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1.
Arq. neuropsiquiatr ; 77(10): 689-695, Oct. 2019. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1038728

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT This study aimed to analyze the cerebellum of rats submitted to an experimental focal cerebral ischemia, by middle cerebral artery occlusion for 90 minutes, followed by reperfusion for 48 hours, associated with an alcoholism model. Methods Fifty adult Wistar rats were used, subdivided into five experimental groups: control group (C): animals submitted to anesthesia only; sham group (S): animals submitted to complete simulation of the surgical procedure; ischemic group (I): animals submitted to focal cerebral ischemia for 90 minutes followed by reperfusion for 48 hours; alcoholic group (A): animals that received daily absolute ethanol diluted 20% in water for four weeks; and, ischemic and alcoholic group (I + A): animals receiving the same treatment as group A and, after four weeks, submitted to focal cerebral ischemia for 90 minutes, followed by reperfusion for 48 hours. The cerebellum samples were collected and immunohistochemical analysis of Caspase-9 protein and serum analysis by RT-PCR of microRNAs miR-21, miR-126 and miR155 were performed. Results The expression of Caspase-9 was higher in groups I, A and I + A. In the microRNAs analyses, miR-126 was higher in groups A and I + A, miR-155 was higher in groups I and I + A. Conclusions We conclude that apoptosis occurs in the cerebellar cortex, even if it is distant from the ischemic focus, and that microRNAs 126 and 155 show a correlation with cellular apoptosis in ischemic rats and those submitted to the chronic alcohol model.


RESUMO O objetivo deste estudo foi analisar o cerebelo de ratos submetidos à isquemia cerebral focal experimental, por oclusão da artéria cerebral média por 90 minutos, seguida de reperfusão por 48 horas, associada a um modelo de alcoolismo. Métodos Foram utilizados 50 ratos Wistar adultos, subdivididos em cinco grupos experimentais: grupo controle (C): animais submetidos apenas à anestesia; grupo sham (S): animais submetidos à simulação completa do procedimento cirúrgico; grupo isquêmico (I): animais submetidos à isquemia cerebral focal por 90 minutos, seguidos de reperfusão por 48 horas; grupo alcoólico (A): animais que receberam etanol absoluto diário diluído em 20% em água por quatro semanas; e grupo isquêmico e alcoólico (I + A): animais que recebem o mesmo tratamento do grupo A e, após quatro semanas, submetidos à isquemia cerebral focal por 90 minutos, seguidos de reperfusão por 48 horas. As amostras de cerebelo foram coletadas e a análise imuno-histoquímica da proteína Caspase-9 e a análise sérica por RT-PCR dos microRNAs miR-21, miR-126 e miR155 foram realizadas. Resultados A expressão de Caspase-9 foi maior nos grupos I, A e I + A. Nas análises de microRNAs, o miR-126 foi maior nos grupos A e I + A, o miR-155 foi maior nos grupos I e I + A. Conclusões Concluímos que a apoptose ocorre no córtex cerebelar, mesmo distante do foco isquêmico, e que os microRNAs 126 e 155 mostram uma correlação com a apoptose celular em ratos isquêmicos e submetidos ao modelo crônico de álcool.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Cerebellum/pathology , Brain Ischemia/pathology , Apoptosis , MicroRNAs/blood , Alcoholism/pathology , Caspase 9/analysis , Time Factors , Immunohistochemistry , Reperfusion Injury/pathology , Random Allocation , Cerebellum/chemistry , Brain Ischemia/blood , Rats, Wistar , Infarction, Middle Cerebral Artery , Alcoholism/blood , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction
2.
Int. j. morphol ; 37(1): 28-35, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-990000

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY: There is an increasing amount of evidence that supports the diabetic complications of the central nervous system structure and function. The cerebellum, which is one of the primary structure derived from the hindbrain, plays an important role in motor control, motor coordination, and non-motor functions, such as cognitive processing. The synapse is a critical structure that regulates neuronal communication, and well-defined afferent and efferent fibre connections in the cerebellum help in maintaining the proper working order. Thus, the present study sought to investigate the long-term effects of diabetes-induced synaptopathy in the cerebellum, using both histological and ultrastructural studies. Twenty Sprague-Dawley male rats were divided randomly into control and diabetic groups, and diabetes was then induced through a single intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (60 mg/kg body weight). Six month later, the rats were sacrificed and the cerebellum was removed. Light and electron microscopic examinations showed a degeneration of Purkinje cells (Neuron purkinjense) with shrunken cells, pyknotic nuclei, and synaptopathy, including the reduction in synapse density, number of synaptic vesicles, and maturation of synapses in the molecular layer of diabetic cerebellum. The disruptions in synaptic profiles, which observed in the diabetic condition, could be related to cerebellar dysfunction, thus leading to the defects in coordinated movement, balance, as well as cognitive learning and memory.


RESUMEN: Actualmente existe una creciente evidencia que apoya las complicaciones diabéticas de la estructura y función del sistema nervioso central. El cerebelo, una de las estructuras primarias del cerebro posterior, desempeña un papel importante en el control motor, la coordinación motora y las funciones no motoras, tanto como en el procesamiento cognitivo. La sinapsis es una estructura crítica que regula la comunicación neuronal y las conexiones de fibras aferentes y eferentes bien definidas en el cerebelo, ayudan a mantener el funcionamiento correcto. Por lo tanto, en el presente estudio se investigaron los efectos a largo plazo de la sinaptopatía inducida por la diabetes en el cerebelo, utilizando estudios histológicos y ultraestructurales. Veinte ratas SpragueDawley macho se dividieron al azar en grupos de control y diabetes, se indujó la diabetes a través de una inyección intraperitoneal única de estreptozotocina (60 mg / kg de peso corporal). Seis meses después, se sacrificaron las ratas y se extrajo el cerebelo. Los exámenes de microscopías óptica y electrónica mostraron una degeneración de las neuronas purkinjenses (células de Purkinje), con células reducidas, núcleos picnóticos y sinaptopatía, como también la densidad reducida de sinapsis, el número de vesículas sinápticas y la maduración de las sinapsis en la capa molecular del cerebelo de las ratas diabéticas. Las interrupciones en los perfiles sinápticos, que se observaron en la condición diabética, podrían estar relacionadas con la disfunción cerebelosa, lo que lleva a defectos en el movimiento coordinado, el equilibrio, así como al aprendizaje cognitivo y la memoria.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Synapses/pathology , Cerebellum/pathology , Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental/pathology , Purkinje Cells/pathology , Weight Loss , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Glycosuria/pathology , Hyperglycemia/pathology , Microscopy/methods
3.
Int. j. morphol ; 36(4): 1453-1462, Dec. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-975722

ABSTRACT

Traumatic brain injury (TBI) can potentially lead to hemorrhages in all areas of the skull, which can damage cells and nerve connections. This study aims to investigate the protective effects of Ganoderma lucidum polysaccharides (GLPS) as a antioxidant on cerebellar cell tissues after traumatic brain injury in rats. Sprague Dawley rats were subjected to TBI with a weight-drop device using 300 g1m weight-height impact. The groups are consisted of control, trauma, and trauma+Ganoderma lucidum groups. At seven days post-brain injury, experimental rats were decapitated after intraperitoneal administration of ketamine HCL (0.15 ml/100 g body weight). Cereballar samples were taken for histological examination or determination of malondialdehyde (MDA) and glutathione (GSH) levels and myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity. Significant improvement was observed in cells and vascular structures of Ganoderma lucidum treated groups when compared to untreated groups. It is believed that Ganoderma lucidum may have an effect on the progression of traumatic brain injury. Ganoderma lucidum application may affect angiogenetic development in blood vessel endothelial cells, decrease inflammatory cell accumulation by affecting cytokine mechanism and may create apoptotic nerve cells and neuroprotective mechanism in glial cells.


La lesión cerebral traumática (LCT) puede provocar hemorragias en todas las áreas del cráneo, lo que puede dañar las células y las conexiones nerviosas. Este estudio tuvo como objetivo investigar los efectos protectores de los polisacáridos de Ganoderma lucidum (GLPS) como antioxidante en los tejidos de las células del cerebelo después de la lesión cerebral traumática en ratas. Ratas Sprague Dawley fueron sometidas a TBI con un dispositivo de caída de peso usando un impacto de peso de 300 g-1 m. Se formaron los siguientes grupos: control, trauma y trauma + Ganoderma lucidum. Siete días después de la lesión cerebral, las ratas experimentales fueron decapitadas después de la administración intraperitoneal de ketamina HCL (0,15 ml / 100 g de peso corporal). Se tomaron muestras cerebrales para el examen histológico y para la determinación de niveles de malondialdehído (MDA) y glutatión (GSH) y actividad de mieloperoxidasa (MPO). Se observó una mejora significativa en las células y las estructuras vasculares de los grupos tratados con Ganoderma lucidum en comparación con los grupos no tratados. Durante el estudio se observó que Ganoderma lucidum puede tener un efecto sobre la progresión de la lesión cerebral traumática. La aplicación de Ganoderma lucidum puede afectar el desarrollo angiogénico en las células endoteliales de los vasos sanguíneos, disminuir la acumulación de células inflamatorias al afectar el mecanismo de las citocinas y puede crear células nerviosas apoptóticas y un mecanismo neuroprotector en las células gliales.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Cerebellum/drug effects , Reishi/chemistry , Brain Injuries, Traumatic/pathology , Antioxidants/pharmacology , Polysaccharides/pharmacology , Immunohistochemistry , Antigens, Differentiation, Myelomonocytic , Antigens, CD , Cerebellum/metabolism , Cerebellum/pathology , Blotting, Western , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Peroxidase/metabolism , Neuroprotective Agents , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-2 , Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A/metabolism , Glutathione/analysis , Malondialdehyde/analysis
4.
Medicina (B.Aires) ; 78(5): 364-367, oct. 2018. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-976126

ABSTRACT

Presentamos dos casos de accidente cerebrovascular en sujetos con trayecto extracraneal de la arteria cerebeloso póstero-inferior. Caso 1: varón de 21 años, quien presentó ataxia y dismetría derecha luego de un traumatismo cervical en un partido de rugby. Caso 2: mujer de 56 años, quien inició con vértigo y hemiparesia izquierda luego de esfuerzo físico intenso. En ambos casos, los estudios angiográficos mostraron un trayecto extracraneal de la arteria cerebelosa póstero-inferior. Este vaso raramente se origina por debajo del foramen magno, en relación cercana con las primeras tres vértebras cervicales y la articulación atlanto-axial. En este nivel, está expuesta a daño mecánico causante de disección, como por ejemplo trauma directo, manipulación cervical abrupta o extensión cefálica prolongada. Por lo tanto, en pacientes con accidente cerebrovascular de región lateral de bulbo y trayecto extracraneal de la arteria cerebelosa póstero-inferior se debería considerar esta asociación.


We present two cases of lateral medullary stroke in subjects with extracranial trajectory of the postero-inferior cerebellar artery. Case 1: a 21-year-old male who presented ataxia and right dysmetria after cervical trauma in a rugby match. Case 2: 56-year-old woman, who started with vertigo and left hemiparesis after intense physical effort. In both cases, the angiographic studies showed an extracranial trajectory of the posterior inferior cerebellar artery. This vessel rarely originates below the foramen magnum, in close relationship with the first three cervical vertebrae and the atlanto-axial joint. At this level, it is exposed to mechanical damage causing dissection, such as direct trauma, abrupt cervical manipulation or prolonged cephalic extension. Therefore, this association should be considered in patients with stroke of the lateral region of the bulb and extracranial trajectory of the posterior-inferior cerebellar artery.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Lateral Medullary Syndrome/etiology , Cerebellum/blood supply , Posterior Cerebral Artery/injuries , Aneurysm, Dissecting/complications , Lateral Medullary Syndrome/pathology , Lateral Medullary Syndrome/diagnostic imaging , Magnetic Resonance Imaging/methods , Cerebral Angiography/methods , Cerebellum/injuries , Cerebellum/pathology , Cerebellum/diagnostic imaging , Posterior Cerebral Artery/pathology , Posterior Cerebral Artery/diagnostic imaging , Aneurysm, Dissecting/pathology , Aneurysm, Dissecting/diagnostic imaging
5.
CoDAS ; 28(6): 823-827, nov.-dez. 2016. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-828590

ABSTRACT

RESUMO A síndrome de Joubert (SJ) é uma condição genética heterogênea, rara, do grupo das ciliopatias. Mais de 20 genes foram identificados relacionados com este fenótipo. As principais manifestações incluem hipotonia, ataxia, atraso psicomotor, apraxia oculomotora e anormalidades respiratórias neonatais. O objetivo deste artigo foi apresentar achados de linguagem e neurodesenvolvimento de um indivíduo com diagnóstico da SJ. Foi realizada a anamnese, avaliação genética clínica, observação do comportamento comunicativo, avaliação da linguagem, o Teste de Screening de Desenvolvimento Denver-II (TSDD-II) e a Early Language Milestone Scale (ELMS). Os principais achados da Ressonância Magnética do encéfalo mostraram grave hipoplasia do vérmis cerebelar, “sinal do dente molar”, tronco cerebral hipoplásico, atrofia dos hemisférios cerebelares. A avaliação da linguagem mostrou ausência de oralidade, prejuízo na recepção da linguagem, confirmando o diagnóstico de transtorno de linguagem, com grau de comprometimento grave. O TSDD-II e a ELMS comprovaram a observação e avaliação clínica e indicaram atraso grave nos domínios motor, autocuidados e de linguagem receptiva e expressiva. Diante da presença de hipotonia, ataxia, atraso psicomotor e anormalidades respiratórias neonatais é imprescindível a realização de exame por imagem e avaliação genética para o diagnóstico desta condição, tão complexa, com necessidades terapêuticas peculiares. Este conjunto de achados, associado à história familial e características fenotípicas peculiares reforçam o diagnóstico genético clínico da SJ. Esta síndrome genética é pouco reconhecida e merece ser apresentada para o reconhecimento da comunidade científica, visando o diagnóstico correto e planejamento terapêutico que minimize os efeitos deletérios desta condição.


ABSTRACT The Joubert syndrome (JS) is a rare, heterogeneous genetic condition among the ciliopathies. More than 20 genes have been identified associated with this phenotype. The main manifestations include hypotonia, ataxia, psychomotor retardation, ocular-motor apraxia and neonatal respiratory abnormalities. The objective of this paper was to present language and neurodevelopmental findings of an individual diagnosed with JS. The following procedures were performed: anamnesis, clinical genetic evaluation observation of communicative behavior, evaluation of language, the Denver Developmental Screening Test II (DDST-II) and the Early Language Milestone Scale (ELMS). The main findings of the MRI brain showed severe hypoplasia of the cerebellar vermis, “molar tooth sign”, hypoplastic brain stem and atrophy of the cerebellar hemispheres. The observation and evaluation of the language showed no oral, impaired reception of language, confirming the diagnosis of language disorder with severe degree of impairment. The DDST-II and the ELMS confirmed the observation and clinical assessment and indicated serious delay in motor domains, self-care and receptive and expressive language. Given the presence of hypotonia, ataxia, delayed psychomotor and neonatal respiratory abnormalities it is essential to carry out examination imaging and genetic evaluation for the diagnosis of this condition, so complex, with unique therapeutic needs. This set of findings, along with the familial history and unique phenotypic characteristics reinforce the clinical genetic diagnosis JS. This genetic syndrome is rarely recognized and deserves to be presented to the recognition of the scientific community, targeting the correct diagnosis and treatment planning that minimizes the deleterious effects of this condition.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Child , Retina/abnormalities , Cerebellum/abnormalities , Developmental Disabilities/etiology , Eye Abnormalities/complications , Kidney Diseases, Cystic/complications , Language Disorders/etiology , Retina/pathology , Retina/diagnostic imaging , Abnormalities, Multiple/pathology , Abnormalities, Multiple/diagnostic imaging , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Cerebellum/pathology , Cerebellum/diagnostic imaging , Eye Abnormalities/pathology , Eye Abnormalities/diagnostic imaging , Kidney Diseases, Cystic/pathology , Kidney Diseases, Cystic/diagnostic imaging
6.
Acta cir. bras ; 31(9): 629-637, Sept. 2016. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-795996

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT PURPOSE: To evaluated histopathological changes, morphometric and expression of proteins CASPASE-3, BCL-2 and XIAP related to apoptosis in the cerebellum after induction of temporary focal cerebral ischemia followed by reperfusion, with or without a model of chronic alcoholism. METHODS: Fifty Wistar rats were used and divided into: control group (C), sham group (S), ischemic group (I), alcoholic group (A), and ischemic and alcoholic group (IA). The cerebellum samples collected were stained for histopathological and morphometric analysis and immunohistochemistry study. RESULTS: Histopathological changes were observed a greater degree in animals in groups A and IA. The morphometric study showed no difference in the amount of cells in the granular layer of the cerebellum between the groups. The expression of CASPASE-3 was higher than BCL-2 and XIAP in the groups A and IA. CONCLUSION: We observed correlation between histopathological changes and the occurrence of apoptosis in cerebellar cortex.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Cerebellum/pathology , Brain Ischemia/pathology , Apoptosis , Ethanol/pharmacology , Alcoholism/pathology , Apoptosis Regulatory Proteins/metabolism , Immunohistochemistry , Reperfusion Injury/pathology , Cerebellum/drug effects , Cerebellum/metabolism , Brain Ischemia/metabolism , Rats, Wistar , Statistics, Nonparametric , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-2/metabolism , Disease Models, Animal , Alcoholism/metabolism , X-Linked Inhibitor of Apoptosis Protein/metabolism , Caspase 3/metabolism
7.
Rev. chil. neuro-psiquiatr ; 53(4): 221-230, dic. 2015. ilus, graf, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-772360

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Cerebellar mutism syndrome refers to the muteness (lack of speech) that follows lesions of the cerebellum. It’s characterized by a late onset, limited duration, and in some cases long-term language sequelae. Its pathogenesis it s not clear yet, but it has been attributed a role to a damage of the dentate nucleus and of the dento-rubro-thalamic tract. Objectives: Identify potential risk factors (clinical or anatomical) to predict the onset of cerebellar mutism after posterior fossa surgery Compare, using MRI analysis and DTI tractography, the integrity of the dento-rubro-thalamic tract in patients with and without cerebellar mutism. Methods: Prospective follow up study of patients operated of posterior fossa tumors between November 2012 and 2013. We performed a study with DTI of the dento rubro thalamic tract in pacients with and without postoperative mutism. Results: 53 patients under the diagnosis of posterior fossa tumor underwent surgical resection. 5 pacients presented postoperative mutism (9,4 percent). There was a significant association between postoperative medulloblastoma diagnosis and postoperative mutism. Tumor volume was not significant. The volume of left and right dento rubro thalamic tract were significantly lower in patients with cerebellar mutism. The fractional anisotropy of the right superior cerebellar peduncle was also lower in patients with postoperative mutism. Conclusions: The postoperative cerebellar mutism is a relevant complication after a posterior fossa surgery. Our study supports the role of dento rubro thalamic tract damage in the pathogenesis of this syndrome. Special care must be taken during surgery to prevent damage to this tract.


Introducción: El síndrome mutismo cerebeloso consiste en falta del habla posterior a lesiones del cerebelo. Se caracteriza por inicio tardío, duración limitada, y ocasionalmente secuelas lingüísticas. Su patogenia no está clara, pero se ha atribuido un rol a daños en el núcleo dentado y en la vía dento-rubro-talámica. Objetivos: Identificar posibles factores de riesgo (clínicos o anatómicos) asociados a la aparición de mutismo cerebeloso después de una cirugía de fosa posterior. Comparar, mediante un análisis de resonancia magnética (IRM) y tractografía por tensor de difusión (DTI), la integridad de la vía dento-rubro-talámica en pacientes con y sin mutismo cerebeloso. Métodos: Estudio prospectivo de pacientes operados por tumores de fosa posterior entre noviembre de 2012 y 2013. Se analizó con DTI la vía dento-rubro-talámica en pacientes con y sin mutismo postoperatorio. Se comparó la volumetría del tracto en ambas cohortes. Resultados: Cincuenta y tres pacientes con diagnóstico de tumor de fosa posterior fueron sometidos a cirugía de exéresis. Cinco pacientes presentaron mutismo postoperatorio (9,4 por ciento). Hubo una asociación significativa entre el diagnóstico de meduloblastoma y mutismo postoperatorio. El volumen tumoral no fue significativo. El volumen de la vía dento-rubro-talámica fue significativamente menor en pacientes con mutismo, en forma bilateral, así como la anisotropía fraccional del pedúnculo cerebeloso derecho. Conclusiones: El mutismo cerebeloso es una complicación relevante después de una cirugía de fosa posterior. Nuestro estudio apoya el papel del daño de la vía dento-rubro-talámica en la patogénesis de este síndrome. Se debe tener especial cuidado durante la cirugía para prevenir daños al núcleo dentado.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adolescent , Female , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Cerebellum/pathology , Postoperative Complications/diagnosis , Mutism/diagnosis , Mutism/etiology , Infratentorial Neoplasms/surgery , Diffusion Tensor Imaging , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Prospective Studies , Risk Factors
8.
Arq. neuropsiquiatr ; 73(11): 903-905, Nov. 2015. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-762886

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACTThe authors present a Brazilian case series of eight patients with idiopathic very-late onset (mean 75.5 years old) cerebellar ataxia, featuring predominantly gait ataxia, associated with cerebellar atrophy.Method: 26 adult patients with a diagnosis of idiopathic late onset cerebellar ataxia were analyzed in a Brazilian ataxia outpatient clinic and followed regularly over 20 years. Among them, 8 elderly patients were diagnosed as probable very late onset cerebellar ataxia. These patients were evaluated with neurological, ophthalmologic and Mini-Mental Status examinations, brain MRI, and EMG.Results: 62.5% of patients were males, mean age was 81.9 years-old, and mean age of onset was 75.5 years. Gait cerebellar ataxia was observed in all patients, as well as, cerebellar atrophy on brain MRI. Mild cognitive impairment and visual loss, due to macular degeneration, were observed in 50% of cases. Chorea was concomitantly found in 3 patients.Conclusion: We believe that this condition is similar the one described by Marie-Foix-Alajouanine presenting with mild dysarthria, associated with gait ataxia, and some patients had cognitive dysfunction and chorea.


RESUMOOs autores apresentam uma série de casos incluindo oito pacientes com ataxia cerebellar de início muito tardio (média de 75,5 anos de idade) apresentando ataxia de marcha, associada à atrofia cerebelar.Método: 26 pacientes adultos com diagnóstico de ataxia cerebelar de início tardio idiopática foram analisados ambulatorialmente e acompanhados regularmente ao longo de 20 anos. Destes, oito pacientes idosos foram diagnosticados como provável ataxia cerebelar início muito tardio. Os pacientes foram submetidos a um exame neurológico completo, avaliação cognitive e oftalmológica assim como ressonância magnética do cérebro e eletroneuromiografia tambem foram realizados.Resultados: 62,5% dos pacientes eram do sexo masculino, com idade média de 81,9 anos, com média de idade de início aos 75,5 anos. Ataxia cerebelar predominante de marcha foi observada em todos os pacientes, bem como, a atrofia cerebelar na ressonância magnética cerebral. Comprometimento cognitivo leve e perda visual, devido à degeneração macular, foram observados em 50% dos casos. Coréia foi encontrada em 3 pacientes.Conclusão: Acreditamos que esta condição é semelhante à descrita por Marie-Foix-Alajouanine apresentando disartria leve, associada a ataxia de marcha, disfunção cognitiva e coréia.


Subject(s)
Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Female , Humans , Male , Gait Ataxia/physiopathology , Spinocerebellar Degenerations/physiopathology , Age of Onset , Atrophy , Brazil , Cerebellum/pathology , Chorea/pathology , Chorea/physiopathology , Electromyography , Gait Ataxia/pathology , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Mental Status Schedule , Cognitive Dysfunction/pathology , Cognitive Dysfunction/physiopathology , Spinocerebellar Degenerations/pathology
10.
Int. j. morphol ; 32(2): 420-425, jun. 2014. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-714285

ABSTRACT

Previous study has shown the adverse effects of gestational diabetes on hippocampal neuronal density in animal model. This study was conducted to determine the effect of gestational diabetes on rat cerebellum in early postnatal life. In this experimental study, 10 dams randomly allocated into control and diabetic groups on day 1 of gestation. Five dams in diabetic group were administered 40 mg/kg/BW (intraperitoneally) of streptozotocin and control animals received normal saline. Six offspring of each gestational diabetes mellitus and controls were randomly selected at day 7 of postnatal life. Offspring were sacrificed and coronal sections were taken from the cerebellum and stained with cresyl violet. The number of Purkinje and granular cells and thickness of layers of cerebellum were evaluated by quantitative computer-assisted morphometric method. The Purkinje cells density at apex and depth of cerebellar lobules in the experimental group (14.40±0.7, 14.86±0.6) significantly reduced in comparison with the control group (16.72±0.3, 17.85±0.7) (P<0.05). The granular cell density at apex and depth of cerebellar lobules in the experimental group (23.94±0.6, 22.81±0.5) significantly reduced in comparison with the control group (29.20±0.8, 28.1±0.8) (P<0.05). The thickness of the Purkinje and internal granular and molecular layers at apex and depth of cerebellar cortex significantly reduced in diabetics group compared to controls (P<0.05). This study revealed that gestational diabetes induces loss of number and size of the Purkinje cells and the granular cells and reduction of thickness of the Purkinje and internal granular layer of the cerebellar cortex in neonatal mice.


Estudios previos han demostrado los efectos adversos de la diabetes gestacional sobre la densidad neuronal del hipocampo en modelos animales. Este estudio se realizó para determinar el efecto de la diabetes gestacional en el cerebelo de ratas durante la edad temprana postnatal. Fueron asignadas 10 ratas hembras al azar en grupos control y diabético en el primer día de gestación. Cinco en el grupo diabético recibieron una dosis de 40 mg/kg/Peso corporal de estreptozotocina (intraperitoneal) y los control una solución salina normal. Seis crías de cada una de las hembras del grupo diabetes mellitus gestacional y del grupo controles fueron seleccionados al azar el día 7 de vida postnatal. Fueron sacrificadas y se obtuvieron secciones coronales desde el cerebelo que fueron teñidas con violeta de cresilo. El número de células granulares de Purkinje y espesor de las capas de cerebelo fueron evaluadas por método morfométrico y ordenador cuantitativo. La densidad de células de Purkinje en el ápice y profundidad de los lóbulos del cerebelo en el grupo experimental (14,40±0,7 y 14,86±0,6) se redujeron significativamente en comparación con el grupo control (16,72±0,3 y 17,85±0,7) (P<0,05). La densidad de células granulares en el ápice y profundidad de los lóbulos del cerebelo en el grupo experimental (23,94±0,6 y 22,81±0,5) se redujo significativamente en comparación con el grupo control (29,20±0,8 y 28,1±0,8) (P<0,05). En el espesor de células Purkinje, las capas moleculares y granulares internas en el ápice y profundidad de la corteza del cerebelo, se observó una reducción significativa en el grupo diabéticos en comparación con los controles (P<0,05). Se observó que la diabetes gestacional induce la pérdida del número y tamaño de las células Purkinje y de células granulares, así como la reducción del espesor de las capas de Purkinje y granular interna de la corteza del cerebelo en ratones neonatos.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Pregnancy , Rats , Cerebellum/pathology , Diabetes, Gestational/pathology , Prenatal Exposure Delayed Effects , Purkinje Cells/pathology , Rats, Wistar , Disease Models, Animal
11.
J. bras. patol. med. lab ; 49(2): 134-138, Apr. 2013. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-678243

ABSTRACT

Multicentric glioblastomas (MGBM) arising in infra/supratentorial regions are uncommon lesions. The authors report a case of MGBM in a 61 year-old female patient, who presented a sudden onset of left hemiplegia. The magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed two expansive large lesions affecting cerebellum and thalamus, with strong contrast enhancement. The patient underwent resection of the cerebellar lesion. Microscopy revealed a high grade glial neoplasm exhibiting high mitotic index, areas of necrosis and microvascular proliferation. The neoplastic cells showed positive immunoexpression for glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP). The morphological findings were consistent with glioblastoma (GBM). The patient was referred to radiotherapy, with discrete signs of tumor regression after a 60-day clinical follow-up.


Glioblastomas multicêntricos (GBMM) originados em regiões infra/supratentoriais são lesões incomuns. Os autores relatam um caso de GBMM em paciente do sexo feminino, 61 anos de idade, que apresenta quadro súbito de hemiplegia esquerda. O exame de ressonância magnética (RM) mostrou duas lesões expansivas volumosas, com forte impregnação pelo contraste no cerebelo e no tálamo. A paciente foi submetida à ressecção da lesão cerebelar. À microscopia, foi identificada uma neoplasia glial de alto grau exibindo alto índice mitótico, áreas de necrose e proliferação microvascular. As células neoplásicas revelaram imunoexpressão positiva para proteína glial acídica (GFAP). O conjunto das alterações morfológicas foi consistente com glioblastoma. A paciente foi encaminhada para radioterapia, com sinais discretos de regressão tumoral após acompanhamento clínico de 60 dias.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Middle Aged , Cerebellum/pathology , Glioblastoma/diagnosis , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Brain Neoplasms/diagnosis , Central Nervous System Neoplasms/diagnosis , Thalamus/pathology
12.
Journal of Veterinary Research. 2013; 68 (3): 279-286
in Persian | IMEMR | ID: emr-140961

ABSTRACT

Evaluation of clinical signs and pathological lesions could be very important for recognition of nervous system diseases in cattle and buffaloes. This study was carried out to understand the nature of pathological conditions affecting brain of cattle and buffaloes in an abattoir study. 46 samples out of 850 samples [37 cattle, 9 buffaloes] which showed various macroscopic lesions were collected for detailed examination. The specimens were ginned processed through routine method for paraffin embedding section [5-7micron], stained by haematoxilyin and eosin method. Congestion and hemorrhage [8 cows, 9 buffaloes]; pigmentation [4 cows]; chromatolysis [4 cows, 2 buffaloes]; gliosis [4 cows, 1 buffalo]; vacuolization of the white matter [4 cows]; necrosis [6 cattles, 2 buffaloes]; cerebellum edema [3 cows]; perivascular cuffing [4 cows, 3 buffaloes]; blood vessels hyperplasia [3 cows]; coenurus cerebralis [3 cows]; encephalitis [9 cattle, 1 buffalo]; mineralization [5 cows]; meningeal hemorrhage and congestion [10 cows, 9 buffaloes]; meningeal edema [2 cows]; meningitis [7 cows]; cerebral congestion and hemorrhage [1cow, 5 buffaloes]; degeneration of molecular layer [2 cows]; degeneration of granular layer [3 cows] Purkinje cells degeneration [cows 4, 1 buffalo]. Multiple lesions in the central nervous system have been observed in apparently healthy animals without clinical signs. Considering the importance of ruminants encephalopathy and comparing these results can be a basis for further study


Subject(s)
Humans , Cattle , Buffaloes , Brain/pathology , Cerebellum/pathology
13.
Egyptian Journal of Histology [The]. 2013; 36 (1): 103-113
in English, Arabic | IMEMR | ID: emr-150631

ABSTRACT

Diabetes mellitus is a common metabolic disorder with well-known serious secondary complications. It is also associated with central nervous system damage. This damage is characterized by impairment in brain functions, with neurochemical and structural abnormalities. To clarify the effects of streptozotocin-induced diabetes on the histological structure of the cerebellar cortex of adult rats. Twenty adult male albino rats were used in this study, randomly divided into three groups. Group I was the control group; group II received a single intraperitoneal injection of 0.1 ml saline; and group III received a single intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin at a dose of 60 mg/kg freshly dissolved in 0.1 ml saline. After 8 weeks, the cerebellum was dissected and processed for light and electron microscopic examinations and also for glial fibrillary acidic protein [GFAP] to demonstrate the astrocytes. Morphometrical and statistical analyses were carried out. In group III, degenerative changes were observed in neurons. Mitochondrial alterations and disarrangement of myelin sheaths with increased area of myelinated axons were observed. Dispersed presynaptic vesicles in swollen axonal terminals were also observed. However, there was good evidence of gliosis, which was supported by a significant increase in the number of GFAP astrocytes. The cerebellar cortex was particularly susceptible to hyperglycemia-induced oxidative stress and could have contributed toward the neuronal damage and increased astrocyte activity


Subject(s)
Male , Animals, Laboratory , Streptozocin , Cerebellum/pathology , Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein , Immunohistochemistry , Rats , Male
14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-43054

ABSTRACT

Two cats were presented with vestibular signs and seizures. Both cats were diagnosed with thiamine deficiency. The transverse and dorsal T2-weighted magnetic resonance (MR) images revealed the presence of bilateral hyperintense lesions at specific nuclei of the midbrain, cerebellum, and brainstem. After thiamine supplementation, the clinical signs gradually improved. Repeated MR images taken 3 weeks after thiamine supplementation had started showed that the lesions were nearly resolved. This case report describes the clinical and MR findings associated with thiamine deficiency in two cats.


Subject(s)
Animals , Brain Stem/pathology , Cat Diseases/chemically induced , Cats , Cerebellum/pathology , Diet/veterinary , Dietary Supplements/analysis , Female , Magnetic Resonance Imaging/veterinary , Male , Mesencephalon/pathology , Seizures/chemically induced , Thiamine/administration & dosage , Thiamine Deficiency/chemically induced , Treatment Outcome
15.
Indian J Med Microbiol ; 2012 Jul-Sept; 30(3): 367-370
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-143990

ABSTRACT

Idiopathic CD4 lymphocytopenia (ICL) is a rare disorder which is often diagnosed as HIV-negative AIDS in the light of poor immunity and AIDS-defining illnesses. We present a case of a 50-year-old male who presented with a midline posterior fossa tumour with ICL diagnosed as cerebellar cryptococcoma.


Subject(s)
CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , Central Nervous System Fungal Infections/diagnosis , Central Nervous System Fungal Infections/microbiology , Central Nervous System Fungal Infections/pathology , Cerebellum/pathology , Cerebellum/diagnostic imaging , Cryptococcosis/diagnosis , Cryptococcosis/microbiology , Cryptococcosis/pathology , Cryptococcus neoformans/isolation & purification , Humans , Lymphopenia/complications , Lymphopenia/diagnosis , Male , Middle Aged , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
16.
Rev. chil. neuro-psiquiatr ; 50(1): 42-50, mar. 2012. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-627280

ABSTRACT

Introduction: The most important chronic toxic adverse effect caused by phenytoin takes place in the cerebellum and may lead to irreversible cerebellar atrophy. Objective: Draw attention to the occurrence of cerebellar atrophy in patients undergoing long-term phenitoyn therapy Emphasize the need for and feasibility of early diagnosis. Update pathogenetic hypotheses. Development: Brief history of Phenytoin since it was first used in the treatment of epileptic seizures; acute, subacute, and chronic adverse effects, with emphasis on cerebellar atrophy. The case presented developed during long-term phenytoin treatment of an epileptic patient. The hypotheses so far raised on pathophysiological mechanisms involved in causing atrophy are described. Complete current review of literature is included and most relevant authors are listed. Conclusions: Cerebellar atrophy following long-term phenytoin therapy takes place in a minor, as yet indeterminate, number of patients; its occurrence, however, must be borne in mind in the case of patients under long-term therapy. CT and MR contributions to early diagnosis are underlined, as well as the current and potential support of new neuroimaging techniques. Recent hypotheses regarding pathophysiological mechanisms involved, direct toxic action, anoxia, and dysafferentation are discussed. The debate on future use of phenytoin as first-line drug is supported.


Introducción: El efecto adverso tóxico crónico más relevante que puede ocasionar la fenitoína es producido sobre el cerebelo pudiendo causar una atrofia cerebelosa irreversible. Objetivo: Llamar la atención sobre la ocurrencia de atrofia cerebelosa en pacientes expuestos a la fenitoína en forma crónica. Resaltar la importancia y posibilidad de efectuar un diagnóstico precoz. Actualizar las hipótesis planteadas en su patogenia. Desarrollo: Breve síntesis histórica de la fenitoína desde su incorporación a la terapéutica de las crisis epilépticas, sus efectos adversos agudos, sub-agudos y crónicos, haciendo énfasis en la atrofia cerebelosa. Se presenta un caso clínico desarrollado durante el tratamiento a largo plazo con fenitoína en una paciente epiléptica. Describimos las hipótesis planteadas hasta ahora sobre los mecanismos fisiopatológicos involucrados en la producción de la atrofia. Se realiza una revisión actualizada y completa de la bibliografía y se citan los autores más pertinentes. Conclusiones: La Atrofia cerebelosa causada por el uso crónico de la fenitoína se produce en un porcentaje bajo de pacientes, aún no determinado; sin embargo, su ocurrencia se debe tener siempre presente en las personas tratadas con fenitoína en forma prolongada. Muy demostrativos de atrofia cerebelosa son algunos exámenes como la TAC y la RNM, cuyos hallazgos pueden preceder a las manifestaciones clínicas, lo que permite realizar un diagnóstico precoz, La aparición de nuevas técnicas neuroradiológicas, como la RNM con tensor de difusión (RNM-DT) prometen contribuir a dilucidar los mecanismos fisiopatológicos involucrados. Se revisan las hipótesis actuales postuladas en la patogenia, como acción toxica directa, anoxia y desaferentación.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adult , Anticonvulsants/adverse effects , Atrophy/chemically induced , Cerebellum , Phenytoin/adverse effects , Cerebellum/pathology , Epilepsy/drug therapy , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
17.
Egyptian Journal of Histology [The]. 2012; 35 (4): 650-659
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-170219

ABSTRACT

Diabetes mellitus causes a variety of functional and structural disorders in the central nervous system. To describe structural, ultrastructural, and immunohistochemical changes in the cerebellar cortex of alloxan-induced diabetic rats and to determine the possible protective effect of vitamin E. The rats were divided into three equal groups at random: group A [control], group B [alloxan-induced diabetic rats], and group C [alloxan-induced diabetic rats that received vitamin E]. In rats of groups B and C, diabetes was induced by a single intraperitoneal injection of alloxan monohydrate. After 8 weeks, the rats of all groups were sacrificed and the cerebellum was dissected immediately and subjected to H and E stain, and immunostaining for glial fibrillary acidic protein [GFAP], and thin strips from the cortex were prepared and examined by transmission electron microscopy. Diabetic untreated rats showed shrunken Purkinje cells and apoptotic cells in the granular layer. Ultrastructurally, the nuclei of Purkinje cells were irregular and the cytoplasm contained numerous lysosomes, abnormal mitochondria, and dilated Golgi saccules. Myelinated nerve fibers showed splitting of myelin sheaths and wide axonal spaces. Immunohistochemically, a significant increase in the number of GFAP-positive astrocytes in diabetic untreated rats was found as compared with the control. These histological and ultrastructural alterations were ameliorated in vitamin E-treated diabetic rats. Moreover, a significant decrease in the number of GFAP-positive astrocytes was found in animals that received vitamin E as compared with diabetic untreated rats. Vitamin E can be used as an adjuvant therapy for the prevention and treatment of the central nervous system complications of diabetes


Subject(s)
Animals, Laboratory , Cerebellum/pathology , Immunohistochemistry , Protective Agents , Vitamin E , Microscopy, Electron , Rats
18.
Arq. neuropsiquiatr ; 69(4): 602-606, Aug. 2011. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-596823

ABSTRACT

Sensory neuronopathies (SN) are peripheral nervous system disorders associated with degeneration of dorsal root ganglion neurons. Despite the evidence of a defective proprioceptive sensory input in SN,the prominent gait and truncal ataxia raises the question of a concomitant involvement of the cerebellum. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate cerebellar atrophy in SN. METHOD: We analyzed MRI-based volumetry of anterior lobe (paleocerebellum) and total cerebellum in patients with non-paraneoplastic chronic SN and compared to age- and gender-matched controls. RESULTS: Cerebellum and anterior lobe MRI volumetry were performed in 20 patients and nine controls. Mean anterior lobe and cerebellar volume were not statistically different. Three patients (15 percent), however, had an abnormal anterior lobe and cerebellar volume index (values outside 2.5 standard deviations). One of them also had a specific atrophy of the anterior lobe. All these patients had infectious or dysimmune associated SN. CONCLUSION: Cerebellar atrophy is infrequently associated with SN, but can be found in some patients with SN related to infectious or immune mediated conditions. It can be more prominent in the anterior lobe and may contribute to the ataxia seen in these patients.


Neuronopatias sensitivas (NS) são distúrbios do sistema nervoso periférico associados com a degeneração dos neurônios do gânglio da raiz dorsal. Apesar da evidência de um defeito das aferências proprioceptivas, a ataxia proeminente da marcha e do tronco levanta a questão de uma participação concomitante do cerebelo. OBJETIVO: Avaliar a atrofia cerebelar nas NS. MÉTODO: Foi analisada volumetria pela ressonância magnética do cerebelo total e do lobo anterior (paleocerebelo) em pacientes com NS crônica não-paraneoplásica e comparada a controles com idades e sexos correspondentes. RESULTADOS: A volumetria do cerebelo e lobo anterior foi realizada em 20 pacientes e nove controles. As médias do volume cerebelar e do lobo anterior não foram estatisticamente diferentes. Três pacientes, entretanto, tiveram um valor anormal do índice de volume cerebelar e do lobo anterior (valores fora de 2,5 desvios-padrão). Um deles tinha inclusive uma atrofia específica do lobo anterior. Todos esses pacientes tinham NS associada a doenças infecciosas ou disimunes. CONCLUSÃO: Atrofia cerebelar é raramente associada com SN, mas pode ser encontrada em alguns pacientes com NS relacionada com doenças infecciosas ou imunológicas. Esta atrofia pode ser mais proeminente no lobo anterior e pode contribuir para a ataxia observada nestes pacientes.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Cerebellum/pathology , Peripheral Nervous System Diseases/pathology , Atrophy , Case-Control Studies , Chronic Disease , Image Processing, Computer-Assisted , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Retrospective Studies
19.
Arq. neuropsiquiatr ; 69(4): 707-710, Aug. 2011.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-596841

ABSTRACT

Epilepsy is the most common neurological disorder in humans. People with epilepsy are more likely to die prematurely than those without epilepsy, with the most common epilepsy-related category of death being sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP). The central mechanisms underlying the fatal process remain unclear, but cardiac and respiratory mechanisms appear to be involved. Recently, cerebellar, thalamic, basal ganglia and limbic brain structures have been shown to be implicated in respiratory and cardiac rate regulation. We discuss here the potential mechanisms underlying the fatal process, with a description of cerebellar actions likely failing in that SUDEP process.


Epilepsia é uma das doenças neurológicas mais comuns em seres humanos. Pessoas com epilepsia têm maior chance de morrer prematuramente do que pessoas sem epilepsia, sendo a principal causa de óbito a morte súbita em epilepsia (SUDEP). Os mecanismos centrais envolvidos neste processo fatal não são claros, mas mecanismos cardíacos e respiratórios parecem estar envolvidos. Recentemente, regiões cerebrais como o cerebelo, núcleos talâmicos, gânglios basais e estruturas límbicas foram relacionadas com a variação das frequências cardíaca e respiratória. Aqui, discutiremos potenciais mecanismos envolvidos na SUDEP, com uma descrição do possível papel do cerebelo na sua ocorrência.


Subject(s)
Child , Humans , Male , Cerebellum/pathology , Death, Sudden/etiology , Epilepsy/complications , Atrophy/complications , Epilepsy/mortality , Epilepsy/physiopathology , Risk Factors
20.
Rev. bras. psiquiatr ; 33(2): 122-129, June 2011.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-596408

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to examine the cerebellar volume of subjects at different stages of Alzheimer's disease and to investigate whether volume reductions in this structure are related to cognitive decline. METHOD: Ninety-six subjects from an epidemiological study were submitted to a magnetic resonance imaging scan and evaluated using the Mini-Mental State Examination and the Functional Activities Questionnaire. Subjects were divided into five groups according to the Clinical Dementia Rating scale. Twenty-six subjects from the original group who had no dementia diagnosis at baseline were re-evaluated for the onset of dementia after two years. RESULTS: The volumes of the cerebellar hemispheres, posterior cerebellar lobe, vermis and temporal lobe were found to be reduced as a function of the severity of the disease. There were significant positive correlations between the volume of the temporal lobe and cerebellum and the language, attention, and total scores in the Mini-Mental State Examination and the Functional Activities Questionnaire. A logistic regression analysis demonstrated that reduced temporal lobe, posterior cerebellar lobe and vermal volume at baseline is a risk factor for the onset of dementia. CONCLUSION: This is the first study demonstrating that reduced cerebellar volume is already apparent at the predementia stage. The results of this study support the involvement of the cerebellum in the progression of dementia. Whereas the cerebellum might not be directly associated with the origin of Alzheimer's disease, it may provide useful information related to its prognosis.


OBJETIVO: O objetivo deste estudo foi examinar o volume cerebelar em indivíduos em diferentes fases da doença de Alzheimer e investigar se sua redução estaria relacionada com o declínio cognitivo. MÉTODO: Noventa e seis indivíduos de um estudo epidemiológico foram submetidos à ressonância magnética e avaliados por meio do Mini Exame do Estado Mental e do Questionário de Atividades Funcionais. Os sujeitos foram divididos em cinco grupos de acordo com a Escala de Gravidade da Demência. Vinte e seis indivíduos do grupo original que não tinham o diagnóstico de demência no início do estudo foram reavaliados após dois anos para detectar o desenvolvimento da doença. RESULTADOS: Os volumes dos hemisférios cerebelares, lobo cerebelar posterior, vermis e lobo temporal estavam diminuídos proporcionalmente à gravidade da doença. Houve correlações positivas e significativas entre o Questionário de Atividades Funcionais, Mini Exame do Estado Mental e seus respectivos subtestes para linguagem e atenção com os volumes dos lobos temporal e cerebelar. A análise de regressão logística demonstrou que o volume reduzido do lobo temporal, lobo cerebelar posterior e vermis pode ser um fator de risco para o futuro desenvolvimento de demência. CONCLUSÃO: Este é o primeiro estudo que demonstrou que o volume do cerebelo pode estar reduzido na fase pré-demência e reforça o papel dessa estrutura na progressão da doença de Alzheimer. Considerando que o cerebelo pode não estar diretamente associado com a origem da doença de Alzheimer, este achado tem valor para o prognóstico.


Subject(s)
Aged , Female , Humans , Male , Alzheimer Disease/pathology , Cerebellum/pathology , Cognition Disorders/pathology , Case-Control Studies , Disease Progression , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Neuropsychological Tests , Organ Size , Severity of Illness Index
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