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Cambios rev. méd ; 20(1): 21-25, 30 junio 2021. tabs.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1292703


INTRODUCCIÓN. La apendicitis aguda es una patología pediátrica quirúrgica que en su fase complicada requiere uso de antibióticos en el postoperatorio; encontrar la mejor opción como experiencia local, fue necesario. OBJETIVO. Comparar un esquema de antibioticoterapia triple vs un doble respecto a variables: demográficas, clínicas y de costos en pacientes pediátricos con apendicitis complicada. MATERIALES y MÉTODOS. Estudio analítico transversal. Población de 133 pacientes y una muestra de 93, operados por apendicitis complicada; 58 recibieron ampicilina + metronidazol + gentamicina y 35 ceftriaxona + metronidazol. Se comparó las variables: estadía hospitalaria, complicaciones y costo monetario de cada esquema. Se realizó en la Unidad de Cirugía Pediátrica del Hospital de Especialidades Carlos Andrade Marín, en el periodo enero de 2017 a octubre de 2018. Los datos fueron analizados con R-Studio 1.8.366 para Windows. RESULTADOS. No hubo diferencia estadística con respecto a: estadía hospitalaria (p=0,261); complicaciones como infección del sitio quirúrgico (p=0,196), re-intervención quirúrgica (p=0,653) y costo (p=0,059). CONCLUSIÓN. Se comparó el esquema de antibioticoterapia triple vs un doble, utilizados en apendicitis complicada en pediatría. No se encontró diferencias estadísticamente significativas en este reporte preliminar, con la diferencia de que con el esquema doble la frecuencia de administración fue menor y se evitó la exposición a los efectos colaterales de los aminoglicósidos.

INTRODUCTION. Acute appendicitis is a pediatric surgical pathology that in its complicated phase requires the use of antibiotics during the postoperative period; finding the best option as local experience was a must. OBJECTIVE. Compare a triple vs a double antibiotic therapy scheme respect demographic, clinical and cost variables in pediatric patients whit complicated apendicitis. MATERIALS AND METHODS. Cross-sectional analytical study. Population of 133 patients and sample of 93, with complicated appendicitis; 58 received ampicillin + metronidazole + gentamicin and 35 ceftriaxone + metronidazole. The following variables were compared; hospital stay, complications and monetary cost of each scheme. It was performed in the Pediatric Surgery Unit of the Hospital of Specialties Carlos Andrade Marin, during january 2017, through october 2018. The data were analyzed with R-Studio 1.8.366 for Windows. RESULTS. There was no statistical difference regarding hospital stay (p=0.261); complications such as surgical site infection (p=0.196), re-surgical intervention (p=0.653); nor cost (p=0.059). CONCLUSION. Triple vs. Double antibiotic therapy scheme used in complicated appendicitis in pediatrics was compared. No statistically significant differences were found in this preliminary report, how ever with the double scheme the frequency of administration was lower and exposure to side effects of aminoglycosides was avoided.

Humans , Male , Female , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Appendicitis/complications , Gentamicins , Cephalexin , Ampicillin , Metronidazole , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Pediatrics , Postoperative Complications , General Surgery , Cost-Benefit Analysis
Arq. Inst. Biol ; 85: e0582016, 2018. tab
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-996736


The association of natural compounds isolated from medicinal plants with conventional antibiotics, both with similar mechanisms of action, have become a viable alternative strategy to overcome the problem of drug resistance. This study aimed to evaluate the in vitro antimicrobial activity of tannic substances present in the bark of Anacardium occidentale and Anadenanthera colubrina against samples of Staphylococcus aureus when in combination with cephalexin. These combinations were evaluated by determining the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC). For this purpose, tannins and cephalexin were serially dissolved in distilled water at concentrations ranging from 0.976 mg/mL to 500 mg/mL and 2 mg/mL to 512 mg/mL, respectively. When combined, the compounds inhibited S. aureus growth forming halos ranging from 0.9 to 46 mm with an MIC of 7.8 mg/mL (tannins) and 4 µg/mL (cephalexin). The resulting effect of the combination of natural and synthetic substances with similar mechanisms of action presented better results than when tested alone. Thus, the conclusion is that both the tannins and cephalexin had their antimicrobial action enhanced when used in combination, enabling the use of lower concentrations while maintaining their antibacterial effect against strains of S. aureus.(AU)

A associação de compostos naturais, isolados de plantas medicinais, com antibióticos convencionais, com mecanismos de ação semelhantes, torna-se uma estratégia alternativa e viável para superar o problema da resistência. Assim, nosso objetivo foi avaliar a atividade antimicrobiana in vitro de substâncias tânicas presentes na casca de Anacardium occidentale e Anadenanthera colubrina associadas à cefalexina, sobre amostras de Staphylococcus aureus. Avaliamos essa associação por meio da determinação da concentração mínima inibitória. Dessa forma, taninos e a cefalexina foram dissolvidos de forma seriada em água destilada em concentrações variando de 0,976 mg/mL a 500 mg/mL e 2 µg/mL a 512 µg/mL, respectivamente. Quando associados, inibiram o crescimento de S. aureus formando halos que variaram de 0,9 a 46 mm com concentração mínima inibitória de 7,8 mg/mL (taninos)/ 4 µg/mL (cefalexina). O efeito resultante da associação de substâncias, natural e sintética, com mecanismos de ação semelhantes, apresentou resultados superiores aos observados quando testados isoladamente. Podemos concluir que os taninos e a cefalexina tiveram sua ação antimicrobiana potencializada quando utilizados em associação, permitindo o uso de uma menor concentração, mantendo seu efeito antibacteriano sobre cepas de S. aureus.(AU)

Plants, Medicinal , Biological Products/therapeutic use , Drug Resistance, Microbial , Cephalexin , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Staphylococcus aureus , Tannins , Anacardium
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 54(3): e17277, 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-974420


The purpose of the study is to develop cephalexin controlled-release matrix tablets by using lower proportions of release retardant polymer and to establish their in vitro & in vivo correlation. Tablets were compressed by incorporating polymers in a matrix form along with drug which prolong the drug release. Twelve formulations were prepared by mixing ethyl cellulose (EC) and hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) (three different viscosity grades) in various proportions. F-1 to F-4 formulations were prepared by incorporating drug, HPMC K4M and ethyl cellulose in 100 : 5 : 5, 100 : 10 : 5, 100 : 15 : 5 and 100 : 20 : 5; similarly, F-5 to F-8 were prepared with HPMC K15M; and F-9 to F-12 were prepared with HPMC K100M using a wet granulation process maintained same proportions, along with drug and EC. Tablets were evaluated for their pre-compression and post-compression characteristics and they were found to be in limits. From the dissolution testing, F-4 showed 100.34% medicament release in 12 h. In vivo studies were conducted on rabbit and pharmacokinetic parameters of the optimized formulation were evaluated using HPLC method. It was found that matrix tablets showed increased t1/2 and decreased Kel. The design signified that the drug release rate from tablets was influenced by the small proportion (around 7% of a tablet weight) of polymer mixture and it controlled 100% medicament release upto 12 h effectively with the low grade viscosity of HPMC combination, with good in vitro & in vivo correlation.

Tablets/analysis , In Vitro Techniques/instrumentation , Cephalexin/analysis , Polymers , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid/methods , Delayed-Action Preparations , Drug Compounding
Braz. J. Vet. Res. Anim. Sci. (Online) ; 54(4): 407-411, 2017. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-911908


Juvenile cellulitis (JC) is an uncommon vesiculopustular disease that affects dogs, especially those under four months of age. The aim of the present study was to characterize the epidemiological, clinical, and therapeutic profile of JC based on clinical records of canine patients treated at the Veterinary Hospital of the Universidade Federal Rural do Semi-Árido, between the years 2009 and 2016. A total of five cases were diagnosed. Four dogs presented at an average age of two months and 22 days and were crossbred; the other dog was a rottweiler aged 38 weeks. The average time of evolution of the disease was 16 days, and the main clinical signs were edema, papules, pustules, and bilateral ocular discharge. The diagnosis was confirmed by cytology in four animals and by histopathology in only one patient. For all dogs, the treatment was based on cephalexin, administered for 30 days, and prednisolone for three weeks. Otological therapy was included when necessary. Four cases had a favorable outcome. JC is a rare dermatopathy that deserves special attention from veterinary practitioners.(AU)

A celulite juvenil (CJ) é uma doença vesiculopustular incomum que acomete cães principalmente na faixa etária inferior aos quatro meses. Este trabalho analisou o perfil epidemiológico, clínico e terapêutico da CJ em cães a partir da casuística do Hospital Veterinário da Universidade Federal Rural do Semi-Árido, referente aos anos de 2009 a 2016. Cinco casos foram diagnosticados, incluindo quatro cães (80%), sem raça definida e com idade média de dois meses e 22 dias, e um da raça Rottweiler (20%) com 38 meses de idade. O período evolutivo médio das lesões foi de 16 dias e os principais sinais clínicos observados foram edema, pápulas, pústulas e secreção ótica bilateral. O diagnóstico foi confirmado por citologia (80%) e histopatologia (20%). Em todos os animais, o tratamento consistiu de cefalexina, administrada por 30 dias, e prednisolona, por três semanas. A terapia otológica tópica foi incluída quando necessária. Em quatro casos o desfecho clínico foi favorável. A CJ é uma dermatopatia rara que merece atenção especial dos clínicos veterinários.(AU)

Animals , Dogs , Cellulite/epidemiology , Cellulite/veterinary , Cephalexin/therapeutic use , Dermatitis/veterinary , Edema/veterinary , Prednisolone/therapeutic use
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-32093


PURPOSE: To investigate the changes in urinary nerve growth factor (uNGF) levels after acute urinary tract infection (UTI) and to assess the role of uNGF in predicting UTI recurrence in women. METHODS: Women with uncomplicated, symptomatic UTIs were enrolled. Cephalexin 500 mg (every 6 hours) was administered for 7-14 days to treat acute UTIs. Subsequently, the patients were randomized to receive either sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim 800 mg/160 mg daily at bedtime, or celecoxib 200 mg daily for 3 months and were monitored for up to 12 months. NGF levels in the urine were determined at baseline, 1, 4, and 12 weeks after the initiation of prophylactic therapy, and were compared between women with first-time UTIs and recurrent UTIs, sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim and celecoxib-treated women, and no UTI recurrence and UTI recurrence that occurred during the follow-up period. Twenty women free of UTIs served as controls. RESULTS: A total of 139 women with UTI and 20 controls were enrolled in the study, which included 50 women with a first-time UTI and 89 women with recurrent UTIs. Thirty-seven women completed the study. Women with recurrent UTIs (n=23) had a trend of lower uNGF levels than women with first-time UTIs (n=14). During follow-up, 9 women had UTI recurrence. The serial uNGF levels in women with UTI recurrence were significantly lower than those in women who did not have UTI recurrence during the follow-up period. CONCLUSIONS: The lower levels of uNGF in women with recurrent UTI and the incidence of UTI recurrence during follow-up suggest that lower uNGF might reflect the defective innate immunity in women with recurrent UTI.

Biomarkers , Celecoxib , Cephalexin , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Immunity, Innate , Incidence , Inflammation , Nerve Growth Factor , Recurrence , Urinary Tract Infections , Urinary Tract
Journal of Contemporary Medical Sciences. 2016; 1 (4): 16-19
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-176288


Objectives: This study focus on the preparation of the compound nanoscale layers of Zinc oxide [ZnO] with naproxen and cephalexin

Methods: Ion exchange technique via sol-gel method synthesised under aqueous environment, resulted in the formation of inorganic organic characteristics of nanohybrid by using X-ray diffraction [XRD] method and study antibacterial activity of hybrid and free compound against some bacteria

Results: The powder X-ray diffraction showed new level for nanohybrid compounds differ from free compounds. The antibacterial results show more nanohybrid compounds concentration increased its effectiveness against bacteria, the greater the concentration of the compound greater is the increase in its effectiveness against bacteria inhibitory

Conclusions: The possibility of the bind of drugs [Cephalexin and Naproxen] in the preparation of nanohybrid-ZnO compound and the use of nanocompounds as antibacterial agent in better treatment of pathogenic bacteria. And this nanocompound is more efficient from free compounds

Naproxen , Cephalexin , Zinc Oxide , Aeromonas
Braz. j. pharm. sci ; 51(2): 383-392, Apr.-June 2015. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-755062


The aim of the present study was to assess the bioequivalence of two cephalexin tablet formulations available in the Brazilian market (product A as reference formulation and product B as test formulation). Dissolution efficiency (DE%) was calculated for both formulations to evaluate their in vitrobiopharmaceutical features. The oral bioequivalence study was performed in twenty-four healthy volunteers in a crossover design. Single oral dose (tablet containing 500 mg of cephalexin) of each product was administered with two weeks of washout period. Urinary concentrations of cephalexin were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method and pharmacokinetics parameters were estimated by urinary excretion data. The bioequivalence was determined by the following parameters: the cumulative amount of cephalexin excreted in the urine, the total amount of cephalexin excreted in the urine and the maximum urinary excretion rate of cephalexin. DE values of immediate-release cephalexin tablets (500 mg) were 68.69±4.18% for product A and 71.03±6.63% for product B. Regarding the dissolution test of the two brands (A and B) analysed, both were in compliance with the official pharmacopeial specifications, since the dissolution of both formulations was superior to 80% of the amount declared in the label after 45 minutes of test (A=92.09%±1.84; B=92.84%±1.08). The results obtained indicated that the products A and B are pharmaceutical equivalents. Confidence intervals for the pharmacokinetic parameters were in compliance with the international standards, indicating that products A and B can be considered bioequivalents and, therefore, interchangeable...

O objetivo do presente estudo foi avaliar a bioequivalência de duas formulações de cefalexina disponíveis no mercado brasileiro (produto A como formulação referência e produto B como formulação teste). A eficiência de dissolução (DE%) foi calculada para ambas as formulações para avaliar suas características biofarmacêuticas. O estudo de bioequivalência oral foi realizado em vinte e quatro voluntários sadios utilizando um desenho cruzado. Uma dose oral única (comprimido contendo 500 mg de cefalexina) de cada produto foi administrada com um período de washout de duas semanas. Concentrações urinárias de cefalexina foram mensuradas por método de cromatografia líquida de alta eficiência (CLAE) e os parâmetros farmacocinéticos foram estimados por dados de excreção urinária. A bioequivalência foi determinada pelos seguintes parâmetros: quantidade acumulada da cefalexina excretada na urina, quantidade total da cefalexina excretada na urina e a taxa de excreção máxima da cefalexina. Os valores de DE dos comprimidos de liberação imediata de cefalexina (500 mg) foram 68,69±4,18% para o produto A e de 71,03±6,63% para o produto B. Com relação ao teste de dissolução das duas marcas analisadas (A e B), ambas apresentaram-se de acordo com as especificações farmacopéicas, uma vez que a dissolução de ambas formulações foi superior a 80% da quantidade declarada após 45 minutos de teste (A=92,09%±1,84; B=92,84% ±1,08). Os resultados obtidos indicaram que os produtos A e B são equivalentes farmacêuticos. Os intervalos de confiança para os parâmetros farmacocinéticos estavam de acordo com os padrões internacionais, demonstrando que os produtos A e B podem ser considerados bioequivalentes e, portanto, intercambiáveis...

Humans , Cephalexin/pharmacokinetics , Cephalexin/pharmacology , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Therapeutic Equivalency , Urine/chemistry
Braz. j. vet. res. anim. sci ; 52(3): 228-233, 20150000. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-774221


Staphylococcus is an important agent of mastitis, especially when biofilm producers are related to a number of mechanisms of resistance to different types of infections. The objective of this research was to evaluate the susceptibility and resistance of Staphylococcus aureus strains isolates from cases of bovine mastitis and milking environment under conditions of biofilm, compared to three different concentrations in different antimicrobials. Thirty-two strains used were S. aureus that, due to the inhibition tests, minimal biofilm eradication concentration were tested using cephalexin, amoxicillin and rifampin at concentrations of 30 mg/mL, and 50 mg/mL 100 mg/mL for 12 hours, and efficiency of tests evaluated by counting the colony forming units and the microplate test. The results revealed that among the tested antibiotics cephalexin showed the best efficiency at the three concentrations tested, and rifampin and amoxicillin were more efficient at concentrations of 50 and 100 mg/mL. These data demonstrate the importance of targeted antibiotic therapy associated with the correct cleaning of milking equipment, thus, preventing the formation of biofilm, avoiding persistent microbial adhesion in equipment, and the spread of microorganisms by ascending channel teats among herd animals.

Os Staphylococcus, principais agentes causadores da mastite, quando em biofilmes, estão relacionados a uma série de mecanismos de resistência em diferentes tipos de infecções. O presente trabalho avaliou a susceptibilidade e resistência dos Staphylococcus aureus, isolados de casos de mastite bovina e do ambiente de ordenha, em condições de biofilme, frente a três antimicrobianos distintos em diferentes concentrações. Foram utilizadas trinta e duas estirpes de S. aureus testadas frente aos testes de inibição da concentração mínima de erradicação de biofilmes, utilizando cefalexina, amoxicilina e rifampicina, nas concentrações de 30 mg/mL, 50 mg/mL e 100 mg/mL, por doze horas de contato, e a eficiência dos testes avaliada pela contagem das unidades formadoras de colônias e pelo teste de microplacas. Os resultados revelaram que, entre os antimicrobianos testados, a cefalexina foi o que apresentou melhor eficiência nas três concentrações testadas, e a rifampicina e amoxacilina tiveram maior eficiência nas concentrações de 50 e 100 mg/ mL. Esses dados demonstram a importância sobre antibioticoterapia orientada associada com a correta higienização dos equipamentos de ordenha, evitando-se, assim, a formação de biofilmes, a adesão microbiana persistente em equipamentos, e a difusão dos microrganismos pelo canal ascendente dos tetos entre os animais do rebanho.

Animals , Cattle , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Biofilms/growth & development , Drug Resistance, Microbial , Mastitis, Bovine/drug therapy , Staphylococcus aureus/isolation & purification , Amoxicillin , Cephalexin , Rifampin
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 34(4): 355-361, abr. 2014. graf, tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-712725


Foram obtidas 154 amostras de lesões cutâneas de cães com pioderma superficial atendidos no Serviço de Dermatologia Veterinária do Hospital Veterinário Universitário (HVU) da Universidade Federal de Santa Maria (UFSM), com o objetivo de determinar a suscetibilidade antimicrobiana de isolados de Staphylococcus spp. e avaliar a presença de multirresistência. Após isolamento e identificação, as cepas foram submetidas ao teste de sensibilidade aos antimicrobianos, cujos resultados evidenciaram menores percentuais de resistência à associação amoxicilina e ácido clavulânico (1,9 por cento), cefadroxil (1,9 por cento), cefalexina (1,9 por cento) e vancomicina (0,6 por cento). Os maiores percentuais de resistência foram frente à amoxicilina (60,4 por cento) e penicilina G (60,4 por cento). A multirresistência foi detectada em 23,4 por cento e a resistência à meticilina em 5,8 por cento das amostras. Pode-se concluir que os isolados de Staphylococcus spp. apresentam elevada suscetibilidade aos antimicrobianos comumente utilizados no tratamento dos piodermas superficiais em cães atendidos no HVU-UFSM, como a cefalexina e a amoxicilina associada ao ácido clavulânico, confirmando a eleição desses fármacos para o tratamento de cães com esta afecção. A suscetibilidade diminuída das cepas frente às fluoroquinolonas, também recomendadas pela literatura para o tratamento de pioderma, permite sugerir que estes fármacos não devem mais ser considerados na seleção empírica. A identificação de Staphylococcus spp. multirresistentes na população canina estudada justifica análises bacteriológicas periódicas e regionais de lesões cutâneas de cães com pioderma superficial, a fim de minimizar a seleção de bactérias resistentes, possíveis falhas terapêuticas e também motiva a antimicrobianoterapia prudente.

A total of 154 samples of skin lesions were obtained from dogs with superficial pyoderma that were assisted by the Veterinary Dermatology Service at the University Veterinary Hospital (HVU), Universidade Federal de Santa Maria (UFSM), aiming to determine the antimicrobial susceptibility of Staphylococcus spp. isolates and evaluate the presence of multidrug resistance profile. After bacterial isolation and identification, the strains were tested for antimicrobial susceptibility, and the results showed lower percentages of resistance to the amoxicillin and clavulanic acid association (1.9 percent), cefadroxil (1.9 percent), cephalexin (1.9 percent) and vancomycin (0.6 percent). The highest percentages were towards amoxicillin (60.4 percent) and penicillin G (60.4 percent). The multidrug resistance was detected in 23.4 percent and the methicillin resistance in 5.8 percent of the samples. It may be concluded that the Staphylococcus spp. isolates present high susceptibility to key antimicrobials used in the treatment of superficial pyodermas in dogs at the HVU-UFSM, such as cephalexin and the amoxicillin and clavulanic acid association, confirming the preference for these drugs when treating dogs with this disorder. The susceptibility of the strains to fluoroquinolones, also recommended in the literature for the treatment of pyodermas, allows suggesting that such drugs should not be considered in the empirical selection. The identification of multidrug-resistant Staphylococcus spp. in the studied canine population justifies periodic and regional bacteriological tests of skin lesions in dogs with superficial pyoderma, possible therapeutic failures and also motivates wise use of antimicrobial therapy.

Animals , Dogs , Dogs/microbiology , Drug Resistance, Microbial , Staphylococcal Skin Infections/veterinary , Pyoderma/veterinary , Staphylococcus , Staphylococcus/isolation & purification , Microbial Sensitivity Tests/veterinary , Cefadroxil , Cephalexin , Amoxicillin-Potassium Clavulanate Combination , Penicillin G , Vancomycin
Rev. Soc. Peru. Med. Interna ; 26(3): 127-136, jul.-sept. 2013. tab
Article in Spanish | LIPECS, LILACS, LIPECS | ID: lil-713375


Objetivo. Determinar la eficacia de la asociación de cefalexina y ambroxol en el tratamiento de la faringitis bacteriana asociada a producción de de secreciones. Material y Métodos. Se realizó un ensayo clínico aleatorizado y doble ciego. Se evaluó una población de 72 pacientes de 18 a 65 años que acudieron a la consulta en siete consultorios privados, durante el periodo de mayo 2012 a julio 2013. Los casos fueron pacientes con diagnóstico de faringoamigdalitis por estreptococo β-hemolítico del grupo A establecido con base en criterios clínicos y una prueba rápida para estreptococo del grupo A positiva. El criterio clínico de diagnóstico fue dolor de garganta asociado a dos o más de los siguientes: fiebre mayor de 38 ºC; eritema de la uvula y faringe o amígdalas; edema de la úvula, faringe o amígdalas; exudado en la faringe o amígdalas; linfadenopatías cervicales. Adicionalmente, los pacientes debían presentar producción de secreciones (tos productiva). Resultados. Se encontró mayor mejoría de los síntomas en el segundo control (día 11) en el grupo tratado con ceflexina y ambroxol que en el grupo cefalexina sola (p < 0,05). Conclusion. La asociación cefalexina-ambroxol es más efectiva que el de la cefalexina sola en los pacientes con faringoamigdalitis aguda estreptocócica que cursa con producción de secreciones.

Objective. To determine the efficacy of the association of cephalexin and ambroxol in the treatment of bacterial pharyngitis associated with production of secretions. Material and MethOds. It was a controlled, double blind, prospective clinical trial. We evaluated a population of 72 patients from 18 to 65 year-old who attended to five private clinics, during the period of May 2012 and July 2013. The cases were patients with diagnosis of sore throat by β-hemolytic Streptococcus Group A based on clinical criteria and a positive rapid test for Streptococcus Group A. The clinical diagnosis was sore throat associated with two or more of the following signs: fever > 38 °C; erythema of the uvula and pharynx, or tonsils; edema of the uvula, pharynx, or tonsils; exudate in the pharynx, or tonsils; and, cervical lymphadenopathy. In addition, patients had to have production of secretions (productive cough). Results. Further improvement of symptoms in the second control (day 11) was found in the group treated with cephalexin and ambroxol than in the group with cephalexin alone (p < 0,05). Conclusion. The association cephalexin-ambroxol is more effective than the single cephalexin in patients with streptococcal acute sore throat with production of secretions.

Humans , Male , Adolescent , Adult , Female , Young Adult , Middle Aged , Ambroxol/therapeutic use , Cephalexin/therapeutic use , Pharyngitis/therapy , Streptococcal Infections/therapy , Tonsillitis/therapy
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-25067


PURPOSE: To report a case of Pseudomonas fluorescens infection following endoscopic dacryocystorhinostomy and silicone tube intubation in a healthy patient who was using steroid nasal spray. In addition, a literature review is conducted. CASE SUMMARY: A 72-year-old female patient came to our clinic with tearing and hyperemia in the right eye. Ten months prior, she had undergone endoscopic dacryocystorhinostomy and silicone tube intubation due to nasolacrimal duct obstruction in the right eye. Six months after the first operation, dacryocystorhinostomy revision with silicone tube exchange was performed due to obstruction of the nasal bony orifice. In addition, the patient was using a steroid nasal spray. On slit lamp examination, conjunctival injection, marked inflammation and punctal edema around the tube were observed. The silicone tube was removed and the tube cultured. Pseudomonas fluorescens was isolated from the tube contents. The patients was treated with topical 0.3% gatifloxacin 4 times a day, methylol cephalexin lysinate 1000 mg 3 times a day and the nasal spray was discontinued. Two weeks later, all symptoms were resolved after treatment with antibiotic treatment. CONCLUSIONS: A case of Pseudomonas fluorescens canaliculitis which occurred in healthy patient who was using steroid nasal spray is presented with a literature review. Pseudomonas fluorescens canaliculitis can be treated by using proper antibiotics.

Anti-Bacterial Agents , Cephalexin , Corneal Ulcer , Dacryocystitis , Dacryocystorhinostomy , Edema , Eye , Female , Fluoroquinolones , Humans , Hyperemia , Inflammation , Intubation , Nasolacrimal Duct , Porphyrins , Pseudomonas , Pseudomonas fluorescens , Silicones , Canaliculitis
Jordan Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences. 2011; 4 (3): 191-197
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-123025


This prospective clinical trial aims at evaluating the effects of antibiotic therapy following different administration routes on the postoperative complications of surgical removal of lower impacted third molars. Two hundred and fourty eight consecutive patients [100 males and 148 females] aged 18 to 38 years old [mean=24 +/- 5 years] were recruited into this study. The lower third molars of all recruited patients were surgically extracted. Participants received preoperative antibiotic cover either as intravenous Cephradine injection [1 gram] or oral dose of 500 mg Cephalexin. Immediate and late complications following the surgery; including pain, swelling, trismus, paraesthesia, bleeding, dry socket, infection and fracture of mandible; were assessed 3 days and 7-14 days following the surgery. The most frequent complications were slight pain, swelling, and trismus. Oral route of antibiotic administration was associated with more immediate and late complications [p<0.001]. Oral route of antibiotic administration was associated with more pain, swelling, trismus, and dry socket [p<0.05]. Following surgical extraction of third molars, intravenous antibiotic administration was more effective in reducing the post surgical complications than oral antibiotic administration

Humans , Male , Female , Drug Administration Routes , Anti-Bacterial Agents , Prospective Studies , Postoperative Complications/prevention & control , Cephradine , Cephalexin , Administration, Oral , Injections, Intravenous
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec ; 62(6): 1526-1529, dez. 2010.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-576060


A severe cutaneous reaction in a female dog after administration of penicillin and cephalexin is described, in which the main signs presented by the patient were fever, lack of appetite, and detachment of epidermis in the dorsal region of body.The established treatment was surgical debridement of the region, topical application of Aloe Vera with sugar, and systemic antibiotic therapy with ciprofloxacin, resulting in the recovery and wound closure in approximately 45 days.

Animals , Female , Dogs , Cephalexin/administration & dosage , Stevens-Johnson Syndrome , beta-Lactams/adverse effects , beta-Lactams/administration & dosage , beta-Lactams/therapeutic use
Ciênc. cuid. saúde ; 9(3): 464-470, jul.-set. 2010. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, BDENF | ID: lil-655744


A ocorrência de microrganismos em feridas crônicas varia geograficamente e o perfil de suscetibilidade antimicrobiana requer monitoramento para fornecer informações que possam subsidiar opções terapêuticas econdutas no atendimento. O objetivo deste estudo foi isolar e identificar microrganismos de úlceras crônicas deperna em pacientes ambulatoriais e verificar a suscetibilidade antimicrobiana dos agentes etiológicos. O presenteestudo é de caráter transversal e foi realizado em unidades básicas de saúde de Goiânia, com atendimento de24 horas. Os dados foram obtidos por meio de entrevista estruturada e de um check-list contendo sinais e sintomas clínicos indicativos de infecção e amostra por meio de swab e técnica de Levine. A coleta de dados foirealizada no período de junho a julho de 2007. Participaram 46 pacientes que apresentavam 60 feridas. Entre asbactérias gram-positivas predominou, em 65 por cento dos casos, Staphylococcus aureus sensível à maioria dos antibióticos testados. Entre as gram-negativas, as mais frequentes foram: Pseudomonas aeruginosa (23,3 por cento), resistente a amoxicilina+ácido clavulânico, cefalexina e cefotaxima; Proteus mirabilis (16,6 por cento) e Proteus vulgaris(15,0 por cento) foram sensíveis à gentamicina, ao aztreonam, ao ciprofloxacino e à amicacina. A caracterização dos isolados evidencia a necessidade de monitoramento dos agentes, em vista da possibilidade de disseminação e ocorrência de surtos e infecções por estas bactérias.

The occurrence of microorganisms in chronic wounds vary geographically and antimicrobial susceptibility requires close monitoring to provide information that may support and offer therapeutic options to assist individuals with chronic injuries. The objective of this study was to isolate and to identify microorganisms from chronic leg ulcers inoutpatients and to verify the antimicrobial susceptibility of etiological agents. This is a cross-sectional studycarried out in Basic Health Units of Goiania, with 24 hours attendance. Data were collected through structured interview and a check-list containing clinical signs and symptoms indicative of infection and sample collected by swab and Levine technique. Data collection was performed from June to July 2007. Took part on the study 46patients totaling 60 wounds. Among the Gram-positive bacteria Staphylococcus aureus were predominant, present in 65 percent of cases and were sensitive to most antibiotics tested. Among the Gram-negative bacteria, themost frequent were: Pseudomonas aeruginosa (23.35), resistant to amoxicillin + clavulanic acid, cephalexin and cefotaxime; Proteus mirabilis (16.6 percent) and Proteus vulgaris (15.0 percent) all sensitive to gentamicin, aztreonam,ciprofloxacin and amikacin. The characterization of the isolates indicate the need for monitoring of the agents because the possibility of spreading, outbreaks and infections by these bacteria.

La ocurrencia de microorganismos en heridas crónicas varía geográficamente y el perfil de susceptibilidad antimicrobiana requiere una estrecha supervisión para ofrecer informaciones que puedan subvencionar opciones terapéuticas y conductas en la atención. El objetivo de este estudio fue aislar e identificar microorganismos de úlceras crónicas de pierna en pacientes ambulatoriales y verificar la susceptibilidad antimicrobiana de losagentes etiológicos. El presente estudio es de carácter transversal y fue realizado en Unidades Básicas de Saludde Goiania, con atención 24 horas. Los datos fueron recolectados a través de entrevista estructurada y de uncheck-list conteniendo señales y síntomas clínicos indicativos de infección y muestra por medio de swab ytécnica de Levine. La recogida de datos fue realizada de junio a julio de 2007. Participaron 46 pacientes que presentaban 60 heridas. Entre las bacterias gram-positivas predominó, en 65 por ciento de los casos, Staphylococcusaureus sensible a la mayoría de los antibióticos testados. Entre las bacterias gram-negativas, las más frecuentesfueron: Pseudomonas aeruginosa (23,3 por ciento), resistentes a amoxicilina + ácido clavulánico, cefalexina y cefotaxima,Proteus mirabilis (16,6 por ciento) y Proteus vulgaris (15,0 por ciento) sensibles a la gentamicina, aztreonam, ciprofloxacina yamikacina. La caracterización de los aislados indica la necesidad de un control de los agentes, en vista de laposibilidad de diseminación y ocurrencia de surtos e infecciones por estas bacterias.

Humans , Cephalexin , Oxacillin , Pefloxacin , Leg Ulcer/complications , Leg Ulcer/nursing , Leg Ulcer/ethnology , Leg Ulcer/prevention & control , Leg Ulcer/therapy , Wound Healing , Public Policy
Acta pediátr. costarric ; 22(1): 54-56, ene.-abr. 2010. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-648334


La celulitis se define como la inflamación severa de la dermis y del tejido celular subcutáneo. Puede ocurrir a causa de flora bacteriana común de la piel o por bacterias exógenas. Usualmente ocurre cuando la piel sufre una lesion, debido a una cortadura, quemadura, picadura de insecto, herida quirúrgica o en el sitio de inserción de catéteres. La piel del rostro y de las extremidades inferiores son las zonas más comúnmente afectadas por esta infección; aunque la celulitis puede presentarse en cualquier parte del cuerpo. El tratamiento consiste en una adecuada higiene y el uso correcto de antibióticos.

Humans , Female , Anti-Bacterial Agents/administration & dosage , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Cellulitis , Dicloxacillin , Penicillin G , Cephalexin , Clindamycin , Erythromycin , Pediatrics
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-560257


Com o avanço da tecnologia e das pesquisas envolvendo liberação de fármacos, modernização de testes e maior ênfase da previsibilidade de efeitos terapêuticos por meio dos testes in vitro, os testes de dissolução e os estudos de perfis de dissolução têm ganhado cada vez mais importância. Apesar de terem sido introduzidos inicialmente como uma forma de caracterizar o perfil de liberação de fármacos pouco solúveis, atualmente os testes de dissolução fazem parte das monografias de quase todas as formas farmacêuticas sólidas orais. Este trabalho teve como objetivo estudar o perfil de dissolução (porcentagem de fármaco dissolvido versus tempo) dos medicamentos de referência, genérico e similar contendo cefalexina 500 mg na forma farmacêutica de cápsulas. Foram analisadas três especialidades farmacêuticas (referência, genérico e similar), os quais foram submetidos ao teste de dissolução e perfil de dissolução in vitro. Os resultados obtidos no teste de dissolução permitem concluir que as amostras encontraram-se de acordo com as especificações e o perfil de dissolução deste medicamento, nesta forma farmacêutica, é considerado de dissolução rápida (85% de fármaco dissolvido em 15 minutos). Portanto, existe uma grande semelhança entre as curvas obtidas, o que sugere que se trata de equivalentes farmacêuticos.

With recent advances in technology and research into drug delivery, the modernization of tests and greater emphasis on the predictability of therapeutic effect by means of in vitro tests, the dissolution test and the study of dissolution profiles are gaining more and more importance. Though introduced initially as a way of characterizing the release profile of poorly soluble drugs, dissolution tests are currently part of pharmacopoeial monographs on almost all the oral solid pharmaceutical forms. The objective of this study was to determine the dissolution profile (percent drug dissolved versus time) of the pioneer brand, generic and similar pharmaceutical capsules containing 500mg cephalexin. Three pharmaceutical brands (reference, generic and similar) were subjected to the dissolution test and in vitro dissolution profiles were recorded. From the results of the dissolution test, it was concluded that the samples met the acceptance criterion, as no difference was observed in the percentage of the drug dissolved in a standard time. The dissolution profile indicated that this medicine, in this pharmaceutical form, dissolves readily (85% of the drug dissolved in 15 minutes) and the curves showed great similarity, suggesting that the 3 brands are pharmaceutically equivalent.

Humans , Capsules , Cephalexin/pharmacokinetics , Drugs, Generic , Reference Drugs , Similar Drugs
New Iraqi Journal of Medicine [The]. 2010; 6 (2): 36-39
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-108660


Development of resistance to antimicrobial agents by staphylococci is a major public health problem. Therefore, a retrospective study was conducted to determine the rate of resistance to antibiotics by S. aureus strains isolated from pediatric patients. A total of 472 different clinical specimens of pediatric patients were investigated. A high resistance of 96.7%, to aztreonam followed by 95.2% to imipenem, and 85.8% to cephalexin by Staphylococcus aureus strains was recorded. Low resistance rate was also recorded for vancomycin [1.4%] followed by cephalothin [9%],clindamycin [153%],tobramycin [15.7%],amikacin [18.1%] and ciprofloxacin [18.6%]. Aztreonam, imipenem, and most of [beta-lactam antibiotics were found to be ineffective at in vitro inhibition of the S. aureus of pediatric origin. S. aureus infections could be effectively treated with vancomycin, cephalothin, clindamycin, tobramycin, amikacin and ciprofloxacin. The high resistance rate to most of beta-lactam antibiotics studied could be attributed to their prevailing usage and abuse in the area of study

Humans , Staphylococcus aureus/drug effects , Aztreonam , Retrospective Studies , Child , Imipenem , Cephalexin , Vancomycin , Cephalothin , Clindamycin , Tobramycin , Amikacin , Ciprofloxacin
Iranian Journal of Environmental Health Science and Engineering. 2010; 7 (1): 15-24
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-98415


Antibiotics such as amoxicillin and cephalexin are a group of pharmaceutical compounds in human medicine practice that have been entered in water bodies. Presence of these compounds in the environment has raised concerns regarding the toxicity to aquatic organisms and the emergence of strains of antibiotic-resistant bacteria. Removal of these substances before entering the aquatic environment as well as water reuse plant is very important. The objective of this investigation was to evaluate the impact of hydrophilic and hydrophobic fractions of Natural Organic Matter [NOM] on the removal efficiency of cephalexin and amoxicillin, by using two different commercially available composite NF membranes [TFC-SR2 and TFC-SR3]. In addition, the effect of NOM fractions on retention mechanism and permeates flux behavior was studied. Amoxicillin and cephalexin were used as models of antibiotics; alginate and humic acid were used as models of hydrophilic and hydrophobic fractions of NOM, respectively. It was observed that the rejection and permeate flux of amoxicillin and cephalexin were influenced by the membrane characteristics and properties of NOM. The results showed that as the alginate proportion was increased, the rejection improved. The permeate flux decreased with increasing alginate ratio. It was observed that the rejections of amoxicillin and cephalexin in TFC-SR2 were >97.3% and >95.8% in all experiments, respectively. In TFC-SR3, the rejection percentage were [95.9%-100%] and [86.1%-96.3%], respectively. Alginate and humic acid had synergistic effect on flux decline. In other words, increasing alginate concentration increased the rate and extent of flux reduction

Hydrophobic and Hydrophilic Interactions , Amoxicillin , Cephalexin , Water Purification/methods , Water Pollution, Chemical
Acta méd. costarric ; 51(3): 172-174, jul - sept. 2009.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-581035


Se presenta el caso de un paciente masculino, vecino de Pavas-San José, con historia de diarrea crónica. En el coprocultivo se identificó shewanella algae. Casos de infección en humanos por esta bacteria son raros y se han encontrado, predominantemente localizadas, en piel, oídos y tejidos blandos con o sin bacteremia, en la mayoría de los cuales existe el antecedente de contacto con ambientes marinos. Shewanella algae es sensible a aminoglicósidos, carbapanemes, eritromicina y quinolonas, pero resistente a penicilinas. La sensibilidad a ampicilina y cefalosporinas es variable. Nuestro paciente fue tratado con cefalexina y tuvo una respuesta satisfactoria al mismo, con cese de los síntomas. De acuerdo con nuestro conocimiento este el primer caso documentado, en Costa Rica, de infección gastrointestinal por esta bacteria.

We report herein the case of a male patient, from Pavas, San Jose, with chronic diarrhea whose stool culture grew Shewanella algae. Infections caused by this micro-organism are infrequent and most commonly involve ears, skin and soft tissue, with or without bacteremia and are usually linked to ocean contact in warm climate countries. Shewanella algae is sensitive to aminoglycosides, carbapenems, erythromycin and quinolones, but resistant to penicillin. Sensitivity to amplicilin and cephalosporins is variable. Our patient was treated withcefalexin, with satisfactory results. To our knowledge, this is the first documented case in Costa Rica of gastrointestinal infection caused by this microorganism.

Humans , Male , Aged , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Cephalexin , Diarrhea , Quinolones , Shewanella
Journal of Infection and Public Health. 2009; 2 (3): 147-152
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-102660


Prophylactic antibiotics are commonly used for prevention of urinary tract infections [UTIs] in children. It was postulated that the organisms and resistance patterns of breakthrough infections would differ with the choice of antimicrobial prophylaxis. This was a retrospective descriptive study of all breakthroughs UTI from 2000 to 2006 in children over 1 month of age discharged from a referral children's hospital in Tehran, Iran on continuous antibiotic prophylaxis for UTIs. Fifty-seven children discharged on prophylaxis had breakthrough UTIs of which 32 [56%] had a previously diagnosed urinary tract anomaly. Escherichia coli was responsible for the majority of infections irrespective of choice of prophylaxis. Thirty-three of 56 breakthrough UTIs [59%] were with organisms that were resistant to the prophylactic antibiotic. There was an increased incidence of resistance to prophylaxis in children on cefixime [16 of 22; 78%] when compared with children on cephalexin [7 of 19; 37%; p = 0.02] and a trend toward increased resistance when compared with children on trimethoprim-sulfamethoxasole [3 of 8; 37%] [p = 0.10]. In conclusion, the resistance pattern of organisms causing breakthrough UTIs varies with the choice of prophylaxis which should be taken into consideration in choosing empiric therapy for such infections

Humans , Male , Female , Urinary Tract Infections/drug therapy , Child , Drug Resistance, Microbial , Drug Resistance , Retrospective Studies , Cross-Sectional Studies , Escherichia coli , Cefixime , Cephalexin , Trimethoprim, Sulfamethoxazole Drug Combination