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1.
Rev. cuba. pediatr ; 93(1): e1392, ene.-mar. 2021. fig
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1251757

ABSTRACT

Introducción: Cuando se piensa en estudiar el cerebelo es posible que lo primero que viene a la mente sean las siguientes preguntas: ¿cuáles son sus enfermedades?, ¿cómo se expresan clínicamente? y quizás, ¿cómo es su estructura y cuáles las funciones de este órgano? Objetivo: Examinar las principales características anatómicas y funcionales del cerebelo y relacionarlas con su expresión clínica cuando enferma, así como comentar sobre su abanico de etiologías en el niño. Métodos: Las fuentes de búsquedas fueron las bases de datos computarizadas: PubMed, Ebsco y SciELO. Se utilizaron las palabras clave: cerebelo, ataxia, erores congénicos del metabolismo y ataxias, ataxias episódicas, enfermedades progresivas del sistema nervioso y ataxias; en idioma español e inglés. Resultados: El cerebelo recepciona múltiples informaciones y las envía a diversas estructuras cerebrales por medio de las cuales modula la excitabilidad de estas estructuras y sus sistemas descendentes. Este órgano organiza, dirige, coordina múltiples funciones que se traducen en fuerza, tiempo y secuencia. El cerebelo enfermo impide que la persona ejecute sus funciones y movimientos de forma uniforme y coordinada; puede resultar afectado por un amplio abanico de posibilidades etiológicas, genéticas o adquiridas y enfermarse todo o parte de él. Consideraciones finales: El cerebelo cumple importantes funciones dentro del sistema nervioso, tiene una expresividad muy típica cuando está enfermo. El uso adecuado de las nuevas técnicas de estudios por imágenes y genéticas, entre otras, permiten al pediatra clínico estar en mejores condiciones para el diagnóstico de sus afecciones y tratamiento oportuno(AU)


Introduction: When we think about studying the cerebellum, the first thing that comes to mind may be the following questions: Which are its diseases? How they are clinically expressed? , and perhaps: What is its structure and what functions do this organ has? Objective: Examine the main anatomical and functional characteristics of the cerebellum and relate them to its clinical expression when it becomes ill, as well as comment on its range of etiologies in the child. Methods: Search sources were computerized databases like: PubMed, Ebsco, and SciELO. Keywords used were: cerebellum, ataxia, metabolism congenital errors and ataxias, episodic ataxias, progressive diseases of the nervous system and ataxias; in Spanish and English. Results: The cerebellum receives information and sends it to various brain structures through which it modulates the excitability of these structures and their downstream systems. This organ organizes, directs, and coordinates multiple functions that translate into strength, time and sequence. An ill cerebellum prevents the person from performing their functions and movements in a uniform and coordinated way; it can be affected by a wide range of etiological, genetic or acquired possibilities and make all or part of it ill. Final considerations: The cerebellum performs important functions within the nervous system; it has a very typical expressiveness when it is ill. Proper use of new imaging and genetic study techniques, among others, allows the clinical pediatricians to be better able to diagnose its conditions and timely treatment(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Ataxia , Cerebellum , Information , Pediatricians , Nervous System
2.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-880643

ABSTRACT

Lhermitte-Duclos disease (LDD) is a type of rare brain tumor located in posterior fossa. A patient with LDD located in the left cerebellum and vermis was admitted by the Department of Neurosurgery, Xiangya Hospital, Central South University. MRI scan showed slightly heterogeneous enhancement at the region close to vermis. The patient underwent partial resection on August 11, 2016 without postoperative chemoradiotherapy. The progress free survival was 11 months and the overall survival was 17 months. What the case reveals is that the partial resection is not beneficial to these patients with LDD as the residual lesion probably recurs in a short term after operation. The pathogenesis, diagnosis and treatment of LDD are explored and summarized in combination with relevant literature.


Subject(s)
Cerebellar Neoplasms/surgery , Cerebellum , Hamartoma Syndrome, Multiple/diagnostic imaging , Humans , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Neoplasm Recurrence, Local
3.
Acta Physiologica Sinica ; (6): 35-41, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878233

ABSTRACT

Fentanyl as a synthetic opioid works by binding to the mu-opioid receptor (MOR) in brain areas to generate analgesia, sedation and reward related behaviors. As we know, cerebellum is not only involved in sensory perception, motor coordination, motor learning and precise control of autonomous movement, but also important for the mood regulation, cognition, learning and memory. Previous studies have shown that functional MORs are widely distributed in the cerebellum, and the role of MOR activation in cerebellum has not been reported. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of fentanyl on air-puff stimulus-evoked field potential response in the cerebellar molecular layer using in vivo electrophysiology in mice. The results showed that perfusion of 5 μmol/L fentanyl on the cerebellar surface significantly inhibited the amplitude, half width and area under the curve (AUC) of sensory stimulation-evoked inhibitory response P1 in the molecular layer. The half-inhibitory concentration (IC


Subject(s)
Animals , Cerebellum , Evoked Potentials , Fentanyl/pharmacology , Interneurons , Mice , Physical Stimulation
4.
Arq. neuropsiquiatr ; 78(5): 301-306, May 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1131697

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Transaxonal degenerations result from neuronal death or the interruption of synaptic connections among neuronal structures. These degenerations are not common but may be recognized by conventional magnetic resonance imaging. Objective: The learning objectives of this review include recognition of the imaging characteristics of transaxonal degenerations involving cerebellar connections, the identification of potential encephalic lesions that can lead to these degenerations and correlation of the clinical manifestations with imaging findings that reflect this involvement. Methods: In this report, we review the neuroanatomical knowledge that provides a basis for identifying potential lesions that can result in these degenerations involving cerebellar structures. Results: Hypertrophic olivary degeneration results from an injury that interrupts any of the components of the Guillain-Mollaret triangle. In this work, we describe cases of lesions in the dentate nucleus and central tegmental tract. The crossed cerebellar diaschisis presents specific imaging findings and clinical correlations associated with its acute and chronic phases. The Wallerian degeneration of the middle cerebellar peduncle is illustrated by fiber injury of the pontine cerebellar tracts. A T2-hyperintensity in the dentate nucleus due to a thalamic acute lesion (in ventral lateral nuclei) is also described. Each condition described here is documented by MRI images and is accompanied by teaching points and an anatomical review of the pathways involved. Conclusion: Neurologists and radiologists need to become familiar with the diagnosis of these conditions since their presentations are peculiar and often subtle, and can easily be misdiagnosed as ischemic events, degenerative disease, demyelinating disease or even tumors.


RESUMO Degenerações transaxonais resultam da morte neuronal ou da interrupção de conexões sinápticas entre estruturas neurais. Essas degenerações não são comuns, mas podem ser reconhecidas por imagens de ressonância magnética convencional. Objetivo: Os objetivos de aprendizado desta revisão incluem o reconhecimento das características de imagem de degenerações transaxonais envolvendo conexões cerebelares, a identificação de possíveis lesões encefálicas que podem levar a essas degenerações e a correlação das manifestações clínicas com os achados de imagem que refletem esse envolvimento. Métodos: Neste artigo, revisamos conhecimentos neuroanatômicos que fornecem a base para identificar possíveis lesões que podem resultar nessas degenerações envolvendo estruturas cerebelares. Resultados: A degeneração olivar hipertrófica resulta de uma lesão que interrompe algum dos componentes do triângulo de Guillain-Mollaret. Neste trabalho, descrevemos casos de lesões no núcleo denteado e no trato tegmentar central. A diásquise cerebelar cruzada apresenta achados de imagem específicos e correlações clínicas associadas às suas fases aguda e crônica. A degeneração walleriana dos pedúnculos cerebelares médios é ilustrada pela lesão dos tratos pontino-cerebelares. Uma hiperintensidade em T2 do núcleo denteado devido a uma lesão talâmica aguda (no núcleo ventrolateral) também é descrita. Cada condição aqui descrita é documentada por imagens de ressonância magnética e é acompanhada por pontos didáticos e uma revisão anatômica das vias envolvidas. Conclusão: Neurologistas e radiologistas precisam estar familiarizados com o diagnóstico dessas condições, uma vez que suas apresentações são peculiares e frequentemente sutis, e podem ser facilmente equivocadamente diagnosticadas como lesões isquêmicas, doenças degenerativas, desmielinizantes, ou mesmo tumorais.


Subject(s)
Olivary Nucleus , Cerebellum , Brain , Pons/physiology , Magnetic Resonance Imaging
5.
Int. j. morphol ; 38(2): 499-504, abr. 2020. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1056468

ABSTRACT

Several studies on the elasmobranchs neuroanatomy have shown that their brain is more complex than previously thought, and had significant intra and interspecific variations. The objective of this work was conducting a comparative encephalic neuroanatomy study of two species of genus Myliobatis. In total, 16 organisms of genera Myliobatis californica and Myliobatis longirostris, collected in the coasts of Kino Bay, Sonora, Mexico, were used. In Myliobatis, the brain has a long telencephalon and the posterior central nucleus is poorly developed. Their cerebellum is asymmetric, has several sulci, most of which are transversally oriented, with four lobes (anterior, medium and two posterior), a condition which has not been reported for any other species. It was observed that, despite the morphology of M. californica and M. longirostris is similar, there are some significant differences. Both species have moderate foliation, but M. californica has more sulci. In the diencephalon of M. californica, it was observed that the lobes of the infundibulum are oval-shaped and separated, while in M. longirostris, such lobes are rounded and near the medium line. It has to be highlighted that Myliobatis belongs to the most derived batoid group; nevertheless, its brain is considerably less complex, as compared to what has been reported for the most derived milyobatoids species.


Diversos estudios sobre la neuroanatomía de los elasmobranquios han demostrado que el cerebro es más complejo de lo que se pensaba y presenta considerables variaciones tanto intra como interespecíficas. El objetivo de este trabajo fue realizar un estudio de neuroanatomía comparada del encéfalo de dos especies del género Myliobatis. Se utilizaron un total de 16 organismos de Myliobatis californica y Myliobatis longirostris, los cuales fueron colectados en las costas de Bahía Kino, Son., México. El cerebro de Myliobatis tiene un telencéfalo largo, el núcleo central posterior está poco desarrollado; el cerebelo es asimétrico, presenta surcos que en su mayoría están orientados transversalmente, con cuatro lóbulos (anterior, medio y dos posteriores), condición que no ha sido reportada para otra especie. Se observó que, aunque M. californica y M. longirostris presentan una morfología similar existen ciertas diferencias. En ambas especies presentan una foliación moderada; sin embargo, en M. californica se observan más surcos. En el diencéfalo de M. californica se observa que los lóbulos del infundíbulo son ovalados y están separados, mientras que en M. longirostris son redondeados y se encuentran próximos a la línea media. Es importante señalar que, pese a que Myliobatis pertenece al grupo de batoideos más derivado, su cerebro es considerablemente menos complejo de lo que se ha reportado para las especies de miliobatoideos más derivadas.


Subject(s)
Animals , Skates, Fish/anatomy & histology , Brain/anatomy & histology , Telencephalon/anatomy & histology , Cerebellum/anatomy & histology
6.
Rev. Assoc. Med. Bras. (1992) ; 66(3): 375-379, Mar. 2020. graf
Article in English | LILACS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1136212

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY BACKGROUND Symptomatic Chiari Type I Malformation (CM) is treated with posterior fossa decompression with or without duroplasty. We have noticed some cases with concomitant severe cerebellar ataxia due to cerebellar atrophy. The aim of this study is to review the literature of CM associated with severe cerebellar atrophy and discuss its potential physiopathology. METHODS A systematic literature review in the Pubmed Database was performed using the following key-terms: "cerebellar atrophy Chiari", and "cerebellar degeneration Chiari". Articles reporting the presence of cerebellar degeneration/atrophy associated with CM were included. RESULTS We found only six studies directly discussing the association of cerebellar atrophy with CM, with a total of seven cases. We added one case of our own practice for additional discussion. Only speculative causes were described to justify cerebellar atrophy. The potential causes of cerebellar atrophy were diffuse cerebellar ischemia from chronic compression of small vessels (the most mentioned speculative cause), chronic raised intracranial pressure due to CSF block, chronic venous hypertension, and association with platybasia with ventral compression of the brainstem resulting in injury of the inferior olivary nuclei leading to mutual trophic effects in the cerebellum. Additionally, it is not impossible to rule out a degenerative cause for cerebellar atrophy without a causative reason. CONCLUSIONS Severe cerebellar atrophy is found in some patients with CM. Although chronic ischemia due to compression is the most presumed cause, other etiologies were proposed. The real reasons for cerebellar degeneration are not known. Further studies are necessary.


RESUMO OBJETIVO A Malformação de Chiari (MC) tipo I sintomática é tratada através da descompressão da fossa posterior com ou sem duroplastia. Observamos alguns casos com ataxia cerebelar grave concomitante devido à atrofia cerebelar. O objetivo deste estudo é revisar a literatura sobre MC associada à atrofia cerebelar grave e discutir sua possível fisiopatologia. METODOLOGIA Conduzimos uma revisão sistemática da literatura no banco de dados Pubmed utilizando as seguintes palavras-chave: "cerebellar atrophy Chiari", e "cerebellar degeneration Chiari". Artigos sobre a presença de degeneração/atrofia cerebelar associada à MC foram incluídos. RESULTADOS Encontramos apenas seis estudos que discutiam diretamente a associação entre atrofia cerebelar e MC, com um total de sete casos. Nós adicionamos um caso da nossa própria prática para ampliar a discussão. Apenas causas especulativas foram descritas para justificar a atrofia cerebelar, entre elas: isquemia cerebelar difusa devido à compressão crônica de pequenos vasos (a causa especulativa mais citada), pressão intracraniana elevada crônica devido ao bloqueio de LCR, hipertensão venosa crônica e associação com platibasia com compressão ventral do tronco cerebral, resultando em lesão do núcleo olivar inferior e levando a efeitos tróficos mútuos no cerebelo. Além disso, não é possível descartar uma causa degenerativa para atrofia cerebelar sem motivos claros. CONCLUSÃO A atrofia cerebelar grave é encontrada em alguns pacientes com MC. A isquemia crônica causada por compressão é a causa mais apontada como suspeita, porém outras etiologias foram propostas. As reais causas da degeneração cerebelar não são conhecidas. Mais estudos são necessários.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Arnold-Chiari Malformation/physiopathology , Cerebellar Diseases/physiopathology , Arnold-Chiari Malformation/diagnostic imaging , Atrophy , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Cerebellar Diseases/diagnostic imaging , Cerebellum/abnormalities , Cerebellum/surgery , Cerebellum/physiopathology , Decompression, Surgical
7.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-828642

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate whether there is a difference in cerebellar development between appropriate -for-gestational-age (AGA) infants and small-for-gestational-age (SGA) infants.@*METHODS@#A total of 165 AGA infants and 105 SGA infants, with a gestational age of 26-40 weeks, were enrolled in this study. Within 24-48 hours after birth, ultrasound examination was performed to measure the transverse diameter of the cerebellum, the height of the vermis, the area of the vermis, the perimeter of the vermis, and the area and perimeter of the cerebellum on transverse section. A Pearson correlation analysis was used to investigate the correlation between cerebellar measurements and gestational age.@*RESULTS@#In both AGA and SGA infants, all cerebellar measurements were positively correlated with gestational age (r=0.50-0.81, P0.05), while in the 34-36 weeks and 37-40 weeks subgroups, the SGA infants had significantly lower measurements than the AGA infants (P<0.05).@*CONCLUSIONS@#The SGA infants with a gestational age of <34 weeks have intrauterine cerebellar development similar to AGA infants, but those with a gestational age of ≥34 weeks have poorer intrauterine cerebellar development than AGA infants.


Subject(s)
Cerebellum , Gestational Age , Humans , Infant , Infant, Small for Gestational Age , Ultrasonography
8.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-826545

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To identify pathogenic variants in two families with patients suspected for Joubert syndrome(UBST) by cerebellar vermis hypoplasia.@*METHODS@#Clinical data and peripheral venous blood and skin tissue samples were collected for the extraction of genomic DNA. Potential variants were screened by using targeted capture and next generation sequencing. Suspected variants were validated by PCR and Sanger sequencing. The frequency of the variants in the population was calculated. Pathogenicity of the variants was predicted by following the guidelines of the American College of Medical Genetics and Genomics (ACMG). Prenatal diagnosis was provided to these families upon subsequent pregnancy.@*RESULTS@#The proband of family 1 was found to harbor homozygous c.2072delT (p.F691S*fs19) frameshift variant of the AHI1 gene, which may cause premature termination of translation of the Abelson helper integration site 1 after the 691st amino acid. The proband of family 2 was found to harbor compound heterozygous variants of the CPLANE1 gene, namely c.7243dupA (p.T2415Nfs*7) and c.8001delG (p.K2667Nfs*31), which can respectively lead to premature termination of translation of ciliogenesis and planar polarity effector 1 after the 2145th and 2667th amino acids. All of the three variants were previously unreported, and were predicted to be pathogenic by bioinformatic analysis.@*CONCLUSION@#The AHI1 c.2072delT and CPLANE1 c.7243dupA and c.8001delG variants probably underlay JBTS3 in family 1 and JBTS17 in family 2, respectively. Based on above results, prenatal diagnosis may be offered to the affected families upon their subsequent pregnancies.


Subject(s)
Abnormalities, Multiple , Diagnosis , Genetics , Adaptor Proteins, Vesicular Transport , Genetics , Cerebellum , Congenital Abnormalities , Eye Abnormalities , Diagnosis , Genetics , Female , Genetic Testing , Genetic Variation , Humans , Kidney Diseases, Cystic , Diagnosis , Genetics , Membrane Proteins , Genetics , Mutation , Pregnancy , Prenatal Diagnosis , Retina , Congenital Abnormalities
9.
Rev. colomb. radiol ; 31(2): 5339-5341, jun. 2020.
Article in English, Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1343290

ABSTRACT

Existen múltiples lesiones quísticas que se pueden encontrar en el encéfalo y en la fosa posterior. Entre estas, una nueva entidad denominada MV PLUS (por su sigla en inglés de multinodular and vacuolating posterior fossa lesions of unknown significance) tiene características imagenológicas similares al tumor multinodular vacuolante, pero como lo indican su sigla en inglés, está localizado en la fosa posterior. Estos tumores se definen como un conjunto de lesiones subcorticales nodulares pequeñas, de alta señal en secuencias con informaciónT2-FLAIR, con o sin realce al administrar medio de contraste. Pueden diferenciarse de otras entidades quísticas porque son lesiones agrupadas, sin cambios inflamatorios reactivos, presentes en una corteza de apariencia normal y sin evolución en el seguimiento. Esto último hace que se consideren lesiones benignas, no agresivas. Se presenta el caso de un paciente de 21 años de edad, a quien de manera incidental se le encontró en la región central del vermis una lesión de aspecto multiquístico, sin cambios durante el seguimiento en los últimos 3 años, con diagnóstico probable de MV PLUS.


There are multiple types of cystic lesions that can be found in the brain and in the posterior fossa. Among these, a new entity called MV PLUS (Multinodular and Vacuolating Posterior Fossa Lesions of Unknown Significance) has similar imaging characteristics to the vacuolating multinodular tumor, but as indicated by its acronym in English, it is located in the posterior fossa. These tumors are defined as a group of small, high intensity nodular subcortical images in the T2-FLAIR, with or without post-contrast enhancement. They can be differentiated from other cystic entities, because they are clustered lesions, without reactive inflammatory changes, in a cortex of normal appearance and without changes at follow-up. The latter, causes them to be considered benign, non-aggressive lesions. We present the case of a 21-year-old patient, who presented an incidentally found lesion in the central region of the vermis. MRI showed a multicystic-looking mass, that had no changes at follow-up in the last 3 years and without obvious differential diagnosis, suggestive of MV PLUS.


Subject(s)
Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Brain Neoplasms , Cerebellum
11.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 115: e200007, 2020. graf
Article in English | LILACS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1135242

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND Behavioral and neurochemical alterations associated with toxoplasmosis may be influenced by the persistence of tissue cysts and activation of an immune response in the brain of Toxoplasma gondii-infected hosts. The cerebral extracellular matrix is organised as perineuronal nets (PNNs) that are both released and ensheath by some neurons and glial cells. There is evidences to suggest that PNNs impairment is a pathophysiological mechanism associated with neuropsychiatric conditions. However, there is a lack of information regarding the impact of parasitic infections on the PNNs integrity and how this could affect the host's behavior. OBJECTIVES In this context, we aimed to analyse the impact of T. gondii infection on cyst burden, PNNs integrity, and possible effects in the locomotor activity of chronically infected mice. METHODS We infected mice with T. gondii ME-49 strain. After thirty days, we assessed locomotor performance of animals using the open field test, followed by evaluation of cysts burden and PNNs integrity in four brain regions (primary and secondary motor cortices, prefrontal and somesthetic cortex) to assess the PNNs integrity using Wisteria floribunda agglutinin (WFA) labeling by immunohistochemical analyses. FINDINGS AND MAIN CONCLUSIONS Our findings revealed a random distribution of cysts in the brain, the disruption of PNNs surrounding neurons in four areas of the cerebral cortex and hyperlocomotor behavior in T. gondii-infected mice. These results can contribute to elucidate the link toxoplasmosis with the establishment of neuroinflammatory response in neuropsychiatric disorders and to raise a discussion about the mechanisms related to changes in brain connectivity, with possible behavioral repercussions during chronic T. gondii infection.


Subject(s)
Animals , Mice , Cerebellum/metabolism , Toxoplasmosis/pathology , Toxoplasmosis, Animal , Extracellular Matrix/metabolism , Motor Neurons/cytology , Neurons/pathology , Toxoplasma , Cerebellum/cytology , Toxoplasmosis/metabolism , Disease Models, Animal , Motor Neurons/metabolism , Neurons/metabolism
12.
Journal of Biomedical Engineering ; (6): 1065-1072, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879237

ABSTRACT

How to realize the control of limb movement and apply it to intelligent robot systems at the level of cerebellar cortical neurons is a hot topic in the fields of artificial intelligence and rehabilitation medicine. At present, the cerebellar model usually used is only for the purpose of controlling the effect, borrowing from the functional mode of the cerebellum, but it ignores the structural characteristics of the cerebellum. In fact, in addition to being used for controlling purposes, the cerebellar model should also have the interpretability of the control process and be able to analyze the consequences of cerebellar lesions. Therefore, it is necessary to establish a bionic cerebellar model which could better express the characteristics of the cerebellum. In this paper, the process that the cerebellum processes external input information and then generates control instructions at the neuron level was explored. By functionally segmenting the cerebellum into homogeneous structures, a novel bionic cerebellar motion control model incorporating all major cell types and connections was established. Simulation experiments and force feedback device control experiments show that the bionic cerebellar motion control model can achieve better control effect than the currently widely used cerebellar model articulation controller, which verifies the effectiveness of the bionic cerebellar motion control model. It has laid the foundation for real brain-like artificial intelligence control.


Subject(s)
Arm , Artificial Intelligence , Bionics , Cerebellum , Humans , Motion
13.
Rev. Eugenio Espejo ; 13(2): 71-78, 20191202.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1048532

ABSTRACT

Las malformaciones arteriovenosas representan un grupo extenso y heterogéneo de lesiones. Dichas anomalías se caracterizan por ser congénitas y por representar un verdadero desafío diagnóstico y terapéutico. El presente caso trata de una paciente femenina de 7 años, sin antecedentes de importancia que presentó un cuadro evolutivo de 2 meses, caracterizado por cefalea a nivel fronto-parietal derecha y debilidad de miembro superior izquierdo. Mediante exámenes complementarios de imagen se identifica una malformación arteriovenosa-cerebelosa que compromete diencéfalo y tálamo derecho. Durante su estadía hospitalaria es sometida a embolización, lo que mejoró notablemente el cuadro patológico establecido.


Arteriovenous malformations represent a large and heterogeneous group of lesions. These anomalies are characterized by being congenital and representing a true diagnostic and therapeutic challenge. The present case deals with a 7-year-old female patient without health history of importance. She presented a 2-month evolutionary picture, specified by right frontal-parietal headache and left upper limb weakness. Complementary imaging tests identify an arteriovenous-cerebellar malformation that compromises the diencephalon and right thalamus. An embolization was applied during hospitalization, which markedly improved the established pathological picture


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Child , Congenital Abnormalities , Cerebellum , Vascular System Injuries , Paresis , Stroke , Embolism
14.
Arq. neuropsiquiatr ; 77(10): 689-695, Oct. 2019. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1038728

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT This study aimed to analyze the cerebellum of rats submitted to an experimental focal cerebral ischemia, by middle cerebral artery occlusion for 90 minutes, followed by reperfusion for 48 hours, associated with an alcoholism model. Methods Fifty adult Wistar rats were used, subdivided into five experimental groups: control group (C): animals submitted to anesthesia only; sham group (S): animals submitted to complete simulation of the surgical procedure; ischemic group (I): animals submitted to focal cerebral ischemia for 90 minutes followed by reperfusion for 48 hours; alcoholic group (A): animals that received daily absolute ethanol diluted 20% in water for four weeks; and, ischemic and alcoholic group (I + A): animals receiving the same treatment as group A and, after four weeks, submitted to focal cerebral ischemia for 90 minutes, followed by reperfusion for 48 hours. The cerebellum samples were collected and immunohistochemical analysis of Caspase-9 protein and serum analysis by RT-PCR of microRNAs miR-21, miR-126 and miR155 were performed. Results The expression of Caspase-9 was higher in groups I, A and I + A. In the microRNAs analyses, miR-126 was higher in groups A and I + A, miR-155 was higher in groups I and I + A. Conclusions We conclude that apoptosis occurs in the cerebellar cortex, even if it is distant from the ischemic focus, and that microRNAs 126 and 155 show a correlation with cellular apoptosis in ischemic rats and those submitted to the chronic alcohol model.


RESUMO O objetivo deste estudo foi analisar o cerebelo de ratos submetidos à isquemia cerebral focal experimental, por oclusão da artéria cerebral média por 90 minutos, seguida de reperfusão por 48 horas, associada a um modelo de alcoolismo. Métodos Foram utilizados 50 ratos Wistar adultos, subdivididos em cinco grupos experimentais: grupo controle (C): animais submetidos apenas à anestesia; grupo sham (S): animais submetidos à simulação completa do procedimento cirúrgico; grupo isquêmico (I): animais submetidos à isquemia cerebral focal por 90 minutos, seguidos de reperfusão por 48 horas; grupo alcoólico (A): animais que receberam etanol absoluto diário diluído em 20% em água por quatro semanas; e grupo isquêmico e alcoólico (I + A): animais que recebem o mesmo tratamento do grupo A e, após quatro semanas, submetidos à isquemia cerebral focal por 90 minutos, seguidos de reperfusão por 48 horas. As amostras de cerebelo foram coletadas e a análise imuno-histoquímica da proteína Caspase-9 e a análise sérica por RT-PCR dos microRNAs miR-21, miR-126 e miR155 foram realizadas. Resultados A expressão de Caspase-9 foi maior nos grupos I, A e I + A. Nas análises de microRNAs, o miR-126 foi maior nos grupos A e I + A, o miR-155 foi maior nos grupos I e I + A. Conclusões Concluímos que a apoptose ocorre no córtex cerebelar, mesmo distante do foco isquêmico, e que os microRNAs 126 e 155 mostram uma correlação com a apoptose celular em ratos isquêmicos e submetidos ao modelo crônico de álcool.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Cerebellum/pathology , Brain Ischemia/pathology , Apoptosis , MicroRNAs/blood , Alcoholism/pathology , Caspase 9/analysis , Time Factors , Immunohistochemistry , Reperfusion Injury/pathology , Random Allocation , Cerebellum/chemistry , Brain Ischemia/blood , Rats, Wistar , Infarction, Middle Cerebral Artery , Alcoholism/blood , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction
15.
Rev. bras. neurol ; 55(3): 33-37, jul.-set. 2019. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1022916

ABSTRACT

Luigi Luciani (1840-1919) was an illustrious Italian citizen and physiologist whose research scope covered mainly cardiovascular subjects, the nervous system, and fasting. He published in 1891 a modern landmark of the study of cerebellar physiology - "Il cervelletto: nuovistudi di normal and pathología physiology" / "The cerebellum: new studies on normal and pathological physiology." In his experiment, a dog survived after cerebellectomy, reporting a triad of symptoms (asthenia, atonia, and astasia). In this way, the eminent neurophysiologist improved the operative technique and sterile processes to redirect the issue of cerebellar symptoms. Luciani died at age 78, a hundred years ago, and left mainly the understanding of the role of the cerebellum in regulating postural tone and muscle strength, which represented a step forward in understanding cerebellar motor physiology. In recent decades, cognitive / affective function has been added to the cerebellar motor, and there has also been a better understanding of cerebellar circuits.


Luigi Luciani (1840-1919) foi um ilustre cidadão e fisiologista italiano, cujo escopo de pesquisa abrangia principalmente assuntos cardiovasculares, sistema nervoso e jejum. Ele publicou em 1891 um marco moderno do estudo da fisiologia do cerebelo - "Il cervelletto: nuovistudi di fisiologia normale and patologica" / "O cerebelo: novos estudos sobre fisiologia normal e patológica". Em seu experimento, um cão sobreviveu após a cerebelectomia, com o relatório de uma tríade de sintomas (astenia, atonia e astasia). Dessa maneira, o eminente neurofisiologista aprimorou a técnica operatória e os processos estéreis para redirecionar a questão dos sintomas cerebelares. Luciani morreu aos 78 anos, cem anos atrás, e deixou principalmente a compreensão do papel do cerebelo na regulação do tônus postural e da força muscular, o que representou um passo adiante na compreensão da fisiologia motora cerebelar. Nas últimas décadas, a função cognitivo / afetiva foi adicionada à motora cerebelar e, também, houve uma melhor compreensão dos circuitos do cerebelo.


Subject(s)
Humans , History, 19th Century , History, 20th Century , Neurosciences/history , Cerebellum/physiology , Neurophysiology/history , Cerebellum/injuries , Italy
16.
Int. j. morphol ; 37(3): 1172-1178, Sept. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1012413

ABSTRACT

The morphological and histological structure of the brains of Bufo gargarizans and Cynops orientalis were observed by anatomy and light microscopy. The results show that the brains of Bufo gargarizans and Cynops orientalis are divided into 5 parts which include the telencephalon, diencephalon, mesencephalon, cerebellum and medulla oblongata. The telencephalon consists of the olfactory bulb and the cerebral hemisphere. The olfactory bulb is developed that has two pairs of olfactory nerve. Bufo gargarizan has a symmetrical oval hemisphere optic lobes; Cynops orientalis only has a spherical optic lobe. The cerebellum is situated behind the optic lobe and closely connected with the myelencephalon. In this paper, the morphological and histological differences between the two species are discussed. The proportion of cerebral hemisphere is gradually increasing, which correlated with a progressive increase in the number of neuronal cell classes, and reflected in behavior complexity.


La estructura morfológica e histológica de los cerebros de Bufo gargarizans y Cynops orientalis se observó mediante anatomía y microscopía óptica. Los resultados muestran que los cerebros de Bufo gargarizans y Cynops orientalis se dividen en 5 partes, que incluyen el telencéfalo, diencéfalo, mesencéfalo, cerebelo y mielencéfalo. El telencéfalo consiste en bulbo olfatorio y hemisferio cerebral. El bulbo olfatorio tiene dos pares de nervios olfatorios. Los lóbulos ópticos de Bufo gargarizans son ovalados y simétricos en ambos hemisferios cerebrales; Cynops orientalis tiene solo un lóbulo óptico esférico. El cerebelo está situado detrás del lóbulo óptico y está estrechamente conectado con el mielencéfalo. En este trabajo, se discuten las diferencias morfológicas e histológicas entre las dos especies. El tamaño del hemisferio cerebral aumenta gradualmente, lo que se correlaciona con un aumento progresivo de células neuronales en los núcleos, reflejándose en la complejidad del comportamiento.


Subject(s)
Animals , Salamandridae/anatomy & histology , Brain/anatomy & histology , Bufo bufo/anatomy & histology , Anatomy, Comparative , Telencephalon/anatomy & histology , Mesencephalon/anatomy & histology , Cerebellum/anatomy & histology , Diencephalon/anatomy & histology , Myelencephalon/anatomy & histology
18.
Rev. bras. anestesiol ; 69(1): 109-112, Jan.-Feb. 2019. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-977412

ABSTRACT

Abstract The report describes a case of peri-operative stroke that presented as diplopia and gait difficulty on 2nd post-operative day after routine orchidopexy under spinal anesthesia in an otherwise healthy young boy. Magnetic resonance imaging of the brain revealed acute infarct in bilateral cerebellar hemispheres, left half of medulla and left thalamus. A diagnosis of acute stroke (infarct) was made and patient was started on oral aspirin 75 mg.day-1, following which his vision started improving after 2 weeks. Possible mechanisms of development of stroke in the peri-operative period are discussed, but, even after extensive investigations, the etiology of infarct may be difficult to determine. Acute infarct after elective non-cardiac, non-neurological surgery is rare; it may not be possible to identify the etiology in all cases. Clinicians must have a high index of suspicion to diagnose such unexpected complications even after routine surgical procedures in order to decrease the morbidity and long term sequelae.


Resumo O presente relato descreve um caso de acidente vascular cerebral perioperatório que resultou em diplopia e dificuldade de marcha no segundo dia após orquidopexia de rotina sob raquianestesia em um jovem, em outros aspectos, saudável. Ressonância magnética cerebral revelou infarto agudo em hemisférios cerebelares bilaterais, metade esquerda do bulbo e tálamo esquerdo. Um diagnóstico de acidente vascular cerebral agudo (infarto) foi feito e o paciente começou a receber tratamento com aspirina oral (75 mg.dia-1), após o qual sua visão começou a melhorar após duas semanas. Possíveis mecanismos de desenvolvimento de acidente vascular cerebral no período perioperatório são discutidos, mas, mesmo após extensas investigações, a etiologia do infarto pode ser difícil de determinar. O infarto agudo após cirurgia eletiva não cardíaca e não neurológica é raro; talvez não seja possível identificar a etiologia em todos os casos. Os médicos devem ter um elevado grau de suspeita para diagnosticar essas complicações inesperadas, mesmo após procedimentos cirúrgicos de rotina, para diminuir a morbidade e as sequelas em longo prazo.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Child , Postoperative Complications/diagnosis , Postoperative Complications/drug therapy , Cerebellum/blood supply , Brain Infarction/diagnosis , Brain Infarction/drug therapy , Orchiopexy , Anesthesia, Spinal
19.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-719563

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To examine the clinical factors and brain lesion locations related to the patterns of dysphagia in stroke patients in a rehabilitation hospital. METHODS: The medical records of 116 stroke patients who underwent a videofluoroscopic swallowing study (VFSS) between January 2010 and January 2015 in a rehabilitation hospital were reviewed retrospectively. The swallowing-related parameters were assessed using a VFSS. The brain lesion locations were classified as the cortex, basal ganglia, thalamus, midbrain, pons, medulla, cerebellum, and others (subarachnoid or intraventricular hemorrhage). The ambulation ability was assessed using functional ambulation categories (FACs). The independence in the activities of daily living and the degree of cognitive impairment were assessed using the Korean versions of the modified Barthel index (K-MBI) and Mini-Mental State Examination (K-MMSE), respectively. After adjusting for the potential confounding factors in multivariate analysis, the odds ratios and confidence intervals of the stroke brain lesions were calculated and the clinical factors for predicting the VFSS findings were determined. RESULTS: Among the 116 patients, 35 (27%) had an impaired oral stage and 58 (50%) had aspiration. The impaired oral stage was associated significantly with the onset time, basal ganglia stroke, dietary and fluid intake methods at the time of the VFSS, symptoms of dysphagia, FACs, K-MBI, and K-MMSE. Aspiration was correlated with a pontine stroke, methods of dietary and fluid intakes at the time of the VFSS, symptoms of dysphagia, FACs, and K-MBI. Multivariate analysis showed that the pontine stroke and methods of dietary and fluid intake at the time of VFSS predicted aspiration after adjusting for the potential confounding factors. In subgroup analysis of the diet type, the liquid and semisolid aspirations were correlated with the dietary and fluid intake methods and pontine stroke, respectively. CONCLUSION: Patients with a pons lesion stroke, who are on a modified diet (fluid thickening and tube feeding), have higher risks of aspiration. This provides evidence for precise clinical reasoning in this specific patient group.


Subject(s)
Activities of Daily Living , Aspirations, Psychological , Basal Ganglia , Brain , Cerebellum , Cognition Disorders , Deglutition Disorders , Deglutition , Diet , Humans , Medical Records , Mesencephalon , Multivariate Analysis , Odds Ratio , Oral Stage , Pons , Rehabilitation , Retrospective Studies , Stroke , Thalamus , Walking
20.
Journal of Breast Cancer ; : 248-259, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-764265

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Triple-negative breast carcinoma (TNBC) is accompanied with high risk of metastasis and recurrence. The present study aimed to explore the clinicopathological and prognostic roles of putative tumor-related genes in patients with TNBC. METHODS: Thirty pairs of frozen-thawed tumors were used to select reliable indicators via real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR). Then, 150 pathology specimens were used to evaluate the expression of proteins in TNBC through immunohistochemistry. In addition, Kaplan-Meier curves and Cox regression analysis were also performed to analyze the overall survival and disease-free survival. RESULTS: RT-qPCR results indicated that among all the proteins analyzed using fresh-frozen TNBC samples, the expression levels of only Survivin and zinc finger of the cerebellum 1 (ZIC1) were obviously different from those in the corresponding normal tissues. Survivin and ZIC1 expression had opposite effects on the clinicopathological diagnosis and prognostic assessment in TNBC patients. Further, there was a negative correlation between Survivin and ZIC1 expression. In addition, the “Survivin-positive ZIC1-negative group” was associated with histologic grade, lymph node metastasis, and TNM staging (p < 0.001) and this was also an independent factor for evaluating the prognosis of TNBC in patients. CONCLUSION: In summary, the expression levels of Survivin and ZIC1 in TNBC are different from those in normal tissues and are negatively correlated mutually. The combined detection of Survivin and ZIC1 expression levels could allow better comprehensive diagnosis and prognostic evaluation for TNBC patients.


Subject(s)
Breast Neoplasms , Breast , Cerebellum , Diagnosis , Disease-Free Survival , Humans , Immunohistochemistry , Lymph Nodes , Neoplasm Metastasis , Neoplasm Staging , Pathology , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Prognosis , Recurrence , Triple Negative Breast Neoplasms , Zinc Fingers , Zinc
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