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1.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-786631

ABSTRACT

Anisakiasis (anisakidosis) refers to a foodborne zoonosis caused by ingesting raw or undercooked marine fish or cephalopods infected with anisakid larvae. The present study was performed to investigate the prevalence of anisakid larvae in anchovies (Engraulis japonica) purchased from 2 local markets in Gyeongsangnam-do, the Republic of Korea (=Korea), during 2018–2019. Anchovies were transported to our laboratory and examined by pepsin-HCl artificial digestion technique followed by microscopic observations and molecular analyses. The overall prevalence of anisakid larvae was 19.5% (39/200), from which a total of 51 larvae (av. 1.3 larvae/infected anchovy) were recovered. Sequencing of the larvae targeting the ITS region, including ITS1, 5.8S rRNA, and ITS2 genes confirmed the species of larvae as Anisakis pegreffii (54.9%; 28/51), Hysterothylacium sinense (23.5%; 12/51), and Hysterothylacium aduncum (21.5%; 11/51). The results suggested that anchovies could be a potential source of human anisakiasis in Korea.


Subject(s)
Anisakiasis , Anisakis , Cephalopoda , Digestion , Humans , Korea , Larva , Prevalence , Republic of Korea
2.
Experimental Neurobiology ; : 257-266, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-716241

ABSTRACT

Cephalopods have the most advanced nervous systems and intelligent behavior among all invertebrates. Their brains provide comparative insights for understanding the molecular and functional origins of the human brain. Although brain maps that contain information on the organization of each subregion are necessary for a study on the brain, no whole brain atlas for adult cephalopods has been constructed to date. Here, we obtained sagittal and coronal sections covering the entire brain of adult Octopus minor (Sasaki), which belongs to the genus with the most species in the class Cephalopoda and is commercially available in East Asia throughout the year. Sections were stained using Hematoxylin and Eosin (H&E) to visualize the cellular nuclei and subregions. H&E images of the serial sections were obtained at 30~70-µm intervals for the sagittal plain and at 40~80-µm intervals for the coronal plain. Setting the midline point of the posterior end as the fiducial point, we also established the distance coordinates of each image. We found that the brain had the typical brain structure of the Octopodiformes. A number of subregions were discriminated by a Hematoxylin-positive layer, the thickness and neuronal distribution pattern of which varied markedly depending upon the region. We identified more than 70 sub-regions based on delineations of representative H&E images. This is the first brain atlas, not only for an Octopodiformes species but also among adult cephalopods, and we anticipate that this atlas will provide a valuable resource for comparative neuroscience research.


Subject(s)
Adult , Arm , Brain , Cephalopoda , Eosine Yellowish-(YS) , Far East , Hematoxylin , Histology, Comparative , Humans , Invertebrates , Nervous System , Neurons , Neurosciences , Octopodiformes
4.
Rev. biol. trop ; 63(2): 427-442, Apr.-Jun. 2015. graf, mapas, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, SaludCR | ID: lil-764976

ABSTRACT

In the State of Nueva Esparta, Venezuela, the fishery of octopus Octopus vulgaris is considered an alternative activity by the artisanal fishers to diversify production and to increase their income. Nevertheless, the inter annual fluctuations that have been witnessed in recent years, suggest that this resource requires an urgent analysis of the species reproduction, growth, mortality and the fishery activity, in order to provide a scientific basis to develop sustainable management strategies. For this, weekly samples were collected during the June-December 2012 El Tirano fishing season. Mantle length (ML), total weight (TW), sex and stage of gonadal development were recorded for 1 268 males (9-25cm ML) and 818 females (9-22cm ML). The monthly sex ratio differed from one, except in June and August, with a high percentage of mature individuals in both sexes. Minimum and average sizes were: 11cm ML (428g) and 16cm ML (1 142g) in sexually mature males, and 12cm ML (476g) and 15.35cm ML (844g) in sexually mature females. The length-weight relationship of males (TW=0.7994*ML2.62) and females (TW=1.4552*ML2.33) showed minor allometric growth. Growth was estimated by analysis of the frequency distribution of lengths, using FiSAT software. Growth parameters, estimated by the von Bertalanffy model, were considered rapid, being L∞=26.26cm, W∞=3 769g, k=2.3/year, and t o=-0.015/year, in males; and L∞=24.28cm, W∞=2 287g, k=1.8/year, and t o=-0.09/year, in females. The maximum age in males was A0.95=1.3 years and A0.95=1.57 years in females. Octopus captures were directly significant with superficial water temperature, but negatively significant with wind velocity and precipitation, which corresponds to a study zone with seasonal hydrologic variability. The actual exploitation rate (E=0.61/year in males, E=0.60/year in females) was calculated by using the values of total mortality (Z=7.73/year in males, Z=6.63/year in females), for fishing (F=4.7/year in males, F=3.99/year in females), and natural (M=3.03/year in males, M=2.64/year in females), indicating that the octopus is over-exploited. Consequently, we recommend regulating the fishery by reducing the fishing mortality rate. Rev. Biol. Trop. 63 (2): 427-442. Epub 2015 June 01.


En el estado Nueva Esparta, Venezuela, la pesca del pulpo Octopus vulgaris es considerada por los pescadores artesanales como una actividad alternativa para diversificar la producción y aumentar los ingresos, pero en los últimos años han venido experimentando fluctuaciones interanuales considerables. La necesidad de gestionar el recurso de una forma racional y responsable, impuso analizar algunos aspectos de la reproducción, crecimiento, mortalidad y pesquería, de modo que sirvan de base científica para llevar a cabo estrategias de manejo. Con el fin de cumplir con los objetivos, las muestras se obtuvieron durante la temporada de pesca junio-diciembre 2012 con una periodicidad semanal. A cada uno de los especímenes se le registró la longitud del manto (Lm), peso total (Pt), sexo y estado de madurez gonádica. Se procesaron 1 268 machos de 9 a 25cm Lm y 818 hembras de 9 a 22cm Lm; la proporción de sexo mensual fue diferente a uno excepto junio y agosto, con un alto porcentaje de maduros en ambos sexos. Las tallas mínima y media de madurez sexual en machos fueron: 11cm (428g) y 16cm (1 142g); mientras que en hembras 12cm (476g) y 15.35cm (844g). La relación longitud-peso de machos: Pt=0.7994*Lm2.62 y hembras: Pt=1.4552*Lm2.33 expresaron un crecimiento alométrico minorante. La estimación del crecimiento se basó en el análisis de la distribución de frecuencia de longitudes, para ello se usó el software FiSAT. Los parámetros de crecimiento estimados del modelo de von Bertalanffy fueron en machos: L∞=26.26cm, P∞=3 769g, k=2.3/año, t o=-0.015/año y en hembras: L∞=24.28cm, P∞=2 287g, k=1.8/año, t o=-0.09/año, mostraron un crecimiento rápido. La edad límite en machos fue de 1.30 años y en hembras de 1.57 años. Se observó asociación significativa y positiva de la captura del pulpo con la temperatura superficial del mar y negativa con la velocidad del viento y precipitación, que corresponde con la variabilidad hidrológica estacional de la zona de estudio. Se calculó la tasa de explotación actual (E=0.61/año en machos; E=0.60/año en hembras) a través de los valores de mortalidad total (Z=7.73/año en machos; Z=6.63/año en hembras), por pesca (F=4.7/año en machos; F=3.99/año en hembras) y natural (M=3.03/año en machos; M=2.64/año en hembras), indicando que el pulpo se encuentra sobreexplotado; por consiguiente se recomienda regular la pesquería, reduciendo la tasa de mortalidad por pesca.


Subject(s)
Reproduction , Cephalopoda/classification , Fisheries , Octopodiformes/anatomy & histology , Venezuela
5.
Acta toxicol. argent ; 20(2): 57-61, dez. 2012. ilus, graf, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-671983

ABSTRACT

El estrés oxidativo se produce cuando se genera un desbalance desfavorable entre las especies reactivas del oxígeno y las defensas antioxidantes, provocando daño oxidativo a macromoléculas. Varios estudios han resaltado la importancia del estrés oxidativo en el campo de la ecotoxicología, particularmente su relación con el impacto que generan los contaminantes que alcanzan los cuerpos de agua. El cuantifcar los parámetros de estrés oxidativo ha permitido el uso de los mismos como herramienta de diagnóstico (biomarcadores), con capacidad predictiva del impacto de los contaminantes sobre los organismos. Uno de los índices más frecuentemente utilizados para estimar el daño oxidativo a lípidos es la determinación de sustancias reactivas al ácido tiobarbitúrico (TBARS), producto fnal de la peroxidación lipídica. Octopus tehuelchus es un importante recurso pesquero en la costa patagónica, expuesto en algunas áreas a contaminación antrópica. Dado que el estudio de parámetros de estrés oxidativo aún no ha sido abordado en esta Clase de moluscos y que en muchos modelos biológicos, los contaminantes ambientales actúan generando estrés oxidativo, es clave encontrar sus blancos de acción, para empezar a caracterizar las alteraciones metabólicas y fsiológicas asociadas a su mecanismo de acción. El objetivo de este trabajo fue la puesta a punto del método de determinación de daño oxidativo a lípidos en distintos tejidos del pulpo Octopus tehuelchus desde modelos previamente ensayados en el laboratorio.


Oxidative stress occurs when there is an unfavorable imbalance between reactive oxygen species and antioxidant defenses, causing oxidative damage to macromolecules. Several studies have highlighted the importance of oxidative stress in the ecology feld related to the impact generated by pollutants reaching water bodies. The quantifcation of oxidative stress parameters led to their use as diagnostic tools (biomarkers) with predictive capability of showing the impact of pollutants on organisms. One of the most frequently used indexes to estimate the oxidative damage to lipids is the determination of reactive thiobarbituric acid substances (TBARs) (fnal product of lipid peroxidation). Octopus tehuelchus is an important fshery resource in the Patagonian coast exposed to anthropogenic pollution. The study of oxidative stress parameters has not been yet tackled in this class of molluscs. Taking into account that, in many biological models, environmental pollutants generate oxidative stress, it is important to fnd their targets of action, to start to characterize metabolic and physiological alterations associated to their mechanisms of action. The aim of this work was to adjust the method of determination of oxidative damage to lipids in various tissues of the octopus, Octopus tehuelchus, from models previously tested in the laboratory.


Subject(s)
Animals , Malondialdehyde/adverse effects , Oxidative Stress/drug effects , Thiobarbituric Acid Reactive Substances , Biological Assay/methods , Cephalopoda/drug effects , Lipid Peroxidation
6.
Kosin Medical Journal ; : 73-78, 2012.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-115492

ABSTRACT

Anisakidosis is caused by Anisakis simplex and other anisakids larvae parasitizing marine fish and cephalopods. A lot of case reports about anisakidosis have been published in Korea because of raw fish eating habits. Recently seafood consumption has continued to increase due to health concerns and thus, it increases the risk for infectious diseases including anisakidosis. The aim of this review is to analyze the clinical and epidemiological characteristics of anisakidosis during the last 10 years in Korea, based on the case reports published from 2000 to 2010. The incidence age was changed from 30s and 40s to 50s. The young generation was considered to consume seafood in various ways, including raw fish as well. The most noticeable change was the appearance of Anisakis allergy patients over the last decade. The patients showed abdominal pain, urticaria after eating sea food. It reaffirmed that anisakid infection induces not only gastric and intestinal anisakidosis but also cause allergic reaction. Anisakid should be considered as a possible causative food allergen provoking allergic responses after eating raw fish.


Subject(s)
Abdominal Pain , Anisakis , Cephalopoda , Communicable Diseases , Eating , Humans , Hypersensitivity , Incidence , Korea , Larva , Methylmethacrylates , Polystyrenes , Seafood , Urticaria
7.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-222450

ABSTRACT

The infection status of marine fish and cephalopods with Anisakis simplex third stage larva (L3) was studied over a period of 1 year. A total of 2,537 specimens, which consisted of 40 species of fish and 3 species of cephalopods, were purchased from the Cooperative Fish Market in Busan, Korea, from August 2006 to July 2007. They were examined for A. simplex L3 from the whole body cavity, viscera, and muscles. A. simplex L3 were confirmed by light microscopy. The overall infection rate reached 34.3%, and average 17.1 larvae were parasitized per infected fish. Fish that recorded the highest infection rate was Lophiomus setigerus (100%), followed by Liparis tessellates (90%), Pleurogrammus azonus (90%), and Scomber japonicus (88.7%). The intensity of infection was the highest in Gadus macrocephalus (117.7 larvae per fish), followed by S. japonicus (103.9 larvae) and L. setigerus (54.2 larvae). Although abundance of A. simplex L3 was not seasonal in most of the fish species, 10 of the 16 selected species showed the highest abundance in February and April. A positive correlation between the intensity of L3 infection and the fish length was obvious in S. japonicus and G. macrocephalus. It was likely that A. simplex L3 are more frequently infected during the spring season in some species of fish. Our study revealed that eating raw or undercooked fish or cephalopods could still be a source of human infection with A. simplex L3 in Korea.


Subject(s)
Animals , Anisakiasis/parasitology , Anisakis/growth & development , Cephalopoda/parasitology , Disease Reservoirs/parasitology , Fishes/parasitology , Food Contamination/analysis , Humans , Korea , Larva/growth & development , Seafood/parasitology , Seasons
8.
J Environ Biol ; 2008 Jul; 29(4): 581-4
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-113387

ABSTRACT

Three species of the unrecorded octopus and squids, Octopus megalops, Berryteuthis magister and Gonatopsis makko were collected for the first time from the East/Japan Sea in June, 2005. New Korean names proposed for these three species are "Big-eye octopus, Mako gonate squid, Schoolmater gonate squid" for the O. megalops, B. magister and G. makko, respectively. We report detailed taxonomic descriptions of these species.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cephalopoda/anatomy & histology , Geography , Japan , Pacific Ocean , Shellfish , Species Specificity
9.
Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health ; 2006 ; 37 Suppl 3(): 35-9
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-31903

ABSTRACT

A total of 1,600 specimens, consisting of 16 different species of marine fish, were dissected and examined for anisakid larvae and adults in visceral organs, abdominal cavity, and muscles. One species of adult-stage nematode was found in two of 16 species of marine fish studied, Johnius carouna and Dendrophysa russelli. No anisakid larvae (third-stage) was found in any of the 16 species of marine fish studied. Morphological study of the adult-stage nematode showed similar morphology to Anisakis simplex. We found that the nematode adult recovered from the marine fish differed from other anisakids in morphology, life cycle and locality of infection in the fish. The anisakid adults recovered were ovoviviparous or larviparous, but not oviparous as is seen in most other anisakids. The intensity and prevalence of nematode infection in Johnius carouna were 2.4 and 31.7%, respectively, and in Dendrophysa russelli 3.9 and 87.5%, respectively.


Subject(s)
Animals , Anisakiasis/epidemiology , Anisakis/isolation & purification , Cephalopoda/parasitology , Fish Diseases/epidemiology , Fishes/parasitology , Seawater , Thailand/epidemiology
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