveis (°Brix). No segundo ensaio, foram analisados 16 genótipos de sorgo biomassa, com as mesmas variáveis supracitadas, além dos teores de lignina, celulose e hemicelulose. Entre os genótipos de sorgo sacarino avaliados, o genótipo CMSXS647 foi o que se destacou em função das características: altura de plantas, intensidade de infestação, tamanho de galerias e teor de sólidos solúveis. Entre os genótipos de sorgo biomassa avaliados: CMSXS7030, CMSXS7012 e CMSXS7028 apresentaram características ideais para intensidade de infestação, altura de plantas e quantidade de compostos lignocelulósico. Tais informações, além de prover o programa de melhoramento de sorgo energia podem ajudar o programa de MIP para a cultura do sorgo, uma vez que o produtor conhece a suscetibilidade dos materiais escolhidos.

Cell Wall , Biomass , Sorghum , Lepidoptera
Braz. arch. biol. technol ; 62: e19180120, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1001422


Abstract Root-knot nematodes are a group of endoparasites species that induce the formation of giant cells in the hosts, by which they guarantee their feeding and development. Meloidogyne species infect over 2000 plant species, and are highly destructive, causing damage to many crops around the world. M. enterolobii is considered the most aggressive species in tropical regions, such as Africa and South America. Phytonematodes are able to penetrate and migrate within plant tissues, establishing a sophisticated interaction with their hosts through parasitism factors, which include a series of cell wall degradation enzymes and plant cell modification. Among the parasitism factors documented in the M. enterolobii species, cellulose binding protein (CBP), a nematode excretion protein that appears to be associated with the breakdown of cellulose present in the plant cell wall. In silico analysis can be of great importance for the identification, structural and functional characterization of genomic sequences, besides making possible the prediction of structures and functions of proteins. The present work characterized 12 sequences of the CBP protein of nematodes of the genus Meloidogyne present in genomic databases. The results showed that all CBP sequences had signal peptide and that, after their removal, they had an isoelectric point that characterized them as unstable in an acid medium. The values of the average hydrophilicity demonstrated the hydrophilic character of the analyzed sequences. Phylogenetic analyzes were also consistent with the taxonomic classification of the nematode species of this study. Five motifs were identified, which are present in all sequences analyzed. These results may provide theoretical grounds for future studies of plant resistance to nematode infection.

Parasitic Diseases , Computer Simulation , Cell Wall , Computational Biology/methods , Nematoda
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 1059-1070, 2019.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-771822


The autolysis of brewer's yeast seriously affects the quality of beer and the quality of yeast is considered as one of the key factors in beer brewing. Previous studies on brewer's yeast autolysis showed that RLM1 gene, an important transcription factor in cell integrity pathway, is closely related to the autolysis of yeast. In this study, RLM1 was knocked out and overexpressed in a haploid brewer's yeast. RLM1 disruption resulted in poor anti-autolysis performance of yeast, whereas overexpression of RLM1 contributed to the anti-autolytic ability of yeast. In addition, RLM1 gene knockout affected the osmotic stress resistance, cell wall damage resistance, nitrogen starvation resistance and temperature tolerance of yeast strain. The transcriptional level of GAS1 involved in cell wall assembly and DNA damage response was regulated along with the expression of RLM1, whereas other genes in CWI pathway did not show apparent regularity. RLM1 might mainly affect the expression of GAS1 so as to improve the stress resistance of lager yeast in harsh environment. The result from this study help further understand the mechanism of yeast autolysis and lay a foundation for breeding brewer's yeast strain with better anti-autolytic ability.

Autolysis , Beer , Cell Wall , Humans , MADS Domain Proteins , Saccharomyces cerevisiae , Saccharomyces cerevisiae Proteins
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 1214-1221, 2019.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-771807


Yeast cell wall plays an important role in the establishment and maintenance of cell morphology upon the cell wall stress. The cell wall of yeast consists of β-glucans, mannoproteins and chitin. The composition and structure remodel due to cell wall stress. Brewer's yeast cell wall exhibits stress response during long-term acclimation in order to adapt to environmental changes. This paper reviews the composition and structure of yeast cell wall and the molecular mechanisms of cell wall remodeling and signal pathway regulation.

Cell Wall , Chitin , Saccharomyces cerevisiae
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-764439


PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the antimicrobial effects of a toothbrush with light-emitting diodes (LEDs) on periodontitis-associated dental biofilm attached to a zirconia surface by static and dynamic methods. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Zirconia disks (12 mm diameter, 2.5 mm thickness) were inserted into a 24-well plate (static method) or inside a Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) biofilm reactor (dynamic method) to form dental biofilms using Streptococcus gordonii and Fusobacterium nucleatum. The disks with biofilm were subdivided into five treatment groups-control, commercial photodynamic therapy (PDT), toothbrush alone (B), brush with LED (BL), and brush with LED+erythrosine (BLE). After treatment, the disks were agitated to detach the bacteria, and the resulting solutions were spread directly on selective agar. The number of viable bacteria and percentage of bacterial reduction were determined from colony counts. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was performed to visualize alterations in bacterial morphology. RESULTS: No significant difference in biofilm formation was observed between dynamic and static methods. A significant difference was observed in the number of viable bacteria between the control and all experimental groups (P < 0.05). The percentage of bacterial reduction in the BLE group was significantly higher than in the other treated groups (P < 0.05). SEM revealed damaged bacterial cell walls in the PDT, BL, and BLE groups, but intact cell walls in the control and B groups. CONCLUSION: The findings suggest that an LED toothbrush with erythrosine is more effective than other treatments in reducing the viability of periodontitis-associated bacteria attached to zirconia in vitro.

Agar , Bacteria , Biofilms , Cell Wall , Dihydroergotamine , Erythrosine , Fusobacterium nucleatum , In Vitro Techniques , Microscopy, Electron, Scanning , Photochemotherapy , Streptococcus gordonii , Toothbrushing
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 52: e20180254, 2019. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-985162


Abstract INTRODUCTION: Antimicrobial resistance has been reported in the drugs used for the treatment of typhoid fever. The immunomodulatory substance β-glucan can be used as an alternative therapy as it potentiates host immunity. The aims of this study are to observe the effect of Candida albicans cell wall (CCW) extract towards host immunity (TCD8+ and TCD4+ cells in spleen, intestinal sIgA) and its capacity to kill Salmonella in the intestine and liver of typhoid fever mice models. METHODS: Typhoid fever mice models were created by infecting mice with S. Typhimurium orally. Mice were divided into four groups: the Non-Infected, Infected, CCW (infected mice treated with 300 µg CCW extract/mouse once a day), and Ciprofloxacin groups (infected mice treated with 15 mg/kg BW ciprofloxacin twice a day). RESULTS: Secretory IgA (sIgA) concentrations of mice in the CCW group remained unchanged. However, their TCD4+ and TCD8+ cells increased substantially compared to those in the Non-Infected group. In the Ciprofloxacin group, sIgA concentrations increased markedly compared to those in the Non-Infected and CCW groups; TCD4+ and TCD8+ cells also increased significantly compared to those in the Infected Group, but not significant compared to those in the CCW group. Colonization of S. Typhimurium in the intestine and liver decreased significantly in the CCW and Ciprofloxacin groups compared to that in the Infected group, with the lowest reduction being found in the Ciprofloxacin group. CONCLUSIONS The inhibition of S. Typhimurium colonization by CCW is associated with the increase in TCD4+ and TCD8+ cells.

Animals , Male , Salmonella typhimurium/drug effects , Typhoid Fever/microbiology , Candida albicans/chemistry , beta-Glucans/pharmacology , Immunoglobulin A, Secretory , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/microbiology , Ciprofloxacin , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Cell Wall , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/microbiology , Disease Models, Animal , Immunity, Cellular/immunology , Intestines/microbiology , Liver/microbiology , Mice , Mice, Inbred BALB C
São Paulo; s.n; s.n; 2019. 327 p. tab, graf.
Thesis in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1361859


ietary fiber (DF) consumption is related with several healthy benefits such as the decreasing risk of colon cancer development. The DF is not digested by the digestive enzymes and reach to colon where is fermented by the colonic microbiota. The fermentation process releases metabolites as short chain fatty acids (SCFA) such as butyrate, propionate and acetate. Besides the fermentation process, the DF can directly interact with intestinal epithelial cells inducing mechanism that can also be related with the associated DF consumption benefits. The lack of information regarding DF and colon cancer are due to the complexity of both the cancer and the DF structure. The papayas DF are derived from the fruit cell wall, and they are probably naturally modified during ripening through a massive polysaccharide hydrolysis, because papayas show a very fast pulp softening. Due to the lack of information about DF and their beneficial effects to human health as well as the possibility of the natural papaya ripening to modifying the DF presented in the fruit pulp, the present thesis had as the primary objectives: 1) to evaluate how the cell-wall degrading enzymes affect the fruit cell wall solubilization and molecular weight; 2) to investigate the direct effects of the papaya pectin derived from unripe to ripe papayas in cancer cell lines, in galectin-3 interaction and in HEK cells expressing pattern recognition receptors (PRR); 3) to evaluate the human colonic in vitro fermentation using DF from unripe and ripe papayas as substrates; 4) to conduct an in vivo experiment using rats with pre-neoplastic colon lesions while receiving a diet with DF from unripe and ripe papayas. The endopolygalacturonases were the main enzymes acting on the solubilizing papaya cell wall pectin affecting both the papaya firmness and pectin structure. Overall, the papayas DF showed a ripening dependent structureeffects. In the cancer cell lines experiments, the ripe papayas pectin showed a more pronounced effects in inducing cancer cell death, inhibiting cancer cells migration and aggregation, activating PRR as toll-like receptors and inhibiting the pro-metastatic protein galectin-3. The DF from papayas also showed different aspects in colonic in vitro fermentation regarding the DF utilization by the bacteria and the bacteria abundance profile. Lastly, the animals receiving the diet with the DF from ripe papayas had less aberrant crypt foci in colon than the animals that received the DF from unripe papayas or cellulose (AIN-93G DF). Therefore, the study of papaya DF was carried out both during papaya ripening and its biological effects in vitro and in vivo, generating unprecedented results relating the endogenous biochemical changes of the fruits during maturation with the possible beneficial effects of their ingestion for health human

O consumo de fibras alimentares (FA) está relacionado com vários benefícios à saúde como a diminuição no risco do desenvolvimento de câncer de cólon. A FA não é digerida pelas enzimas digestivas do trato gastrointestinal sendo fermentada pela microbiota intestinal do cólon. Como subproduto do processo de fermentação há a liberação de ácidos graxos de cadeia curta (SCFA) - como o butirato, o propionato e o acetato. Além do processo de fermentação, a FA pode interagir diretamente com as células epiteliais do intestino, induzindo mecanismos que também podem estar relacionados com os benefícios associados ao consumo de FA. A falta de informação sobre a FA e o câncer de cólon é, em partes, devido à complexidade de ambos, tanto do câncer quanto da estrutura da FA. As FA do mamão papaia são derivadas da parede celular da fruta apresentando diferentes estruturas dependendo do ponto de amadurecimento do fruto. Esse fato ocorre, pois, durante o amadurecimento do mamão papaia, existe uma extensa hidrólise dos polissacarídeos presentes na parede celular, diminuindo rapidamente a firmeza da polpa do fruto. Devido à falta de informações sobre FA e seus efeitos benéficos à saúde humana que são dependentes da sua estrutura, bem como a possibilidade do amadurecimento do mamão papaia naturalmente modificar as FA presentes na polpa dos frutos, a presente tese teve como principais objetivos: 1) avaliar como as enzimas que degradam a parede celular do mamão papaia afetam a solubilização e o peso molecular da parede celular do fruto; 2) investigar os efeitos diretos da pectina derivada de mamões verdes e maduros em linhagens de células de câncer, na interação com a galectina-3, e em células do tipo HEK que expressam receptores de reconhecimento de padrões (RRP); 3) avaliar a fermentação colônica humana in vitro utilizando as FA de mamões verdes e maduros; 4) avaliar em ratos com lesões pré-neoplásicas no cólon o efeito do consumo de ração com ou sem FA de mamões papaias verdes e maduros. As endopoligalacturonases foram relacionadas como as principais enzimas que atuam solubilizando a pectina da parede celular do mamão, afetando tanto a firmeza da polpa do fruto quanto a solubilização da pectina durante o amadurecimento. De modo geral, as FA dos mamões exerceram um efeito estruturadependente de acordo com a maturação do fruto. Nos experimentos utilizando linhagens de células de câncer, a pectina do mamão papaia maduro apresentou efeitos mais pronunciados na indução da morte e na inibição da migração e da agregação das células, bem como ativando os RRP, como por exemplo, os receptores do tipo toll-like, além de inibir a proteína pró-metastática galectina-3. As FA dos mamões também apresentaram diferentes resultados na fermentação colônica in vitro quanto à utilização das FA pelas bactérias do intestino, e também no perfil de crescimento dessas bactérias. Por fim, os animais que receberam a dieta com as FA dos mamões maduros apresentaram menor incidência de focos de criptas aberrantes do que os animais que receberam as FA provenientes de mamões verdes ou de celulose (FA da ração AIN-93G). Portanto, o estudo das FA dos mamões foi efetuado tanto durante o amadurecimento dos mamões quanto dos seus efeitos biológicos in vitro e in vivo, tendo gerado resultados inéditos relacionando as alterações bioquímicas endógenas dos frutos durante o amadurecimento com os possíveis efeitos benéficos da sua ingestão para a saúde humana

Animals , Male , Female , Rats , Dietary Fiber/adverse effects , Colonic Neoplasms/pathology , Carica/metabolism , Dietary Fiber/administration & dosage , Cell Wall/classification , Eating , Fermentation
Electron. j. biotechnol ; 35: 39-47, sept. 2018. graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1047768


Background: Emergence of antibiotic resistance among pathogenic and food spoilage bacteria such as Staphylococcus aureus, Micrococcus luteus, Streptococcus pyogenes, Streptococcus sanguinis, Streptococcus mutans, Bacillus cereus, and Listeria monocytogenes triggered the search for alternative antimicrobials. An investigation aimed at purifying, characterizing, elucidating the mode of action, and enhancing the production of salivaricin from Lactobacillus salivarius of human gut origin was conducted. Results: Salivaricin mmaye1 is a novel bacteriocin purified from L. salivarius isolated from human feces. It is potent at micromolar concentrations and has a molecular weight of 1221.074 Da as determined by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry. It has a broad spectrum of antibacterial activity. Salivaricin mmaye1 showed high thermal and chemical stability and moderate pH stability. The proteinaceous nature of salivaricin mmaye1 was revealed by the complete loss of activity after treatment with pepsin, trypsin, α-chymotrypsin, protease, and proteinase. Salivaricin mmaye1 is cell wall associated, and adsorption­desorption of the bacteriocin from the cell wall of the producer by pH modification proved successful. It exhibited a bactericidal mode of action mediated by pore formation. Its biosynthesis is regulated by a quorum sensing mechanism. Enhanced production of salivaricin mmaye1 was achieved in a newly developed growth medium. Conclusions: A novel, cell wall adhering, highly potent bacteriocin with a broad spectrum of inhibitory activity, membrane-permeabilizing ability, and enhanced production in a newly constituted medium has been isolated. It has a quorum sensing regulatory system and possesses interesting physicochemical characteristics favoring its future use in food biopreservation. These findings pave the way for future evaluation of its medical and food applications.

Humans , Bacteriocins/biosynthesis , Bacteriocins/chemistry , Ligilactobacillus salivarius/metabolism , Bacteria/growth & development , Bacteriocins/isolation & purification , Drug Resistance, Microbial , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Cell Wall , Quorum Sensing , Protein Stability , Feces/microbiology , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration , Intestines/microbiology , Anti-Bacterial Agents/chemistry
Electron. j. biotechnol ; 34: 29-36, july. 2018. ilus, tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1045993


Background: Recombinant DNA technology enables us to produce proteins with desired properties and insubstantial amount for industrial applications. Endo-1, 4-ß-glucanases (Egl) is one of the major enzyme involved in degradation of cellulose, an important component of plant cell wall. The present study was aimed at enhancing the production of endo-1, 4-ß-glucanases (Egl) of Bacillus halodurans in Escherichia coli. Results: A putative Egl gene of Bacillus Halodurans was expressed in E. coli by cloning in pET 22b (+). On induction with isopropyl-b-D-1-thiogalactopyranoside, the enzyme expression reached upto ~20% of the cell protein producing 29.2 mg/liter culture. An increase in cell density to 12 in auto-inducing LB medium (absorbance at 600 nm) enhanced ß-glucanase production up to 5.4 fold. The molecular mass of the enzyme was determined to be 39 KDa, which is nearly the same as the calculated value. Protein sequence was analyzed by CDD, Pfam, I TASSER, COACH, PROCHECK Servers and putative amino acids involved in the formation of catalytic, substrate and metal binding domains were identified. Phylogenetic analysis of the ß-glucanases of B. halodurans was performed and position of Egl among other members of the genus Bacillus producing endo-glucanases was determined. Temperature and pH optima of the enzyme were found to be 60°C and 8.0, respectively, under the assay conditions. Conclusion: Production of endo-1, 4 ß-glucanase enzymes from B. halodurans increased several folds when cloned in pET vector and expressed in E. coli. To our knowledge, this is the first report of high-level expression and characterization of an endo-1, 4 ß-glucanases from B. halodurans.

Bacillus/enzymology , Cellulases/biosynthesis , Temperature , Enzyme Stability , Gene Expression , Cell Wall/enzymology , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Cloning, Molecular , Cellulases/isolation & purification , Cellulases/metabolism , Escherichia coli/metabolism , Plant Cells/enzymology , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration , Hydrolysis
Braz. j. microbiol ; 49(2): 407-413, Apr.-June 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-889247


Abstract Fungal infections have become a concern for health professionals, and the emergence of resistant strains has been reported for all known classes of antifungal drugs. Among the fungi causing disease, we highlight those that belong to the genus Aspergillus. For these reasons, the search for new antifungals is important. This study examines the effects of a coumarin derivative, 4-acetatecoumarin (Cou-UMB16) both alone and together with antifungal drugs, and its mode of action against Aspergillus spp. Cou-UMB16 was tested to evaluate its effects on mycelia growth, and germination of Aspergillus spp. fungal conidia. We investigated its possible action on cell walls, on the cell membrane, and also the capacity of this coumarin derivative to enhance the activity of antifungal drugs. Our results suggest that Cou-UMB16 inhibits Aspergillus spp. virulence factors (mycelia growth and germination of conidia) and affects the structure of the fungal cell wall. When applying Cou-UMB16 in combination with azoles, both synergistic and additive effects were observed. This study concludes that Cou-UMB16 inhibits mycelial growth and spore germination, and that the activity is due to its action on the fungal cell wall, and that Cou-UMB16 could act as an antifungal modifier.

Antifungal Agents/isolation & purification , Antifungal Agents/pharmacology , Aspergillus/drug effects , Coumarins/isolation & purification , Coumarins/pharmacology , Drug Synergism , Aspergillus/growth & development , Azoles/pharmacology , Cell Membrane/drug effects , Cell Wall/drug effects , Hyphae/drug effects , Hyphae/growth & development , Spores, Fungal/drug effects , Spores, Fungal/growth & development
Rev. Eugenio Espejo ; 12(1): 17-30, Jun.- 2018.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-980670


En Schizosaccharomyces pombe se han descrito tres cascadas de MAPKs: la de respuesta feromonas, con Spk1p como MAP kinasa; la de respuesta a estrés en la que Sty1p/Spc1p es la MAPK y la de mantenimiento de la integridad celular liderada por Pmk1p/Spm1p. La eliminación de cualquiera de las kinasas de la ruta de integridad provoca alteraciones morfo-lógicas y células multitabicadas en condiciones de estrés. Todos estos defectos sugieren una función en homeostasis iónica y en la biosíntesis de la pared celular por lo que nos propone-mos estudiar el papel de la ruta de señalización de MAPK Pmk1p en el mantenimiento de la integridad celular en S.pombe. En este trabajo el organismo mayoritariamente utilizado ha sido la levadura de fisión S. pombe y para realizar los trabajos de clonación molecular se utili-zaron también diferentes estirpes de Escherichia coli. Se emplearon diversas técnicas de clonación molecular, métodos genéticos, Western Blot y determinación de la actividad de Pmk1p bajo condiciones de estrés. Las conclusiones más importantes fueron: que los "senso-res" "Mtl2p y Wsc1p" señalizan hacia Rho1p, pero no son componentes "auténticos" de la cascada, y sus mutantes no presentan el fenotipo VIC (viable en presencia de inmunosupresor y de iones cloruro), característico de los mutantes en los componentes de la cascada. Mtl2p y Wsc1p no desempeñan un papel importante en la señalización en respuesta a estrés osmótico y daño en la pared celular a través de la ruta de integridad celular de Pmk1p.

Three cascades of MAPKs have been described about the Schizosaccharomyces pombe such as: the pheromone response with Spk1p as MAP kinase, the stress response in which Sty1p/Spc1p is MAPK, and the maintenance of cell integrity led by Pmk1p/Spm1p. The elimination of any of the kinases of the integrity path causes morphological alterations and multitabicated cells under stress conditions; suggesting a role in ionic homeostasis and cell wall biosynthesis. So, it was proposed to study the role of the MAPK Pmk1p signaling pathway in the maintenance of cell integrity in S.pombe. The organism mainly used was the fission yeast S. pombe and different molecular strains of Escherichia coli were used to carry out the molecular cloning work. Different techniques of molecular cloning, genetic methods, Western Blot and determination of the activity of Pmk1p under stress conditions were used. The most important conclusions were that the "sensors" "Mtl2p and Wsc1p" signal towards Rho1p but they are not "authentic" components of the cascade, and their mutants do not present the Vic phenotype (viable in the presence of immunosuppressant and chloride ion), characteristic of the mutants in the components of the cascade. Mtl2p and Wsc1p do not play an important role in signaling in response to osmotic stress and cell wall damage through the cellular integrity pathway of Pmk1p.

Humans , Schizosaccharomyces , Biomarkers , Cell Wall
An. acad. bras. ciênc ; 90(1): 509-519, Mar. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-886905


ABSTRACT Saccharum spontaneum has been used for the development of energy cane a crop aimed to be used for the production of second-generation ethanol, or lignocellulosic ethanol. Lignin is a main challenge in the conversion of cell wall sugars into ethanol. In our studies to isolate the genes the lignin biosynthesis in S. spontaneum we have had great difficulty in RT-PCR reactions. Thus, we evaluated the effectiveness of different additives in the amplification of these genes. While COMT and CCoAOMT genes did not need any additives for other genes there was no amplification (HCT, F5H, 4CL and CCR) or the yield was very low (CAD and C4H). The application of supplementary cDNA was enough to overcome the non-specificity and low yield for C4H and C3H, while the addition of 0.04% BSA + 2% formamide was effective to amplify 4CL, CCR, F5H and CCR. HCT was amplified only by addition of 0.04% BSA + 2% formamide + 0.1 M trehalose and amplification of PAL was possible with addition of 2% of DMSO. Besides optimization of expression assays, the results show that additives can act independently or synergistically.

Gene Expression Regulation, Plant/genetics , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods , Nucleic Acid Amplification Techniques/methods , Saccharum/genetics , Cell Wall/genetics , DNA Primers , Ethanol , Lignin/biosynthesis , Lignin/genetics , Methyltransferases/genetics
Biol. Res ; 51: 49, 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1011393


BACKGROUND: Antarctic bryophytes (mosses and liverworts) are resilient to physiologically extreme environmental conditions including elevated levels of ultraviolet (UV) radiation due to depletion of stratospheric ozone. Many Antarctic bryophytes synthesise UV-B-absorbing compounds (UVAC) that are localised in their cells and cell walls, a location that is rarely investigated for UVAC in plants. This study compares the concentrations and localisation of intracellular and cell wall UVAC in Antarctic Ceratodon purpureus, Bryum pseudotriquetrum and Schistidium antarctici from the Windmill Islands, East Antarctica. RESULTS: Multiple stresses, including desiccation and naturally high UV and visible light, seemed to enhance the incorporation of total UVAC including red pigments in the cell walls of all three Antarctic species analysed. The red growth form of C. purpureus had significantly higher levels of cell wall bound and lower intracellular UVAC concentrations than its nearby green form. Microscopic and spectroscopic analyses showed that the red colouration in this species was associated with the cell wall and that these red cell walls contained less pectin and phenolic esters than the green form. All three moss species showed a natural increase in cell wall UVAC content during the growing season and a decline in these compounds in new tissue grown under less stressful conditions in the laboratory. CONCLUSIONS: UVAC and red pigments are tightly bound to the cell wall and likely have a long-term protective role in Antarctic bryophytes. Although the identity of these red pigments remains unknown, our study demonstrates the importance of investigating cell wall UVAC in plants and contributes to our current understanding of UV-protective strategies employed by particular Antarctic bryophytes. Studies such as these provide clues to how these plants survive in such extreme habitats and are helpful in predicting future survival of the species studied.

Pigments, Biological/radiation effects , Pigments, Biological/metabolism , Ultraviolet Rays , Cell Wall/radiation effects , Cell Wall/metabolism , Bryophyta/radiation effects , Bryophyta/metabolism , Seasons , Time Factors , Pigmentation/radiation effects , Analysis of Variance , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Spectroscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared/methods , Plant Leaves/radiation effects , Plant Leaves/metabolism , Microscopy, Confocal , Bryophyta/cytology , Antarctic Regions
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-741594


Helminthostachys zeylanica is a rare plant grows in lightly shaded areas. The fern was traditionally used as antipyretic and antiphlogistic agents. This study was aimed to evaluate the antibacterial potential of H. zeylanica on foodborne Bacillus cereus. The chemical composition of its ethanolic extract was also determined. The plant samples were collected at Kampung Kebun Relong, Kedah, Malaysia. The ethanolic extract showed significant inhibitory activity on B. cereus with a sizeable clear zone detected on disc diffusion assay. On broth microdilution assay, the MIC of the extract on B. cereus was 6.25 mg/ml and the MBC was 12.5 mg/ml. The inhibitory activity of the extract on B. cereus was bactericidal. In the growth dynamic study, the antibacterial efficacy of the extract was concentration dependent, where a lower colony forming unit count was obtained with increased extract concentration. The SEM micrograph of extract treated B. cereus cells showed invaginations of cell wall. The bacterial cell structure collapsed after 24 h exposure to the extract. The GCMS analysis of the extract showed that the major constituents of the extract were phenol (36.26%) and quercetin (29.70%). This study is important as it shows the potential use of H. zeylanica as an effective agent to control B. cereus related infections.

Bacillus cereus , Bacillus , Cell Wall , Diffusion , Ethanol , Ferns , Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry , Malaysia , Phenol , Plants , Quercetin , Stem Cells
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-740577


OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to investigate the combined effects of Galla chinensis extract (GCE) and calcium (CA) on enamel remineralization. The antibacterial effect of G. chinensis on Streptococcus mutans biofilm was also evaluated by examining the bacterial growth, acidogenesis, and morphology of the biofilm in vitro. METHODS: S. mutans biofilm was formed on bovine enamel specimens over a 72-h period and treated for 10 min with 1.0 mol CA, 4,000 ppm aqueous solution of GCE, or a combination of the two (GCE+CA). The enamel specimens were analyzed for enamel surface microhardness after remineralization. We tested the anti-cariogenic effects of GCE based on the inhibition of acid production, antibacterial activity, and morphological changes in S. mutans. The differences between the groups and antibacterial effects were analyzed using one-way analysis of variance. RESULTS: GCE+CA group showed the highest efficacy in enhancing remineralization. The GCE group showed the highest antibacterial activity against S. mutans biofilm. Although the GCE+CA group showed significant antibacterial activity, it was less than that of the GCE group (P < 0.05). Both GCE and GCE+CA groups maintained a pH of approximately 7.0 for 1 h whereas the pH of the control group decreased rapidly from pH 7.3 to pH 6.1. SEM imaging revealed that S. mutans treated with GCE and GCE+CA showed irregular cell wall structure and showed fewer cells in the chain than the typical long chains observed in the control group. CONCLUSIONS: This study found that natural G. chinensis significantly enhances enamel remineralization, and exerts synergistic effects with calcium. It also exerts strong bactericidal activity and inhibits acid production and changes in the microstructure of S. mutans biofilm.

Anti-Bacterial Agents , Biofilms , Calcium , Cell Wall , Dental Enamel , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration , In Vitro Techniques , Streptococcus mutans , Streptococcus