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1.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-811071

ABSTRACT

Since the airways are constantly exposed to various pathogens and foreign antigens, various kinds of cells in the airways—including structural cells and immune cells—interact to form a precise defense system against pathogens and antigens that involve both innate immunity and acquired immunity. Accumulating evidence suggests that innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) play critical roles in the maintenance of tissue homeostasis, defense against pathogens and the pathogenesis of inflammatory diseases, especially at body surface mucosal sites such as the airways. ILCs are activated mainly by cytokines, lipid mediators and neuropeptides that are produced by surrounding cells, and they produce large amounts of cytokines that result in inflammation. In addition, ILCs can change their phenotype in response to stimuli from surrounding cells, which enables them to respond promptly to microenvironmental changes. ILCs exhibit substantial heterogeneity, with different phenotypes and functions depending on the organ and type of inflammation, presumably because of differences in microenvironments. Thus, ILCs may be a sensitive detector of microenvironmental changes, and analysis of their phenotype and function at local sites may enable us to better understand the microenvironment in airway diseases. In this review, we aimed to identify molecules that either positively or negatively influence the function and/or plasticity of ILCs and the sources of the molecules in the airways in order to examine the pathophysiology of airway inflammatory diseases and facilitate the issues to be solved.


Subject(s)
Adaptive Immunity , Cellular Microenvironment , Cytokines , Homeostasis , Immunity, Innate , Inflammation , Lymphocytes , Neuropeptides , Phenotype , Plastics , Population Characteristics , Respiratory Tract Diseases
2.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-826347

ABSTRACT

Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis(IPF)is a progressive lung disease characterized by pulmonary interstitial fibrosis and pulmonary dysfunction.Cell microenvironment is mainly composed of cell components,extracellular matrix,extracellular regulators,and liquid substances.Changes in microenvironment components are closely related to IPF.This article elaborates the roles of cell microenvironments including cytokines,mesenchymal cells,extracellular matrix,and unfolded proteins in the pathogenesis of IPF.


Subject(s)
Cellular Microenvironment , Extracellular Matrix , Humans , Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis , Lung
3.
Chinese Journal of Traumatology ; (6): 314-318, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879643

ABSTRACT

In this paper, we review the results of previous studies and summarize the effects of various factors on the regulation of bone metabolism in traumatic bone infections. Infection-related bone destruction incorporates pathogens and iatrogenic factors in the process of bone resorption dominated by the skeletal and immune systems. The development of bone immunology has established a bridge of communication between the skeletal system and the immune system. Exploring the effects of pathogens, skeletal systems, immune systems, and antibacterials on bone repair in infectious conditions can help improve the treatment of these diseases.


Subject(s)
Anti-Bacterial Agents/administration & dosage , Bone and Bones/metabolism , Cellular Microenvironment , Humans , Immune System/immunology , Lymphocyte Subsets/immunology , Osteitis/microbiology , Osteoblasts/physiology , Osteoclasts/physiology , Staphylococcal Infections
4.
Neuroscience Bulletin ; (6): 551-560, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-775461

ABSTRACT

Cerebral pericytes are perivascular cells that stabilize blood vessels. Little is known about the plasticity of pericytes in the adult brain in vivo. Recently, using state-of-the-art technologies, including two-photon microscopy in combination with sophisticated Cre/loxP in vivo tracing techniques, a novel role of pericytes was revealed in vascular remodeling in the adult brain. Strikingly, after pericyte ablation, neighboring pericytes expand their processes and prevent vascular dilatation. This new knowledge provides insights into pericyte plasticity in the adult brain.


Subject(s)
Animals , Brain , Physiology , Brain Diseases , Capillaries , Physiology , Cellular Microenvironment , Diabetic Retinopathy , Endothelial Cells , Physiology , Humans , Pericytes , Physiology , Vascular Remodeling
5.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-739914

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: The potency of tissue resident stem cells is regulated primarily by inputs from the local microenvironment. Isolation of stem cells through enzymatic digestion of tissue may affect epigenetic regulation of cell fate and performance. Here we employ a non-enzymatic method to harvest and investigate tissue resident stem cells from the adult porcine pulmonary valve. METHODS AND RESULTS: The presence of c-Kit+ stem cells within the valve tissue was confirmed by immunohistochemistry. An in vitro culture of minced valve leaflets was developed under the standard conditions (37°C with 5% CO2). The viability of the cellular outgrowths was evaluated over the subsequent 12 weeks. Under this culture condition, we identified a population of non-adherent c-Kit+ cells and multiple cellular structures mimicking the phenotype of embryonic stem cells at different stages of development. Formation of multinucleated cells through cell fusion provided an active niche area for homing and interaction of the non-adherent c-Kit+ cells. Expression of pluripotency markers Oct-4 and Nanog was detected in the newly formed multinucleated cells but not in mature colonies. Partial cell fusion was shown by fluorescent live-cell tracking, which confirmed intercellular molecular exchange between donor and recipient cells, resulting in altered cytoplasmic protein expression by the recipient cell. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest a role for the microenvironment in decrypting the potential of the valve somatic stem cells in vitro. In addition, our data provide evidence for cell fusion, which may play a critical role in reversing somatic cell fate and spontaneous cellular reprogramming.


Subject(s)
Adult , Cell Fusion , Cellular Microenvironment , Cellular Reprogramming , Cellular Structures , Cytoplasm , Digestion , Embryonic Stem Cells , Epigenomics , Heart Valves , Humans , Immunohistochemistry , In Vitro Techniques , Methods , Phenotype , Pulmonary Valve , Stem Cells , Tissue Donors
6.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-717546

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Polymeric hydrogels are extensively used as promising biomaterials in a broad range of biomedical applications, including tissue engineering, regenerative medicine, and drug delivery. These materials have advantages such as structural similarity to the native extracellular matrix (ECM), multi-tunable physicochemical and biological properties, and biocompatibility. METHODS: In situ forming hydrogels show a phase transition from a solution to a gel state through various physical and chemical cross-linking reactions. These advanced hydrogel materials have been widely used for tissue regenerative medicine because of the ease of encapsulating therapeutic agents, such as cells, drugs, proteins, and genes. RESULTS: With advances in biomaterials engineering, these hydrogel materials have been utilized as either artificial cellular microenvironments to create engineered tissue constructs or as bioactive acellular matrices to stimulate the native ECM for enhanced tissue regeneration and restoration. CONCLUSION: In this review, we discuss the use of in situ cross-linkable hydrogels in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine applications. In particular, we focus on emerging technologies as a powerful therapeutic tool for tissue regenerative medicine applications.


Subject(s)
Biocompatible Materials , Cellular Microenvironment , Extracellular Matrix , Hydrogels , Hydrogels , Phase Transition , Polymers , Regeneration , Regenerative Medicine , Tissue Engineering
7.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-360105

ABSTRACT

Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is a malignant clonal disease, its treatment methods include chemotherapy, hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, immunotherapy and molecular targeted therapy. Clinically, ALL patients need to get complete remission through chemotherapy, and then choose the other treatment according to the patient's condition. But the drug resistance has been a biggest obstacle in treatment of ALL. There are many research reports about drug-resistant of ALL at present. In this review, the classic drug resistance mechanisms, such as membrane transporter, gene modifications and some newly finding mechanisms including such as bone marrow microenvironment and Micro RNA and so on are summarized.


Subject(s)
Bone Marrow , Physiology , Cellular Microenvironment , Drug Resistance, Neoplasm , Humans , Membrane Transport Proteins , Physiology , MicroRNAs , Genetics , Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma , Drug Therapy
8.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-360099

ABSTRACT

Myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) are a group of bone marrow failure diseases. The bone marrow microenvironment consists of bone marrow stromal cells (BMSC), growth factors and cytokines. The BMSC supporting haemopoiesis include mesenchymal stem cells (MSC), osteoblasts, endothelial cells and macrophages, but the adipocytes play a role in the suppression of hematopoiesis. Recently more and more researches indicate that the abnormality of bone marrow microenvironment involves in the pathogenesis and progression of MDS. In this review the abnormality of MDS bone marrow microenvironment is summarized briefly.


Subject(s)
Bone Marrow , Cellular Microenvironment , Cytokines , Disease Progression , Hematopoiesis , Humans , Intercellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins , Mesenchymal Stem Cells , Myelodysplastic Syndromes
9.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-272503

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To investigate the influence of spleen on disease status of mouse T-ALL.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>The leukemia cells were transplanted into the mice, then the development levels of leukemia cells in different organs of transplanted mice were monitored at different time points after transplantation; the transplanted leukemia cell level in different organs was detected by flow cytometry at different time points after transplantation; the survival of transplanted mice was analyzed by means of splenectomy.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>The spleen change displayed most severely in process of T-ALL, the number of T-ALL cells in the spleen obviously increased at initial period. The detection of organs showed that along with the progression of leukemia, spleen weight change was the most significant, following by the lever change. The splenectomy test showed that the spleen played a promotive role in progession of T-ALL, and the spleneetomy could difinitely postpone the progression of T-ALL in mice, there was significant difference between splenectomy and non-splenectomy.</p><p><b>CONCLUSIONS</b>In early stage after transplantation of T-ALL cells, the spleen has the promotive effect on function of T-ALL cells, which suggests that the spleen may be a important microenvironment for T-ALL cell migrating into body.</p>


Subject(s)
Animals , Cellular Microenvironment , Disease Models, Animal , Disease Progression , Flow Cytometry , Mice , Precursor T-Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma , Pathology , Spleen , Pathology , Splenectomy
10.
São Paulo; s.n; s.n; 2015. 123 p. tab, graf, ilus.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-847167

ABSTRACT

O melanoma é composto por células malignas e também por um estroma de sustentação que inclui fibroblastos, células imunológicas, endoteliais, matriz extracelular, dentre outros fatores. Assim, os tumores não são entidades independentes, eles interagem ativamente com o microambiente adjacente de forma bidirecional através de sinais moleculares que modulam o fenótipo maligno. Um dos sinais bioquímicos para desenvolvimento desse fenótipo se dá pelo catabolismo de Trp pela via das quinureninas, que gera compostos com diversas atividades biológicas, que no tumor estão envolvidas com tolerância e imunoescape e, logo, com prognóstico ruim para os pacientes. Até o presente momento apenas o consumo de Trp e a formação de um único metabólito, a quinurenina (KYN), tem sido associada a malignidade dos melanomas. A fim de ampliar e elucidar os mecanismos bioquímicos do metabolismo desse aminoácido em melanomas, estudamos mais de quinze compostos de todas as rotas catabólicas de Trp em células da pele, células imunológicas, linhagens tumorais e amostras clínicas de melanoma. De forma inédita pudemos observar que as células da pele tem maior habilidade de sintetizar KYN quando comparadas às linhagens tumorais, demonstrando que o catabolismo de Trp peritumoral pode ser responsável pelos fenômenos de imunotolerância e escape. Além disso, o metabolismo de Trp pode estar envolvido nos mecanismos de homeostasia da pele, já que especificamente essas células produzem compostos com atividade biológica nesse órgão. As células imunológicas possuem um perfil metabólico completamente diferente umas das outras: monócitos, macrófagos e dendríticas possuem maior ativação da via KYN enquanto linfócitos e neutrófilos possuem maior indução da rota que gera serotonina e melatonina. Mesmo nos diferentes fenótipos de macrófagos, M1 e M2a, foram observadas marcações especificas de metabolismo, que podem estar relacionadas às atividades anti- ou pró-tumoral dessas células no microambiente. Em amostras clínicas, apesar da principal diferença entre nevos e melanomas ser a concentração de KYN, diversas outras alterações no metabolismo de tiptofano foram observadas, o que mostra a complexa magnitude deste metabolismo na fisiopatologia da pele


Melanoma is composed of malignant cells and also by a stromal support that includes fibroblasts, immune cells, endothelial cells, extracellular matrix, among other factors. Thus, tumors are not separate entities; they actively interact with the surrounding microenvironment bi-directionally through molecular signals that modulate the malignant phenotype. One of biochemical signals for the development of this phenotype occurs by Trp catabolism through kynurenine pathway, that generates compounds with diverse biological activities, which in tumors are involved with tolerance and imunoescape and therefore with poor prognosis for patients. To date only the consumption of Trp and formation of a single metabolite, kynurenine (KYN), has been associated with malignant melanomas. In order to enlarge and clarify the biochemical mechanisms of this amino acid metabolism in melanomas, we have studied more than fifteen compounds of all catabolic routes of Trp in skin cells, immune cells, tumor cell lines and clinical samples of melanoma. In an unique way we could observe that the skin cells has superior ability to synthesize KYN when compared to tumor cell lines, demonstrating that the peritumoral catabolism of Trp may be responsible for the phenomena of immune tolerance and escape. Furthermore, the Trp metabolism may be involved in skin homeostasis mechanisms, since these cells produce specific compounds with biological activity in this organ. The immune cells have a completely different metabolic profile among them: monocytes, macrophages and dendritic cells have greater KYN pathway activation, and lymphocytes and neutrophils possess greater induction of the route that generates serotonin and melatonin. Even in different macrophages phenotypes, M1 and M2a, we observed specific metabolic marks, which may be related to the anti- or pro-tumoral activity of these cells in the tumor microenvironment. In clinical samples, although the main difference between nevi and melanomas is the concentration of KYN, a range of other changes in Trp metabolism were observed, which shows the complex magnitude of this metabolism in the skin pathophysiology


Subject(s)
Biochemistry , Metabolism , Tryptophan/analysis , Cellular Microenvironment/genetics , Melanoma/prevention & control , Nevus , SELEX Aptamer Technique/methods
11.
Rio de Janeiro; s.n; 2015. xvii, 84 p.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS, Inca | ID: biblio-1118958

ABSTRACT

A Leucemia Mieloide Aguda (LMA) é uma neoplasia hematológica heterogênea caracterizada pela proliferação e acúmulo dos precursores mielóides na medula óssea (MO), podendo ser classificada em 8 subtipos a partir das características de leucócitos e da fase interrompida na diferenciação celular. Apesar dos diversos estudos na área, os eventos relacionados com o início da doença assim como sua progressão ainda não foram elucidados. O nicho hematopoético apresenta um papel importante na manutenção e diferenciação das Células Tronco Hematopoéticas normais (CTH) e acredita-se que alterações nesse meio podem estar influenciando no surgimento da uma Célula Tronco Leucêmica (CTL). O microambiente medular é formado por um grupo heterogênio de células não hematopoéticas, dentre elas as células estromais da medula (MSC). Por isso, o objetivo deste trabalho é avaliar se o processo de transformação leucêmica da CTH pode ser influenciado pela sinalização realizada pela MSC em pacientes com LMA. Para isso, amostras de MO de pacientes com LMA ao diagnóstico e de doadores saudáveis (DS) foram colocadas em cultura para isolamento e cultivo das MSC. Realizamos uma caracterização das culturas de acordo com a SITC e todas apresentaram características de MSC tanto na morfologia como na expressão de marcadores de superfície celular. Nos ensaios de diferenciação adipogênica e osteogênica in vitro todas as MSCs apresentavam capacidade de se diferenciar, entretanto, o potencial de diferenciação osteogênica foi menor em pacientes com LMA. Comparamos também o perfil de proliferação e ciclo celular e não foi observada diferenças estatísticas entre as culturas de MSCs. Para verificarmos então se havia diferença de expressão gênica entre as culturas, realizamos ensaios de Chiparray. Para a realização desse ensaio foram utilizadas 7 amostras de pacientes e comparadas com dois pools de DS. Cinquenta e cino genes foram encontrados diferencialmente expressos e escolhemos 6 genes para serem confirmados por RT-qPCR em 19 amostras de pacientes e 13 amostras de doadores (Ccl2 e Spond2 aumentados e Mmp16, Bmp4, Cldn1 e Opn diminuídos em MSCs de pacientes com LMA). Com esses resultados podemos sugerir que existe uma assinatura molecular comum a todas as MSCs de LMA independente do subtipo quando comparado com DS. Realizamos também análises in silico para avaliar as vias de sinalização e as interações que os genes diferencialmente expressos encontrados apresentavam. Nessas análises os genes encontrados estão envolvidos principalmente com as vias de diferenciação de osteoclastos e sinalização de Wnt. Também avaliamos os níveis das proteínas CCL2, BMP4 e OPN no plasma de pacientes com LMA e DS Nossos resultados confirmam o aumento de CCL2 no plasma de pacientes com LMA assim como a redução de BMP4. No entanto, os níveis de OPN não foram alterados. Esses genes têm sido descritos como importantes componentes produzidos pelo microambiente medular xvi queregulam tanto o número de CTH quanto a função. Com esses resultados, podemos sugerir que a MSC de pacientes com LMA apresentam alterações na sinalização no contexto da doença, e alterações na expressão dos genes Ccl2 e Bmp4 podem estar relacionados com o processo de transformação leucêmica.


Subject(s)
Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute/genetics , Mesenchymal Stem Cells , Gene Expression , Cellular Microenvironment
12.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-58995

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Obesity is a risk factor of breast cancer in postmenopausal women. Estrogen deprivation has been suggested to cause alteration of lipid metabolism thereby creating a cellular microenvironment favoring tumor growth. The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of estrogen depletion in combination with excess energy supply on breast tumor development. MATERIALS/METHODS: Ovariectomized (OVX) or sham-operated C3H/HeN mice at 4 wks were provided with either a normal diet or a high-fat diet (HD) for 16 weeks. Breast tumors were induced by administration of 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene once a week for six consecutive weeks. RESULTS: Study results showed higher serum concentrations of free fatty acids and insulin in the OVX+HD group compared to other groups. The average tumor volume was significantly larger in OVX+HD animals than in other groups. Expressions of mammary tumor insulin receptor and mammalian target of rapamycin proteins as well as the ratio of pAKT/AKT were significantly increased, while pAMPK/AMPK was decreased in OVX+HD animals compared to the sham-operated groups. Higher relative expression of liver fatty acid synthase mRNA was observed in OVX+HD mice compared with other groups. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that excess energy supply affects the accelerated mammary tumor growth in estrogen deprived mice.


Subject(s)
Animals , Breast Neoplasms , Cellular Microenvironment , Diet , Diet, High-Fat , Estrogens , Fatty Acids, Nonesterified , Female , Humans , Insulin , Lipid Metabolism , Liver , Mice , Obesity , Postmenopause , Receptor, Insulin , Risk Factors , RNA, Messenger , TOR Serine-Threonine Kinases , Tumor Burden
13.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-290149

ABSTRACT

α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) and tenascin-C are stress-induced phenotypic features of myofibroblasts. The expression levels of these two proteins closely correlate with the extracellular mechanical microenvironment. We investigated how the expression of α-SMA and tenascin-C was altered in the periodontal ligament (PDL) under orthodontic loading to indirectly reveal the intrinsic mechanical microenvironment in the PDL. In this study, we demonstrated the synergistic effects of transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) and mechanical tensile or compressive stress on myofibroblast differentiation from human periodontal ligament cells (hPDLCs). The hPDLCs under higher tensile or compressive stress significantly increased their levels of α-SMA and tenascin-C compared with those under lower tensile or compressive stress. A similar trend was observed in the tension and compression areas of the PDL under continuous light or heavy orthodontic load in rats. During the time-course analysis of expression, we observed that an increase in α-SMA levels was matched by an increase in tenascin-C levels in the PDL under orthodontic load in vivo. The time-dependent variation of α-SMA and tenascin-C expression in the PDL may indicate the time-dependent variation of intrinsic stress under constant extrinsic loading.


Subject(s)
Actins , Adult , Animals , Biomechanical Phenomena , Cell Culture Techniques , Cell Differentiation , Physiology , Cells, Cultured , Cellular Microenvironment , Physiology , Humans , Male , Myofibroblasts , Physiology , Orthodontic Wires , Periodontal Ligament , Chemistry , Cell Biology , Pressure , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Stress, Mechanical , Tenascin , Time Factors , Tooth Movement Techniques , Transforming Growth Factor beta1 , Pharmacology
14.
Chinese Journal of Stomatology ; (12): 548-553, 2015.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-294631

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To determine the activity of endoplasmic reticulum stress (ERS) and its effect on osteogenic differentiation of periodontal ligament stem cells (PDLSC) in inflammatory microenvironment.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>PDLSC were obtained from the primary culture of the human tooth and cloned with limited diluted method. Real-time reverse transcription (RT)-PCR was used to examine the different expression of thapsigargin (TG) treated PDLSC and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) treated PDLSC. Real-time RT-PCR, alizarin red staining and cetyl pyridine chloride quantitative analyze were used to examine the osteogenic differentiation of PDLSC, TG + PDLSC, LPS + PDLSC and LPS + PDLSC + 4-PBA.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>Protein kinase receptor like endoplasmic reticulum kinase (PERK), glucose regulated protein 78 (GRP78), transcription activation factor 4(ATF4), CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein-homologous protein (CHOP) mRNA expression in group PDLSC + TG in 6 h were respectively 1.49 ± 0.24, 2.77 ± 0.60, 1.75 ± 0.16, 2.16 ± 0.32, which were all greater than that in group PDLSC (P < 0.05). PERK, CHOP mRNA expression reached the peak at 6 h (1.76 ± 0.08, 2.31 ± 0.17) and were greater than group PDLSC (P < 0.05). ERS could suppress osteogenic differentiation of TG + PDLSC and LPS + PDLSC. The runt-related transcription factor-2 (RUNX2), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), osteocalcin (OCN) mRNA expression of group TG + PDLSC was respectively 0.73 ± 0.06, 0.01 ± 0.00, 0.20 ± 0.06 (P < 0.05). The RUNX2, ALP, OCN mRNA expression of group LPS + PDLSC was respectively 0.80 ± 0.06, 0.48 ± 0.05, 0.29 ± 0.04 (P < 0.05). The RUNX2, ALP, OCN mRNA expression of group PDLSC + TG + 4-PBA was respectively 1.10 ± 0.09, 0.74 ± 0.05, 0.67 ± 0.13, which were greater higher than that of group LPS + PDLSC (P < 0.05).</p><p><b>CONCLUSIONS</b>ERS was activated in PDLSC and suppressed osteogenic differentiation of PDLSC, which can simulate inflammatory microenvironment in vitro. This effect can be recovered by using ERS inhibitor 4-PBA.</p>


Subject(s)
Alkaline Phosphatase , Metabolism , Butylamines , Pharmacology , Cell Differentiation , Cellular Microenvironment , Core Binding Factor Alpha 1 Subunit , Metabolism , Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress , Physiology , Humans , Osteocalcin , Metabolism , Osteogenesis , Periodontal Ligament , Cell Biology , Metabolism , Polysaccharides , Pharmacology , RNA, Messenger , Metabolism , Stem Cells , Physiology , Thapsigargin , Pharmacology
15.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-250672

ABSTRACT

Nerve injury including peripheral nerve injury and central nerve injury has been a global problem. With the development of technology, many innovative approaches for nerve repair have been tested and some of the results are meaningful. It becomes a hot point that repair nerve injured by biological scaffold (nerve conduit). This article reviewed and analyzed several kinds of biological scaffold materials and microenvironment with better effect in recent years. Some new ideas were raised from the three aspects: appropriate materials, microstructure, and bionic microenvironment. It is better to combine multiple measures and achieve the best effect. In addition, nerve scaffold have a bright future in repair of central nervous system.


Subject(s)
Cellular Microenvironment , Humans , Neurobiology , Methods , Tissue Scaffolds , Trauma, Nervous System , Pathology , Therapeutics
16.
Medicina (B.Aires) ; 73(6): 573-8, Dec. 2013.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1165170

ABSTRACT

So far, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is thought as due to a primary insult of the motor neurons. None of its pathogenic processes proved to be the cause of the illness, nor can be blamed environmental agents. Motor neurons die by apoptosis, leaving the possibility that their death might be due to an unfriendly environment, unable to sustain their health, rather than being directly targeted themselves. These reasons justify an examination of the astrocytes, because they have the most important role controlling the neurons’ environment. It is known that astrocytes are plastic, enslaving their functions to the requirements of the neurons to which they are related. Each population of astrocytes is unique, and if it were affected the consequences would reach the neurons that it normally sustains. In regard to the motor neurons, this situation would lead to a disturbed production and release of astrocytic neurotransmitters and transporters, impairing nutritional and trophic support as well. For explaining the spreading of muscle symptoms in ALS, correlated with the type of spreading observed at the cortical and spinal motor neurons pools, the present hypotheses suggests that the illness-causing process is spreading among astrocytes, through their gap junctions, depriving the motor neurons of their support. Also it is postulated that a normal astrocytic protein becomes misfolded and infectious, inducing the misfolding of its wild type, travelling from one protoplasmatic astrocyte to another and to the fibrous astrocytes encircling the pyramidal pathway which joints the upper and lower motoneurones.


Subject(s)
Astrocytes/pathology , Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis/pathology , Astrocytes/physiology , Humans , Cellular Microenvironment , Models, Biological , Motor Neurons/physiology , Motor Neurons/pathology
17.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 46(6): 513-520, 02/jul. 2013. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-679201

ABSTRACT

Frogs have been used as an alternative model to study pain mechanisms. Since we did not find any reports on the effects of sciatic nerve transection (SNT) on the ultrastructure and pattern of metabolic substances in frog dorsal root ganglion (DRG) cells, in the present study, 18 adult male frogs (Rana catesbeiana) were divided into three experimental groups: naive (frogs not subjected to surgical manipulation), sham (frogs in which all surgical procedures to expose the sciatic nerve were used except transection of the nerve), and SNT (frogs in which the sciatic nerve was exposed and transected). After 3 days, the bilateral DRG of the sciatic nerve was collected and used for transmission electron microscopy. Immunohistochemistry was used to detect reactivity for glucose transporter (Glut) types 1 and 3, tyrosine hydroxylase, serotonin and c-Fos, as well as nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate diaphorase (NADPH-diaphorase). SNT induced more mitochondria with vacuolation in neurons, satellite glial cells (SGCs) with more cytoplasmic extensions emerging from cell bodies, as well as more ribosomes, rough endoplasmic reticulum, intermediate filaments and mitochondria. c-Fos immunoreactivity was found in neuronal nuclei. More neurons and SGCs surrounded by tyrosine hydroxylase-like immunoreactivity were found. No change occurred in serotonin- and Glut1- and Glut3-like immunoreactivity. NADPH-diaphorase occurred in more neurons and SGCs. No sign of SGC proliferation was observed. Since the changes of frog DRG in response to nerve injury are similar to those of mammals, frogs should be a valid experimental model for the study of the effects of SNT, a condition that still has many unanswered questions.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Ganglia, Spinal/metabolism , Ganglia, Spinal/ultrastructure , Oxidoreductases/metabolism , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-fos/metabolism , Sciatic Nerve/injuries , Serotonin/metabolism , Cellular Microenvironment , Glucose Transport Proteins, Facilitative/metabolism , Immunohistochemistry , Microscopy, Electron, Transmission , NADPH Dehydrogenase/metabolism , Neuralgia/metabolism , Rana catesbeiana , /metabolism
18.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-325171

ABSTRACT

Mesenchymal stem cells have generated great interest among researchers and physicians due to their unique biological characteristics and potential clinical applications. Here, I propose for the first time the concept of a hierarchical system which is composed of all mesenchymal stem cells from post-embryonic subtotipotent stem cells to MSC progenitors. Post-embryonic subtotipotent stem cells are left-over cells during embryonic development and are on the top of the hierarchy. MSC system is a combination of cells that are derived from different stages of embryonic development, possess different differentiation potential and ultimately give rise to cells that share a similar set of phenotypic markers. The concept of MSC system has important implications: (1) it entirely explains the three important biological characteristics of MSC: stem cell properties of MSC, MSC as components of tissue microenvironment and immunomodulatory functions of MSC. (2) It balances immune responses and tissue metabolism. (3) It could provide tissue-specific stem cells for clinical application with high efficiency and safety. In a word, this concept constitutes an important part of the biological properties of MSC and will help researchers gain better insight into MSC.


Subject(s)
Cell Differentiation , Cellular Microenvironment , Humans , Immunomodulation , Mesenchymal Stem Cells , Allergy and Immunology , Physiology , Phenotype
19.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-343110

ABSTRACT

Patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) exhibit hyperglycemia and hyperinsulinemia and increased risk of fracture at early stage, but they were found to have normal or even enhanced bone mineral density (BMD). This study was aimed to examine the molecular mechanisms governing changes in bone structure and integrity under both hyperglycemic and hyperinsulinemic conditions. Monocytes were isolated from the bone marrow of the C57BL/6 mice, induced to differentiate into osteoclasts by receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B ligand (RANKL) and macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF) and exposed to high glucose (33.6 mmol/L), high insulin (1 μmol/L), or a combination of high glucose/high insulin (33.6 mmol/L glucose and 1 μmol/L insulin). Cells cultured in α-MEM alone served as control. After four days of incubation, the cells were harvested and stained for tartrate resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP). Osteoclast-related genes including RANK, cathepsin K and TRAP were determined by using real-time PCR. The resorptive activity of osteoclasts was measured by using a pit formation assay. Osteoclasts that were derived from monocytes were of multinucleated nature and positive for TRAP, a characteristic marker of osteoclasts. Cell counting showed that the number of osteoclasts was much less in high glucose and high glucose/high insulin groups than in normal glucose and high insulin groups. The expression levels of RANK and cathepsin K were significantly decreased in high glucose, high insulin and high glucose/high insulin groups as compared with normal glucose group, and the TRAP activity was substantially inhibited in high glucose environment. The pit formation assay revealed that the resorptive activity of osteoclasts was obviously decreased in high glucose group and high glucose/high insulin group as compared with normal group. It was concluded that osteoclastogenesis is suppressed under hyperglycemic and hyperinsulinemic conditions, suggesting a disruption of the bone metabolism in diabetic patients.


Subject(s)
Animals , Bone Resorption , Metabolism , Pathology , Cells, Cultured , Cellular Microenvironment , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Metabolism , Pathology , Glucose , Metabolism , Humans , Insulin , Metabolism , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Osteoclasts , Metabolism , Pathology
20.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 1629-1643, 2013.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-242430

ABSTRACT

To establish vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and interleukin-8 (IL-8) as secretary biomarkers for cell growth on topographic substrates, we have evaluated the secretion and expression of these 2 factors by SH-SY5Y human neuroblastoma cells on poly-L-lactide (PLLA) micropillar arrayed topographic substrates. We fabricated topographic substrates with UV lithography, silicon etching and polydimethylsiloxane-based replica molding, and interfaced SH-SY5Y human neuroblastoma cells with both the topographic substrates and PLLA flat substrates. Cell morphology and spreading were examined with scanning electron microscopy. The secretion and mRNA expression of VEGF and IL-8 were evaluated with enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and real time qPCR, respectively, 24 hours after cell plating. We successfully achieved 4 topographic substrates with a nominal pillar diameter of 2 microm and 4 microm, and a nominal pillar spacing of 2 microm and 7 microm. We found that the secretion and mRNA expression of VEGF and/or IL-8 by SH-SY5Y cells on 2-2 microm (pillar diameter-spacing), 4-2 microm and 4-7 microm topographic substrates were upregulated in comparison to those by cells on PLLA flat substrate, 24 hours after cell plating. Furthermore, both cytokines were even more substantially upregulated on the 2-7 microm substrate than on the other 3 topographic substrates. Compared to those on PLLA flat substrate, cells on topographic substrates showed significant changes in morphology (spreading area, perimeter and roundness), and the increase in the secretion and mRNA expression of VEGF and IL-8 was accompanied with a decrease in cell spreading areas. These results provided evidence that pillar arrayed topography was an important microenvironmental factor in affecting VEGF and IL-8 expression or secretion, and VEGF and IL-8 might serve as important secretary biomarkers for growth on topographic substrates by SH-SY5Y cells.


Subject(s)
Biomarkers , Cell Line , Cell Proliferation , Cellular Microenvironment , Humans , Interleukin-8 , Genetics , Bodily Secretions , Neuroblastoma , Bodily Secretions , Polyesters , Chemistry , RNA, Messenger , Genetics , Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A , Genetics , Bodily Secretions
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