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1.
Braz. j. otorhinolaryngol. (Impr.) ; 88(2): 228-234, Mar.-Apr. 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1374717

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction: Obstructive sleep apnea is characterized by a reduced airflow through the upper airways during sleep. Two forms of obstructive sleep apnea are described: the central form and the obstructive form. The obstructive form is related to many factors, such as the craniofacial morphology. Objective: To evaluate the correlation between the morphology of the cranial base, of the mandible and the maxilla, and obstructive sleep apnea severity. Methods: Eighty-four patients, mean age of 50.4 years old; 73 males and 11 females with obstructive sleep apnea were enrolled in the present study. Patients with high body mass index and comorbidities were excluded. Lateral cephalograms and polysomnography were collected for each patient to evaluate the correlation between craniofacial morphology and obstructive sleep apnea severity. A Spearman's rho correlation test between cephalometric measurements and obstructive sleep apnea indexes was computed. Statistical significance was set at p < 0.05. Results: Patients with a severe obstructive sleep apnea presented a reduction of sagittal growth of both effective mandibular length and cranio-basal length. The mandibular length was the only variable with a statistical correlation with apnea-hypopnea index. Vertical dimension showed a weak correlation with the severity of obstructive sleep apnea. No correlation with maxillary sagittal dimension was shown. Conclusion: Obstructive sleep apnea severity may be correlated to mandibular and cranial base growth. Facial vertical dimension had no correlation with obstructive sleep apnea severity.


Resumo Introdução: A apneia obstrutiva do sono é caracterizada por um fluxo de ar reduzido nas vias aéreas superiores durante o sono. Duas formas de apneia são descritas: a forma central e a forma obstrutiva. A forma obstrutiva tem sido relacionada a vários fatores, como a morfologia craniofacial. Objetivo: Avaliar a correlação entre a morfologia da base do crânio, da mandíbula e da maxila e a gravidade da apneia obstrutiva do sono. Método: Foram incluídos no presente estudo 84 pacientes com apneia obstrutiva do sono, com média de 50,4 anos; 73 homens e 11 mulheres. Pacientes com alto índice de massa corpórea e comorbidades foram excluídos. Foram coletados cefalogramas laterais e polissonografia para cada paciente para avaliar a correlação entre a morfologia craniofacial e a gravidade da apneia. Foi computado o coeficiente de correlação de postos de Spearman (rho) entre medidas cefalométricas e índices de apneia obstrutiva do sono. A significância estatística foi estabelecida em p < 0,05. Resultados: Pacientes com apneia obstrutiva do sono grave apresentaram redução do crescimento sagital do comprimento mandibular efetivo e do comprimento crânio-basal. O comprimento mandibular foi a única variável que apresentou correlação estatística com o índice de apneia-hipopneia. A dimensão vertical mostrou uma fraca correlação com a gravidade da apneia. Não foi demonstrada correlação com a dimensão maxilar sagital. Conclusão: A gravidade da apneia obstrutiva do sono pode estar correlacionada ao crescimento da base mandibular e craniana. A dimensão facial vertical não apresentou correlação com a gravidade da apneia.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Sleep Apnea, Obstructive/diagnostic imaging , Cephalometry/methods , Polysomnography , Mandible/diagnostic imaging , Maxilla/diagnostic imaging , Middle Aged
2.
Rev. Círc. Argent. Odontol ; 79(230): 29-32, dic. 2021. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1358700

ABSTRACT

Este trabajo de investigación tiene como finalidad comparar la inclinación del incisivo inferior pre y post-tratamiento en pacientes tratados ortodóncicamente con técnicas Roth y técnica Damon a los cuales no se les realizó exodoncias. El grupo de estudio estuvo conformado por 150 pacientes adultos con dentición permanente completa que han sido atendidos en el Círculo Argentino de Odontología. Para medir la inclinación se utilizó la fórmula de Tweed: ángulo IMPA, eje axial del incisivo inferior con el plano mandibular. Los valores tomados de los trazados pre y post-tratamiento fueron sometidos a un test de Student apareado utilizando el programa Infostat v 2010. Se encontró una diferencia significativa en la inclinación axial del incisivo inferior post tratamiento cualquiera sea la técnica utilizada, aumenta en ambos casos. No se realizó discriminación de torques (Roth ­ 1°, Damon torque estándar ­ 3°, Damon bajo torque - 11°) (AU)


This research work aims to compare the inclination of the lower incisor before and after treatment in patients treated orthodontically with Roth techniques and Damon technique to which no exodontics were performed. The study group consisted of 150 adult patients with complete permanent dentition who have been treated in Circulo Argentino de Odontología. To measure the inclination the Tweed formula was used: IMPA angle, axial axis of the lower incisor with the mandibular plane. The values taken from the pre and post-treatment plots were subjected to a Student test paired using the Infostat v 2010 program. A significant difference was found in the axial inclination of the lower incisor post treatment whatever the technique used, it increases in both cases. No torques discrimination was performed (Roth - 1 °, Damon standard torque - 3 °, Damon under torque - 11 °) (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Orthodontics, Corrective/methods , Cephalometry/methods , Orthodontic Brackets , Incisor , Argentina , Societies, Dental , Data Interpretation, Statistical , Retrospective Studies , Analysis of Variance , Longitudinal Studies , Mandible
3.
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1180860

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: To describe the gonial angle characteristics in class III skeletal malocclusion in Javanese ethnic. Material and Methods: Pretreatment lateral cephalometric radiographs of 43 Javanese ethnic patients were measured: upper (Go1) and lower gonial angle (Go2), anterior (AFH) and posterior face height ratio (PFH), maxilla-mandibular length difference, mandibular plane angle (FMA), Y axis, ramus position, ANB angle, posterior cranial base/ramus height and mandibular body length/anterior cranial base. The relation between Go1, Go2 and other variables were analysed using correlation and regression analysis. Results: The total gonial angle is within normal range, but Go1 is below normal and Go2 is above normal. There is no difference between male and female gonial angle measurements (p=0.939 and p=0.861, respectively). Ramus position is positively correlated to Go1 (p=0.003), while AFH (p=0.000), maxilla-mandibular length difference (p=0.000), FMA (p=0.000), Y axis (p=0.000), and posterior cranial base/ramus height (p=0.018) are positively correlated to Go2. PFH is negatively correlated to Go2 (p=0.018). Conclusion: The upper gonial angle is influenced by the position of mandibular ramus, while the lower gonial angle is affected by the posterior and anterior lower facial height and mandibular size and rotation. Javanese with class III malocclusion tends to have hypodivergent facial type, with more posteriorly located mandibular ramus and excess mandibular length.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Orthodontics , Cephalometry/methods , Indonesia/epidemiology , Malocclusion, Angle Class III/therapy , Mandible/anatomy & histology , Regression Analysis , Data Interpretation, Statistical , Maxilla/diagnostic imaging
4.
Rev. Ateneo Argent. Odontol ; 64(1): 38-43, 2021. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1252459

ABSTRACT

El objetivo de esta segunda parte es relacionar el protocolo utilizado en el Ateneo Argentino de Odontología (A.A.O.) expuesto en la Parte I, con los cefalogramas laterales diseñados por los Dres. Arne Björk, Joseph Jarabak, James McNamara y Robert Ricketts y proponer las visiones complementarias en la búsqueda de un diagnóstico y un plan de tratamiento de mayor precisión. La aplicación de una secuencia lógica en el diagnóstico de una maloclusión permite establecer una categoría de análisis jerarquizada en función de los condicionantes y de las posibilidades de intervención terapéutica (AU)


The objective of this second part is to relate the protocol used in the Ateneo Argentino de Odontología (A.A.O.) exposed in Part I, with the lateral cephalograms designed by the Drs. Arne Bjork, Joseph Jarabak, James McNamara and Robert Ricketts and propose complementary visions in the search for a more accurate diagnosis and treatment plan. The application of a logical sequence in the diagnosis of malocclusion, allows to establish a category of hierarchical analysis according to the conditions and the possibilities of therapeutic intervention (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Clinical Protocols , Cephalometry/methods , Malocclusion/diagnostic imaging , Patient Care Planning , Argentina , Societies, Dental/organization & administration , Clinical Diagnosis
5.
Int. j. odontostomatol. (Print) ; 14(4): 664-669, dic. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1134555

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN: El objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar la relación entre la clase esqueletal sagital y las condiciones transversales o verticales en sujetos con deformidad facial sin presencia de asimetría facial; Se realizó un análisis cefalomét rico de la clase esqueletal sagital, transversal y vertical en 115 sujetos con indicaciones de cirugía ortognática. Se consideró algunos datos del análisis cefalométrico de Steiner y el análisis cefalométrico de Ricketts en sentido sagital para determinar la clase esqueletal facial. A nivel transversal se determinó la dimensión transversal facial, dimensión transversal maxilar y dimensión transversal mandibular. A nivel vertical se determinó la dimensión vertical oclusal y dimensión vertical total. Al comparar las mediciones transversales y verticales entre sujetos de sexo femenino y masculino, se observó que los hom- bres presentaban mayores dimensiones que las mujeres (p=0,0001) en todos los análisis realizados. Los sujetos clase III presentaron mayor dimensión transversal facial (p=0,0002) y transversal mandibular (p=0,001) que los sujetos clase II. Además, se observó que los sujetos clase III presentaban mayor dimensión vertical total (p=0,002) que los sujetos clase II; Es posible concluir que existe características faciales transversales y verticales que se pueden relacionar con la posición sagital de las estructuras maxilo-mandibulares.


ABSTRACT: The aim of this study is to evaluate the relationship between sagittal skeletal class and transverse or vertical conditions in subjects with facial deformity without presence of facial asymmetry; A comparative study was conducted between the results of the cephalometric analysis of the sagittal, transverse and vertical skeletal class in 115 subjects with indications for orthognathic surgery. The Steiner cephalometric analysis in the sagittal direction was used to determine the facial skeletal class and the Ricketts cephalometric analysis in the sagittal analysis. At the transverse level it was determined the facial transverse dimension, maxillary transverse dimension and mandibular transverse dimension. At a vertical level it is determined the occlusal vertical dimension and total vertical dimension. When comparing cross-sectional and vertical measurements between female and male subjects, it was observed that male subjects presented greater dimensions than female subjects (p=0.0001). Class III subjects present greater facial transverse dimension (p=0.0002) and mandibular transverse dimension (p=0.001) than class II subjects. Also, it was observed that class III subjects had a greater total vertical dimension (p=0.002) than class II subjects; It is possible to conclude that there are facial characteristics transverse and vertical that can be related with the sagittal position of the maxillo-mandibular structures.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Orthognathic Surgical Procedures/methods , Malocclusion, Angle Class II/surgery , Malocclusion, Angle Class III/surgery , Cephalometry/methods , Data Interpretation, Statistical , Sex Distribution , Helsinki Declaration , Informed Consent
6.
Int. j. morphol ; 38(5): 1386-1391, oct. 2020. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1134453

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY: The incisors are a key factor in dental occlusion and dentofacial aesthetics; therefore, the sagittal position and inclination of the incisors is a key parameter in diagnosis and orthodontic treatment planning. In some cases, the orthodontist will use more than one cephalometric analysis, and thus different results can be obtained. The aim of this study was to establish the diagnostic agreement among the different cephalometric measurements used to determine the anteroposterior position and the inclination of the incisors. Lateral cephalometric radiograms of patients between 18 and 59 years old were measured (n=260). Digital cephalometric measurements were made with Dolphin Imaging software, by a single calibrated operator. Here, a specific cephalometric analysis was designed in the software analysis editor. The results for each variable and each measurement were registered and compared. Fleiss's Kappa statistical tests, Cohen's Kappa, and Kendall's coefficient were used to determine the strength of agreement using the Minitab software. The results showed diagnostic strength agreement between slight and moderate among measurements of the same variable. This indicates that same diagnosis might not be obtained when using different approaches to measure the anteroposterior position and inclination of the incisors. It was concluded that there is a difference in the diagnosis between one measurement and another because the results showed slight or moderate strength of agreement. However, in some cases, better agreement was found when the measurements were compared as a function of the diagnostic response.


RESUMEN: Los incisivos son un factor clave en la oclusión dental y la estética dentofacial; por lo tanto, la posición sagital y la inclinación de los incisivos es un parámetro clave en el diagnóstico y la planificación del tratamiento de ortodoncia. En algunos casos, el ortodoncista utilizará más de un análisis cefalométrico y, por lo tanto, se pueden obtener resultados diferentes. El objetivo de este estudio fue establecer el acuerdo de diagnóstico entre las diferentes mediciones cefalométricas utilizadas para determinar la posición anteroposterior y la inclinación de los incisivos. Se midieron radiografías cefalométricas laterales de pacientes entre 18 y 59 años (n = 260). Las mediciones cefalométricas digitales se realizaron con el software Dolphin Imaging, por un solo operador calibrado. Aquí, se diseñó un análisis cefalométrico específico en el editor de análisis de software. Los resultados para cada variable y cada medición se registraron y compararon. Las pruebas estadísticas Kappa de Fleiss, Kappa de Cohen y el coeficiente de Kendall se usaron para determinar la fuerza del acuerdo utilizando el software Minitab. Los resultados mostraron un acuerdo de fuerza diagnóstica entre leve y moderado entre las mediciones de la misma variable. Esto indica que no se puede obtener el mismo diagnóstico cuando se utilizan diferentes enfoques para medir la posición anteroposterior y la inclinación de los incisivos. Se concluyó que existe una diferencia en el diagnóstico entre una medición y otra porque los resultados mostraron una fuerza de acuerdo leve o moderada. Sin embargo, en algunos casos, se encontró un mejor acuerdo cuando se compararon las mediciones en función de la respuesta de diagnóstico.


Subject(s)
Humans , Adolescent , Adult , Young Adult , Cephalometry/methods , Incisor/anatomy & histology , Orthodontics , Cross-Sectional Studies , Retrospective Studies , Diagnosis , Esthetics , Incisor/diagnostic imaging
7.
Rev. ADM ; 77(5): 244-246, sept.-oct. 2020. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1146798

ABSTRACT

La importancia del análisis cefalométrico dentro del diagnóstico en ortodoncia ha ido incrementando a través de los años, por ello, el interés de comparar la confiabilidad de los sistemas digitales con el trazado manual convencional. Objetivo: Definir el grado de concordancia entre los resultados de trazado cefalométrico manual y con Nemoceph. Material y métodos: Se utilizaron ocho medidas lineales y angulares del análisis cefalométrico de Steiner. Se realizó un estudio transversal, correlacional, en el cual se analizaron 70 radiografías laterales de cráneo digitales. Los resultados se dividieron en dos grupos, trazado manual y trazado cefalométrico con Nemoceph, los cuales fueron evaluados con un índice de correlación intraclase. Conclusión: Se reportó un grado de correlación intraclase mayor a 0.75, estableciendo que el sistema digital exhibe la misma precisión del manual, con algunas ventajas convenientes a la época (AU)


The importance taken by the cephalometric analysis within the orthodontic diagnosis has been increasing over the years, for that reason the interest of comparing the reliability of the digital systems with the conventional manual tracing. Objective: To define the degree of concordance between the results of manual cephalometric tracing and with Nemoceph. Material and methods: Eight linear and angular measurements of Steiner's cephalometric analysis were used. A crosssectional, correlational study was conducted in which 70 digital skull lateral radiographs were analyzed. The results were divided into two groups; manual tracing and cephalometric tracing with Nemoceph, which were evaluated with an intraclass correlation index. Conclusion: a correlation degree greater than 0.75 was reported. Establishing that the digital system exhibits the same precision of the manual, with some advantages suited to the age (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Cephalometry/methods , Radiography, Dental, Digital , Malocclusion/diagnostic imaging , Image Interpretation, Computer-Assisted/methods , Cross-Sectional Studies , Data Interpretation, Statistical , Mexico
8.
Int. j. morphol ; 38(3): 659-664, June 2020. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1098303

ABSTRACT

Cephalofacial variables and the body height have priority importance in anthropological researches for a chronological study of the anthropological status of peoples. The main aim of this study was to evaluate the changeability of the cephalofacial variables and stature under the influence of exogenous factors during the over 80 years period-time. The realisation of the goal was done by comparing of some anthropometrical data (stature, 5 cephalofacial measurements and 2 cephalofacial indexes) done on the Albanian male population in three different time-line studies (Coon, 1950; Dhima, 1974-84; Rexhepi et al. 2018; cephalofacial measurements, 1997-2008, and stature, 2007-2017). Regarding the cephalofacial variables, some minor systematic differences were found between three different timeline studies, but without contradictions regarding the group's classification according to the corresponding scale. The major and meaningful differences between the three studies are noted in body height (Coon = 169.71 cm, Dhima=171.61cm; Rexhepi et al.=178.23 cm). The results of this study suggested that the timeline difference over 80 years, with all exogenous factor changes (environment, socioeconomic conditions, health, etc.) has a meaningful impact on body height, while not on the substantial changes on cephalofacial variables.


Las variables cefalofaciales y la altura del cuerpo tienen una importancia mayor en las investigaciones antropológicas para un estudio cronológico del estado antropológico de la población. El objetivo principal de esta investigación fue evaluar la capacidad de cambio de las variables cefalofaciales y la estatura de acuerdo a la influencia de factores exógenos durante un período de más de 80 años. El objetivo se llevó a cabo mediante la comparación de algunos datos antropométricos (estatura, 5 mediciones cefalofaciales y 2 índices cefalofaciales) realizados en la población masculina albanesa en tres estudios de línea de tiempo diferentes (Coon, 1929-30; Dhima, 1974-84; Mediciones cefalofaciales de Rexhepi et al., 1997-2008, y estatura, 2007-2017). Con respecto a las variables cefalofaciales, se encontraron algunas diferencias sistemáticas menores entre tres estudios de línea de tiempo diferentes, pero sin contradicciones con respecto a la clasificación del grupo, según la escala correspondiente. Las diferencias principales y significativas entre los tres estudios se observaron en la altura del cuerpo (Coon = 169,71 cm, Dhima = 171,61 cm; Rexhepi et al. = 178,23 cm). Los resultados de esta investigación sugieren que la diferencia en la línea de tiempo en un periodo de 80 años, junto a todos los cambios de factores exógenos (ambiente, condiciones socioeconómicas, salud, etc.) tienen un impacto significativo en la altura corporal, mientras que esto no ocurre en los cambios de las variables cefalofaciales.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adolescent , Adult , Young Adult , Body Height , Cephalometry/methods , Head/anatomy & histology , Anthropology , Time Factors , Albania , Face/anatomy & histology , Kosovo
9.
Int. j. morphol ; 38(1): 78-82, Feb. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1056401

ABSTRACT

Dentro del espectro de conformación del cráneo, se reconocen generalmente tres amplias categorías que se corresponden con el concepto de biotipo cefálico, determinado por el Índice Cefálico. El Estos tres biotipos cefálicos son: el braquiocefálico, mesaticefálico y dolicocefálico, pero están basados en medidas lineales. A fin de revisar esta clasificación en base a su geometría, se estudiaron 53 cráneos de perros adultos, correspondientes a los tres grupos craneométricos descritos: 16 braquicéfalos, 20 mesaticéfalos y 17 dolicocéfalos. Para ello se obtuvieron fotografías en el plano ventral, en las que posteriormente se ubicaron 17 hitos anatómicos que se analizaron mediante técnicas de morfometría geométrica. De estos hitos, 5 correspondían a la zona neurocraneal y el resto al esplacnocráneo. Los tres grupos craneométricos mostraron diferencias estadísticamente significativas entre ellos tanto por el tamaño como por la forma. Las variables que contribuyeron más a explicar la diferenciación fueron las ubicadas en el margen más lateral de los arcos cigomáticos y en la base de este mismo arco. Las variables esplacnocraneales presentaban una alometría mucho más marcada que las neurocráneos. Puesto que el arco cigomático debe ser considerado como parte del esplacnocráneo, sugerimos que es tan importante el índice cefálico (que tiene en cuenta la máxima anchura de la cabeza) como el facial (que tiene en cuenta la máxima anchura de la cara). La conformación neurocraneal sería mucho más conservativa y por ende el índice craneal, de mucho menor poder discriminatorio entre grupos. El cambio entre tipos se debería a los músculos masetero y temporal, que tienen su inserción en el arco.


Within the wide conformation of skull spectrum, there are generally three recognized broad categories that correspond to the concept of cephalic biotype, determined by the cephalic index. The three cephalic biotypes are: brachiocephalic, mesaticephalic and dolichocephalic, which are based on linear measures. In order to revise this classification based on its geometry, we studied 53 skulls of adult dogs, corresponding to the three craneometric groups previously described: 16 brachycephalic, 20 mesaticephalic and 17 dolichocephalic. Images on ventral plane were obtained and 17 anatomical landmarks were subsequently located and analyzed by means of geometric morphometric techniques. Five of those landmarks corresponded to the neurocraneal area and the rest of the splanchnocranium. The three craneometric groups showed statistically significant differences between them for both size and shape. The variables that contributed to the differentiation between them were located along the edge of the zygomatic arches and on the basis of this arch. Splanchnocranial variables also presented a much more marked allometry than the neurocraneal variables. Since the zygomatic arch should be considered as part of the splanchnocranium, we suggest that the cephalic index (which takes into account the maximum width of the head) is as important as the facial index (which takes into account the maximum width of the face). The neurocraneal index would be much more conservative, and therefore less discriminatory between the groups.


Subject(s)
Animals , Dogs , Skull/anatomy & histology , Cephalometry/methods , Dogs/anatomy & histology , Zygoma/anatomy & histology , Discriminant Analysis , Principal Component Analysis
10.
Rev. Soc. Odontol. La Plata ; 30(59): 9-20, 2020. ilus, tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1223943

ABSTRACT

El 81,3% de una encuesta realizada a 96 ortodoncistas y ortopedistas calificados y técnicos radiólogos consultados informan que ubican la cabeza del paciente en una posición ideal, subjetiva del profesional instruido que lo asiste, ya que muchas de sus fotografías y telerradiografías no son posiciones naturales de la cabeza genuinas. Se ha utilizado la vertical verdadera como parámetro para mediciones, todas angulares, para definir la disposición ánteroposterior del punto A´ (de construcción) para el cuerpo del labio superior, el punto Pg´para el mentón, el Labrale superior y el Labrale inferior para el bermellón de cada labio, con la finalidad de planificar correcciones ortopédicas, ortodóncicas u ortodóncicas-quirúrgicas de acuerdo a la anomalía detectada (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Posture/physiology , Cephalometry/methods , Head , Orthopedics/methods , Reference Values , Anthropometry/methods , Health Surveys , Chin/anatomy & histology , Photography, Dental , Lip/anatomy & histology , Malocclusion/therapy , Malocclusion/diagnostic imaging
11.
J. oral res. (Impresa) ; 8(6): 499-504, dic. 28, 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1224477

ABSTRACT

Background: Growth hormone plays a significant role in determining craniofacial morphology. Mutations of its receptor gene might be associated with mandibular prognathism (MP). Purpose: The aim of the current study was to evaluate growth hormone receptor (GHR) gene polymorphisms in relation to facial dimensions. Material and Method: The study enrolled 65 participants with class III profile in MP group and 60 orthognathic control participants. Genomic DNA was extracted from a blood sample from the patients and the P561T and C422F polymorphisms of GHR gene were screened by PCR-RFLP method followed by Sanger sequencing of randomly selected samples to validate the genotyping results. Chi square was used to compare distribution of polymorphism in MP and control groups (p<0.05). Results: Heterozygous P561T mutation was found in 10.77% and 8.33% of MP and control groups, respectively (p=0.644) while none of the subjects had the C422F mutation. Sanger sequencing confirmed the genotyping results from the PCR-RFLP method. P561T polymorphism was significantly associated with ramus and lower facial height in MP patients and with ramus height in orthognathic patients (p<0.05). Conclusion: The results indicate that the P561T polymorphism of the GHR gene is associated with the vertical dimension of the mandible in an Iranian population.


Antecedentes: La hormona del crecimiento desempeña un papel importante en la determinación de la morfología craneofacial. Las mutaciones de su gen receptor podrían estar asociadas con el prognatismo mandibular (PM). Propósito: El objetivo del presente estudio fue evaluar dos polimorfismos del gen del receptor de la hormona del crecimiento (RHC) en relación con las dimensiones faciales. Materiales y Métodos: El estudio incluyó a 65 participantes con perfil de clase III en el grupo MP y 60 participantes de control ortognático. El ADN genómico se extrajo de una muestra de sangre de los pacientes y los polimorfismos P561T y C422F del gen RHC se seleccionaron mediante el método PCR-RFLP seguido de la secuenciación por Sanger de muestras seleccionadas al azar para validar los resultados del genotipo por RFLP. El test chi cuadrado se utilizó para comparar la distribución del polimorfismo en el grupo MP y grupo control (p<0.05). Resultados: Se encontró mutación heterocigota P561T en 10.77% y 8.33% de los grupos PM y control, respectivamente (p=0.644) mientras que ninguno de los sujetos tenía la mutación C422F. La secuenciación de Sanger confirmó los resultados de genotipado por el método PCR-RFLP. El polimorfismo P561T se asoció significativamente con la rama y la altura facial más baja en pacientes con PM y con la altura de la rama en pacientes ortognáticos (p<0.05). Conclusión: Los resultados indican que el polimorfismo P561T del gen RHC está asociado con la dimensión vertical de la mandíbula en una población iraní.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Cephalometry/methods , Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide/genetics , Mandible/anatomy & histology , Prognathism , Growth Hormone , Chi-Square Distribution , Prevalence , Skull Base/anatomy & histology , Genotype , Iran/ethnology , Malocclusion , Malocclusion, Angle Class III/genetics
12.
Rev. cuba. estomatol ; 56(4): e2065, oct.-dez. 2019. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1093250

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN Introducción: La determinación del ángulo SN-Frankfort ha sido una constante utilizada por muchas décadas con un valor de 7°, sin embargo, son diversas las investigaciones que han refutado esta afirmación, debido a que los factores sociodemográficos influyen en la variación de este ángulo. Asimismo, la importancia de determinarlo es pieza clave para establecer un diagnóstico certero. Objetivo: Evaluar la variación del ángulo SN-Frankfort según el biotipo facial en pacientes. Métodos: Estudio descriptivo, transversal, retrospectivo y observacional. La muestra estuvo conformada por 225 radiografías cefalométricas laterales de pacientes entre 12 a 35 años que acudieron al Servicio de Ortodoncia del Hospital Hipólito Unanue durante los años 2014-2017. Se cumplieron los criterios de inclusión y la selección se realizó de forma probabilística por el método aleatorio simple. Para la evaluación de las radiografías cefalométricas se realizó el trazado manual. El biotipo facial se determinó mediante el índice de VERT y luego se obtuvo el ángulo SN-Frankfort. Se emplearon dos métodos estadísticos para la evaluación de la concordancia y reproducibilidad: El índice de Kappa para la evaluación del biotipo facial y el coeficiente de correlación interclase para la determinación del ángulo. Resultados: El promedio del ángulo SN-Frankfort en los pacientes con biotipo dolicofacial fue de 10,46 ± 3,02°, con biotipo mesofacial 10,12 ± 3,03° y con biotipo braquifacial 10,39 ± 3,48°. Los pacientes del sexo femenino presentaron una mayor angulación SN-Frankfort (10,69 ± 3,04) en comparación con los pacientes del sexo masculino (9,73 ± 3,23); p= 0,026. Conclusiones: Existe una variación en el ángulo SN-Frankfort según el tipo de biotipo facial, sin embargo, estas diferencias no fueron significativas. De modo contrario, se encontró que existe una significativa mayor angulación de ángulo SN-Frankfort en los pacientes del sexo femenino(AU)


ABSTRACT Introduction: Determination of the SN-Frankfort angle has been a constant used for many decades with a value of 7°. However, several studies have refuted that statement, based on the influence of sociodemographic factors on the variation of this angle. On the other hand, the importance of its determination is crucial to achieve an accurate diagnosis. Objective: Evaluate the variation of the SN-Frankfort angle according to the facial biotype of patients. Methods: A descriptive cross-sectional observational retrospective study was conducted. The sample was 225 lateral cephalometric radiographs of patients aged 12-35 years attending the Orthodontics Service of Hipólito Unanue Hospital in the period 2014-2017. Inclusion criteria were complied with, and selection was made by simple random probability sampling. Manual tracing was performed to evaluate the cephalometric radiographs. Facial biotype was determined by the VERT index, and the SN-Frankfort angle was then obtained. Two statistical methods were used for agreement and reproducibility evaluation: the Kappa index for evaluation of the facial biotype and the interclass correlation coefficient for determination of the angle. Results: Average SN-Frankfort angle was 10.46 ± 3.02° for the dolichofacial biotype, 10.12 ± 3.03° for the mesofacial biotype and 10.39 ± 3.48° for the brachifacial biotype. Female patients had greater SN-Frankfort angulation (10.69 ± 3.04) than male patients (9.73 ± 3.23); p= 0.026. Conclusions: Variation was found in the SN-Frankfort angle according to the facial biotype, but those differences were not significant. Significantly greater SN-Frankfort angulation was found among female patients(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Cephalometry/methods , Skull Base , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Cross-Sectional Studies , Retrospective Studies , Observational Study
13.
Rev. cuba. estomatol ; 56(4): e2110, oct.-dez. 2019. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1093251

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN Introducción: Universalmente se acepta que la radiografía postero-anterior de cráneo presenta menor grado de distorsión que otras imágenes radiográficas, por lo que las mediciones en ella son consideradas confiables. Objetivo: Determinar el porcentaje de distorsión que se presenta en las diferentes regiones faciales de la radiografía posteroanterior de cráneo. Métodos: Treinta cráneos humanos con sus mandíbulas fueron divididos por tres planos horizontales y cuatro verticales en quince cuadrantes; resultaron diez en el cráneo y cinco en la mandíbula. En cada uno de ellos se colocó un alambre de acero en posiciones vertical y horizontal y se midió su longitud (medida real). A cada conjunto se le tomó una radiografía en proyección postero-anterior y se midió la longitud de los alambres en la imagen (medida radiográfica). Resultados: No fue posible medir en los cuadrantes laterales del cráneo. La medida horizontal en los cuadrantes intermedios inferiores derecho e izquierdo del cráneo y en los cuadrantes intermedio y lateral de ambos lados de la mandíbula no es confiable; en el cuadrante mediano de la mandíbula se minimiza; en los cuadrantes medianos superior e inferior e intermedios superiores derecho e izquierdo del cráneo se magnifica. Las medidas verticales en todos los cuadrantes son confiables; en los cuadrantes intermedios superiores derecho e izquierdo del cráneo y en los intermedios y laterales derechos e izquierdos de la mandíbula se magnifica; en los cuadrantes intermedios inferiores y medianos superior e inferior del cráneo y mediano de la mandíbula se minimiza. La menor distorsión para ambas medidas se presenta en el cuadrante mediano superior del cráneo. Se reportan los porcentajes de distorsión para cada cuadrante. Conclusiones: Se presenta distorsión en la radiografía postero-anterior de cráneo y esta varía de una región a otra de la cara(AU)


ABSTRACT Introduction: Universally, it has been accepted that the postero-anterior cephalogram presents less distortion than any other x-ray radiograph; for this reason, the measurements taken on it are considered reliable. Objective: To determine for a postero-anterior cephalogram, what percentage of distortion is present in different regions of the skull and mandible. Methods: Thirty human skulls with their mandibles were divided by three horizontal and four vertical planes in fifteen quadrants, resulting ten in the skull and five in the mandible. In each quadrant, one vertical and one horizontal steel wire were fixed and their lengths were measured (real value). To each set, a postero-anterior cephalogram was taken and the wire images were measured (radiograph value). Results: No measurement could be taken in the lateral quadrants of the skull. The horizontal measurement in the right and left intermediate inferior quadrants of the skull and in the right and left intermediate and lateral quadrants of the mandible is not reliable; in the median quadrant of the mandible it is minimized; in the median superior and inferior and intermediate superior right and left quadrants of the skull it is magnified. The vertical measurement in all the quadrants is reliable; in the right and left intermediate superior quadrants of the skull and right and left intermediate and lateral quadrants of the mandible it is magnified; in the right and left intermediate inferior and median superior and inferior quadrants of the skull and median quadrant of the mandible it is minimized. The minimum distortion for both measurements is present in the median superior quadrant of the skull. The percentage of distortion in each quadrant for both measurements is reported. Conclusions: Distortion is present in the postero-anterior cephalogram and it varies from one region to another of the face(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Skull/physiology , Radiography, Dental/adverse effects , Radiography, Panoramic/methods , Cephalometry/methods
14.
Rev. Ateneo Argent. Odontol ; 61(2): 52-59, nov. 2019. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1095411

ABSTRACT

Esta presentación se centra en la aplicación de la cefalometría en la práctica clínica de la ortodoncia. Su objetivo es relacionar el protocolo utilizado en el Ateneo Argentino de Odontología (AAO) con los cefalogramas laterales diseñados por los Dres. Arne Björk, Joseph Jarabak, James McNamara y Robert Ricketts y proponer las visiones complementarias en la búsqueda de un diagnóstico y un plan de tratamiento de mayor precisión. Para cumplir con este objetivo, el presente trabajo será dividido en dos partes, a saber: "Parte I: Protocolo del AAO" y "Parte II Consideraciones sobre la aplicación de diferentes protocolos cefalométricos laterales en relación al del AAO" (AU)


This paper focuses on the application of cephalometry in the clinical practice of Orthodontics. Its objective is to link the protocol used in the Ateneo Argentino de Odontología (AAO) with the lateral cephalograms designed by Drs. Arne Bjork, Joseph Jarabak, James McNamara and Robert Ricketts and propose complementary visions in the search for a more accurate diagnosis and treatment plan. In order to fulfil this objective, this work will be divided into two parts, namely: Part I: AAO Protocol and Part II Considerations on the application of different lateral cephalometric protocols in relation to that of the AAO (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Patient Care Planning , Clinical Protocols , Cephalometry/methods , Argentina , Societies, Dental/standards , Malocclusion/diagnosis
15.
Braz. j. otorhinolaryngol. (Impr.) ; 85(4): 494-501, July-Aug. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1019575

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction: The face is the most important factor affecting the physical appearance of a person. In facial aesthetics, there is a specific mathematical proportion, which is called golden proportion, used to measure and analyse facial aesthetic qualities in population. Objectives: The aim of this study was to measure the facial soft tissue proportions which would help to constitute a standard for facial beauty and diagnose facial differences and anomalies and to compare these proportions to the golden proportion. Methods: One hundred and thirty-three (133) Turkish patients 18-40 years of age (61 females, 72 males) were involved in the study. Analysis of the photographs was performed by the same physician, and a software programme was used (NIH Image, version 1.62). Facial proportions were measured and differences from the golden proportions were recorded and grouped as normal (1.6-1.699), short (<1.6) and long (>1.699). Results: According to the facial analysis results, the trichion-gnathion/right zygoma-left zygoma was assessed: 33.1% of the patients were in normal facial morphology, 36.8% were in long facial morphology and 30.1% were in short facial morphology, according to this proportion. The trichion-gnathion/right zygoma-left zygoma proportion was significantly higher in males than females (p < 0.001). Statistically significant difference was noted in gender groups, according to the trichion-gnathion/right zygoma-left zygoma and the right lateral canthus-left lateral canthus/right cheilion-left cheilion proportions (p = 0.001, p = 0.028). Conclusion: Facial proportion assessments in relation to the golden proportion showed that a statistically significant difference was observed between gender groups. Long facial morphology was observed more in males (51.4%); normal (41%) and short (39.3%) facial morphology were more common in females. The measurements and proportions for facial balance in our study population showed that the facial width and height proportions deviated from the golden proportion.


Resumo Introdução: A face é o aspecto mais importante da aparência física de uma pessoa. Na estética facial, existe uma proporção matemática específica, chamada de proporção áurea. A proporção áurea é usada para medir e analisar as qualidades estéticas da face na população. Objetivo: Medir as proporções dos tecidos moles faciais que contribuem para o padrão da beleza facial, auxiliar a percepção e o diagnóstico das diferenças e anomalias faciais e comparar essas proporções com a proporção áurea. Método: Foram incluídos no estudo 133 pacientes turcos com 18 a 40 anos (61 mulheres, 72 homens). A análise das fotografias foi realizada pelo mesmo médico e um programa de software foi usado (NIH Image, versão 1.62). As proporções faciais foram medidas e as diferenças das proporções áureas foram registradas e agrupadas como normais (1,6-1,699), curtas (< 1,6) e longas (> 1,699). Resultados: De acordo com os resultados da análise facial, avaliou-se a proporção do tríquion-gnátio/zigoma direito-zigoma esquerdo e 33,1% dos pacientes apresentaram morfologia facial normal, enquanto 36,8% tinham morfologia facial longa e 30,1% morfologia facial curta, segundo essa proporção. A proporção do tríquion-gnátio/zigoma direito-zigoma esquerdo foi significantemente maior em homens do que em mulheres (p < 0,001). Uma diferença estatisticamente significante foi observada entre os sexos, de acordo com a proporção do tríquion-gnátio/zigoma direito-zigoma esquerdo e do canto lateral direito-canto lateral esquerdo/ângulo cantal direito- ângulo cantal esquerdo (p = 0,001, p = 0,028). Conclusão: A avaliação da proporção facial em relação à proporção áurea mostrou que houve diferença estatisticamente significante entre os sexos. A morfologia facial longa foi mais observada no sexo masculino (51,4%), a morfologia facial normal (41%) e a curta (39,3%) foram mais comuns no sexo feminino. As medidas e proporções para o equilíbrio facial em nossa população estudada mostraram que as proporções de largura e altura faciais se desviaram da proporção áurea.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Young Adult , Vertical Dimension , Cephalometry/methods , Face/anatomy & histology , Turkey , Sex Factors , Esthetics
16.
Pesqui. bras. odontopediatria clín. integr ; 19(1): 4583, 01 Fevereiro 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-997973

ABSTRACT

Objective: To evaluate and compare sensitivity and specificity of ANB, Wits, APDI and AF-BF to diagnose sagittal skeletal malocclusions, in children between 6 to 12 years old, using ROC curves, a widely accepted method for the analysis and evaluation of diagnostic tests. Material and Methods: A descriptive-comparative study of diagnostic tests was conducted. From a population of 3,000 children, a non-probabilistic sample of 209 was selected. The clinical classification of the patients as class I, II or III, made by a group of experts based on the visual inspection of models and photographs, was chosen as the gold standard. After calibration (ICC>0.94) the variables were measured in cephalograms. Eight ROC curves were plotted (I vs II, and I vs III for each one of the variables). The area under the curve was measured and compared (Ji-square test). Cut points were established. Results: To discriminate Class I from II, ANB showed the largest area under the curve (AUC) (0.876) and the cut point (best sensitivity and specificity) was at 5.75°. To discriminate class I from III, Wits showed the largest AUC (0.874) with a cut point of -3.25 mm. There were no statistical differences between the AUC for the four variables (p=0.48 y p=0.38 for class I-II and I-III). Conclusion: ANB and Wits performed better for the diagnosis of class II and III, respectively. Cut points in children were different from those reported in adults.


Subject(s)
Cephalometry/methods , ROC Curve , Malocclusion/diagnosis , Malocclusion, Angle Class II/diagnosis , Malocclusion, Angle Class III/diagnosis , Chi-Square Distribution , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Analysis of Variance , Colombia
17.
Pesqui. bras. odontopediatria clín. integr ; 19(1): 4642, 01 Fevereiro 2019. tab, ilus, graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-998043

ABSTRACT

Objective: To evaluate the craniofacial morphology of Japanese patients with unilateral cleft lip and palate and to evaluate the multiple congenital factors that affects craniofacial morphology in unilateral cleft lip and palate patients. Material and Methods: Lateral cephalograms of 140 subjects with unilateral cleft lip and palate were taken before any orthodontic treatment and alveolar bone graft. Subjects mean age was 6.85 ±1.56 years. Primary surgeries performed by surgeons from Hokkaido University Hospital. The craniofacial morphology of the 140 subjects was assessed by angular and linear cephalometric measurements. Gender, side of cleft, complete/incomplete type of cleft, presence/absence of lateral incisor in the affected side, family history of cleft and family history of skeletal Class III was chosen as congenital factors. To compare the assessments using congenital factors affecting craniofacial morphology in the unilateral cleft lip and palate subjects, angular and linear cephalometric measured values from each individual subject (control group) were converted into Z scores in relation to the means and standard deviation of the two parameters. Results: Twelve out of 13 craniofacial morphology outcomes were insignificant in 5 out of 6 dependent variables. Only 1 dependent variable showed 3/13 significant differences. Conclusion: Current study revealed the evidence that there were almost no significant differences in the craniofacial morphology outcome among various congenital factors. This will provide base line information and help determine the effectiveness of such factors.


Subject(s)
Congenital Abnormalities , Cleft Lip , Cleft Palate , Japan , Mouth Abnormalities , Orthodontic Appliances , Medical Records , Cephalometry/methods , Retrospective Studies , Data Interpretation, Statistical , Evaluation Study , Alveolar Bone Grafting
18.
Pesqui. bras. odontopediatria clín. integr ; 19(1): 4709, 01 Fevereiro 2019. ilus
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-998221

ABSTRACT

Objective: To determine the DUSP6 gene mutation in three generations of Malaysian Malay subjects having Class III malocclusion. Material and Methods: Genetic analyses of DUSP6 gene were carried out in 30 subjects by selecting three individuals representing three generations, respectively, from ten Malaysian Malay families having Class III malocclusion and 30 healthy controls. They were submitted Clinical Evaluation to clinical examination, lateral cephalometric radiographs, dental casts, and/ or facial and intra-oral photographs. Buccal cell was taken from each participant of Class III malocclusion and control groups. DNA extractions from buccal cell were carried out using Gentra puregene buccal cell kit. Bio Edit Sequence Alignment Editor software was used to see the sequencing result. Results: A heterozygous missense mutation c.1094C>T (p. Thr 365 Ile) was identified in DUSP6 gene in three members of one family with Class III malocclusion, whereas no mutation was found in the control group. Conclusion: Current study successfully identified a missense mutation in DUSP6 gene among one Malaysian Malay family affected by Class III malocclusion. The outcome of this study broadened the mutation spectrum of Class III malocclusion and the importance of DUSP6 gene in skeletal functions.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Genetic Variation/genetics , Cephalometry/methods , Mutation, Missense , Malocclusion , Arabia , Case-Control Studies , Photography, Dental/instrumentation
19.
Pesqui. bras. odontopediatria clín. integr ; 19(1): 4998, 01 Fevereiro 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-998273

ABSTRACT

Objective: To determine the skeletal and dental components in patients with facial asymmetry treated at the orthodontic specialist clinic of the Faculty of Dentistry, Universitas Indonesia. Material and Methods: This was a descriptive study using secondary data from the tracing of postero-anterior cephalograms of patients aged >14 years 4.2 months for males and >11 years 6.2 months for females using the Grummons analysis. A total of 46 patients were selected through purposive sampling. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics. Results: The proportions of asymmetric direction based on the deviation of the mandibular menton, maxillary midline, and mandibular midline tending to the left and the right sides of the face were 58.7% and 41.3%, respectively. The skeletal component found in the vertical direction showed a greater mean value difference than that observed in the transverse direction. The mean value difference was greater in the midline of the mandibular teeth than in the maxillary teeth. Conclusion: Facial asymmetry tended more towards the left side of the face than the right side. Moreover, the skeletal component was greater in the vertical direction than the transverse direction. In the transverse direction, it was shown that the left side of the face was larger than the right side. In addition, dental asymmetry was more commonly observed in the midline of the mandibular teeth than the maxillary teeth.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Adolescent , Orthodontics , Cephalometry/methods , Facial Asymmetry , Mandible , Data Interpretation, Statistical , Indonesia
20.
Rev. odontol. UNESP (Online) ; 48: e20190066, 2019. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1043175

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction This cross-sectional study aimed to associate the normative cephalometric results of mandibular retrognathism treatment with patient perception on the esthetic improvement of facial profile. Objective this cross-sectional study aimed to associate the normative cephalometric results of mandibular retrognathism treatment with patient perception on the esthetic improvement of facial profile. Material and method The normative cephalometric results were obtained from lateral cephalometric radiographs of a sample of 24 Class II malocclusion patients in the pubertal growth spurt. Such patients were treated with a mandibular advancement device and evaluated by comparing pre- and post-treatment variables. The same radiographs were used to produce standardized black silhouettes that were randomly arranged. Patients were instructed to choose their preferred profile and indicate the changes perceived using a 7-point Likert scale. The data were compared with cephalometric results using a mixed-model methodology for time-repeated measures, Student's t-test, and t-test for heterogeneous variances, at 5% significance level. Result A rate of 75% of patients preferred post-treatment silhouettes and changes were perceived regardless of the choice of either pre- or post-treatment profile. There was no significant difference between the cephalometric variables of the tracings that produced the silhouettes considered better or worse after the evaluation. Conclusion There was no association between the cephalometric results after treatment and the perception of esthetic improvement by patients treated for mandibular retrognathia.


Resumo Introdução Este estudo transversal buscou associar resultados cefalométricos normativos do tratamento do retrognatismo mandibular com melhora estética do perfil facial na percepção do paciente. Objetivo este estudo transversal buscou associar resultados cefalométricos normativos do tratamento do retrognatismo mandibular com melhora estética do perfil facial na percepção do paciente. Material e método Os resultados cefalométricos normativos obtidos em radiografias cefalométricas laterais de uma amostra de 24 pacientes com maloclusão de Classe II em fase de crescimento tratados com aparelho de avanço mandibular, foram avaliados comparando-se as grandezas pré e pós-tratamento. As mesmas radiografias foram utilizadas para gerar silhuetas negras padronizadas que foram dispostas aleatoriamente. Os pacientes foram instruídos a escolher seu perfil preferido e indicar quanta mudança foi percebida por meio de uma escala de Likert de 7 pontos. Os dados foram comparados com resultados cefalométricos aplicando-se metodologia de modelos mistos para medidas repetidas no tempo, teste t de student e teste t para variâncias heterogêneas, com nível de significância de 5%. Resultado 75% dos pacientes escolheram silhuetas pós-tratamento e a mudança foi percebida independentemente da escolha por pré ou pós-tratamento. Não houve diferença significativa entre as variáveis ​​cefalométricas dos traçados que deram origem às silhuetas consideradas melhores e piores após a avaliação. Conclusão Não houve associação entre os resultados cefalométricos pós-tratamento e a percepção da melhora estética por pacientes ortodônticos.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Adolescent , Retrognathia , Cephalometry/methods , Malocclusion, Angle Class II , Orthodontic Appliances , Cross-Sectional Studies , Esthetics
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