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Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-935278


Central nervous system (CNS) fungal infections are challenging and difficult to diagnose and treat. This article introduces the high risk factors, pathogen spectrum and laboratory indicators that cause CNS fungal infection. As patients with CNS fungal infections are often accompanied by immunodeficiency, it is especially necessary for clinical early detection, early prevention, and early diagnosis, and timely and effective implementation of optimized diagnosis and treatment programs to prevent further deterioration of the disease.

Central Nervous System , Central Nervous System Fungal Infections/microbiology , Central Nervous System Infections , Fungi , Humans , Risk Factors
Rev. Inst. Med. Trop. Säo Paulo ; 57(6): 527-530, Nov.-Dec. 2015. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-770120


Paracoccidioidomycosis and histoplasmosis are systemic fungal infections endemic in Brazil. Disseminated clinical forms are uncommon in immunocompetent individuals. We describe two HIV-negative patients with disseminated fungal infections, paracoccidioidomycosis and histoplasmosis, who were diagnosed by biopsies of suprarenal lesions. Both were treated for a prolonged period with oral antifungal agents, and both showed favorable outcomes.

A paracoccidioidomicose e a histoplasmose são infecções fúngicas sistêmicas endêmicas no Brasil. As formas clínicas disseminadas são incomuns em pacientes imunocompetentes. Nós descrevemos dois pacientes HIV-negativos com infecções fúngicas disseminadas, paracoccidioidomicose e histoplasmose, que foram diagnosticadas por biópsias de lesões de supra-renal. Ambos foram tratados por períodos prolongados com antifúngicos orais, evoluindo com boa resposta terapêutica.

Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Adrenal Gland Diseases/diagnosis , Central Nervous System Fungal Infections/diagnosis , Facial Dermatoses/diagnosis , Histoplasmosis/diagnosis , Paracoccidioidomycosis/diagnosis , Adrenal Gland Diseases/microbiology , Biopsy , Brazil , Central Nervous System Fungal Infections/microbiology , Facial Dermatoses/microbiology , Immunocompetence/physiology
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 107(7): 854-858, Nov. 2012. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-656039


The goal of this study was to review 18 cases of phaeohyphomycosis in Rio Grande do Sul. The records of all of the patients with a diagnosis of phaeohyphomycosis between 1995-2010 were reviewed. Twelve of the 18 patients (66.6%) were male. The average age of the patients was 50 years old (range: 16-74 years). Eleven patients (61%) presented with subcutaneous lesions. Seven patients (38.8%) had received a solid organ transplant. In all of the cases, the presence of melanin in the fungal cells was determined by Fontana-Masson staining of tissue sections and documented. Among the 18 patients, a total of 11 different fungal species were isolated. The causative organisms included Exophiala jeanselmei, Alternaria, Curvularia, Cladophialophora and Colletotrichum gloeosporioides. To our knowledge, this review reports the first case of subcutaneous phaeohyphomycosis caused by C. gloeosporioides in a lung transplant patient. The number of reported cases of phaeohyphomycosis has increased in the last decade. In a number of cases, this increased incidence may be primarily attributed to iatrogenic immunodeficiency.

Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Phaeohyphomycosis/epidemiology , Brazil/epidemiology , Central Nervous System Fungal Infections/diagnosis , Central Nervous System Fungal Infections/epidemiology , Central Nervous System Fungal Infections/microbiology , Central Nervous System Fungal Infections/pathology , Dermatomycoses/diagnosis , Dermatomycoses/epidemiology , Dermatomycoses/microbiology , Dermatomycoses/pathology , Immunocompromised Host , Lung Transplantation , Phaeohyphomycosis/diagnosis , Phaeohyphomycosis/microbiology , Phaeohyphomycosis/pathology , Retrospective Studies
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 45(5): 586-590, Sept.-Oct. 2012. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-656213


INTRODUCTION: Paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM) is the most important systemic mycosis in South America. Central nervous system involvement is potentially fatal and can occur in 12.5% of cases. This paper aims to contribute to the literature describing eight cases of neuroparacoccidioidomycosis (NPMC) and compare their characteristics with patients without neurological involvement, to identify unique characteristics of NPCM. METHODS: A cohort of 213 PCM cases was evaluated at the Infectious Diseases Clinic of the University Hospital, Federal University of Minas Gerais, Brazil, from October 1976 to August 2008. Epidemiological, clinical, laboratory, therapeutic and follow-up data were registered. RESULTS: Eight patients presented NPCM. The observed NPCM prevalence was 3.8%. One patient presented the subacute form of PCM and the other seven presented the chronic form of the disease. The parenchymatous form of NPCM occurred in all patients. 60% of the patients who proceeded from the north/ northeast region of Minas Gerais State developed NPCM. The neurological involvement of a mother and her son was observed. NPCM patients exhibited demographical and clinical profiles similar to what is described in the literature. When NPCM cases were compared to PCM patients, there were differences in relation to origin and positive PCM family history. CONCLUSIONS: The results corroborate the clinical view that the neurological findings are extremely important in the evaluation of PCM patients. Despite the limitations of this study, the differences in relation to patient's origins and family history point to the need of further studies to determine the susceptibility factors involved in the neurological compromise.

INTRODUÇÃO: A paracoccidioidomicose (PCM) é a micose profunda mais importante na América do Sul. O comprometimento do sistema nervoso central é grave e pode ocorrer em 12,5% dos casos. Este trabalho tem como objetivo descrever oito casos de neuroparacoccidioidomicose (NPMC) e comparar suas características com pacientes sem envolvimento neurológico, a fim de identificar aspectos singulares da NPCM. MÉTODOS: Uma coorte de 213 casos de PCM foi avaliada na Clínica de Doenças Infecciosas do Hospital das Clínicas da Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, de outubro de 1976 a agosto de 2008. Dados epidemiológicos, clínicos, laboratoriais, terapêuticos e de seguimento foram registrados. RESULTADOS: Oito pacientes apresentaram NPCM. A prevalência de NPCM observada foi de 3,8%. Um paciente apresentou a forma subaguda da PCM e sete apresentaram a forma crônica. Todos os pacientes apresentaram a forma parenquimatosa. Cerca de 60% dos pacientes provenientes das regiões norte e nordeste de Minas Gerais desenvolveram NPCM. Foi observado o desenvolvimento de NPCM em uma mãe e em seu filho. Os pacientes com NPCM apresentaram perfis demográficos e clínicos similares à descrição da literatura. Quando comparados aos pacientes com PCM, houve diferenças em relação à procedência de tais pacientes e história familiar positiva de PCM. CONCLUSÕES: Os resultados confirmam a importância da avaliação neurológica em pacientes com PCM. Apesar das limitações desse trabalho, as diferenças com relação à procedência dos pacientes e à história familiar apontam para a necessidade de mais estudos para investigar a existência de fatores de susceptibilidade envolvidos no desenvolvimento da NPCM.

Adult , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Brain Diseases/epidemiology , Central Nervous System Fungal Infections/epidemiology , Paracoccidioidomycosis/epidemiology , Brain Diseases/microbiology , Brain Diseases , Brazil/epidemiology , Chi-Square Distribution , Central Nervous System Fungal Infections/microbiology , Central Nervous System Fungal Infections , Prevalence , Paracoccidioidomycosis , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
Indian J Med Microbiol ; 2012 Jul-Sept; 30(3): 367-370
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-143990


Idiopathic CD4 lymphocytopenia (ICL) is a rare disorder which is often diagnosed as HIV-negative AIDS in the light of poor immunity and AIDS-defining illnesses. We present a case of a 50-year-old male who presented with a midline posterior fossa tumour with ICL diagnosed as cerebellar cryptococcoma.

CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , Central Nervous System Fungal Infections/diagnosis , Central Nervous System Fungal Infections/microbiology , Central Nervous System Fungal Infections/pathology , Cerebellum/pathology , Cerebellum/diagnostic imaging , Cryptococcosis/diagnosis , Cryptococcosis/microbiology , Cryptococcosis/pathology , Cryptococcus neoformans/isolation & purification , Humans , Lymphopenia/complications , Lymphopenia/diagnosis , Male , Middle Aged , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
Rev. chil. infectol ; 28(6): 581-584, dic. 2011. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-612159


A twenty four year-old male patient with a history of morbid obesity and acute lymphocytic leukemia diagnosed in 2003, underwent an autologous bone marrow transplantation the same year. He had two relapses of leukemia on 2003 and 2007. On January 2009, he underwent a double cord bone marrow transplantation with myeloablative conditioning and craneospinal radiotherapy. The patient received prophylaxis with aciclovir, cotrimoxazole and fluconazole. The latter was changed afterwards to posaconazole. On day 16 post-transplantation, fever and menin-geal signs appeared. The cerebrospinal fluid exam revealed pleocytosis with polymorphonuclear predominance. Empirical therapy was started with meropenem. Due to neurological impairment, at day 33, a brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was performed, showing multiple hypodense supra and infratentorial nodules with peripheral edema. Biopsy, universal PCR for fungi and a new cerebrospinal fluid analysis were performed and amphotericin B was added showing a favorable response. He was discharged with itraconazole, as the universal PCR of brain tissue revealed Penicillium spp. This is the third report presented in this journal that stresses the importance of early neuroimaging, especially MRI to certify the involvement of the central nervous system in immunocompromised patients.

Paciente de 24 años, sexo masculino, con antecedente de obesidad mórbida que debutó con una leucemia linfática aguda (LLA) en el año 2003. Se le efectuó trasplante (Tx) de precursores hematopoyéticos, autólogo, recayendo el mismo año. En el año 2007 presentó una segunda recaída por lo que se le sometió a Tx doble de cordón como rescate en enero de 2009, con acondicionamiento mieloablativo y radioterapia cráneo-espinal recibiendo profilaxis con aciclovir, cotrimoxazol y fluconazol, el que fuera cambiado posteriormente a posaconazol. El día 16 post trasplante presentó fiebre y signos meníngeos, con LCR que revelaba una pleocitosis de predominio polimorfonuclear. Se inició terapia empírica con meropenem. Debido al deterioro neurológico, en el día 33, se le efectuó una resonancia magnética cerebral (RM) donde se evidenciaron múltiples nódulos hipodensos supra e infratentoriales con edema periférico. Se le realizó biopsia cerebral, cultivos, reacción de polimerasa en cadena (RPC) para hongos, nuevo estudio de LCR completo y se agregó anfotericina B deoxicolato presentando una respuesta favorable. Finalizada la terapia con anfotericina B se dio de alta con itraconazol ya que la RPC de tejido cerebral reveló Penicillium sp. Este es el tercer caso presentado en esta revista en los que enfatizamos la importancia de las neuroimágenes, en especial la RM, realizadas en forma precoz para certificar el compromiso del SNC en pacientes inmunocomprometidos.

Humans , Male , Young Adult , Central Nervous System Fungal Infections/microbiology , Immunocompromised Host , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Neuroimaging , Penicillium/isolation & purification , Central Nervous System Fungal Infections/diagnosis , Central Nervous System Fungal Infections/immunology , Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma/complications
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 44(1): 22-25, Jan.-Feb. 2011. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-579825


INTRODUCTION: Neuroparacoccidioidomycosis (NPCM) is a term used to describe the invasion of the central nervous system by the pathogenic fungus Paracoccidioides brasiliensis. NPCM has been described sporadically in some case reports and small case series, with little or no focus on treatment outcome and long-term follow-up. METHODS: All patients with NPCM from January 1991 to December 2006 were analyzed and were followed until December 2009. RESULTS: Fourteen (3.8 percent) cases of NPCM were identified out of 367 patients with paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM). A combination of oral fluconazole and sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim (SMZ/TMP) was the regimen of choice, with no documented death due to Paracoccidioides brasiliensis infection. Residual neurological deficits were observed in 8 patients. Residual calcification was a common finding in neuroimaging follow-up. CONCLUSIONS: All the patients in this study responded positively to the association of oral fluconazole and sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim, a regimen that should be considered a treatment option in cases of NPCM. Neurological sequela was a relatively common finding. For proper management of these patients, anticonvulsant treatment and physical therapy support were also needed.

INTRODUÇÃO: Neuroparacoccidioidomicose (NPCM) é um termo utilizado para descrever a invasão do sistema nervoso central pelo fungo patogênico Paracoccidioides brasiliensis. NPCM é descrita, esporadicamente, em relatos de casos ou pequenas séries de casos com pouco ou nenhum enfoque no tratamento ou acompanhamento de longo prazo. MÉTODOS: Todos os pacientes com diagnóstico de NPCM entre janeiro de 1991 a dezembro de 2006 foram acompanhados até dezembro de 2009. RESULTADOS: Foram identificados 14 (3,8 por cento) casos de NPCM de 367 pacientes com paracoccidioidomicose (PCM). Regime combinando fluconazol oral e sulfamethoxazol/trimetoprim (SMZ/TMP) foi o tratamento de escolha. Não houve nenhum caso de óbito causado pelo fungo Paracoccidioides brasiliensis.Sequela neurológica foi identificada em 8 pacientes. Durante o seguimento, calcificação residual foi um achado comum de neuroimagem. CONCLUSÕES: Todos os pacientes deste estudo responderam de forma favorável a associação do fluconazol com o sulfamethoxazol/trimetoprim, um esquema terapêutico que deve ser considerado nos casos de NPCM. Sequela neurológica foi um achado relativamente comum, desta forma, a utilização de anticonvulsivantes, assim como foi necessário suporte fisioterápico para um manejo adequado destes pacientes.

Adult , Female , Humans , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Antifungal Agents/therapeutic use , Central Nervous System Fungal Infections/drug therapy , Fluconazole/therapeutic use , Paracoccidioidomycosis/drug therapy , Trimethoprim, Sulfamethoxazole Drug Combination/therapeutic use , Central Nervous System Fungal Infections/microbiology , Follow-Up Studies , Paracoccidioidomycosis/microbiology , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Treatment Outcome
Indian J Med Microbiol ; 2008 Oct-Dec; 26(4): 392-5
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-53739


Cladophialophora bantiana, a dematiaceous fungus and a member of the family Phaeohyphomycetes, is primarily a neurotropic fungus causing central nervous system (CNS) infection. We report a case of a well preserved, young adult male presenting with a capsuloganglionic abscess caused by C. bantiana, a rare entity. Diagnosis was made based on the mycology and histopathology findings of the aspirate from the abscess through a burr hole. The patient responded clinically to amphotericin B.

Adult , Ascomycota/classification , Brain Abscess/microbiology , Brain Diseases/microbiology , Central Nervous System Fungal Infections/microbiology , Humans , Male , Mycoses/microbiology , Young Adult
Indian J Pathol Microbiol ; 2006 Oct; 49(4): 555-7
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-74001


Aspergillosis of central nervous system is an uncommon infection mainly occurring in immunocompromised patient. It may be present in several forms: abscess, meningitis, mycotic aneurysm, infarction and in tumoral form. Here we report a case of cerebral aspergillosis presenting as bilateral frontal lobe abscess without evidence of any underlying systemic disorder or extracranial disease.

Aspergillus/isolation & purification , Brain Abscess/microbiology , Central Nervous System Fungal Infections/microbiology , Humans , Immunocompromised Host , Male , Middle Aged , Neuroaspergillosis/microbiology , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
Rev. Inst. Med. Trop. Säo Paulo ; 47(3)May-June 2005. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-406294


Apresentamos um caso de infecção do sistema nervoso central (SNC) por Penicillium spp em paciente do sexo masculino, HIV-negativo no Brasil. O paciente apresentou-se ao Serviço de Urgência do Hospital das Clínicas da Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de São Paulo queixando-se de alteração visual e dificuldade na fala. Exames de neuroimagem mostraram lesões múltiplas, compatíveis com abscessos. A biópsia esterotáxica revelou infecção fúngica, iniciando-se o tratamento com anfotericina B com sucesso inicial. O paciente morreu poucos dias depois, vítima de uma hemorragia digestiva maciça devido a varizes de esôfago. A necropsia e a análise microbiológica final da biópsia cerebral revelaram infecção por Penicillium spp. Exixtem centenas de espécies de fungos do gênero Penicillium. A peniciliose sistêmica é causada pelo P. marneffei e costumava ser uma doença rara, mas atualmente é uma das infecções oportunistas mais comuns em associação com AIDS no Sudeste Asiático. Infecção pelo Penicillium spp de espécie diferente do P. marneffei normalmente causa apenas doenças superficiais ou alérgicas mas doenças invasivas também ocorrem raramente. Nós relatamos o quarto caso de infecção do SNC por Penicillium spp.

Humans , Male , Adult , Brain Abscess/microbiology , Central Nervous System Fungal Infections/microbiology , Penicillium/isolation & purification , Amphotericin B/therapeutic use , Antifungal Agents/therapeutic use , Brain Abscess/diagnosis , Brain Abscess/drug therapy , Central Nervous System Fungal Infections/diagnosis , Central Nervous System Fungal Infections/drug therapy , Fatal Outcome , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
Braz. j. infect. dis ; 9(2): 126-133, Apr. 2005. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-408454


Paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM) is an infectious disease, endemic to subtropical areas of Central and South America, caused by the dimorphic fungus Paracoccidioides brasiliensis. It is a chronic disease, mostly affecting adult males, with a mean patient age of 44 years. Central nervous system involvement (CNS PCM) has been found in 13 percent of the patients with systemic disease. We reviewed the clinical presentation, diagnosis techniques and treatments for CNS PCM.

Adult , Animals , Female , Humans , Male , Central Nervous System Fungal Infections/microbiology , Paracoccidioides , Paracoccidioidomycosis/diagnosis , Central Nervous System Fungal Infections/diagnosis , Central Nervous System Fungal Infections/drug therapy , Paracoccidioidomycosis/cerebrospinal fluid , Paracoccidioidomycosis/drug therapy