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1.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 1058-1069, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878614

ABSTRACT

The efficient production of lignocellulolytic enzyme systems is an important support for large-scale biorefinery of plant biomass. On-site production of lignocellulolytic enzymes could increase the economic benefits of the process by lowering the cost of enzyme usage. Penicillium species are commonly found lignocellulose-degrading fungi in nature, and have been used for industrial production of cellulase preparations due to their abilities to secrete complete and well-balanced lignocellulolytic enzyme systems. Here, we introduce the reported Penicillium species for cellulase production, summarize the characteristics of their enzymes, and describe the strategies of strain engineering for improving the production and performance of lignocellulolytic enzymes. We also review the progress in fermentation process optimization regarding the on-site production of lignocellulolytic enzymes using Penicillium species, and suggest prospect of future work from the perspective of building a "sugar platform" for the biorefinery of lignocellulosic biomass.


Subject(s)
Biomass , Cellulase/metabolism , Fermentation , Fungi/metabolism , Lignin/metabolism , Penicillium
2.
Acta amaz ; 50(4): 346-354, out. - dez. 2020.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1146380

ABSTRACT

Fungos filamentosos tem sido alvo de estudos de bioprospecção devido à sua grande eficiencia em produzir enzimas extracelulares, as quais tem grande potencial para uso em bioindústrias. Neste estudo, fungos filamentosos foram isolados do intestino de larvas de insetos aquáticos da Amazônia, para avaliar sua atividade celulolítica. Foram coletadas 69 larvas de insetos aquáticos fragmentadores de três gêneros: Phylloicus (Trichoptera: Calamoceratidae), Triplectides (Trichoptera:Leptoceridae) e Stenochironomus (Diptera: Chironomidae) em dez igarapés de uma área protegida na Amazônia central brasileira. O crescimento dos fungos isolados foi feito em meio de cultura Ágar Batata Dextrose (BDA). Os isolados fúngicos foram transferidos para o meio sintético com Carboximetil celulose e utilizou-se vermelho Congo para determinar o índice enzimático. O halo de hidrólise, indicando a produção de celulases, foi observado em 175 isolados fúngicos (70% do total), dos quais 25 tiveram um índice enzimático ≥ 2,0 e pertencem a sete gêneros fúngicos. Os táxons fúngicos Cladosporium, Gliocephalotrichum, Penicillium, Pestalotiopsis, Talaromyces, Trichoderma e Umbelopsis foram isolados dos intestinos das larvas de Phylloicus, Triplectides e Stenochironomus e são tradicionalmente utilizados em aplicações biotecnológicas. Os resultados indicam um potencial celulolítco destes fungos associados ao intestino de insetos aquáticos amazônicos. (AU)


Subject(s)
Cellulase , Shredders , Amazonian Ecosystem , Hydrolysis
3.
Electron. j. biotechnol ; 48: 29-35, nov. 2020. ilus, tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1254696

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Cellulose as a potential feed resource hinders its utilization because of its complex structure, and cellulase is the key to its biological effective utilization. Animal endogenous probiotics are more susceptible to colonization in the intestinal tract, and their digestive enzymes are more conducive to the digestion and absorption of feed in young animals. Min pigs are potential sources of cellulase probiotics because of the high proportion of dietary fiber in their feed. In this study, the cellulolytic bacteria in the feces of Min pigs were isolated and screened. The characteristics of enzymes and cellulase production were studied, which provided a theoretical basis for the rational utilization of cellulase and high-fiber food in animal production. RESULTS: In our study, 10 strains of cellulase producing strains were isolated from Min pig manure, among which the M2 strain had the best enzyme producing ability and was identified as Bacillus velezensis. The optimum production conditions of cellulase from strain M2 were: 2% inoculum, the temperature of 35°C, the pH of 5.0, and the liquid loading volume of 50 mL. The optimum temperature, pH and time for the reaction of cellulase produced by strain M2 were 55°C, 4.5 and 5 min, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Min pigs can be used as a source of cellulase producing strains. The M2 strain isolated from feces was identified as Bacillus velezensis. The cellulase from M2 strain had a good activity and the potential to be used as feed additive for piglets.


Subject(s)
Animals , Swine, Miniature , Bacteria/enzymology , Cellulase/biosynthesis , Bacillus , Dietary Fiber , Probiotics , Digestion , Feces , Animal Feed
4.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 2260-2276, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878484

ABSTRACT

Dissolving pulp consists of high purity cellulose and is widely used to as raw materials for the production of regenerated cellulose fiber, cellulose ester and cellulose ether. The characteristic of dissolving pulp affects greatly the production and processing performance of subsequent products. The α-cellulose content, hemicellulose content, pulp viscosity, ash, transition metal ion content, fiber morphology, molecular weight distribution of cellulose and the reactivity are the important properties. Because of its green, mild and high efficiency, the application of enzymes in improving the properties of dissolving pulp has a promising application prospect and has been researched significantly. In this review, the main properties of dissolving pulp are presented first, followed by a recommendation of the enzymes to improve these properties. The application and current research of cellulase and xylanase in improving the properties of dissolving pulp are emphasized. The main problems and the future research areas in improving the properties of dissolving pulp by enzymes are revealed. Finally, the technology prospects in this field are proposed.


Subject(s)
Cellulase , Molecular Weight , Viscosity , Wood
5.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 2193-2205, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878478

ABSTRACT

Endoglucanase (EG) is an important component of cellulases and play an important role in cellulose degradation. However, its application is limited due to the low yield of endoglucanase from natural microorganisms. Efficient heterologous expression of endoglucanase is an effective way to solve this problem. To obtain the engineered Saccharomyces cerevisiae for high-yield endoglucanase, endoglucanase gene was cloned from Clostridium cellulovorans, with a total length of 1 996 bp, encoding 440 amino acids, and the complete expression cassette (PαEGC) was constructed with the PGK promoter sequence from Saccharomyces cerevisiae, α-signal peptide sequence from pPIC9K plasmid and CYC1 terminator sequence from pSH65 plasmid by gene splicing by overlap extension PCR (SOE PCR), and the expression vector of endoglucanase in Saccharomyces cerevisiae was constructed by rDNA integration. The relationship between copy number and protein expression was explored. Random multicopy expression of endoglucanase was performed in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The copy number of endoglucanase was identified by Droplet Digital PCR and explore the relationship between copy number and protein expression.The engineered Saccharomyces cerevisiae of endoglucanase with copy numbers of 1, 3, 4, 7, 9, 11, 15, 16, 19, 21, 22 and 23 were obtained by rDNA integration, respectively. The results showed that when the copy number was 15, the enzyme activity was the highest, namely 351 U/mL. The engineered strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae for endoglucanase was successfully constructed, which can provide reference for the heterologous expression of other industrial enzymes.


Subject(s)
Cellulase/genetics , Genetic Engineering , Industrial Microbiology , Plasmids/genetics , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/genetics
6.
Braz. arch. biol. technol ; 63: e20190185, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1132193

ABSTRACT

Abstract The second-generation bioethanol employs lignocellulosic materials degraded by microbial cellulases in their production. The fungus Trichoderma reesei is one of the main microorganisms producing cellulases, and its genetic modification can lead to the optimization in obtaining hydrolytic enzymes. This work carried out the deletion of the sequence that encodes the zinc finger motif of the transcription factor ACE1 (cellulase expression repressor I) of the fungus T. reesei RUT-C30. The transformation of the RUT-C30 lineage was confirmed by amplification of the 989 bp fragment relative to the selection marker, and by the absence of the zinc finger region amplification in mutants, named T. reesei RUT-C30Δzface1. The production of cellulases by mutants was compared to RUT-C30 and measured with substrates carboxymethylcellulose (CMC), microcrystalline cellulose (Avicel®) and Whatman filter paper (PF). The results demonstrated that RUT-C30Δzface1 has cellulolytic activity increased 3.2-fold in Avicel and 2.1-fold in CMC and PF. The mutants presented 1.4-fold higher sugar released in the hydrolysis of the biomass assays. These results suggest that the partial deletion of ace1 gene is an important strategy in achieving bioethanol production on an industrial scale at a competitive price in the fuel market.


Subject(s)
Trichoderma/enzymology , Cellulase/biosynthesis , Zinc Fingers , Biomass , Ethanol , Biofuels
7.
Biosci. j. (Online) ; 35(3): 933-940, may./jun. 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1048705

ABSTRACT

Endoglucanases are enzymes widely employed in different industrial fields, albeit with high production costs. Studies on new microbial sources and low-cost substrates are highly relevant, including those on agro-industrial. Current analysis evaluates peanut hull (PH) and sawdust (SD) as substrates for submerged cultures of 14 endophytic fungi isolated from grapevine (Vitis labrusca L.) cultivars Bordô and Concord. Endophytes were grown on a carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) medium and the cup plate assay showed that eight strains (belonging to genera Cochliobolus, Diaporthe, Fusarium and Phoma) had positive results: enzymatic halos ranged from 10.8±0.02to 15.5±0.07 mm in diameter. Diaporthe sp. strains (GenBank accession codes KM362392, KM362368 and KM362378) and Fusariumculmorum KM362384 were highlighted as the most promising sources. Further, PH and SD as substrates for the fermentation of these fungi were evaluated by the cup plate assay and endoglucanase activity assay. Highest halo diameters were obtained for Diaporthe sp. KM362392: 16.1±0.01 mm (CMC), 14.5±0.01 mm (PH) and 14.7±0.03 mm (SD). The fungus also presented the highest levels of endoglucanase activity: analysis of variance revealed that CMC (3.52±0.98 µmol/min), PH (2.93±0.23 µmol/min) and SD (3.26±0.38 µmol/min) were similarly efficient as substrates. Results deepen knowledge on V. labrusca endophytes that may be endoglucanase sources, eventhough further optimizations in submerged cultures with PH and SD should be undertaken to increase theenzymatic production from these wastes.


Endoglucanases são enzimas amplamente empregadas em diferentes setores industriais; embora sua produção apresente custos elevados. Estudos sobre novas fontes microbianas e substratos mais baratos são de grande importância, incluindo os resíduos agroindustriais. Nesse estudo, casca de amendoim (CA) e serragem (SE) foram testadas como substratos para o cultivo submerso de 14 fungos endofíticos isolados das cultivares Bordô e Concord de videira (Vitis labrusca L.) Os endófitos foram crescidos em meio contendo carboximetilcelulose (CMC) e o ensaio cup plate mostrou resultados positivos para oito fungos (pertencentes aos gêneros Cochliobolus, Diaporthe, Fusarium and Phoma); os halos enzimáticos variaram entre 10,8±0,02 e 15,5±0,07 mm de diâmetro. Linhagens de Diaporthe sp. (códigos de acesso no GenBank KM362392, KM362368 e KM362378) e Fusariumculmorum KM362384 se destacaram como produtores mais promissores. Então, o uso de CA e SE como substratos para a fermentação desses fungos foi avaliado pelo ensaio cup plate e pela quantificação da atividade de endoglucanase. Os maiores halos enzimáticos foram obtidos para Diaporthe sp. KM362392: 16,1±0,01 mm (CMC), 14,5±0,01 mm (CA) e 14,7±0,03 mm (SE). Esse fungo também apresentou os maiores níveis de endoglucanase: a análise de variância revelou que CMC (3,52±0,98 µmol/min), CA (2,93±0,23 µmol/min) e SE (3,26±0,38 µmol/min) foram substratos similarmente eficientes. Esses resultados expandem o conhecimento sobre endófitos de V. labrusca que são fontes de endoglucanases; futuras otimizações quanto ao cultivo submerso com CA e SE podem ser utilizadas para aumentar a produção enzimática a partir do uso desses resíduos.


Subject(s)
Waste Products , Cellulase , Substrates for Biological Treatment , Enzymes , Agribusiness , Endophytes
8.
Mycobiology ; : 50-58, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-760527

ABSTRACT

Agarum clathratum, a brown macroalgae species, has recently become a serious environmental problem on the coasts of Korea. In an effort to solve this problem, fungal diversity associated with decaying A. clathratum was investigated and related β-glucosidase and endoglucanase activities were described. A total of 233 fungal strains were isolated from A. clathratum at 15 sites and identified 89 species based on morphology and a multigene analysis using the internal transcribed spacer region (ITS) and protein-coding genes including actin (act), β-tubulin (benA), calmodulin (CaM), and translation elongation factor (tef1). Acremonium, Corollospora, and Penicillium were the dominant genera, and Acremonium fuci and Corollospora gracilis were the dominant species. Fifty-one species exhibited cellulase activity, with A. fuci, Alfaria terrestris, Hypoxylon perforatum, P. madriti, and Pleosporales sp. Five showing the highest enzyme activities. Further enzyme quantification confirmed that these species had higher cellulase activity than P. crysogenum, a fungal species described in previous studies. This study lays the groundwork for bioremediation using fungi to remove decaying seaweed from populated areas and provides important background for potential industrial applications of environmentally friendly processes.


Subject(s)
Acremonium , Actins , Biodegradation, Environmental , Calmodulin , Cellulase , Fungi , Korea , Penicillium , Peptide Elongation Factors , Seaweed
9.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-771398

ABSTRACT

Trichoderma reesei Rut-C30 is widely used in industrial cellulase production, and development of cellulase hyper-producer is of great importance for economic lignocellulosic biorefinery. In this study, T. reesei Rut-C30 was engineered with an artificial zinc finger proteins (AZFPs) library. Two mutants T. reesei M1 and M2 with improved cellulase production were obtained. Compared to the parent strain, the filter paper activity (FPase) of T. reesei M1 and M2 increased 100% and 53%, respectively. In addition, the total amount of extracellular protein from the M1 mutant increased 69%, whereas the endo-β-glucanase (CMCase) activity of the M2 mutant is 64% higher compared to the parental strain. Furthermore, RT-qPCR analysis showed that the major cellulase genes exhibited significantly increased expression in both mutants, but different patterns were observed in the two mutants. On the other hand, the cellulase transcriptional repressor ace1 was down-regulated in both mutants, but the transcription level of the activator xyr1 was only up-regulated in the strain M1. These results demonstrated that different AZFPs exert diverse regulatory mechanisms on cellulase production in T. reesei. Analysis of the target genes of AZFPs from T. reesei M1 and M2 will not only benefit further exploration of the regulatory mechanisms of cellulase biosynthesis in T. reesei, but also enable development of cellulase hyper-producing strains by metabolic engineering.


Subject(s)
Cellulase , Gene Library , Transcription Factors , Trichoderma , Zinc Fingers
10.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 244-253, 2019.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-771382

ABSTRACT

Natural lignocellulosic materials contain cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin. Cellulose hydrolysis to glucose requires a series of lignocellulases. Recently, the research on the synergistic effect of lignocellulases has become a new research focus. Here, four lignocellulase genes encoding β-glucosidase, endo-1,4-β-glucanase, xylanase and laccase from termite and their endosymbionts were cloned into pETDuet-1 and pRSFDuet-1 and expressed in Escherichia coli. After SDS-PAGE analysis, the corresponding protein bands consistent with the theoretical values were observed and all the proteins showed enzyme activities. We used phosphoric acid swollen cellulose (PASC) as substrate to measure the synergistic effect of crude extracts of co-expressing enzymes and the mixture of single enzyme. The co-expressed enzymes increased the degradation efficiency of PASC by 44% compared with the single enzyme mixture; while the degradation rate increased by 34% and 20%, respectively when using filter paper and corn cob pretreated with phosphoric acid as substrates. The degradation efficiency of the co-expressed enzymes was higher than the total efficiency of the single enzyme mixture.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cellulase , Cellulose , Hydrolysis , Isoptera , Lignin , Symbiosis , beta-Glucosidase
11.
Braz. arch. biol. technol ; 62: e19180337, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1019545

ABSTRACT

Abstract Tailor made enzymatic preparation must be design to hydrolyze efficiently plant biomass, once that each plant biomass possesses a distinct cell wall composition. Most of actinomycetes used for plant cell wall degradation are focused on the cellulases and xylanases production. However, a wide range of enzymes must be produced for an efficient degradation of lignocellulose materials. During the last decade several unusual environments were studied to obtain strains that produce glycohydrolases with innovator characteristics. In this context, the present work concerned the selection of endophytic actinomycetes as producers of hemicellulases and related enzymes with different enzymatic profiles, for use in the deconstruction of lignocellulosic biomass. A total of 45 Brazilian actinomycetes previously isolated from plants (endophytics) and soil were prospected for hemicellulases and β-glucosidase production. Four strains highlighted for hemicellulase production (DR61, DR63, DR69 and DR66) and were selected for cultivation under other inductors substrates (xylan and pectin). All strains belong to Streptomyces genera and have their extracts tested for degradation of several hemicellulolytic substrates. The strains presented different glicohydrolyse enzymes profiles mainly for xylans and glucans that can be used for specific formulations of enzymes applied on the biomass deconstruction, principally on sugar cane bagasse.


Subject(s)
Cellulase , Actinobacteria , Biomass , Pectins , Saccharum
12.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 49(3): 647-655, July-Sept. 2018. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-951810

ABSTRACT

Abstract An intronless endoglucanase from thermotolerant Aspergillus fumigatus DBINU-1 was cloned, characterized and expressed in the yeast Kluyveromyces lactis. The full-length open reading frame of the endoglucanase gene from A. fumigatus DBiNU-1, designated Cel7, was 1383 nucleotides in length and encoded a protein of 460 amino acid residues. The predicted molecular weight and the isoelectric point of the A. fumigatus Cel7 gene product were 48.19 kDa and 5.03, respectively. A catalytic domain in the N-terminal region and a fungal type cellulose-binding domain/module in the C-terminal region were detected in the predicted polypeptide sequences. Furthermore, a signal peptide with 20 amino acid residues at the N-terminus was also detected in the deduced amino acid sequences of the endoglucanase from A. fumigatus DBiNU-1. The endoglucanase from A. fumigatus DBiNU-1 was successfully expressed in K. lactis, and the purified recombinant enzyme exhibited its maximum activity at pH 5.0 and 60 °C. The enzyme was very stable in a pH range from 4.0 to 8.0 and a temperature range from 30 to 60 °C. These features make it suitable for application in the paper, biofuel, and other chemical production industries that use cellulosic materials.


Subject(s)
Aspergillus fumigatus/enzymology , Fungal Proteins/genetics , Fungal Proteins/chemistry , Gene Expression , Cellulase/genetics , Cellulase/chemistry , Cloning, Molecular , Aspergillus fumigatus/genetics , Substrate Specificity , Enzyme Stability , Kluyveromyces/genetics , Kluyveromyces/metabolism , Recombinant Proteins/genetics , Recombinant Proteins/metabolism , Recombinant Proteins/chemistry , Fungal Proteins/metabolism , Cellulase/metabolism , Hot Temperature , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration
13.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 49(2): 429-442, Apr.-June 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-889226

ABSTRACT

Abstract Bacteria are important sources of cellulases with various industrial and biotechnological applications. In view of this, a non-hemolytic bacterial strain, tolerant to various environmental pollutants (heavy metals and organic solvents), showing high cellulolytic index (7.89) was isolated from cattle shed soil and identified as Bacillus sp. SV1 (99.27% pairwise similarity with Bacillus korlensis). Extracellular cellulases showed the presence of endoglucanase, total cellulase and β-glucosidase activities. Cellulase production was induced in presence of cellulose (3.3 times CMCase, 2.9 times FPase and 2.1 times β-glucosidase), and enhanced (115.1% CMCase) by low-cost corn steep solids. An in silico investigation of endoglucanase (EC 3.2.1.4) protein sequences of three Bacillus spp. as query, revealed their similarities with members of nine bacterial phyla and to Eukaryota (represented by Arthropoda and Nematoda), and also highlighted of a convergent and divergent evolution from other enzymes of different substrate [(1,3)-linked beta-d-glucans, xylan and chitosan] specificities. Characteristic conserved signature indels were observed among members of Actinobacteria (7 aa insert) and Firmicutes (9 aa insert) that served as a potential tool in support of their relatedness in phylogenetic trees.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cattle , Bacillus/enzymology , Cellulase/genetics , Cellulase/metabolism , Evolution, Molecular , Bacillus/growth & development , Bacillus/isolation & purification , Cellulose/metabolism , Computational Biology , Feces/microbiology , Gene Expression Regulation, Bacterial , Gene Expression Regulation, Enzymologic , INDEL Mutation , Sequence Analysis, DNA , Sequence Homology , Substrate Specificity , Zea mays/metabolism
14.
Biosci. j. (Online) ; 34(3): 761-768, mai/jun. 2018. graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-966995

ABSTRACT

Municipal waste is rich in lignocellulosic compounds which contain cellulose, lignin and hemicellulose. Microorganisms can break down such compounds and convert them into glucose and other carbohydrates. The current study was performed to isolate and identify cellulolytic bacteria in municipal waste. Municipal waste samples were collected and plated on Carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) agar. Preliminary identification of the isolates was performed using standard biochemical assays. The activity of carboxymethyl cellulose (CMCase) was specified through measuring the release of reducing sugars from CMC. Different nitrogen sources at various concentrations and initial pH values were evaluated for their effect on enzyme production. Further the enzyme production was determined at different fermentation times. Molecular identification was then performed using bacterial 16s rRNA gene amplification and sequencing. A cellulolytic bacterium was isolated from municipal waste samples and identified based on morphological, physiological and biochemical characteristics along with 16S rRNA analysis. The isolated bacterium was identified as Bacillus subtilis (accession number: KU681044). Whose growth characteristics showed that its growth curve entered the logarithmic phase following 10­18 h with the stable growth phase ranging from 23 to 37 h. The optimal carbon source for fermentation was 1% rice hull, with the nitrogen source comprised of 2% peptone and yeast extract. The the minimum CMCase activity was observed at an initial medium pH of 4.0, while the maximum was observed at pH 7. The strain grew vigorously and the cellulase yield was high at 6­24 h fermentation time period. The isolated bacteria showed the degrading potential of cellulose which could be employed in local industrial process.


Resíduos urbanos são ricos em compostos lignocelulósicos que contêm celulose, lignina e hemicelulose. Microrganismos podem quebrar esses compostos e convertê-los em glicose e outros carboidratos. O presente estudo foi realizado para isolar e identificar bactérias celulolíticas em resíduos urbanos. Amostras de resíduos municipais foram coletadas e plaqueadas em ágar Carboximetilcelulose (CMC). A identificação preliminar dos isolados foi realizada utilizando ensaios bioquímicos padrão. A atividade da carboximetilcelulose (CMCase) foi especificada através da medição da liberação de açúcares redutores da CMC. Diferentes fontes de nitrogênio em várias concentrações e valores iniciais de pH foram avaliados quanto ao seu efeito na produção de enzimas. Além disso, a produção de enzima foi determinada em diferentes tempos de fermentação. A identificação molecular foi então realizada utilizando amplificação e sequenciamento do gene bacteriano 16s rRNA. Uma bactéria celulolítica foi isolada de amostras de resíduos urbanos e identificada com base em características morfológicas, fisiológicas e bioquímicas, juntamente com a análise 16S rRNA. A bactéria isolada foi identificada como Bacillus subtilis (número de acesso: KU681044). Cujas características de crescimento mostraram que sua curva de crescimento entrou na fase logarítmica após 10-18 h com a fase de crescimento estável variando de 23 a 37 h. A fonte de carbono ótima para a fermentação foi 1% de casca de arroz, com a fonte de nitrogênio composta de 2% de peptona e extrato de levedura. A atividade mínima de CMCase foi observada em um pH médio inicial de 4,0, enquanto a máxima foi observada em pH 7. A linhagem cresceu vigorosamente e o rendimento de celulase foi alto no período de 6 a 24 horas de fermentação. As bactérias isoladas mostraram o potencial de degradação da celulose que poderia ser empregada no processo industrial local.


Subject(s)
Bacillus subtilis , Waste Products , Carboxymethylcellulose Sodium , Cellulase , Biochemistry , Solid Waste
15.
Electron. j. biotechnol ; 31: 84-92, Jan. 2018. graf, tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1022139

ABSTRACT

Background: Cellulolytic enzymes of microbial origin have great industrial importance because of their wide application in various industrial sectors. Fungi are considered the most efficient producers of these enzymes. Bioprospecting survey to identify fungal sources of biomass-hydrolyzing enzymes from a high-diversity environment is an important approach to discover interesting strains for bioprocess uses. In this study, we evaluated the production of endoglucanase (CMCase) and ß-glucosidase, enzymes from the lignocellulolytic complex, produced by a native fungus. Penicillium sp. LMI01 was isolated from decaying plant material in the Amazon region, and its performance was compared with that of the standard isolate Trichoderma reesei QM9414 under submerged fermentation conditions. Results: The effectiveness of LMI01 was similar to that of QM9414 in volumetric enzyme activity (U/mL); however, the specific enzyme activity (U/mg) of the former was higher, corresponding to 24.170 U/mg of CMCase and 1.345 U/mg of ß-glucosidase. The enzymes produced by LMI01 had the following physicochemical properties: CMCase activity was optimal at pH 4.2 and the ß-glucosidase activity was optimal at pH 6.0. Both CMCase and ß-glucosidase had an optimum temperature at 60°C and were thermostable between 50 and 60°C. The electrophoretic profile of the proteins secreted by LMI01 indicated that this isolate produced at least two enzymes with CMCase activity, with approximate molecular masses of 50 and 35 kDa, and ß-glucosidases with molecular masses between 70 and 100 kDa. Conclusions: The effectiveness and characteristics of these enzymes indicate that LMI01 can be an alternative for the hydrolysis of lignocellulosic materials and should be tested in commercial formulations.


Subject(s)
Penicillium/enzymology , Cellulase/biosynthesis , beta-Glucosidase/biosynthesis , Oligosaccharides , Temperature , Trichoderma/enzymology , Enzyme Stability , Cellulase/metabolism , beta-Glucosidase/metabolism , Amazonian Ecosystem , Biocatalysis , Fermentation , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration , Hydrolysis , Lignin/metabolism
16.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 1996-2006, 2018.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-771409

ABSTRACT

Efficient utilization of cellulose and xylan is of importance in the bioethanol industry. In this study, a novel bifunctional xylanase/cellulase gene, Tcxyn10a, was cloned from Thermoascus crustaceus JCM12803, and the gene product was successfully overexpressed in Pichia pastoris GS115. The recombinant protein was then purified and characterized. The pH and temperature optima of TcXyn10A were determined to be 5.0 and 65-70 °C, respectively. The enzyme retained stable under acid to alkaline conditions (pH 3.0-11.0) or after 1-h treatment at 60 °C. The specific activities of TcXyn10A towards beechwood xylan, wheat arabinoxylan, sodium carboxymethyl cellulose and lichenan were (1 480±26) U/mg, (2 055±28) U/mg, (7.4±0.2) U/mg and (10.9±0.4) U/mg, respectively. Homologous modeling and molecular docking analyses indicated that the bifunctional TcXyn10A has a single catalytic domain, in which the substrate xylan and cellulose shared the same binding cleft. This study provides a valuable material for the study of structure and function relationship of bifunctional enzymes.


Subject(s)
Cellulase , Endo-1,4-beta Xylanases , Enzyme Stability , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration , Molecular Docking Simulation , Pichia , Substrate Specificity , Thermoascus
17.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 48(4): 801-808, Oct.-Dec. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-889172

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT The various types of lignocellulosic biomass found in plants comprise the most abundant renewable bioresources on Earth. In this study, the ruminal microbial ecosystem of black goats was explored because of their strong ability to digest lignocellulosic forage. A metagenomic fosmid library containing 115,200 clones was prepared from the black-goat rumen and screened for a novel cellulolytic enzyme. The KG35 gene, containing a novel glycosyl hydrolase family 5 cellulase domain, was isolated and functionally characterized. The novel glycosyl hydrolase family 5 cellulase gene is composed of a 963-bp open reading frame encoding a protein of 320 amino acid residues (35.1 kDa). The deduced amino acid sequence showed the highest sequence identity (58%) for sequences from the glycosyl hydrolase family 5 cellulases. The novel glycosyl hydrolase family 5 cellulase gene was overexpressed in Escherichia coli. Substrate specificity analysis revealed that this recombinant glycosyl hydrolase family 5 cellulase functions as an endo-β-1,4-glucanase. The recombinant KG35 endo-β-1,4-glucanase showed optimal activity within the range of 30-50 °C at a pH of 6-7. The thermostability was retained and the pH was stable in the range of 30-50 °C at a pH of 5-7.


Subject(s)
Animals , Bacterial Proteins/chemistry , Bacterial Proteins/genetics , Bacteria/enzymology , Cellulase/chemistry , Cellulase/genetics , Rumen/microbiology , Bacterial Proteins/metabolism , Bacteria/classification , Bacteria/genetics , Bacteria/isolation & purification , Cellulase/metabolism , Cloning, Molecular , Enzyme Stability , Gastrointestinal Microbiome , Goats , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration , Metagenome , Metagenomics
18.
Electron. j. biotechnol ; 27: 70-79, May. 2017. tab, ilus, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1010399

ABSTRACT

Background: Endoglucanase plays a major role in initiating cellulose hydrolysis. Various wild-type strains were searched to produce this enzyme, but mostly low extracellular enzyme activities were obtained. To improve extracellular enzyme production for potential industrial applications, the endoglucanase gene of Bacillus subtilis M015, isolated from Thai higher termite, was expressed in a periplasmic-leaky Escherichia coli. Then, the crude recombinant endoglucanase (EglS) along with a commercial cellulase (Cel) was used for hydrolyzing celluloses and microbial hydrolysis using whole bacterial cells. Results: E. coli Glu5 expressing endoglucanase at high levels was successfully constructed. It produced EglS (55 kDa) with extracellular activity of 18.56 U/mg total protein at optimal hydrolytic conditions (pH 4.8 and 50°C). EglS was highly stable (over 80% activity retained) at 40­50°C after 100 h. The addition of EglS significantly improved the initial sugar production rates of Cel on the hydrolysis of carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC), microcrystalline cellulose, and corncob about 5.2-, 1.7-, and 4.0-folds, respectively, compared to those with Cel alone. E. coli Glu5 could secrete EglS with high activity in the presence of glucose (1% w/v) and Tween 80 (5% w/v) with low glucose consumption. Microbial hydrolysis of CMC using E. coli Glu5 yielded 26 mg reducing sugar/g CMC at pH 7.0 and 37°C after 48 h. Conclusions: The recombinant endoglucanase activity improved by 17 times compared with that of the native strain and could greatly enhance the enzymatic hydrolysis of all studied celluloses when combined with a commercial cellulase.


Subject(s)
Bacillus subtilis/enzymology , Cellulase/metabolism , Isoptera/microbiology , Thailand , Recombinant Proteins/metabolism , Cellulase/genetics , Cellulose , Gene Amplification , Agriculture , Escherichia coli/metabolism , Hydrolysis
19.
Mycobiology ; : 48-51, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-729888

ABSTRACT

The morphological optimization of Trichoderma harzianum was carried out using several surfactants to achieve increased cellulase production. Addition of the surfactants to the culture medium successfully modified the fungal morphology from an aggregated form to a dispersed form. Optimization of the fungal morphology increased cellulase activity up to 177%. The morphologically optimized conditions enhanced the accessibility of the fungus to substrates and thus promoted cellulase production.


Subject(s)
Cellulase , Fungi , Surface-Active Agents , Trichoderma
20.
An. acad. bras. ciênc ; 89(3,supl): 2359-2370, 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-886801

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT During composting processes, the degradation of organic waste is accomplished and driven by a succession of microbial populations exhibiting a broad range of functional competencies. A total of 183 bacteria, isolated from a composting process, were evaluated for cellulase activity at different temperatures (37, 50, 60, and 70°C) and pH values. Out of the 22 isolates that showed activity, isolate 380 showed the highest cellulase activity. Its ability to produce cellulase was evaluated in culture medium supplemented with carboxymethyl cellulose, microcrystalline cellulose, wheat straw, and rice husk. The culture medium supplemented with carboxymethyl cellulose induced higher enzyme activity after 6 hours of incubation (0.12 UEA mL-1 min-1). For wheat straw and rice husk, the results were 0.08 UEA mL-1 min-1 for both, while for microcrystalline cellulose, 0.04 UEA mL-1 min-1 were observed. The highest carboxymethyl cellulase activity was observed at 60°C (0.14 UEA mL-1 min-1) for both crude and partially purified enzyme after 30 and 120 min of incubation, respectively. Alkalinization of the medium was observed during cultivation in all substrates. The cellulase had a molecular mass of 20 kDa determined by SDS-Page. Isolate 380 was identified as Bacillus licheniformis. This work provides a basis for further studies on composting optimization.


Subject(s)
Carboxymethylcellulose Sodium/pharmacology , Cellulase/isolation & purification , Cellulase/biosynthesis , Culture Media/pharmacology , Bacillus licheniformis/enzymology , Substrate Specificity , Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel , Bacillus licheniformis/drug effects , Hot Temperature
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