Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 340
Filter
1.
Lima; INEN; 12 ene. 2021. 17 p.
Non-conventional in Spanish | LILACS, BRISA | ID: biblio-1282896

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCCIÓN: El Departamento de Equipo Funcional de Patología Quirúrgica y Necropsia del Instituto Nacional de Enfermedades Neoplásicas, en relación a nuevos reactivos de inmunohistoquímica para diagnóstico oncológico de tumores del sistema nervioso central, ha solicitado la opinión técnica de la UFETS. 2. Existen neoplasias del sistema nervioso central que presentan una pobre respuesta al tratamiento estandarizado y un peor pronóstico, por lo cual ameritan un diagnóstico eficaz y temprano. Los marcadores para inmunohistoquímica H3 K27M, H3 K27m3, GAB-1, YAP-1, H3.3G34R y MAP-2 permitirían un diagnóstico más eficaz e incluso influiría en su tratamiento y seguimiento. Estrategia de búsqueda de información: a) Pregunta Clínica: Sección A: SNC: En la población con tumores de SNC, ¿Cuál es la utilidad de los marcadores de H3 K27m3, GAB-1, YAP-1, H3.3G34R y MAP-2 como diagnóstico oncológico en tumores del SNC? b) Recolecciòn de los Manuscritos a Revisar: Tipos de estudios: La estrategia de búsqueda sistemática de información científica para el desarrollo del presente informe se realizó siguiendo las recomendaciones de la Pirámide jerárquica de la evidencia propuesta por Haynes y se consideró los siguientes estudios: Sumarios y guías de práctica clínica. Revisiones sistemáticas y/o meta-análisis. Ensayos Controlados Aleatorizados (ECA) Estudios Observacionales (cohortes, caso y control, descriptivos) No hubo limitaciones acerca de la fecha de publicación o el idioma para ningún estudio. DISCUSION: Tomando los criterios para un marco de valor de la Health Technology Assessment International (2018)13 para la toma de decisiones y formulación de la recomendación, se encontró una serie de estudios de los cuales no se encontraron revisiones sistemáticas ni estudios diagnósticos. La calidad de evidencia evaluada con metodología GRADE fue baja en todos los estudios evaluados, considerando el diseño de estudio observacional, y por el pequeño tamaño de las muestras estudiadas. Esta valoración indica que los resultados obtenidos en el mundo real por la aplicación de estas tecnologías pueden ser significativamente diferentes a los resultados diagnósticos de los estudios presentados. Los estudios que evaluaron el H3K27M y H3K27me3 evaluaron la utilidad diagnóstica de los anticuerpos para detección de estas mutaciones. El diagnóstico de glioma de línea media con mutación K27M permite reconocer una entidad de peor pronóstico y sólo se logra con la aplicación de estos marcadores. Si bien existe una cantidad limitada de evidencia, los estudios llevados por Tina Huang y col. evaluaron el rendimiento diagnóstico de estos marcadores comparándolos con estudios de mutación en muestras de tejido con diagnóstico de glioma (n=69) y tejido sano (n=4) en población pediátrica. Otro estudio por Sriram Venneti y col. tomaron como población 290 muestras de cáncer con mutación H3F3A K27M conocida. Los estudios reportan una sensibilidad 100% y una especificidad 100% para el marcador H3K27M y Sriram Venneti reportó una sensibilidad 100% y especificidad 98% para H3K27me3. Ambos marcadores cuentan con una utilidad diagnóstica importante su aplicación permitiría diagnosticar precozmente una enfermedad con mal pronóstico en edad pediátrica y adulta. El GAB-1 y el YAP-1 intervienen en el proceso de desarrollo del cáncer a nivel de sistema nervioso central. La detección de ambas mutaciones por inmnohistoquimica permite la clasificación molecular del meduloblastoma en SHH, WNT y no-SHH/WNT. El determinar el subtipo molecular es importante ya que cada uno cuenta con un pronóstico diferente y su reconocimiento permitiría realizar un mejor diagnóstico y hasta influir en el tipo de tratamiento que recibiría. David W. Ellison y su equipo reconocer al meduloblastoma como una enfermedad heterogenea y a través de inmunohistoquímica determinan los subtipos de meduloblastoma en una cohorte de 235 muestras en pacientes de un rango de edad 0.4 ­ 52 años. Los subtipos moleculares SHH, WNT, y no SHH/WNT correspondían al 31%, 14%, y 55% de los casos. Hye Sook Min y col. evaluaron la detección de mutaciones a través de anticuerpos para inmunohistoquímica en cada subtipo molecular de meduloblastoma. El GAB-1 fue hallado en el 100% de los subtipos SHH y en sólo el 25% del subtipo WNT. El YAP-1 se encontró en el 50% de los subtipos WNT, el 80%de SHH y sólo el 2% en los subtipos no-SHH/WNT. Ambos marcadores son relevantes para poder clasificar adecuadamente cada subtipo molecular de meduloblastoma. Las mutaciones H3.3G34R y MAP-2 están asociadas con la progresión de enfermedad oncológica. Farhana Haque y col. evaluaron la eficacia de la inmunotinción para la detección de H3.3G34R en una cohorte de 22 muestras de tumores incluidos en parafina con mutación H3.3 G34R conocida. 17 eran tumores supratentoriales de alto grado, 2 gangliomas anaplasicos, 2 oligoastrocitomas grado III y 1 glioma de alto grado. La IHC detectó con éxito la proteína mutante correspondiente en todos los casos (11/11 G34R). Los resultados demostraron una concordancia adecuada entre estudio diagnóstico con inmunohistoquímica y estudio mutacional correspondiente. Se reportó una sensibilidad del 100% y especificidad del 98% para diagnóstico. Con respecto al estudio de inmunohistoquímica del MAP-2, Ingmar Blümcke y su grupo de estudio demostraron que el análisis por inmunohistoquímica presentó una sensibilidad del 98% y una alta especificidad para la detección de esta mutación, la cual está asociada con la progresión de tumores astrocíticos de alto grado en el sistema nervioso central. En este momento el INEN no cuenta con marcadores que puedan diagnosticar los gliomas de línea media con mutación K27M, una entidad de pobre repuesta al tratamiento y peor pronóstico y que por ende ameritaría un diagnóstico precoz. De la misma forma, la clasificación molecular de los meduloblastomas es algo importante. Cada subtipo molecular cuenta con un pronóstico diferente lo cual podría impactar en el tratamiento y la forma de seguimiento de los pacientes. Tampoco se cuenta con una forma de detección de la mutación 3.3 G34R y el MAP-2 cuenta con una alta eficacia diagnóstica para el diagnóstico de astrocitomas de alto grado. Ninguno de estos procedimientos diagnósticos está siendo realizado en este momento por lo cual la aplicación de estos marcadores supone un impacto positivo al considerar la población de pacientes diagnosticados que contarían con un tratamiento adecuado. Todos estos marcadores se integrarían al arsenal diagnóstico, sin reemplazar otro marcador que ya se esté aplicando en el INEN. El impacto económico de esta prueba para el INEN es incierto y es necesario realizar un análisis de impacto presupuestario para estimar cuantitativamente el gasto sanitario del uso de esta prueba en la población con linfomas. CONCLUSIONES: Algunas patologías oncológicas del sistema nervioso centran tienen una mala respuesta al tratamiento convencional, lo cual les da un peor pronóstico y un curso más agressivo. Los marcadores H3 K27M y H3 K27m3 presentan una alta sensibilidad y especificidad para el diagnóstico de gliomas de la línea media con mutación K27M. Esta entidad cuenta con una peor respuesta a tratamiento y peor pronóstico. Su detección temprana podría permitir un mejor tratamiento y optimizar las pautas de seguimiento. Los marcadores H3.3G34R y MAP-2 reconocen mutaciones que intervienen con el desarrollo del cáncer. Ambos cuentan con una alta sensibilidad y especificidad para el diagnóstico de tumores astrocíticos de alto grado. Los marcadores GAB-1 y YAP-1 se utilizan para determinar los subtipos moleculares de meduloblastoma, teniendo el GAB-1 una sensibilidad alta para el tipo SHH. Cada subtipo molecular de meduloblastoma cuenta con un pronóstico diferente lo cual podría influenciar en la forma de tratamiento que recibirían. Los marcadores de inmunohistoquímica permitirían un eficaz y temprano diagnóstico, lo cual influiría positivamente en el pronóstico de los pacientes con estas patologías, las cuales hasta la fecha no han sido diagnosticadas adecuadamente.


Subject(s)
Humans , Immunohistochemistry/instrumentation , Central Nervous System Neoplasms/diagnosis , Technology Assessment, Biomedical , Health Evaluation
2.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-880125

ABSTRACT

Primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL) is a rare aggressive non-Hodgkin's lymphoma outside the lymph nodes. At present, high-dose chemotherapy based on methotrexate is the standard induction therapy for newly diagnosed PCNSL, but the effective therapy of relapse/refractory and elderly PCNSL is still unclear. With the progress of clinical trials, new drugs and combined treatment method appear constantly, such as rituximab and ibrutinib, the remission rate of refractory and relapsed patients increased, while lenalidomide showed a good activity in the maintenance treatment of elderly patients. This review summarized briefly the recent advances of research on immunocheckpoint inhibitors, immunoregulatory agents, bruton tyrosine kinase (BTK) and PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway inhibitors.


Subject(s)
Aged , Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols , Central Nervous System , Central Nervous System Neoplasms/drug therapy , Humans , Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin/drug therapy , Neoplasm Recurrence, Local , Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases
3.
Autops. Case Rep ; 11: e2021250, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1249025

ABSTRACT

We describe an unusual case of lymphomatosis cerebri in a middle-aged lady presenting with rapid-onset dementia. The lymphomatous infiltrate, instead of forming mass lesions, percolated throughout the brain parenchyma, which is often missed on a stereotactic biopsy and hence warrants caution and awareness about this entity. The nonspecific symptoms at presentation and a variable picture at imaging make this entity diagnostically challenging.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Middle Aged , Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin/pathology , Central Nervous System Neoplasms/pathology , Autopsy , Dementia
4.
Acta méd. colomb ; 45(4): 9-19, Oct.-Dec. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1278136

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction: glioblastoma multiforme is considered to be highly lethal, for which the optimal duration of adjuvant temozolamide chemotherapy has not been determined. Objective: to evaluate survival according to the length of adjuvant chemotherapy based on the standard Stupp platform protocol. Materials and methods: a retrospective cohort analysis of 299 high-grade central nervous system tumors seen at Oncólogos del Occidente, focused solely on glioblastoma multiforme, according to clinical, treatment and outcome variables. Results: one hundred ninety-three patients with glioblastoma; 84 (44%) received standard Stupp platform treatment; mean age 54 years; 55% males; mean tumor size 28,793 mm2; 48% right hemisphere; 21% crossed the midline; 33% had seizures and 42% neurological deficit; 55% Karnofsky less than 70% and 66% RPA IV classification; 77% received radiation with 60.00 Gy or more; 19% had complications; 79% partial resection and 12% total resection; 77% relapsed; at closure, 57% were alive, global survival of 26% and mean of 26 months, with a difference of 31 months for adjuvance of <or> 6 months and 30 months for adjuvance of <or> 12 months, without reaching a median in the 18 and 24 month groups, all of them favoring the group with the longest time. Conclusion: a clear increase in survival is shown with adjuvant temozolamide for periods longer than six months, as well as a tendency towards better results with increased duration of adjuvance.


Resumen Introducción: el glioblastoma multiforme se considera altamente letal, donde la duración óptima de quimioterapia adyuvante con base en temozolamide no ha sido definida. Objetivo: evaluar la sobrevida según la duración de quimioterapia adyuvante basada en el esquema estándar de plataforma Stupp. Material y métodos: análisis de cohorte retrospectiva de 299 tumores del sistema nervioso central de alto grado, valorados en Oncólogos del Occidente enfocado sólo a glioblastoma multiforme según variables clínicas, terapéuticas y de resultados. Resultados: ciento noventa y tres pacientes con glioblastoma, 84 (44%) recibieron manejo estándar tipo plataforma Stupp; edad media 54 años; hombres 55%; tamaño tumoral medio 28.79 mm2; hemisferio derecho 48%; 21% cruzaban línea media; 33% presentaron convulsiones y 42% déficit neurológico; 55% Karnofsky menor a 70% y 66% clasificación RPA IV; 77% recibieron radioterapia con 60.00 Gys o mayor; 19% presentaron complicaciones; resección parcial 79% y 12% total; 77% recayeron; al cierre 57% se encontraban vivos, sobrevida global de 26% y media de 26 meses con diferencia de 31 meses para adyuvancia en <o> a 6 meses y 30 meses en adyuvancia <o> a 12 meses sin alcanzar mediana en los grupos <o> de 18 y 24 meses favoreciendo en todos al grupo de mayor tiempo. Conclusión: se demuestra aumento claro en la sobrevida con el empleo de temozolamide adyuvante por periodos mayores a seis meses y una tendencia a mejores resultados mientras mayor sea el tiempo de adyuvancia.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Central Nervous System Neoplasms , Glioblastoma , Central Nervous System , Chemotherapy, Adjuvant , Survivorship , Neoplasms
5.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 72(3): 794-798, May-June, 2020. ilus
Article in Portuguese | ID: biblio-1129180

ABSTRACT

Meningiomas são os principais tumores primários do sistema nervoso central (SNC) que afetam cães e gatos. Na maioria dos casos, são neoplasias benignas, geralmente expansivas, causando compressão do SNC, e raramente fazem metástase para outros órgãos. O presente trabalho tem como objetivo relatar a ocorrência de um meningioma microcístico com metástase pulmonar em um canino de 11 anos de idade, com sinais clínicos de andar cambaleante, compressão da cabeça contra objetos, agitação, salivação e agressividade. Na necropsia, foram observadas, no encéfalo, massas bem delimitadas pardo-avermelhadas, firmes, de aspecto granular, localizadas no córtex parietal e nos núcleos da base. Inúmeras micronodulações de aspecto semelhante foram observadas no pulmão. Histologicamente observaram-se nódulos formados por células neoplásicas fusiformes, com núcleos grandes e alongados e nucléolos evidentes, dispostas de forma frouxa, formando vacúolos e microcistos. À imuno-histoquímica, o meningioma apresentou marcação fortemente positiva para citoqueratina e negativa para vimentina. Por meio da histopatologia e da imuno-histoquímica, foi possível estabelecer a classificação histológica de meningioma microcístico, bem como diferenciá-lo de outras doenças que cursam com sinais nervosos.(AU)


Meningiomas are the main tumors of the central nervous system (CNS) affecting dogs and cats. In most of the cases they are benign neoplasms, usually expansive, causing compression of the CNS and rarely metastasize to other organs. We describe the occurrence of a microcystic meningioma with pulmonary metastasis in an 11 - year - old canine with clinical signs of staggering gait, head compression against objects, agitation, salivation and aggressiveness. At necropsy, well-defined, firm, granular-looking masses located in the parietal cortex and nuclei of the base were observed in the encephalon. Numerous micronodulations of similar appearance were observed in the lung. Histologically, nodules formed by spindle neoplastic cells with large, elongated nuclei and evident nuclei were loosely arranged, forming vacuoles and microcysts. Immunohistochemistry were strongly positive for cytokeratin and negative for vimentin. Through the histopathology and immunohistochemistry, it was possible to establish the histological classification of microcystic meningioma, as well as to differentiate from other diseases that present with nervous signals.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Dogs , Lung/pathology , Meningioma/complications , Meningioma/veterinary , Neoplasm Metastasis , Immunohistochemistry/veterinary , Central Nervous System Neoplasms/veterinary , Lung Neoplasms/veterinary
6.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-826345

ABSTRACT

We reported a case of supratentorial primary central nervous system lymphoma with hyperperfusion.Computed tomography revealed hyperdense lesions on the bilateral centrum semiovale with obvious edema.Magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated that the lesion presented slightly long and iso-T1 signal and slightly long and long T2 signals;hyperintensity was found on diffusion-weighted imaging,with relatively high apparent diffusion coefficient value compared with the adjacent normal white matter.Contrast-enhanced imaging revealed bilateral evenly enhanced lesions,along with patchy non-enhanced shadows in right-sided lesion.The perfusion-weighted imaging revealed hyperperfusion in bilateral lesions.


Subject(s)
Central Nervous System Neoplasms , Diffusion Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Humans , Lymphoma , Magnetic Resonance Imaging
7.
Geriatr., Gerontol. Aging (Impr.) ; 13(4): 230-233, out-.dez.2019. ilus
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1097142

ABSTRACT

As demências rapidamente progressivas são condições que impactam a vida do paciente, entretanto nem sempre são consideradas durante a investigação da síndrome demencial. Este relato descreve uma paciente portadora de artrite reumatoide em uso crônico de corticoterapia que evoluiu com um quadro de demência rapidamente progressiva no período de cinco meses. Durante a investigação, evidenciou-se o linfoma primário de sistema nervoso central como causa de sua síndrome demencial. Faz-se importante destacar que o uso prolongado de corticoide pode estar associado a um estado de imunossupressão, o que é fator de risco para o surgimento do linfoma de sistema nervoso central.


Rapidly progressive dementias are conditions that worsening the patient's life; however they are not always considered during the investigation of dementia syndrome. This report describes the case of a patient with rheumatoid arthritis and chronic use of corticosteroid therapy, who developed rapidly progressive dementia within 5 months. During the investigation, the primary lymphoma of the central nervous system was evidenced as the cause of its dementia syndrome. Importantly, prolonged use of corticosteroids may be associated with a state of immunosuppression, which is a risk factor for the onset of central nervous system lymphoma.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Aged, 80 and over , Lymphoma, B-Cell/complications , Dementia/complications , Dementia/diagnosis , Lymphoma/diagnostic imaging , Arthritis, Rheumatoid/drug therapy , Central Nervous System Neoplasms , Adrenal Cortex Hormones/therapeutic use , Mental Status and Dementia Tests
8.
Rev. Assoc. Med. Bras. (1992) ; 65(3): 460-468, Mar. 2019. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1003053

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY INTRODUCTION: Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most frequent primary malignant tumor from the central nervous system in adults. However, the presence of systemic metastasis is an extremely rare event. The objective of this study was to review the literature, evaluating the possible biological mechanisms related to the occurrence of systemic metastasis in patients diagnosed with GBM. RESULTS: The mechanisms that may be related to GBM systemic dissemination are the blood-brain barrier breach, often seen in GBM cases, by the tumor itself or by surgical procedures, gaining access to blood and lymphatic vessels, associated with the acquisition of mesenchymal features of invasiveness, resistance to the immune mechanisms of defense and hostile environment through quiescence. CONCLUSIONS: Tumor cells must overcome many obstacles until the development of systemic metastasis. The physiologic mechanisms are not completely clear. Although not fully understood, the pathophysiological understanding of the mechanisms that may be associated with the systemic spread is salutary for a global understanding of the disease. In addition, this knowledge may be used as a basis for a therapy to be performed in patients diagnosed with GBM distant metastasis.


RESUMO INTRODUÇÃO: Glioblastoma (GBM) é o tumor maligno mais comum do sistema nervoso central em adultos. Entretanto, metástase a distância de GBM é um evento extremamente raro. O presente estudo teve o objetivo de realizar uma revisão da literatura para avaliar os possíveis mecanismos biológicos relacionados com a ocorrência de metástase a distância de pacientes com diagnóstico de GBM. RESULTADOS: Os mecanismos que podem estar relacionados com a capacidade de disseminação sistêmica do GBM são a quebra de barreira hematoencefálica (BHE) frequentemente vista em GBM, seja pela doença, seja por procedimentos cirúrgicos, dando acesso aos vasos sanguíneos e linfáticos, associada à aquisição de características mesenquimais de invasividade, resistência aos mecanismos de defesa do sistema imunológico e adaptação a hostilidades dos meios distantes por meio de quiescência. CONCLUSÕES: As células tumorais necessitam vencer diversos obstáculos até a formação de uma metástase distante. Apesar de não totalmente esclarecido, o entendimento fisiopatológico dos mecanismos pelos quais podem estar associados à disseminação sistêmica do GBM é salutar para a compreensão global da doença. Além disso, esse conhecimento pode servir de base para a terapia a ser empregada diante do paciente com diagnóstico de GBM com metástase a distância.


Subject(s)
Humans , Central Nervous System Neoplasms/pathology , Glioblastoma/secondary , Neoplasm Metastasis/immunology , Blood-Brain Barrier/pathology , Central Nervous System Neoplasms/immunology , Glioblastoma/immunology , Immunocompetence
9.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-774365

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate whether cell preservation solution can prolong the survival time of leukemia cells and increase the survival rate, so as to improve the detection rate of central nervous system leukemia.@*METHODS@#Kasumi cells were added into cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) supernatant with or without cell preservation solution to compare cell viability and biological characteristics at different time point. Wright Giemsa staining was used to compare cell morphology; cell counting, CCK-8 method, and trypan blue staining were used to compare the cell number, and flow cytometry was used to compare the cell viability. The expression of AML-ETO tumor fusion gene was detected by fluorescence quantitative RT-PCR.@*RESULTS@#At different time points (8 h and 24 h), the survival, molecular biological characteristics and RT-PCR result of the cells in CSF with cell preservation solution were significantly better than those in normal cerebrospinal fluid.@*CONCLUSION@#Cell preservation solution can effectively improve the survival time and survival rate of leukemic cells, thereby increase the detection rate of CNS leukemia.


Subject(s)
Central Nervous System Neoplasms , Core Binding Factor Alpha 2 Subunit , Humans , Leukemia , RUNX1 Translocation Partner 1 Protein
10.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-766012

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Pathologic diagnosis of central nervous system (CNS) neoplasms is made by comparing light microscopic, immunohistochemical, and molecular cytogenetic findings with clinicoradiologic observations. Intraoperative frozen cytology smears can improve the diagnostic accuracy for CNS neoplasms. Here, we evaluate the diagnostic value of cytology in frozen diagnoses of CNS neoplasms. METHODS: Cases were selected from patients undergoing both frozen cytology and frozen sections. Diagnostic accuracy was evaluated. RESULTS: Four hundred and fifty-four cases were included in this retrospective single-center review study covering a span of 10 years. Five discrepant cases (1.1%) were found after excluding 53 deferred cases (31 cases of tentative diagnosis, 22 cases of inadequate frozen sampling). A total of 346 cases of complete concordance and 50 cases of partial concordance were classified as not discordant cases in the present study. Diagnostic accuracy of intraoperative frozen diagnosis was 87.2%, and the accuracy was 98.8% after excluding deferred cases. Discrepancies between frozen and permanent diagnoses (n = 5, 1.1%) were found in cases of nonrepresentative sampling (n = 2) and misinterpretation (n = 3). High concordance was observed more frequently in meningeal tumors (97/98, 99%), metastatic brain tumors (51/52, 98.1%), pituitary adenomas (86/89, 96.6%), schwannomas (45/47, 95.8%), high-grade astrocytic tumors (47/58, 81%), low grade astrocytic tumors (10/13, 76.9%), non-neoplastic lesions (23/36, 63.9%), in decreasing frequency. CONCLUSIONS: Using intraoperative cytology and frozen sections of CNS tumors is a highly accurate diagnostic ancillary method, providing subtyping of CNS neoplasms, especially in frequently encountered entities.


Subject(s)
Brain Neoplasms , Central Nervous System Neoplasms , Central Nervous System , Cytogenetics , Diagnosis , Frozen Sections , Humans , Meningeal Neoplasms , Methods , Neurilemmoma , Pituitary Neoplasms , Retrospective Studies
11.
Journal of Breast Cancer ; : 120-130, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-738410

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the risk of central nervous system (CNS) failure in Korean patients with human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-enriched breast cancer treated with surgery followed by postoperative radiotherapy (RT). METHODS: A total of 749 patients from eight institutions were enrolled in this study. All of them underwent surgery followed by postoperative RT from 2003 to 2011; 246 (32.8%) received neoadjuvant chemotherapy and 649 (81.7%) received adjuvant chemotherapy. Adjuvant trastuzumab was administered to 386 patients (48.6%). RESULTS: The median follow-up duration was 84 (range, 8–171) months. The 7-year disease-free and overall survival rates were 79.0% and 84.2%, respectively. On multivariate analysis, mastectomy, nodal involvement, and presence of lymphatic invasion were correlated with poor overall survival (p = 0.004, 0.022, and 0.011, respectively), whereas T stage and lymphatic invasion were associated with disease-free survival (p = 0.018 and 0.005, respectively). Regarding CNS failures, 30 brain metastases, 2 leptomeningeal metastases, and 8 brain and leptomeningeal metastases were noted. The 7-year CNS relapse-free survival rates in patients receiving and not receiving trastuzumab were 91.2% and 96.9%, respectively (p = 0.005). On multivariate analysis, the administration of adjuvant trastuzumab was the only prognostic factor in predicting a higher CNS failure rate (hazard ratio, 2.260; 95% confidence interval, 1.076–4.746; p = 0.031). CONCLUSION: Adjuvant trastuzumab was associated with higher CNS failure rate in Korean patients with HER2-enriched breast cancer. Close monitoring and reasonable approaches such as CNS penetrating HER2 blockades combined with the current standard therapy could contribute to improving intracranial tumor control and quality of life in patients with CNS metastasis from HER2-enriched breast cancer.


Subject(s)
Brain , Breast Neoplasms , Breast , Central Nervous System Neoplasms , Central Nervous System , Chemotherapy, Adjuvant , Disease-Free Survival , Drug Therapy , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Mastectomy , Multivariate Analysis , Neoplasm Metastasis , Quality of Life , Radiation Oncology , Radiotherapy , ErbB Receptors , Retrospective Studies , Survival Rate , Trastuzumab
12.
Rev. cuba. pediatr ; 90(4): e647, set.-dic. 2018. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1042938

ABSTRACT

Introducción: Los tumores localizados en el tallo cerebral en los niños y adolescentes conllevan un mal pronóstico, especialmente aquellos infiltrantes y difusos. Con el tratamiento de radioterapia apenas llegan a más de 15 por ciento de supervivencia y no mejora la cifra con quimioterapia agregada. Objetivos: Estimar el efecto de la asociación del tratamiento radiante con el anticuerpo monoclonal Nimotuzumab en la supervivencia de niños y adolescentes con tumores del tallo cerebral. Método: Estudio clínico no aleatorizado, analítico, longitudinal y prospectivo. Se estudió una serie de 46 pacientes entre 2 y 18 años de edad que padecían de tumores del tallo cerebral, infiltrantes y difusos, desde enero de 2008 y en seguimiento hasta marzo de 2018. Todos se trataron con radioterapia, con dosis entre 54 y 59,8 cGrey, dosis diaria de 1,8 cGrey, y se irradiaban de lunes a viernes. Mientras duró el tratamiento radiante recibieron Nimotuzumab, en la dosis de 150 mg/m2 de superficie corporal, luego semanal con 8 dosis, y finalmente mensual durante uno o dos años. Resultados: Se alcanzó en la serie una supervivencia media de 18,4 meses, y una esperada de 42,9 por ciento a 2 años y 35,5 por ciento a 5 años, estabilizada hasta los 10 años. Conclusiones: La combinación de radioterapia y el anticuerpo monoclonal Nimotuzumab incrementa la supervivencia en niños y adolescentes con tumores del tallo cerebral y es bien tolerada, aun en periodos prolongados, e incluso en casos de recidiva(AU)


Introduction: Tumors localized in the brainstem of children and adolescents entail a bad prognosis, especially those that are intrinsic and diffuse. With radiotherapy treatment, patients barely get a 15 percent of survival, and the numbers don't improve with added chemotherapy. Objectives: To estimate the effect of the association of radiotherapy treatment with Nimotuzumab monoclonal antibody in the survival of children and adolescents with brainstem tumors. . Method: Non randomized, analytical, longitudinal and prospective clinical study that was authorized by the National Regulatory Authority. There was studied a group of 46 patients aged from 2 to 18 years that suffered from intrinsic and diffuse brainstem tumors, from January 2008 (and in follow up) to March 2018. All the patients were treated with radiotherapy, with doses among 54 and 59,8 Grey, daily doses of 1,8 Grey, and from Monday to Friday. While they were under radiotherapy treatment, they get Nimotuzumab, in doses of 150 mg/m2 of corporal surface; then weekly doses of 8 shots; and finally, monthly doses during one or two years. Results: In this group there was a survival mean of 18, 4 months, and an expected survival of 42, 9 percent for 2 years and 35, 5 percent for 5 years that can be stabilized to 10 years. Conclusions: Combination of radiotherapy and Nimotuzumab monoclal antibody can increase the survival from brainstem tumors in children and adolescents(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Brain Neoplasms/therapy , Central Nervous System Neoplasms/epidemiology , Antineoplastic Agents, Immunological/therapeutic use , Radiotherapy/methods , Longitudinal Studies , Cuba , Nervous System Neoplasms/radiotherapy
13.
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 38(10): 1989-1998, out. 2018. tab, ilus
Article in English | ID: biblio-976386

ABSTRACT

Secondary neoplasms affecting the central nervous system (CNS) may occur through blood flow or direct extension. This condition occurrence has increased both due to a longer life expectancy of dogs, as well as with the employment of chemotherapeutics, which may increase the survival period and, thus, the odds of the occurrence of metastasis. The aim of this study was to analyze the epidemiological features, such as the age, breed and sex of the animals affected, as well as the gross and microscopic findings of the metastasis from neoplasms involving the CNS of 78 dogs, and, based on the data, estimate the occurrence and frequency of the metastatic or multicentric neoplasms. Females (71.79%) were most affected than males, with an average age of 9.5-years-old and a median of 10-years-old. Most of the cases had a multifocal distribution (73.07%), and epithelial neoplasms (50%) were the most common. Telencephalon was the most affected neuroanatomical region (61.1%). Mammary neoplasms were the most frequent (47.44%), followed by hemangiosarcoma (19.23%), lymphoma (10.26%) and melanoma (6.41%). Less common neoplasms included osteosarcoma, histiocytic sarcoma and lung carcinoma (2.56%). Mammary neoplasms were mainly composed of anaplastic and micropapillary carcinomas, of which only multifocal microscopic lesions were observed.(AU)


Neoplasias secundárias envolvendo o sistema nervoso central (SNC) podem ocorrer por via hematógena ou por extensão direta. A ocorrência desta condição vem aumentando devido à expectativa de vida mais longa dos cães, bem como através do uso de quimioterápicos, os quais podem ampliar a sobrevida e, portanto, as chances para a ocorrência de metástases. O objetivo deste estudo foi analisar os aspectos epidemiológicos, como idade, raça e sexo dos animais afetados, bem como caracterizar os achados macroscópicos e microscópicos de neoplasmas com metástases envolvendo o SNC de 78 caninos e, baseado nestes dados, estimar a ocorrência e a frequência de neoplasias metastáticas ou multicêntricas. Fêmeas (71,79%) foram mais afetadas do que machos, com uma idade média de 9,5 anos e mediana de 10 anos. A maior parte dos casos apresentava distribuição multifocal (73,07%), e neoplasias de origem epitelial (50%) foram as mais frequentes. A localização neuroanatômica mais afetada foi o telencéfalo (61,1%). As neoplasias mamárias foram as mais frequentes (47,44%), seguidas por hemangiossarcoma (19,23%), linfoma (10,26%) e melanoma (6,41%). Osteossarcoma, sarcoma histiocítico e carcinoma pulmonar (2,56%) foram neoplasias menos frequentes. Os tipos de neoplasmas mamários mais observados foram o carcinoma anaplásico e o carcinoma micropapilar, nesses dois tipos as lesões eram multifocais e observadas somente na microscopia.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Female , Dogs , Central Nervous System Neoplasms/pathology , Central Nervous System Neoplasms/secondary , Central Nervous System Neoplasms/veterinary , Central Nervous System Neoplasms/epidemiology , Dogs , Neoplasm Metastasis/pathology , Breast Neoplasms/veterinary
14.
Arq. neuropsiquiatr ; 76(3): 139-144, Mar. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-888366

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Background Primary central nervous system lymphomas (PCNSL) are infrequent. The traditional treatment of choice is chemotherapy. Complete resections have generally not been recommended, because of the risk of permanent central nervous system deficits with no proven improvement in survival. The aim of the current study was to compare survival among patients with PCNSL who underwent biopsy versus surgical resection. Methods A retrospective study was conducted on 50 patients with a confirmed diagnosis of PCNSL treated at our center from January 1994 to July 2015. Results Patients in the resection group exhibited significantly longer median survival time, relative to the biopsy group, surviving a median 31 months versus 14.5 months; p = 0.016. Conclusions In our series, patients who had surgical resection of their tumor survived a median 16.5 months longer than patients who underwent biopsy alone.


RESUMO Introducción Los linfomas primarios del sistema nervioso central (LPSNC) son infrecuentes. Tradicionalmente el tratamiento de elección es la quimioterapia. Existe un paradigma de no indicar resección, por el riesgo de déficit neurológico sin aumento de la sobrevida. El objetivo del presente estudio es comparar la sobrevida de pacientes con LPSNC sometidos a biopsia versus resección. Métodos Estudio retrospectivo que incluye 50 pacientes con diagnóstico confirmado de LPSNC tratados en nuestra Institución desde enero de 1994 hasta julio de 2015. Resultados Los pacientes del "grupo resección" mostraron una sobrevida media significativamente mayor respecto a los del "grupo biopsia"; 31 meses versus 14,5 meses respectivamente, p = 0,016. Conclusiones En nuestra serie, los pacientes que con resección quirúrgica de su tumor tuvieron una sobrevida media de 16,5 meses superior que los pacientes biopsiados.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Central Nervous System Neoplasms/surgery , Lymphoma/surgery , Time Factors , Biopsy , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Treatment Outcome , Central Nervous System Neoplasms/immunology , Central Nervous System Neoplasms/mortality , Central Nervous System Neoplasms/pathology , Kaplan-Meier Estimate , Immunocompetence , Lymphoma/immunology , Lymphoma/mortality , Lymphoma/pathology
15.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-788683

ABSTRACT

Radiation therapy is highly effective for the management of pediatric malignant central nervous system (CNS) tumors including embryonal tumors. With the increment of long-term survivors from malignant CNS tumors, the radiation-related toxicities have become a major concern and we need to improve the treatment strategies to reduce the late complications without compromising the treatment outcomes. One of such strategies is to reduce the radiation dose to craniospinal axis or radiation volume and to avoid or defer radiation therapy until after the age of three. Another strategy is using particle beam therapy such as proton beams instead of photon beams. Proton beams have distinct physiologic advantages over photon beams and greater precision in radiation delivery to the tumor while preserving the surrounding healthy tissues. In this review, I provide the treatment principles of pediatric CNS embryonal tumors and the strategic improvements of radiation therapy to reduce treatment-related late toxicities, and finally introduce the increasing availability of proton beam therapy for pediatric CNS embryonal tumors compared with photon beam therapy.


Subject(s)
Brain , Central Nervous System Neoplasms , Central Nervous System , Child , Humans , Proton Therapy , Protons , Survivors
16.
Journal of Experimental Hematology ; (6): 1005-1010, 2018.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-689538

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To investigate the clinical characteristics and clinical prognostic factors of patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL).</p><p><b>METHODS</b>Ninety-six ALL patients in our hospital from June 2012 to August 2014 were selected and their clinical data were collected. The related clinical data of patients were recorded, and the relation between clinical characteristics and therapeutic efficacy was analyzed. The COX analysis was used to reveal the risk factors affecting the patient's OS and DFS time.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>Among 96 ALL patients, 65 patients achieved complete remission (CR) after treatment. The age, immunophenotype, central nervous system leukemia (CNSL) and peripheral blood WBC count correlated with complete remission (P<0.05). The age, WBC count, platelet level, immune typing and consolidation therapy were the prognostic factors (P<0.05), the 2 year OS rate was influenced by age, WBC count, CD34 and consolidation therapy (P<0.05), the 2 year DFS rate was influenced by age, CD34 and consolidation therapy (P<0.05).</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>Age, WBC counts, CD34 and consolidated treatment after remission are prognostic factors for ALL patients, which has guiding significance for clinical treatment of ALL.</p>


Subject(s)
Acute Disease , Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols , Central Nervous System Neoplasms , Humans , Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma , Prognosis , Remission Induction
17.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-765253

ABSTRACT

Radiation therapy is highly effective for the management of pediatric malignant central nervous system (CNS) tumors including embryonal tumors. With the increment of long-term survivors from malignant CNS tumors, the radiation-related toxicities have become a major concern and we need to improve the treatment strategies to reduce the late complications without compromising the treatment outcomes. One of such strategies is to reduce the radiation dose to craniospinal axis or radiation volume and to avoid or defer radiation therapy until after the age of three. Another strategy is using particle beam therapy such as proton beams instead of photon beams. Proton beams have distinct physiologic advantages over photon beams and greater precision in radiation delivery to the tumor while preserving the surrounding healthy tissues. In this review, I provide the treatment principles of pediatric CNS embryonal tumors and the strategic improvements of radiation therapy to reduce treatment-related late toxicities, and finally introduce the increasing availability of proton beam therapy for pediatric CNS embryonal tumors compared with photon beam therapy.


Subject(s)
Brain , Central Nervous System Neoplasms , Central Nervous System , Child , Humans , Proton Therapy , Protons , Survivors
18.
Rev. bras. neurol ; 53(2): 12-14, abr.-jun. 2017. ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-847817

ABSTRACT

Desde o primeiro relato de doença desmielinizante associada a tumores cerebrais por Scherer em 1938, inúmeros outros relatos de casos foram publicados fazendo associação desta doença com diferentes tumores primários do sistema nervoso central. Nosso trabalho descreve o caso de uma paciente de 23 anos com duas lesões encefálicas biopsiadas, mostrando inicialmente processo inflamatório desmielinizante que no seguimento desenvolve um oligodendroglioma anaplásico. A partir deste caso, realizamos uma revisão da literatura dessa associação específica, primeiramente publicada por Barnard e Jellinek em 1967, e ressaltamos a importância da diferenciação entre a forma desmielinizante tumefativa de uma neoplasia cerebral verdadeira. (AU)


Since the first report of demyelinating disease associated with brain tumors by Scherer in 1938, several other case reports have been published making association of this disease with different primary tumors of the central nervous system. Our paper describes the case of a 23 year old patient with two brain lesions, biopsied, initially showing a demyelinating inflammatory process that in the follow up develops an anaplastic oligodendroglioma. From this case, we conducted a literature review of this specific association, first published by Barnard and Jellinek in 1967, and emphasize the importance of difference in a tumefactive demyelinating lesions between of true brain neoplasm. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Young Adult , Brain Neoplasms/diagnosis , Demyelinating Diseases/complications , Demyelinating Diseases/diagnosis , Central Nervous System Neoplasms/pathology , Oligodendroglioma , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Diagnosis, Differential
19.
Oncol. (Guayaquil) ; 27(1): 55-65, 15 de abril 2017.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-998413

ABSTRACT

Introducción: La radioterapia externa con dosis altas, ha incrementado el efecto terapéutico en Gliomas Anaplásicos. El propósito de nuestro estudio fue demostrar la eficacia de la radioterapia conformada tridimensional con altas dosis en estos pacientes. Métodos: Estudio retrospectivo-prospectivo y descriptivo realizado en 45 pacientes adultos con diagnóstico de Glioma de alto grado supratentorial, índice de Karnofsky ≥ 70, sin previa quimioterapia o inmunoterapia; con exéresis quirúrgica y radioterapia postoperatoria estándar bidimensional óconformada tridimensional en el Instituto de Oncología de Cuba del 2004-2007. Se excluyeron los casos no operados. Se utilizó Kaplan Meier y regresión de Cox entre las variables. Resultados: La edad promedio fue 55 años, relación sexo hombre/mujer fue 27/18 y el Glioblastoma resultóla histología más frecuente. Predominóla exéresis subtotal del tumor y radioterapia postoperatoria con dosis entre 60-70 Gy. La supervivencia fue mayor en pacientes con mejor pronóstico, resección tumoral total y radioterapia con altas dosis. La supervivencia global fue de 13 meses y la media (Kaplan-Meier) fue significativamente mejor en los pacientes con dosis altas de radioterapia tridimensional (16 vs 9 meses) P<0.001. La supervivencia a 1 y 2 años, fue del 51 % y 28 % respectivamente en el grupo de altas dosis, asícomo del 28% y 16% respectivamente en el grupo de dosis estándar, sin evidenciarse un incremento en las toxicidades. Conclusiones: La intensificación de la radioterapia local con escalada de dosis es recomendable para los pacientes con Gliomas de alto grado y factores pronósticos favorables


Introduction: High-dose with external beam radiotherapy has been shown to enhance the radiation effect in anaplastic gliomas. The aim of this trial is to report on the efficacy of 3D conformal radiotherapy (3D-CRT) for patients with intracranial malignant gliomas. Methods: A retrospective-prospective and descriptive study was made from 45 patients with supratentorial high-grade gliomas,Karnofsky performance scale ≥ 70, no previous chemotherapy/ immunotherapy treatment, who received postoperative 2D standard or 3D-CRTat the Oncology Institute of Cuba from 2004-2007. Results: The median age of patients was 55 years, gender (M/F:27/18). Glioblastoma histology, subtotal resection, and postoperative radiotherapy (60-70Gy) were the most frequently. The survival time was much better in patients who were better prognosis, gross total resection and high-dose 3D-CRT postoperatively .The overall survival was 13 months and the estimated median survival (Kaplan-Meier) was better in high-dose group (16 vs 9 months), and the 1 and 2 yearssurvival rates were 51% & 28%, respectively for 3D-CRT group; and 28% & 16% for 2D-RT. No significant treatment toxicities were observed. Conclusions: Intensification of local radiotherapy with dose escalation is feasible for patients with high-grade gliomas and good prognostic factors.


Subject(s)
Humans , Adult , Middle Aged , Central Nervous System Neoplasms , Glioma , Neoplasms, Second Primary , Neoplasm Invasiveness
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL