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1.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-880644

ABSTRACT

In recent years, in the absence of venous component, dilated, overlapping, and tortuous arteries forming a mass of arterial loops with a coil-like appearance have been defined as pure arterial malformation (PAM). It is extremely rare, and its etiology and treatment have not yet been fully elucidated. Here, we reported 2 cases of PAM with associated aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage in this paper. Both patients had severe headache as the first symptom. Subarachnoid hemorrhage was found by CT and computed tomography angiography (CTA) and PAM with associated aneurysm was found by digital subtraction angiography (DSA). In view of the distribution of blood and the location of aneurysms, the aneurysm rupture was the most likely to be considered. Based on the involvement of the lesion in the distal blood supply, only the aneurysm was clamped during the operation. It used to be consider that PAM is safety, because of the presentation and natural history of previously reported cases. Through the cases we reported, we have doubted about "the benign natural history" and discussed its treatment. PAM can promote the formation of aneurysms and should be reviewed regularly. The surgical indications for PAM patients with aneurysm formation need to be further clarified. Management of PAM patients with ruptured aneurysm is the same as that of ruptured aneurysm. Whether there are indications needed to treat simple arterial malformations remains to be further elucidated with the multicenter, randomized controlled studies on this disease.


Subject(s)
Aneurysm, Ruptured/surgery , Angiography, Digital Subtraction , Cerebral Angiography , Humans , Intracranial Aneurysm/surgery , Subarachnoid Hemorrhage/etiology
2.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-880610

ABSTRACT

The traditional classification, diagnosis, and treatment of intracranial aneurysms are based on the characteristics of their vascular lumen. However, in the past few years, some advances in MRI technology with high-resolution imaging can assess the pathology of intracranial vascular walls. Compared with traditional methods of computed tomography angiography, magnetic resonance angiograhpy, and digital subtraction angiography, high resolution magnetic resonance imaging technology can help us to newly understand the disease by directly evaluating the characteristics of vascular wall, such as aneurysm wall thickness, inflammation, enhancement, permeability and hemodynamics. At present, high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging is increasingly used in clinic to assess the rupture risk of intracranial aneurysms, which is of great significance for guiding the diagnosis and treatment of intracranial aneurysms.


Subject(s)
Aneurysm, Ruptured/diagnostic imaging , Cerebral Angiography , Humans , Intracranial Aneurysm/diagnostic imaging , Magnetic Resonance Angiography , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Risk Assessment , Technology
3.
Rev. bras. ortop ; 54(5): 605-608, Sept.-Oct. 2019. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1057931

ABSTRACT

Resumo The posterior inferior cerebellar artery usually arises from the intracranial segment (V4) of the vertebral artery. Despite its mean diameter of 2 mm, it usually irrigates important areas of the brain. When occluded, whether due to trauma or surgery, it may cause infarction in the brain stem and cerebellum. The present report describes a case of incidental finding of a posterior inferior cerebellar artery arising from the cervical segment (V3) of the vertebral artery, demonstrated by angiography. The findings were recorded and compared to those of earlier publications. Brief explanations regarding anatomy, vascular anomalies and embryology were provided. A literature review showed that anomalous branches of the cervical segment of the vertebral artery are infrequent andmust be known. A better understanding of anatomy and its variations enables an accurate topographic diagnosis, as well as the planning of the optimal surgical approach and therapy. Knowledge of this anatomical variation is essential because, if it is mistaken for a muscle branch and coagulated, this can cause ischemia and disabling sequelae.


Resumo A artéria cerebelar inferoposterior geralmente nasce do segmento intracraniano (V4) da artéria vertebral. Apesar de ter diâmetro médio de 2 mm, usualmente irriga áreas eloquentes do encéfalo. Quando ocluída, seja por trauma ou cirurgia, pode causar infarto no tronco encefálico e no cerebelo. Apresentamos um caso de artéria cerebelar inferoposterior com origem anômala no segmento cervical (V3) da artéria vertebral, demonstrado por angiografia. Os resultados foram registrados e comparados com os de publicações anteriores. Foram fornecidas breves explicações sobre a anatomia, anomalias vasculares e embriologia. A revisão da literatura mostrou que os ramos anômalos do segmento cervical da artéria vertebral são infrequentes e devem ser conhecidos. Uma melhor compreensão da anatomia e suas variações permite fazer um diagnóstico topográfico preciso, bem como planejar a abordagem e a terapia cirúrgicas ideais. O conhecimento dessa variação anatômica é essencial, pois, se confundida com um ramo muscular e coagulada, pode causar isquemia com sequelas incapacitantes.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Vertebral Artery , Lateral Medullary Syndrome , Brain Stem , Cerebral Angiography , Angiography , Anatomic Variation , Intraoperative Complications
4.
Rev. méd. Chile ; 147(9): 1210-1216, set. 2019. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1058666

ABSTRACT

We report a 39-year-old male with an aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage without hydrocephalus, in whom a right choroidal aneurysm was early excluded by endovascular coil insertion. Intracranial pressure (PIC) and cerebral oxygenation (PtiO2) sensors for neuromonitoring were installed due to a persistent comatose state. From the 3rd day, neuromonitoring became altered. CT angiography and cerebral angiography showed severe proximal and distal vasospasm (VE) of the middle (ACM) and anterior (ACA) right cerebral arteries. VE was treated with angioplasty and intravenous nimodipine. Forty eight hours later, despite hemodynamic maximization, neuromonitoring became altered again, mainly explained by a decrease in PtiO2 below 15 mmHg. A severe VE in ACM and right ACA was confirmed by angiography. Given the presence of an early and recurrent VE, which was associated with a decrease in cerebral oxygenation, internal carotid micro-catheters for continuous nimodipine infusion were installed. This therapy maintained a normal neuromonitoring for 15 days. During this period, attempts were done to decrease or discontinue the infusion, but the patient presented parallel falls of cerebral oxygenation or decreased cerebral perfusion observed with perfusion CT, interpreted as persistent VE. Finally, the infusion was stopped at day 15 without significant complication. We conclude that intra-arterial nimodipine continuous infusion in refractory VE can be useful and safe in selected patients. Multimodal neuromonitoring is essential.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Subarachnoid Hemorrhage/complications , Nimodipine/therapeutic use , Cerebral Angiography , Coma , Computed Tomography Angiography
5.
Arq. neuropsiquiatr ; 77(5): 300-309, Jun. 2019. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1011345

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Large multicenter studies have shown that small intracranial aneurysms are associated with a minimal risk of bleeding. Nevertheless, other large series have shown that most ruptured aneurysms are, in fact, the smaller ones. In the present study, we questioned whether small aneurysms are indeed not dangerous. Methods: We enrolled 290 patients with newly-diagnosed aneurysms at our institution over a six-year period (43.7% ruptured). We performed multivariate analyses addressing epidemiological issues, cardiovascular diseases, and three angiographic parameters (largest aneurysm diameter, neck diameter and diameter of the nutrition vessel). Risk estimates were calculated using a logistic regression model. Aneurysm size parameters were stratified according to receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves. Finally, we calculated odds ratios for rupture based on the ROC analysis. Results: The mean largest diameter for the ruptured versus unruptured groups was 13.3 ± 1.7 mm versus 22.2 ± 2.2 mm (p < 0.001). Multivariate analysis revealed a positive correlation between rupture and arterial hypertension (p < 0.001) and an inverse correlation with all three angiographic measurements (all p < 0.01). Aneurysms from the anterior cerebral artery bled more often (p < 0.05). According to the ROC curves, at the largest diameter of 15 mm, the sensitivity and specificity to predict rupture were 83% and 36%, respectively. Based on this stratification, we calculated the chance of rupture for aneurysms smaller than 15 mm as 46%, which dropped to 25% for larger aneurysms. Conclusion: In the population studied at our institution, small aneurysms were more prone to bleeding. Therefore, the need for intervention for small aneurysms should not be overlooked.


RESUMO Grandes estudos multicêntricos demostram que aneurismas intracranianos pequenos são associados a risco de sangramento mínimo. Outras grandes séries têm evidenciado que aneurismas rotos são em sua maioria os pequenos. Neste estudo questionamos até que ponto os aneurismas pequenos não são perigosos. Métodos: Avaliamos 290 novos casos de aneurismas tratados em nossa instituição durante 6 anos (43,7% rotos). Realizamos análises multivariadas com aspectos epidemiológicos dos pacientes, doenças cardiovasculares e três parâmetros angiográficos: maior diâmetro, diâmetro do colo e diâmetro do vaso nutridor do aneurisma. Estimativas de risco foram calculadas utilizando-se modelo de regressão logística. Parâmetros do tamanho aneurismático foram estratificados de acordo com curvas ROC. Também calculamos a razão de chances (odds ratios) de ruptura baseadas nas análises das curvas ROC. Resultados: O maior diâmetro médio para os grupos de aneurismas rotos e não-rotos foi 13.3 ± 1.7mm e 22.2 ± 2.2 (p < 0.001). Análises multivariadas revelaram uma correlação positiva entre ruptura aneurismática e hipertensão arterial (p < 0.001) e uma correlação inversa entre ruptura e as três medidas angiográficas (p < 0.01). Aneurismas da artéria cerebral anterior foram os que mais sangraram (p < 0.05). Análises das curvas ROC demonstram que no maior diâmetro de 15mm, a sensibilidade e especificidade para se predizer ruptura são de 83% e 36%. Baseando-se nessas estratificações, calculamos uma chance de ruptura para aneurismas menores de 15mm de 46% e de 25% para aneurismas maiores. Conclusão: Na população estudada, aneurismas pequenos são mais propensos a romper. Desta forma, a necessidade de intervenção para aneurismas pequenos não deve ser relevada.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Intracranial Aneurysm/complications , Aneurysm, Ruptured/complications , Intracranial Hemorrhages/etiology , Reference Values , Time Factors , Cerebral Angiography , Logistic Models , Intracranial Aneurysm/pathology , Intracranial Aneurysm/diagnostic imaging , Multivariate Analysis , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , ROC Curve , Aneurysm, Ruptured/pathology , Aneurysm, Ruptured/diagnostic imaging , Risk Assessment/methods , Intracranial Hemorrhages/diagnostic imaging , Hypertension/complications , Neck/pathology
6.
Rev. Assoc. Med. Bras. (1992) ; 65(3): 342-347, Mar. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1041041

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY Background: To compare the treatment efficacy of different types of endovascular mechanical embolectomy in acute ischemic stroke (AIS). Material and Methods: A total of 89 patients with AIS were selected in our hospital from January 2014 to January 2016 and divided into tPA group (n=27), tPA+Trevo group (n=30) and tPA+Solitaire FR group (n=32) for different treatments. Treatment effectiveness was evaluated using NIHSS and mRS system. The NIHSS score, vascular recanalization rate and postoperative complications were compared among groups. Results: The NIHSS score of the tPA group was significantly lower than that of other two groups at 1 d after the operation (p < 0.05), but it was significantly higher than that of other two groups at 3 d and 3 w after the operation (p < 0.05). After the treatment, no significant difference in NIHSS score was found between the tPA+Trevo and tPA Solitaire FR groups. The revascularization rate was significantly higher, but the mortality rate in 90 d was significantly lower in the tPA+Trevo and tPA+Solitaire FR groups than that in the tPA group (p < 0.05), and no significant difference was found between the tPA+Trevo and tPA+Solitaire FR groups. The incidence rate of symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage was significantly lower in the tPA+Solitaire FR group than that in tPA+Trevo group (p < 0.05) or tPA group (p < 0.01). Significantly more patients with mRS no higher than 2 points were found in the tPA+Trevo and tPA+Solitaire FR groups than those in tPA group (p < 0.05), and no significant difference was found between the tPA+Trevo and tPA+Solitaire FR groups. Conclusion: TPA+Solitaire FR is a type of thrombectomy that is superior to tPA and tPA+Trevo in the treatment of patients with AIS.


RESUMO OBJETIVO Comparar a eficácia do tratamento de diferentes tipos de embolectomia mecânica endovascular em acidente vascular cerebral isquêmico agudo (AIS). MATERIAL E MÉTODOS Um total de 89 pacientes com AIS foi selecionado em nosso hospital de janeiro de 2014 a janeiro de 2016, e os pacientes foram divididos em: grupo tPA (n = 27), tPA + grupo Trevo (n = 30) e grupo tPA + Solitaire FR (n = 32) para diferentes tratamentos. A eficácia do tratamento foi avaliada usando NIHSS e sistema mRS. Escore NIHSS, taxa de recanalização vascular e complicações pós-operatórias foram comparados entre os grupos. RESULTADOS A pontuação NIHSS do grupo tPA foi significativamente menor do que a dos outros dois grupos em um dia após a operação (p < 0,05), mas foi significativamente maior do que nos outros dois grupos em três dias e três semanas após a operação (p < 0,05). Após o tratamento, não houve diferença significativa no escore NIHSS entre o grupo tPA + Trevo e o grupo tPA Solitaire FR. A taxa de revascularização foi significativamente maior, mas a taxa de mortalidade em 90 dias foi significativamente menor nos grupos tPA + Trevo e tPA + Solitaire FR do que no grupo tPA (p < 0,05) e não houve diferença significativa entre os grupos tPA + Trevo e tPA + Solitaire FR. A taxa de incidência de hemorragia intracraniana sintomática foi significativamente menor no grupo tPA + Solitaire FR do que no grupo tPA + Trevo (p < 0,05) ou no grupo tPA (p < 0,01). Significativamente mais pacientes com mRS não maiores que 2 pontos foram encontrados no grupo tPA + Trevo e tPA + Solitaire FR do que no grupo tPA (p < 0,05), e nenhuma diferença significativa foi encontrada entre os grupos tPA + Trevo e tPA + Solitaire FR. Conclusão O tPA + Solitaire FR é um tipo de trombectomia superior ao tPA e tPA + Trevo no tratamento de pacientes com EIA.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Aged , Brain Ischemia/surgery , Embolectomy/methods , Stroke/surgery , Endovascular Procedures/methods , Postoperative Complications , Cerebral Angiography/mortality , Brain Ischemia/diagnostic imaging , Reproducibility of Results , Treatment Outcome , Tissue Plasminogen Activator/therapeutic use , Embolectomy/instrumentation , Stroke/diagnostic imaging , Endovascular Procedures/instrumentation , Fibrinolytic Agents/therapeutic use , Middle Aged
7.
Säo Paulo med. j ; 137(1): 92-95, Jan.-Feb. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1004738

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT CONTEXT: Presence of an arachnoid cyst and a non-ruptured intracystic brain aneurysm is extremely rare. The aim of this paper was to describe a case of a patient with an arachnoid cyst and a non-ruptured aneurysm inside it. Clinical, surgical and radiological data were analyzed and the literature was reviewed. CASE REPORT: A patient complained of chronic headache. She was diagnosed as having a temporal arachnoid cyst and a non-ruptured middle cerebral artery aneurysm inside it. Surgery was performed to clip the aneurysm and fenestrate the cyst. CONCLUSIONS: This report raises awareness about the importance of intracranial vascular investigation in patients with arachnoid cysts and brain hemorrhage.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Middle Aged , Intracranial Aneurysm/diagnostic imaging , Arachnoid Cysts/diagnostic imaging , Middle Cerebral Artery/diagnostic imaging , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Cerebral Angiography , Intracranial Aneurysm/surgery , Arachnoid Cysts/surgery , Middle Cerebral Artery/surgery
9.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-766744

ABSTRACT

We describe a case of vertebral artery dissection (VAD) presenting with acute infarctions in cervical spinal cord and cerebellum in a 78-year-old man. Diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance (MR) imaging of the brain demonstrated diffusion-restricted lesions in the right cerebellum and sagittal T2-weighted MR imaging of spinal cord showed a hyperintense lesion of the cervical spinal cord at C2-C4 level. Right VAD was identified by transfemoral cerebral angiography and computed tomography angiography which showed segmental occlusion in the right vertebral artery.


Subject(s)
Aged , Angiography , Brain , Cerebellum , Cerebral Angiography , Cervical Cord , Humans , Infarction , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Spinal Cord , Spinal Cord Ischemia , Vertebral Artery Dissection , Vertebral Artery
11.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-766555

ABSTRACT

Moyamoya disease (MMD) refers to a chronic progressive steno-occlusive disease at the distal portion of the internal carotid artery with abnormal collateral vessel formation of unknown etiology. The definite diagnosis of MMD requires cerebral angiography or magnetic resonance angiography and/or magnetic resonance imaging after excluding other underlying diseases, particularly in adult patients. The treatment aims to improve regional cerebral blood flow to prevent cerebral ischemic events and alleviate hemodynamic instability that can provoke cerebral hemorrhage. Although various surgical revascularization methods have been introduced, combined revascularization surgery including direct revascularization is preferred over indirect revascularization only in adult MMD patients. Several recent studies have shown that surgical treatment has better outcomes and prognosis for symptomatic hemodynamically unstable MMD patients with both ischemic and hemorrhagic presentations. For asymptomatic patients, follow up with appropriate imaging is recommended. Surgery should be considered when new symptoms emerge with hemodynamic aggravation.


Subject(s)
Adult , Carotid Artery, Internal , Cerebral Angiography , Cerebral Hemorrhage , Cerebrovascular Circulation , Diagnosis , Follow-Up Studies , Hemodynamics , Humans , Magnetic Resonance Angiography , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Moyamoya Disease , Prognosis
12.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 1112-1115, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-762046

ABSTRACT

Direct puncture and embolization of the transverse sinus (TS) for treatment of dural arteriovenous fistula (DAVF) is typically performed with coils with or without glue. We report a case of DAVF at the left TS that was treated with Onyx embolization via direct puncture of the TS. A 75-year-old woman presented with tremor, festinating gait, and dysarthria. A left TS-DAVF with retrograde superior sagittal sinus and cortical venous reflux (Cognard type IIa+b) was identified on cerebral angiography, and both TSs were occluded with thrombi. We considered that achieving complete cure by transvenous embolization via the femoral vein or transarterial embolization via occipital feeders would be difficult. Thus, we performed a small craniotomy at the occipital bone to puncture the TS. The midportion of the TS was directly punctured with a 21-G microneedle under fluoroscopic guidance. We inserted a 5-F sheath into the TS. A microcatheter was then navigated into the affected sinus. Coils were placed through the microcatheter to support Onyx formation by reducing the pressure of shunting flow. Onyx embolization was performed with the same microcatheter. The DAVF was almost completely occluded except for the presence of minimal shunting flow to the proximal TS. After 1 week, time-of-flight magnetic resonance angiography showed complete resolution of DAVF. The patient showed resolved tremor and markedly improved mental status at 1-month follow up. Direct puncture and embolization of the TS using coils and Onyx is effective and feasible method for the treatment of DAVF when other approaches seem difficult.


Subject(s)
Adhesives , Aged , Central Nervous System Vascular Malformations , Cerebral Angiography , Craniotomy , Dysarthria , Female , Femoral Vein , Follow-Up Studies , Gait Disorders, Neurologic , Humans , Magnetic Resonance Angiography , Methods , Occipital Bone , Punctures , Superior Sagittal Sinus , Tremor
13.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-759975

ABSTRACT

Subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) usually occurs due to aneurysmal rupture of intracranial arteries and its typical computed tomography (CT) findings are increased attenuation of cisterns and subarachnoid spaces. However, several CT findings mimicking SAH are feasible in diverse conditions. They are so-called as pseudo-SAH, and this report is a case of pseudo-SAH which is misdiagnosed as aneurysm rupture accompanied by bilateral chronic subdural hematoma (cSDH). A 42-year-old male with severe headache visited our institute. Non-contrast brain CT images showed increased attenuation on basal cistern, and cSDH on both fronto-temporo-parietal convexity with midline shifting. Trans-femoral cerebral angiography was done and we confirmed small aneurysm at right M1 portion of middle cerebral artery. Under diagnosis of SAH, we planned an operation in order to clip aneurysmal neck and remove cSDH. cSDH was removed as planned, however, there was no SAH and we also couldn't find the rupture point of aneurysm. Serial follow-up CT showed mild cumulative cSDH recurrence, but the patient was tolerant and had no neurologic deficit during hospitalization. We have checked the patient via out-patient department for 6 months, there are no significant changes in volume and density of cSDH and the patient also have no neurologic complications.


Subject(s)
Adult , Aneurysm , Arteries , Brain , Brain Edema , Cerebral Angiography , Diagnosis , Follow-Up Studies , Headache , Hematoma, Subdural, Chronic , Hemorrhage , Hospitalization , Humans , Intracranial Hypertension , Male , Middle Cerebral Artery , Neck , Neurologic Manifestations , Outpatients , Recurrence , Rupture , Subarachnoid Hemorrhage , Subarachnoid Space
14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-765385

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Since less invasive endovascular treatment was introduced to South Korea in 1994, a considerable proportion of endovascular treatments have been performed by neuroradiology doctors, and endovascular treatments by vascular neurosurgeons have recently increased. However, few specific statistics are known regarding how many endovascular treatments are performed by neurosurgeons. Thus, authors compared endovascular treatments collaboratively performed by vascular neurosurgeons with all cases throughout South Korea from 2013 to 2017 to elucidate the role of neurosurgeons in the field of endovascular treatment in South Korea. METHODS: The Society of Korean Endovascular Neurosurgeons (SKEN) has issued annual reports every year since 2014. These reports cover statistics on endovascular treatments collaboratively or individually performed by SKEN members from 2013 to 2017. The data was requested and collected from vascular neurosurgeons in various hospitals. The study involved 77 hospitals in its first year, and 100 in its last. National statistics on endovascular treatment from all over South Korea were obtained from the Healthcare Bigdata Hub website of the Health Insurance Review & Assessment Service based on the Electronic Data Interchange (EDI) codes (in the case of intra-arterial (IA) thrombolysis, however, statistics were based on a combination of the EDI and I63 codes, a cerebral infarction disease code) from 2013 to 2017. These two data sets were directly compared and the ratios were obtained. RESULTS: Regionally, during the entire study period, endovascular treatments by SKEN members were most common in Gyeonggi-do, followed by Seoul and Busan. Among the endovascular treatments, conventional cerebral angiography was the most common, followed by cerebral aneurysmal coiling, endovascular treatments for ischemic stroke, and finally endovascular treatments for vascular malformation and tumor embolization. The number of endovascular treatments performed by SKEN members increased every year. CONCLUSION: The SKEN members have been responsible for the major role of endovascular treatments in South Korea for the recent 5 years. This was achieved through the perseverance of senior members who started out in the midst of hardship, the establishment of standards for the training/certification of endovascular neurosurgery, and the enthusiasm of current SKEN members who followed. To provide better treatment to patients, we will have to make further progress in SKEN.


Subject(s)
Cerebral Angiography , Cerebral Infarction , Data Interpretation, Statistical , Dataset , Delivery of Health Care , Endovascular Procedures , Humans , Insurance, Health , Intracranial Aneurysm , Korea , Neurosurgeons , Neurosurgery , Seoul , Stroke , Vascular Malformations
15.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-765383

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: While the risk of aneurysmal rebleeding induced by catheter cerebral angiography is a serious concern and can delay angiography for a few hours after a subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH), current angiographic technology and techniques have been much improved. Therefore, this study investigated the risk of aneurysmal rebleeding when using a recent angiographic technique immediately after SAH. METHODS: Patients with acute SAH underwent immediate catheter angiography on admission. A four-vessel examination was conducted using a biplane digital subtraction angiography (DSA) system that applied a low injection rate and small volume of a diluted contrast, along with appropriate control of hypertension. Intra-angiographic aneurysmal rebleeding was diagnosed in cases of extravasation of the contrast medium during angiography or increased intracranial bleeding evident in flat-panel detector computed tomography scans. RESULTS: In-hospital recurrent hemorrhages before definitive treatment to obliterate the ruptured aneurysm occurred in 11 of 266 patients (4.1%). Following a univariate analysis, a multivariate analysis using a logistic regression analysis revealed that modified Fisher grade 4 was a statistically significant risk factor for an in-hospital recurrent hemorrhage (p =0.032). Cerebral angiography after SAH was performed on 88 patients ≤3 hours, 74 patients between 3–6 hours, and 104 patients >6 hours. None of the time intervals showed any cases of intra-angiographic rebleeding. Moreover, even though the DSA ≤3 hours group included more patients with a poor clinical grade and modified Fisher grade 4, no case of aneurysmal rebleeding occurred during erebral angiography. CONCLUSION: Despite the high risk of aneurysmal rebleeding within a few hours after SAH, emergency cerebral angiography after SAH can be acceptable without increasing the risk of intra-angiographic rebleeding when using current angiographic techniques and equipment.


Subject(s)
Aneurysm , Aneurysm, Ruptured , Angiography , Angiography, Digital Subtraction , Catheters , Cerebral Angiography , Emergencies , Hemorrhage , Humans , Hypertension , Intracranial Aneurysm , Logistic Models , Multivariate Analysis , Risk Factors , Subarachnoid Hemorrhage
16.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-765336

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Aberrant right subclavian artery (ARSA) is a rare anatomical variant of the origin of the right subclavian artery. ARSA is defined as the right subclavian artery originating as the final branch of the aortic arch. The purpose of this study is to determine the prevalence and the anatomy of ARSA evaluated with computed tomography (CT) angiography. METHODS: CT angiography was performed in 3460 patients between March 1, 2014 and November 30, 2015 and the results were analyzed. The origin of the ARSA, course of the vessel, possible inadvertent ARSA puncture site during subclavian vein catheterization, Kommerell diverticula, and associated vascular anomalies were evaluated. We used the literature to review the clinical importance of ARSA. RESULTS: Seventeen in 3460 patients had ARSA. All ARSAs in 17 patients originated from the posterior aspect of the aortic arch and traveled along a retroesophageal course to the right thoracic outlet. All 17 ARSAs were located in the anterior portion from first to fourth thoracic vertebral bodies and were located near the right subclavian vein at the medial third of the clavicle. Only one of 17 patients presented with dysphagia. CONCLUSION: It is important to be aware ARSA before surgical approaches to upper thoracic vertebrae in order to avoid complications and effect proper treatment. In patients with a known ARSA, a right transradial approach for aortography or cerebral angiography should be changed to a left radial artery or transfemoral approach.


Subject(s)
Angiography , Aorta, Thoracic , Aortography , Catheterization , Catheters , Cerebral Angiography , Clavicle , Deglutition Disorders , Diverticulum , Humans , Korea , Prevalence , Punctures , Radial Artery , Subclavian Artery , Subclavian Vein , Thoracic Vertebrae
17.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-765333

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: In patients with internal carotid artery (ICA) occlusion, collateral middle cerebral artery (MCA) flow has a protective role against ischemia. However, some of these patients may experience initial major neurological deficits and major worsening on following days. Thus, we investigated the safety and efficacy of endovascular treatment (EVT) for ICA occlusion with collateral MCA flow by comparing clinical outcomes of medical treatment versus EVT. METHODS: The inclusion criteria were as follows : 1) acute ischemic stroke with ICA occlusion and presence of collateral MCA flow on transfemoral cerebral angiography (TFCA) and 2) hospital arrival within 12 hours from symptom onset. The treatment strategy was made by the attending physician based on the patient’s clinical status and results of TFCA. RESULTS: Eighty-one patients were included (30 medical treatment, 51 EVT). The EVT group revealed a high incidence of intracranial ICA occlusion, longer ipsilesional MCA contrast filling time, and a similar rate of favorable clinical outcome despite a higher mean baseline the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) score. By binary logistic regression analysis, intravenous recombinant tissue plasminogen activator and EVT were independent predictors of favorable clinical outcome. In subgroup analysis based on stroke etiology, the non-atherosclerotic group showed a higher baseline NIHSS score, higher incidence of EVT, and a higher rate of distal embolization during EVT in comparison with the atherosclerotic group. CONCLUSION: In patients with ICA occlusion and collateral MCA flow, decisions regarding treatment strategy based on TFCA can help achieve favorable clinical outcomes. EVT strategy with respect to etiology of ICA occlusion might help achieve better angiographic outcomes.


Subject(s)
Carotid Artery, Internal , Cerebral Angiography , Collateral Circulation , Humans , Incidence , Ischemia , Logistic Models , Middle Cerebral Artery , Stroke , Thrombectomy , Tissue Plasminogen Activator
18.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-785921

ABSTRACT

The presence of primary intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH) without vascular lesion is very rare. We experienced solitary IVH without subarachnoid hemorrhage due to aneurysmal rupture in a 58-year-old man treated with coil embolization, which contributed to his good prognosis. After 33 days of hospitalization, he had mild right hemiplegic symptoms remaining, and he was transferred to a rehabilitation institute for further treatment. In cases of primary IVH, computed tomography angiography seems worthwhile for making a differential diagnosis, although the possibility of IVH due to cerebral aneurysmal rupture is very low. Endovascular intervention is a good option for diagnosis and treatment.


Subject(s)
Aneurysm , Angiography , Cerebral Angiography , Diagnosis , Diagnosis, Differential , Embolization, Therapeutic , Endovascular Procedures , Hemorrhage , Hospitalization , Humans , Intracranial Aneurysm , Middle Aged , Prognosis , Rehabilitation , Rupture , Subarachnoid Hemorrhage
19.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-785920

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The spot sign on computed tomography angiography is little known about the relationship between the spot sign and the results of cerebral angiography We retrospectively analyzed the spot sign, digital subtraction angiography results, and other factors.MATERIAL AND METHODS: From December 2009 to May 2014, DSA was performed in 52 ICH patients with non-specific location or abnormalities on CTA findings. 26 of those patients, whose initial CTA showed the spot sign, were analyzed. Two groups, one with the spot sign in the ventricle (Group A) and others with the spot sign in another location (Group B) were statistically compared.RESULTS: The mean age of the study subjects was 46.9 years (range, 15 to 80 years) and the percentage of males was 53.8%. Thirteen of 26 patients had ICH without intraventricular hemorrhage, and 6 patients had co-existing IVH. In 17 cases, the DSA results were negative. Seven patients were diagnosed with pseudoaneurysms, and two cases showed developmental venous anomalies. Group A consisted of the 8 patients (30.8%) who showed the spot sign in a ventricle. The number of pseudoaneurysms was statistically significantly higher in Group A than in Group B (71.4% versus 28.6%; OR, 13.3; 95% CI, 1.7-103.8 P = 0.014). All three patients who underwent endovascular treatment were members of Group A (P = 0.022), whereas most (92.3%) of those in Group B underwent surgical evacuation. (P = 0.030).CONCLUSION: When CTA shows the spot sign in a ventricle, it is a clue that an existing underlying vascular lesion requires endovascular treatment.


Subject(s)
Aneurysm, False , Angiography , Angiography, Digital Subtraction , Cerebral Angiography , Cerebral Hemorrhage , Hemorrhage , Humans , Male , Retrospective Studies
20.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-788812

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Since less invasive endovascular treatment was introduced to South Korea in 1994, a considerable proportion of endovascular treatments have been performed by neuroradiology doctors, and endovascular treatments by vascular neurosurgeons have recently increased. However, few specific statistics are known regarding how many endovascular treatments are performed by neurosurgeons. Thus, authors compared endovascular treatments collaboratively performed by vascular neurosurgeons with all cases throughout South Korea from 2013 to 2017 to elucidate the role of neurosurgeons in the field of endovascular treatment in South Korea.METHODS: The Society of Korean Endovascular Neurosurgeons (SKEN) has issued annual reports every year since 2014. These reports cover statistics on endovascular treatments collaboratively or individually performed by SKEN members from 2013 to 2017. The data was requested and collected from vascular neurosurgeons in various hospitals. The study involved 77 hospitals in its first year, and 100 in its last. National statistics on endovascular treatment from all over South Korea were obtained from the Healthcare Bigdata Hub website of the Health Insurance Review & Assessment Service based on the Electronic Data Interchange (EDI) codes (in the case of intra-arterial (IA) thrombolysis, however, statistics were based on a combination of the EDI and I63 codes, a cerebral infarction disease code) from 2013 to 2017. These two data sets were directly compared and the ratios were obtained.RESULTS: Regionally, during the entire study period, endovascular treatments by SKEN members were most common in Gyeonggi-do, followed by Seoul and Busan. Among the endovascular treatments, conventional cerebral angiography was the most common, followed by cerebral aneurysmal coiling, endovascular treatments for ischemic stroke, and finally endovascular treatments for vascular malformation and tumor embolization. The number of endovascular treatments performed by SKEN members increased every year.CONCLUSION: The SKEN members have been responsible for the major role of endovascular treatments in South Korea for the recent 5 years. This was achieved through the perseverance of senior members who started out in the midst of hardship, the establishment of standards for the training/certification of endovascular neurosurgery, and the enthusiasm of current SKEN members who followed. To provide better treatment to patients, we will have to make further progress in SKEN.


Subject(s)
Cerebral Angiography , Cerebral Infarction , Data Interpretation, Statistical , Dataset , Delivery of Health Care , Endovascular Procedures , Humans , Insurance, Health , Intracranial Aneurysm , Korea , Neurosurgeons , Neurosurgery , Seoul , Stroke , Vascular Malformations
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