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1.
Electron. j. biotechnol ; 50: 29-36, Mar. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1292313

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Lignocellulose is considered a renewable organic material, but the industrial production of biofuel from lignocellulose is challenging because of the lack of highly active hydrolytic enzymes. The guts of herbivores contain many symbiotic microorganisms that have evolved to hydrolyze plant lignocellulose. Chinese bamboo rats mainly consume high-fiber foods, indicating that some members of the intestinal tract microbiota digest lignocellulose, providing these rats with the energy required for growth. RESULTS: Here, we used metagenomics to analyze the diversity and functions of the gut microbiota in Chinese bamboo rats. We identified abundant populations of lignocellulose-degrading bacteria, whose main functions involved carbohydrate, amino acid, and nucleic acid metabolism. We also found 587 carbohydrate-active enzyme genes belonging to different families, including 7 carbohydrate esterase families and 21 glycoside hydrolase families. The glycoside hydrolase 3, glycoside hydrolase 1, glycoside hydrolase 43, carbohydrate esterase 4, carbohydrate esterase 1, and carbohydrate esterase 3 families demonstrated outstanding performance. CONCLUSIONS: The microbes and enzymes identified in our study expand the existing arsenal of proficient degraders and enzymes for lignocellulosic biofuel production. This study also describes a powerful approach for targeting gut microbes and enzymes in numerous industries.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Cecum/enzymology , Enzymes/metabolism , Lignin/metabolism , Cecum/microbiology , Cellulose/metabolism , Bacteroidetes , Biofuels , Metagenomics , Firmicutes , Gastrointestinal Microbiome
2.
Electron. j. biotechnol ; 42: 16-22, Nov. 2019. graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1087350

ABSTRACT

Background: Fuels and chemicals from renewable feedstocks have a growing demand, and acetone, butanol and ethanol (ABE) are some relevant examples. These molecules can be produced by the bacterial fermentation process using hydrolysates generated from lignocellulosic biomass as sugarcane bagasse, one of the most abundant sources of lignocellulosic biomass in Brazil. It originates as a residue in mills and distilleries in the production of sugar and ethanol. Results: In the present work, two strategies to generate hydrolysates of sugarcane bagasse were adopted. The fermentation of the first hydrolysate by Clostridium acetobutylicum DSM 6228 resulted in final concentrations of butanol, acetone and ethanol of 6.4, 4.5 and 0.6 g/L, respectively. On the other hand, the second hydrolysate presented better results (averages of 9.1, 5.5 and 0.8 g/L, respectively), even without the need for nutrient supplementation, since key elements were already present in the medium. The productivity (QP) and yield (YP/S) of the solvents with second hydrolysate were 0.5 g/L•h-1 and 0.4 g/g, respectively. Conclusions: The results described herein open new perspectives for the production of important molecules from residual lignocellulosic biomass for the fuel and chemical industries within the context of second-generation biorefinery.


Subject(s)
Acetone/metabolism , Cellulose/metabolism , Saccharum/metabolism , Ethanol/metabolism , Butanols/metabolism , Brazil , Cellulose/chemistry , Saccharum/chemistry , Clostridium acetobutylicum/metabolism , Biofuels , Fermentation
3.
Electron. j. biotechnol ; 41: 30-36, sept. 2019. graf, tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1053564

ABSTRACT

Background: Yarrowia lipolytica is a nonconventional, dimorphic yeast with multiple biotechnological applications. Considering the size of Y. lipolytica cells and a plethora of its morphological forms (spherical cells or hyphae and pseudohyphae), it is highly difficult to select a suitable carrier for this useful microorganism. Bacterial cellulose (BC) is currently considered one of the most promising immobilization carriers. In the current study, the usefulness of oil- and emulsion-modified BCs as a carrier for Y. lipolytica immobilization was investigated. Static and agitated cultures were conducted in media supplemented with oil or emulsion to improve carrier porosity. Results: It was found that the application of oil- and emulsion-modified BCs correlated with significantly higher efficiency of Y. lipolytica immobilization and hence higher yield than the yield achieved with an unmodified carrier. Increased efficiency of immobilization correlated with BC porosity-related parameters, which, in turn, depended on the size of oil droplets introduced into the culture medium. Moreover, changes in porosity-related parameters caused by the addition of oil or emulsion to the medium were observed when the cultures were conducted only under static conditions and not under agitated conditions. Conclusion: The application of oil- and emulsion-modified BCs as carriers significantly increased the efficiency of Y. lipolytica immobilization as compared to unmodified BC. The addition of oil or emulsion to the culture medium can be a simple but effective method to modify the porosity of BC-based carriers.


Subject(s)
Cellulose/metabolism , Yarrowia/metabolism , Immobilization , Polymers , Yeasts , Biotechnology , Plant Oils , Porosity , Yarrowia/chemistry , Nanostructures , Emulsions
4.
Electron. j. biotechnol ; 41: 95-99, sept. 2019. graf, tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1087252

ABSTRACT

Background: Pretreatment is the critically important step for the production of ethanol from lignocelluloses. In this study, hardwood birch (Betula pendula) and softwood spruce (Norway spruce) woods were pretreated with a newly synthesized morpholinium ionic liquid, 1-H-3-methylmorpholinium chloride ([HMMorph][Cl]), followed by enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentation to ethanol. Results: [HMMorph][Cl] was synthesized using inexpensive raw materials, i.e., hydrochloric acid and N-methyl morpholine, following a simple process. The influence of pretreatment time (2, 3, 5, and 8 h) and temperature (120 and 140°C) in terms of hydrolysis efficiency was investigated. Glucose yields from enzymatic hydrolysis were improved from 13.7% to 45.7% and 12.9% to 51.8% after pretreatment of birch and spruce woods, respectively, under optimum pretreatment conditions (i.e., at 140°C for 3 h) as compared to those from pristine woods. Moreover, the yields of ethanol production from birch and spruce were increased to 34.8% and 44.2%, respectively, while the yields were negligible for untreated woods. Conclusions: This study demonstrated the ability of [HMMorph][Cl] as an inexpensive agent to pretreat both softwood and hardwood.


Subject(s)
Betula/metabolism , Ethanol/metabolism , Ethanol/chemical synthesis , Lignin/metabolism , Cellulose/metabolism , Chlorides/chemistry , Abies , Biofuels , Fermentation , Hydrolysis
5.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 49(2): 429-442, Apr.-June 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-889226

ABSTRACT

Abstract Bacteria are important sources of cellulases with various industrial and biotechnological applications. In view of this, a non-hemolytic bacterial strain, tolerant to various environmental pollutants (heavy metals and organic solvents), showing high cellulolytic index (7.89) was isolated from cattle shed soil and identified as Bacillus sp. SV1 (99.27% pairwise similarity with Bacillus korlensis). Extracellular cellulases showed the presence of endoglucanase, total cellulase and β-glucosidase activities. Cellulase production was induced in presence of cellulose (3.3 times CMCase, 2.9 times FPase and 2.1 times β-glucosidase), and enhanced (115.1% CMCase) by low-cost corn steep solids. An in silico investigation of endoglucanase (EC 3.2.1.4) protein sequences of three Bacillus spp. as query, revealed their similarities with members of nine bacterial phyla and to Eukaryota (represented by Arthropoda and Nematoda), and also highlighted of a convergent and divergent evolution from other enzymes of different substrate [(1,3)-linked beta-d-glucans, xylan and chitosan] specificities. Characteristic conserved signature indels were observed among members of Actinobacteria (7 aa insert) and Firmicutes (9 aa insert) that served as a potential tool in support of their relatedness in phylogenetic trees.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cattle , Bacillus/enzymology , Cellulase/genetics , Cellulase/metabolism , Evolution, Molecular , Bacillus/growth & development , Bacillus/isolation & purification , Cellulose/metabolism , Computational Biology , Feces/microbiology , Gene Expression Regulation, Bacterial , Gene Expression Regulation, Enzymologic , INDEL Mutation , Sequence Analysis, DNA , Sequence Homology , Substrate Specificity , Zea mays/metabolism
6.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 47(2): 352-358, Apr.-June 2016. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-780841

ABSTRACT

Abstract Considering the importance of lignocellulose macrophyte-derived for the energy flux in aquatic ecosystems and the nutrient concentrations as a function of force which influences the decomposition process, this study aims to relate the enzymatic activity and lignocellulose hydrolysis in different trophic statuses. Water samples and two macrophyte species were collected from the littoral zone of a subtropical Brazilian Reservoir. A lignocellulosic matrix was obtained using aqueous extraction of dried plant material (≈40 °C). Incubations for decomposition of the lignocellulosic matrix were prepared using lignocelluloses, inoculums and filtered water simulating different trophic statuses with the same N:P ratio. The particulate organic carbon and dissolved organic carbon (POC and DOC, respectively) were quantified, the cellulase enzymatic activity was measured by releasing reducing sugars and immobilized carbon was analyzed by filtration. During the cellulose degradation indicated by the cellulase activity, the dissolved organic carbon daily rate and enzyme activity increased. It was related to a fast hydrolysable fraction of cellulose that contributed to short-term carbon immobilization (ca. 10 days). After approximately 20 days, the dissolved organic carbon and enzyme activity were inversely correlated suggesting that the respiration of microorganisms was responsible for carbon mineralization. Cellulose was an important resource in low nutrient conditions (oligotrophic). However, the detritus quality played a major role in the lignocelluloses degradation (i.e., enzyme activity) and carbon release.


Subject(s)
Bacteria/enzymology , Bacterial Proteins/metabolism , Cellulase/metabolism , Araceae/metabolism , Paspalum/metabolism , Fresh Water/chemistry , Lignin/metabolism , Brazil , Carbon/metabolism , Cellulose/genetics , Cellulose/metabolism , Ecosystem , Araceae/growth & development , Araceae/microbiology , Paspalum/growth & development , Paspalum/microbiology , Fresh Water/microbiology
7.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 47(1): 110-119, Jan.-Mar. 2016. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-775128

ABSTRACT

Abstract The bioconversion of cellulosic wastes into high-value bio-products by saccharification and fermentation processes is an important step that can reduce the environmental pollution caused by agricultural wastes. In this study, enzymatic saccharification of treated and untreated date palm cellulosic wastes by the cellulases from Geobacillus stearothermophilus was optimized. The alkaline pre-treatment of the date palm wastes was found to be effective in increasing the saccharification percentage. The maximum rate of saccharification was found at a substrate concentration of 4% and enzyme concentration of 30 FPU/g of substrate. The optimum pH and temperature for the bioconversions were 5.0 and 50 °C, respectively, after 24 h of incubation, with a yield of 31.56 mg/mL of glucose at a saccharification degree of 71.03%. The saccharification was increased to 94.88% by removal of the hydrolysate after 24 h by using a two-step hydrolysis. Significant lactic acid production (27.8 mg/mL) was obtained by separate saccharification and fermentation after 72 h of incubation. The results indicate that production of fermentable sugar and lactic acid is feasible and may reduce environmental pollution by using date palm wastes as a cheap substrate.


Subject(s)
Cellulases/metabolism , Cellulose/metabolism , Geobacillus stearothermophilus/enzymology , Glucose/metabolism , Industrial Waste , Lactic Acid/metabolism , Phoeniceae/metabolism , Alkalies , Biotransformation , Fermentation , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration , Phoeniceae/drug effects , Temperature
8.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 46(3): 903-910, July-Sept. 2015. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-755814

ABSTRACT

Nineteen fungi and seven yeast strains were isolated from sugarcane bagasse piles from an alcohol plant located at Brazilian Cerrado and identified up to species level on the basis of the gene sequencing of 5.8S-ITS and 26S ribosomal DNA regions. Four species were identified: Kluyveromyces marxianus, Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus sydowii and Aspergillus fumigatus, and the isolates were screened for the production of key enzymes in the saccharification of lignocellulosic material. Among them, three strains were selected as good producers of hemicellulolitic enzymes: A. niger (SBCM3), A. sydowii (SBCM7) and A. fumigatus (SBC4). The best β-xylosidase producer was A. niger SBCM3 strain. This crude enzyme presented optimal activity at pH 3.5 and 55 °C (141 U/g). For β-glucosidase and xylanase the best producer was A. fumigatus SBC4 strain, whose enzymes presented maximum activity at 60 °C and pH 3.5 (54 U/g) and 4.0 (573 U/g), respectively. All these crude enzymes presented stability around pH 3.0–8.0 and up to 60 °C, which can be very useful in industrial processes that work at high temperatures and low pHs. These enzymes also exhibited moderate tolerance to ethanol and the sugars glucose and xylose. These similar characteristics among these fungal crude enzymes suggest that they can be used synergistically in cocktails in future studies of biomass conversion with potential application in several biotechnological sectors.

.


Subject(s)
Aspergillus fumigatus/enzymology , Aspergillus niger/enzymology , Cellulose/metabolism , /metabolism , Kluyveromyces/enzymology , Saccharum/microbiology , Xylosidases/metabolism , beta-Glucosidase/metabolism , Aspergillus fumigatus/isolation & purification , Aspergillus fumigatus/metabolism , Aspergillus niger/isolation & purification , Aspergillus niger/metabolism , Base Sequence , Biomass , Brazil , DNA, Fungal/genetics , DNA, Intergenic/genetics , Fermentation , Kluyveromyces/isolation & purification , Kluyveromyces/metabolism , Lignin/metabolism , Molecular Typing , Mycological Typing Techniques , RNA, Ribosomal/genetics , Sequence Analysis, DNA
9.
Indian J Exp Biol ; 2015 Jun; 53(6): 356-363
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-158505

ABSTRACT

Here, we described the production of a cellulase-free alkaline xylanase from Bacillus pumilus MTCC 5015 by submerged fermentation and its application in biobleaching. Various process parameters affecting xylanase production by B. pumilus were optimized by adopting a Plackett-Burman design (PBD) as well as Response surface methodology (RSM). These statistical methods aid in improving the enzyme yield by analysing the individual crucial components of the medium. Maximum production was obtained with 4% yeast extract, 0.08% magnesium sulphate, 30 h of inoculum age, incubation temperature of 33.5 °C and pH 9.0. Under optimized conditions, the xylanase activity was 372 IU/ml. Media engineering improved a 5-fold increase in the enzyme production. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) showed significant changes on the surface of xylanase treated pulps as a result of xylan hydrolysis. Increased roughness of paper carton fibres was apparent in scanning electron micrograph due to opening of the micro fibrils present on the surface by xylanase action. The untreated pulp did not show any such change. These results demonstrated that the B. pumilus MTCC 5015 xylanase was effective in bio-bleaching of paper carton.


Subject(s)
Bacillus/chemistry , Bacillus/classification , Biotechnology , Cellulose/metabolism , Fermentation , Paper , Xylosidases/biosynthesis , Xylosidases/chemical synthesis
10.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 45(4): 1211-1220, Oct.-Dec. 2014. graf, mapas, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-741270

ABSTRACT

A systematized survey was conducted to find soil-borne microbes that degrade cellulose in soils from unique ecosystems, such as the Superpáramo, Páramo, and the High Andean Forest in the Nevados National Natural Park (NNNP), Colombia. These high mountain ecosystems represent extreme environments, such as high levels of solar radiation, low atmospheric pressure, and extreme daily changes in temperature. Cellulolytic activity of the microorganisms was evaluated using qualitative tests, such as growth in selective media followed by staining with congo red and iodine, and quantitative tests to determine the activity of endoglucanase, β-glucosidase, exoglucanase, and total cellulase. Microorganisms were identified using molecular markers, such as the 16S rRNA gene for bacteria and the internal transcribed spacer region (ITS) of ribosomal DNA for fungi. Multivariate statistical analysis (MVA) was used to select microorganisms with high cellulolytic capacity. A total of 108 microorganisms were isolated from the soils and, in general, the enzymatic activities of fungi were higher than those of bacteria. Our results also found that none of the organisms studied were able to degrade all the components of the cellulose and it is therefore suggested that a combination of bacteria and/or fungi with various enzymatic activities be used to obtain high total cellulolytic activity. This study gives an overview of the potential microorganism that could be used for cellulose degradation in various biotechnological applications and for sustainable agricultural waste treatment.


Subject(s)
Bacteria/isolation & purification , Bacteria/metabolism , Cellulose/metabolism , Fungi/isolation & purification , Fungi/metabolism , Soil Microbiology , Bacteria/classification , Bacteria/genetics , Colombia , Cellulase/analysis , DNA, Bacterial/chemistry , DNA, Bacterial/genetics , DNA, Fungal/chemistry , DNA, Fungal/genetics , DNA, Helminth/chemistry , DNA, Helminth/genetics , DNA, Ribosomal Spacer/chemistry , DNA, Ribosomal Spacer/genetics , DNA, Ribosomal/chemistry , DNA, Ribosomal/genetics , Fungi/classification , Fungi/genetics , Hydrolysis , /genetics , Sequence Analysis, DNA
11.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 45(4): 1469-1475, Oct.-Dec. 2014. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-741302

ABSTRACT

The use of hemicellulosic hydrolysates in bioprocesses requires supplementation as to ensure the best fermentative performance of microorganisms. However, in light of conflicting data in the literature, it is necessary to establish an inexpensive and applicable medium for the development of bioprocesses. This paper evaluates the fermentative performance of Scheffersomyces (Pichia) stipitis and Candida guilliermondii growth in sugarcane bagasse hemicellulosic hydrolysate supplemented with different nitrogen sources including rice bran extract, an important by-product of agroindustry and source of vitamins and amino acids. Experiments were carried out with hydrolysate supplemented with rice bran extract and (NH4)2SO4; peptone and yeast extract; (NH4)2SO4, peptone and yeast extract and non-supplemented hydrolysate as a control. S. stipitis produced only ethanol, while C. guilliermondii produced xylitol as the main product and ethanol as by-product. Maximum ethanol production by S. stipitis was observed when sugarcane bagasse hemicellulosic hydrolysate was supplemented with (NH4)2SO4, peptone and yeast extract. Differently, the maximum xylitol formation by C. guilliermondii was obtained by employing hydrolysate supplemented with (NH4)2SO4 and rice bran extract. Together, these findings indicate that: a) for both yeasts (NH4)2SO4 was required as an inorganic nitrogen source to supplement sugarcane bagasse hydrolysate; b) for S. stipitis, sugarcane hemicellulosic hydrolysate must be supplemented with peptone and yeast extract as organic nitrogen source; and: c) for C. guilliermondii, it must be supplemented with rice bran extract. The present study designed a fermentation medium employing hemicellulosic hydrolysate and provides a basis for studies about value-added products as ethanol and xylitol from lignocellulosic materials.


Subject(s)
Candida/metabolism , Cellulose/metabolism , Culture Media/chemistry , Oryza , Plant Extracts , Pichia/metabolism , Saccharum/metabolism , Candida/growth & development , Ethanol/metabolism , Pichia/growth & development , Xylitol/metabolism
12.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 45(2): 743-751, Apr.-June 2014. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-723113

ABSTRACT

The use of low cost agro-industrial residues for the production of industrial enzymes is one of the ways to reduce significantly production costs. Cellulase producing actinomycetes were isolated from soil and decayed agricultural wastes. Among them, a potential culture, strain NEAE-J, was selected and identified on the basis of morphological, cultural, physiological and chemotaxonomic properties, together with 16S rDNA sequence. It is proposed that strain NEAE-J should be included in the species Streptomyces albogriseolus as a representative of a novel sub-species, Streptomyces albogriseolus subsp. cellulolyticus strain NEAE-J and sequencing product was deposited in the GenBank database under accession number JN229412. This organism was tested for its ability to produce endoglucanase and release reducing sugars from agro-industrial residues as substrates. Sugarcane bagasse was the most suitable substrate for endoglucanase production. Effects of process variables, namely incubation time, temperature, initial pH and nitrogen source on production of endoglucanase by submerged fermentation using Streptomyces albogriseolus subsp. cellulolyticus have been studied. Accordingly optimum conditions have been determined. Incubation temperature of 30 ºC after 6 days, pH of 6.5, 1% sugarcane bagasse as carbon source and peptone as nitrogen source were found to be the optimum for endoglucanase production. Optimization of the process parameters resulted in about 2.6 fold increase in the endoglucanase activity. Therefore, Streptomyces albogriseolus subsp. cellulolyticus coud be potential microorganism for the intended application.


Subject(s)
Cellulase/isolation & purification , Cellulase/metabolism , Streptomyces/metabolism , Bacterial Typing Techniques , Cluster Analysis , Carbohydrates/analysis , Cellulose/metabolism , Culture Media/chemistry , DNA, Bacterial/chemistry , DNA, Bacterial/genetics , DNA, Ribosomal/chemistry , DNA, Ribosomal/genetics , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration , Molecular Sequence Data , Phylogeny , /genetics , Sequence Analysis, DNA , Saccharum/metabolism , Streptomyces/classification , Streptomyces/growth & development , Streptomyces/isolation & purification , Temperature , Time Factors
13.
Electron. j. biotechnol ; 16(6): 11-11, Nov. 2013. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-696552

ABSTRACT

Background: The biobed is a simple biopurification system used to prevent the point-source pesticide contamination that occurs at farm level. The typical composition of the biomixture used in this system is soil, peat and straw in volumetric proportions of 1:1:2. The principal component is straw due to its positive effects on biological activity and thus pesticide degradation. However, access to straw can be limited in some regions, so it must be replaced by other more readily available lignocellulosic residues. Results: Therefore, two alternate lignocellulosic materials (barley husks and pine sawdust) were evaluated as partial substitutes for straw. The degradation of a repeatedly applied mixture of six pesticides by these alternates was assessed. The microbial respiration and fluorescein diacetate (FDA) hydrolysis activity were also assessed. The results showed that the highest degradation efficiency was found in mixtures containing straw and barley husks. Each biomixtures tested achieved a high degradation (50 to 90%) of all the pesticides used except iprodione. Repeated applications of pesticides resulted in a slowing of the degradation rate of all pesticide types in all biomixtures. FDA activity and microbial respiration were higher in the biomixtures containing barley husks and straw compared to the mixture with pine sawdust, a result consistent with the pesticide degradations observed. Conclusions: This paper demonstrates that the straw in the traditional biomixture can be partially replaced by other lignocellulosic materials to efficiently degrade a mixture of pesticides, even when the pesticides are added in successive applications and high concentrations.


Subject(s)
Pesticides/metabolism , Biodegradation, Environmental , Cellulose/metabolism , Lignin/metabolism , Pesticides/isolation & purification , Farms
14.
Braz. j. biol ; 72(3): 471-477, Aug. 2012. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-649335

ABSTRACT

Toxicity and genotoxicity tests were performed on root cells of Allium cepa in order to evaluate wastewater quality following an ECF cellulose bleaching process. The results revealed a toxic effect of the effluent, with inhibition of meristem growth and generally lower values of metaphase, anaphase and telophase indices at pH 10.5 than pH 7 for all effluent concentrations. The genotoxicity effect was different from the toxic effect given that the micronucleus and the chromosomal aberration tests in anaphase-telophase cells were low over all ranges of the studied effluent concentrations.


Os testes de toxicidade e genotoxicidade foram realizados em células da raiz de Allium cepa, a fim de avaliar a qualidade do efluente na sequência de um processo de branqueamento de celulose ECF. Os resultados revelaram um efeito tóxico do efluente, com inibição de crescimento do meristema e valores geralmente baixos de metáfase, anáfase e índices de telófase, a pH 10,5 e pH 7, para todas as concentrações do efluente. O efeito de genotoxicidade foi diferente do efeito tóxico, uma vez que o micronúcleo e os testes de aberrações cromossômicas em anáfase-telófase das células foram baixos em todas as gamas de concentrações do efluente estudado.


Subject(s)
Bleaching Agents/toxicity , Chromosome Aberrations , Cellulose/metabolism , Meristem/drug effects , Onions/drug effects , Cell Division/drug effects , Mitotic Index , Mutagenicity Tests , Onions/cytology
15.
Electron. j. biotechnol ; 14(2): 9-9, Mar. 2011. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-591939

ABSTRACT

Hemicellulosic agricultural by-products such as corn stover (CS) are highly available materials which represent an opportunity to develop value added products. Native Aspergillus niger GS1 was used for solid-state fermentation (SSF) on alkali pre-treated CS (ACS) aimed to optimize xylanolytic enzymes production, and their effect on in vitro ruminal and true digestibility of ACS. Enzyme production was empirically modelled using a fractional factorial design 2(9-5), and the resulting significant factors were glucose, yeast extract and two mineral salts, which were arranged in a Draper-Lin optimization design at two levels. Predicted optimum xylanolytic activity of 33.6 U (mg protein)-1 was achieved at 48 hrs of SSF, and was validated by confirmatory experiments. ACS was incubated with a semipurified enzymatic extract (EE) showing a xylanolytic activity of 1600 U kg-1 dry ACS for 12 hrs before exposure to cow's ruminal liquid for 72 hrs, which led to 5 percent and 10 percent increase of in vitro ruminal and true digestibility, respectively. CS is a readily available by-product in different regions which after alkaline treatment and partial hydrolysis with the EE, may be advantageously used as supplement for ruminant feed.


Subject(s)
Animals , Animal Feed , Aspergillus niger/enzymology , Zea mays/chemistry , Carbon Dioxide , Cellulose/metabolism , Digestion , Fermentation , Polysaccharides/metabolism , Time Factors , Xylans/metabolism
16.
Electron. j. biotechnol ; 13(5): 14-15, Sept. 2010. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-591896

ABSTRACT

Sugar cane bagasse is produced in Brazil as waste of the sugar and ethanol industries. This lignocellulosic material is a potential source for second-generation ethanol production; however a pretreatment stage is essential, which aims at removing the hemicellulose component by disorganizing the lignocellulosic complex. In this work sugar cane bagasse was pretreated by diluted acid hydrolysis resulting in xylose-rich hydrolysates, which could be fermented to ethanol by a strain of the yeast Pichia stipitis. Statistical approach was used to investigate the effects of factors associated with the diluted acid hydrolysis process (acid concentration, solid:liquid ratio and time of exposure) on the fermentability of different hydrolysates. The statistical analysis was useful for determining the effects of the individual factors and their interactions on the response variables. An acid concentration of 1.09 percent (v/v), a solid:liquid ratio of 1:2.8 (g:ml), and an exposure time of 27 min were established and validated as the optimum pretreatment conditions for ethanol production from hemicellulose hydrolysates of sugar cane bagasse. Under these conditions, a hydrolysate with 50 g/l of xylose, 6.04 g/l of acetic acid, 0.55 g/l of hydroxylmethylfurfural and 0.09 g/l of furfural was obtained and its fermentation yielded roughly 20 g/l of ethanol in 40 hrs.


Subject(s)
Cellulose/metabolism , Ethanol/metabolism , Pichia/metabolism , Xylose/metabolism , Fermentation , Hydrolysis , Pichia/chemistry
17.
Electron. j. biotechnol ; 13(2): 5-6, Mar. 2010. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-567083

ABSTRACT

In Brazil, the production of ethanol from sugarcane produces large amounts of lignocellulosic residues (bagasse and straw), which have been driving research and development for the production of second generation ethanol. In the present work, a recombinant Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain expressing the beta-glucosidase gene from Humicola grisea was used for ethanol production from three different cellulosic sources by simultaneous saccharification and fermentation. Initially, a enzymatic pre-hydrolysis step was done with a solid:liquid ratio of 1:4, and an enzymatic load of 25 filter paper activity (FPU).g-1 of cellulosic substrate. Using sugarcane bagasse pretreated cellulignin, crystalline cellulose and carboxymethyl cellulose, 51.7 g L-1, 41.7 g L-1 and 13.8 g L-1 of ethanol was obtained, respectively, at the end of 55 hrs of fermentation. The highest ethanol productivity (0.94 g L-1 hrs-1) was achieved using sugarcane bagasse pretreated cellulignin. The use of a recombinant S. cerevisiae led to extremely low glucose concentrations when compared to other works reported in literature.


Subject(s)
Cellulose/metabolism , Ethanol/metabolism , Lignin/metabolism , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/enzymology , beta-Glucosidase/metabolism , Biomass , Bioreactors , Fermentation , Hydrolysis
18.
Indian J Exp Biol ; 2002 Sep; 40(9): 1038-42
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-59751

ABSTRACT

Carbon, hydrogen and nitrogen analyses of banana leaf and pseudostem biomass revealed their potentiality as substrates for microorganisms. Infra-red (IR) spectra of both biomass show presence of cellulose, xylan and lignin. IR spectra of leaf and pseudostem biomass degraded in solid state fermentation (SSF) by two Pleurotus species (P. sajor-caju and P. ostreatus) for 40 days showed the utilization of cellulose, xylan and lignin by these microbes. Dynamics of various lignocellulolytic enzymes of Pleurotus species and analyses of carbon, hydrogen and nitrogen contents of degraded biomass supported the same. Both the Pleurotus species exhibited lignin consumption ability on both the substrates.


Subject(s)
Basidiomycota/metabolism , Biodegradation, Environmental , Biomass , Carbon/analysis , Cellulose/metabolism , Fermentation , Hydrogen/analysis , Lignin/metabolism , Musa/metabolism , Nitrogen/analysis , Plant Structures/metabolism , Pleurotus/metabolism , Spectroscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared
19.
Indian J Exp Biol ; 2001 Jun; 39(6): 584-9
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-60226

ABSTRACT

Four bacterial species [Branhamella catarrhalis (gram -ve), Brochothrix species (gram -ve), Micrococcus luteus (gram +ve) and Bacillus firmus (gram +ve)], isolated from the soil polluted with cane sugar factory effluents, were found capable of growing on solid media supplemented with indulin AT (a polymeric industrial lignin) as sole C source. All the four species could metabolize cinnamic acid (a non-hydroxylated phenylpropanoid) as sole carbon source with significant suppression on addition of readily metabolizable carbon source (glucose). However, Br. catarrhalis and Brochothrix sp. were capable of metabolizing ferulic acid, but could not do so on addition of glucose. Of the four species, Br. catarrhalis could evolve significant amount of 14CO2 from U-14C (lignin)-lignocellulose prepared from rice stalks (ca. 10% of the added radioactivity in 3 weeks), in addition to solubilization of another 11.7% radioactivity in culture filtrate. The other three species could not significantly evolve 14CO2, though a significant fraction of added 14C-lignin (6.1 to 11.2%) could be solubilized into culture filtrate, suggesting lack of ring-cleavage or other CO2 evolving mechanisms in these species.


Subject(s)
Bacteria/metabolism , Biodegradation, Environmental , Carbon Radioisotopes , Cellulose/metabolism , Lignin/metabolism , Soil Microbiology
20.
Bulletin of High Institute of Public Health [The]. 1995; 25 (3): 705-716
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-36769

ABSTRACT

Production of glycerol by S. cerevisiae y-1347 through the fermentation of holocellulose by T. viride was studied. The accumulation and the yield of glycerol was dependent on the holocellulose level, pH control, nitrogen source and its level. The addition of trace elements during the fermentation resulted in a decrease in production of glycerol


Subject(s)
Trichoderma/chemistry , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/chemistry , Cellulose/metabolism
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