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1.
Repert. med. cir ; 31(Suplemento): 19-27, 2022. ilus.
Article in English, Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1367319

ABSTRACT

El síndrome respiratorio agudo severo causado por coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) es responsable de la propagación mundial de la enfermedad por coronavirus (COVID-19). Nuestro conocimiento hasta el momento del impacto de este virus en el sistema nervioso es limitado. El propósito de este artículo es revisar el espectro de los diversos hallazgos en neuroimágenes asi como la fisiopatología en los pacientes con COVID-19. Se necesitan estudios futuros que examinen el impacto de los síntomas y su correlación con las neuroimágenes durante el curso de la enfermedad, para aclarar y evaluar aún más el vínculo entre las complicaciones neurológicas y el resultado clínico, así como limitar las consecuencias a largo plazo.


Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is responsible for the global spread of coronavirus disease (COVID-19). Our understanding, so far, of the impact this virus has on the nervous system is limited. Our article aims to review the spectrum of neuroimaging findings in patients with COVID 19, as well as, their underlying pathophysiology. Future studies examining the impact of symptoms and their correlation with neuroimaging findings duirng the course of the disease are needed to further clarify and evaluate the association between neurological complications and clinical outcome, as well as to limit long-term consequences.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Review , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19 , Neurologic Manifestations , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Cerebral Hemorrhage , Coronavirus Infections
2.
Biomédica (Bogotá) ; 41(2): 225-233, abr.-jun. 2021. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1339261

ABSTRACT

Resumen | El síndrome de vasoconstricción cerebral reversible se produce por la constricción variable, segmentaria y multifocal, de las arterias cerebrales y, generalmente, es de curso benigno. Se describe el caso de una mujer de 49 años que consultó por cefalea, síntomas visuales y convulsiones; tres días después, presentaba áreas de vasoconstricción en, por lo menos, dos territorios vasculares y dos segmentos de las mismas arterias. Fue internada en la unidad de cuidados intensivos para controlarle la presión arterial y recibir tratamiento médico. Tuvo una evolución tórpida y, en el séptimo día de hospitalización, desarrolló edema cerebral maligno, tras lo cual ocurrió la muerte cerebral. Se inició entonces el plan de donación de órganos y, posteriormente, se practicó una autopsia guiada del cerebro. El estudio de patología descartó vasculitis y reveló áreas de hemorragia en la convexidad cerebral. Se discuten los aspectos más relevantes de los casos con evolución fulminante informados en la literatura científica. El síndrome de vasoconstricción cerebral reversible se asocia con resultados fatales cuando los pacientes tienen una deficiencia neurológica focal, la neuroimagen inicial muestra alteraciones y hay un deterioro clínico rápido. Es importante conocer los factores asociados con un mal pronóstico, y establecer estrategias tempranas de intervención y prevención.


Abstract | The reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome is a variable, segmental, and multifocal constriction of brain arteries, usually with a benign course. We describe the case of a 49-year-old woman who presented with headaches, visual symptoms, and seizures. Three days after admission, vasoconstriction areas were found in at least two vascular territories in two segments of the same arteries. The patient was admitted to the intensive care unit where her blood pressure was monitored and she received medical treatment. Surprisingly, the patient presented an unpredicted evolution in developing malignant cerebral edema on the seventh day after admission. She then suffered brain death and was taken to organ donation. A guided nervous system necropsy was later performed. The pathology discarded vasculitis and exhibited hemorrhage areas in the cerebral convexity. Herein, we discuss the most relevant aspects of cases with fulminant evolution reported in the literature. The reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome is usually associated with fatal outcomes when patients exhibit focalization, their first neuroimaging typically shows disturbances, and a rapid clinical deterioration occurs. It is crucial to identify factors linked to poor prognosis and set intervention strategies and early prevention.


Subject(s)
Vasoconstriction , Stroke , Prognosis , Cerebral Hemorrhage , Mortality
3.
Säo Paulo med. j ; 139(3): 251-258, May-June 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1252239

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Peri/intraventricular hemorrhage (PIVH) is a frequent cause of death and morbidity among preterm infants. Few studies have addressed the use of bundles for preventing PIVH. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the efficacy of a bundle of interventions designed to decrease the incidence of intraventricular hemorrhage at hospital discharge among preterm infants. DESIGN AND SETTING: Pre-post interventional study with retrospective and prospective data collection performed before and after bundle implementation in the neonatal intensive care unit of a university hospital. METHODS: Infants with gestational age < 32 weeks without malformations, who survived > 6 days were included. The bundle consisted of the following actions during the first 72 hours of life: maintenance of head in neutral position with the body in supine position, minimal handling, including delay of lumbar puncture until after 72 hours and absence of respiratory therapy maneuvers. Cranial ultrasound was performed on days 3, 7 and 28, or later if needed. The effect of the bundle was analyzed through logistic regression and results were adjusted for confounding variables. RESULTS: 167 infants met the inclusion criteria; 146 (87%) were analyzed. Bundle implementation was associated with decreased chances of PIVH at hospital discharge (odds ratio 0.29; 95% confidence interval 0.13-0.65). Cerebrospinal fluid collection within the first 72 hours increased the odds of PIVH of any grade during the hospital stay fourfold, after adjustment for all variables included in the model. CONCLUSION: Implementation of a bundle of interventions to avoid intraventricular hemorrhage was effective for decreasing the incidence of all grades of PIVH in preterm infants.


Subject(s)
Humans , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Infant, Premature , Infant, Premature, Diseases/prevention & control , Infant, Premature, Diseases/epidemiology , Cerebral Hemorrhage/prevention & control , Cerebral Hemorrhage/epidemiology , Incidence , Prospective Studies , Retrospective Studies
4.
Biomédica (Bogotá) ; 41(1): 17-28, ene.-mar. 2021. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1249055

ABSTRACT

Resumen | Las alteraciones visuales de origen neurológico en los niños tienen diversas causas, algunas reversibles y otras no. La hidrocefalia es una de las más comunes e importantes, ya que puede producir deficiencias permanentes. Las causas de la hidrocefalia son variadas; entre las principales está la hemorragia intraventricular, generalmente debida al sangrado de la matriz germinal, el cual es muy común en recién nacidos prematuros. Se presenta el caso clínico de una paciente prematura con parálisis cerebral infantil, hemorragia intraventricular e hidrocefalia, producto de un embarazo múltiple, que presentó atrofia óptica en la infancia secundaria a la disfunción del sistema de derivación ventrículo-peritoneal. Durante su rehabilitación y tratamiento, ha recibido sesiones de neurorrehabilitación que le han permitido mejorar su agudeza y capacidad visual. Se comparó el caso de la paciente con algunos similares para establecer las semejanzas y las diferencias entre los cuadros clínicos presentados y la importancia del tipo de tratamiento médico utilizado en el curso de recuperación de la capacidad visual.


Abstract | Neurological visual impairments in children have multiple causes, some of them reversible while others are not. Hydrocephalus is one of the most important and common ones as it can result in permanent impairment. There are multiple causes of hydrocephalus, intraventricular hemorrhage being the main one. This generally occurs when the germinal matrix bleeds and is very common in preterm newborns. We present the clinical case of a patient with cerebral palsy, intraventricular hemorrhage, and hydrocephalus as a result of a preterm multiple pregnancy who developed optic atrophy during childhood secondary to ventricle-peritoneal shunt dysfunction. During the rehabilitation and treatment period, she received neurorehabilitation sessions, which improved her visual acuity and capacity. We found similarities and differences with other cases and we confirmed the importance of the treatment chosen for the recovery of visual capacity.


Subject(s)
Cerebral Palsy , Ventriculoperitoneal Shunt , Cerebral Hemorrhage , Optic Atrophy , Vision, Low , Neurological Rehabilitation , Hydrocephalus
5.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-888167

ABSTRACT

To overview of systematic reviews/Meta-analysis of Xingnaojing Injection(XNJ) in the treatment of intracerebral hemorrhage(ICH). The systematic reviews concerning XNJ in the treatment of ICH were retrieved from four Chinese databases, four English databases, Chinese Clinical Trial Registry and ClinicalTrail.gov, with the retrieval time set from their inception to September 2020. Following the independent screening and data extraction by two researchers, a measurement tool to assess systematic evaluation 2(AMSTAR 2) and grades of recommendation, assessment, development and evaluation(GRADE) system were used to evaluate the metho-dological, reporting and evidence qualities of the 10 included systematic reviews. The results showed that XNJ was superior to the wes-tern medicine or conventional treatment in improving the effective rate and National Institutes of Health stroke scale(NIHSS) score, Barthel index(BI), and Glasgow coma scale(GCS) score and Chinese stroke scale(CSS) score, and reducing the mortality and cerebral hematoma volume, without inducing obvious adverse reactions. In general, the methodological, reporting and evidence qualities of the 10 included systematic reviews were poor. The AMSTAR 2 scores showed that key items No. 2 and No. 16 failed to meet the stan-dard, resulting in poor methodological quality. There was only one outcome indicator graded by GRADE as intermediate quality, 43% indicators as low quality, 42% indicators as extremely low quality, and none as high quality. These available evidences have suggested that the methodological, reporting and evidence qualities of the systematic evaluation concerning XNJ for the treatment of ICH need to be improved. Most evidences support that XNJ was better than the western medicine or conventional treatment in the treatment of ICH, but the methodological quality and the reliability of outcome indicators in relevant systematic review were low. More high-quality studies are still required for further verification.


Subject(s)
Cerebral Hemorrhage/drug therapy , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Humans , Meta-Analysis as Topic , Reproducibility of Results , Systematic Reviews as Topic , United States
6.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 646-654, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878078

ABSTRACT

Cerebral amyloid angiopathy-related inflammation (CAA-RI) is a rare but increasingly recognized subtype of CAA. CAA-RI consists of two subtypes: inflammatory cerebral amyloid angiopathy and amyloid β (Aβ)-related angiitis. Acute or subacute onset of cognitive decline or behavioral changes is the most common symptom of CAA-RI. Rapid progressive dementia, headache, seizures, or focal neurological deficits, with patchy or confluent hyperintensity on T2 or fluid-attenuated inversion recovery sequences and evidence of strictly lobar microbleeds or cortical superficial siderosis on susceptibility-weighted imaging imply CAA-RI. The gold standard for diagnosis is autopsy or brain biopsy. However, biopsy is invasive; consequently, most clinically diagnosed cases have been based on clinical and radiological data. Other diagnostic indexes include the apolipoprotein E ε4 allele, Aβ and anti-Aβ antibodies in cerebral spinal fluid and amyloid positron emission tomography. Many diseases with similar clinical manifestations should be carefully ruled out. Immunosuppressive therapy is effective both during initial presentation and in relapses. The use of glucocorticoids and immunosuppressants improves prognosis. This article reviews the pathology and pathogenesis, clinical and imaging manifestations, diagnostic criteria, treatment, and prognosis of CAA-RI, and highlights unsolved problems in the existing research.


Subject(s)
Amyloid beta-Peptides , Cerebral Amyloid Angiopathy , Cerebral Hemorrhage , Humans , Inflammation , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Vasculitis
7.
Neuroscience Bulletin ; (6): 1412-1426, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-922631

ABSTRACT

Endogenously eliminating the hematoma is a favorable strategy in addressing intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). This study sought to determine the role of retinoid X receptor-α (RXR-α) in the context of hematoma absorption after ICH. Our results showed that pharmacologically activating RXR-α with bexarotene significantly accelerated hematoma clearance and alleviated neurological dysfunction after ICH. RXR-α was expressed in microglia/macrophages, neurons, and astrocytes. Mechanistically, bexarotene promoted the nuclear translocation of RXR-α and PPAR-γ, as well as reducing neuroinflammation by modulating microglia/macrophage reprograming from the M1 into the M2 phenotype. Furthermore, all the beneficial effects of RXR-α in ICH were reversed by the PPAR-γ inhibitor GW9662. In conclusion, the pharmacological activation of RXR-α confers robust neuroprotection against ICH by accelerating hematoma clearance and repolarizing microglia/macrophages towards the M2 phenotype through PPAR-γ-related mechanisms. Our data support the notion that RXR-α might be a promising therapeutic target for ICH.


Subject(s)
Anilides/pharmacology , Cerebral Hemorrhage/drug therapy , Hematoma/drug therapy , Humans , Macrophages , Microglia , Neuroprotection , PPAR gamma , Retinoid X Receptor alpha
8.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-922412

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES@#To study the effect of surgical treatment on prognosis in preterm infants with obstructive hydrocephalus.@*METHODS@#A retrospective analysis was performed on the medical data of 49 preterm infants with obstructive hydrocephalus. According to the treatment regimen, they were divided into two groups: surgical treatment (@*RESULTS@#Among the 49 preterm infants with obstructive hydrocephalus, severe intracranial hemorrhage (37 cases; 76%) and central nervous system infection (10 cases, 20%) were the main causes of hydrocephalus. There was no significant difference in the composition of etiology between the two groups (@*CONCLUSIONS@#Surgical treatment can improve the survival rate of preterm infants with obstructive hydrocephalus and the prognosis of preterm infants with severe intracranial hemorrhage.


Subject(s)
Cerebral Hemorrhage , Humans , Hydrocephalus/surgery , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Infant, Premature , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , Treatment Outcome
9.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-921689

ABSTRACT

To systematically review the efficacy and safety of Angong Niuhuang Pills in adjuvant treatment of cerebral hemorrhage. CNKI, VIP, Wanfang, CBM, PubMed, EMbase, Cochrane Library were retrieved to collect the randomized controlled trial(RCT) from the time of database establishment to November 2020. Two researchers screened out the literatures and extracted the data according to the inclusion and exclusion criteria. RevMan 5.3 software was used for Meta-analysis. A total of 13 RCTs were included, involving 1 196 patients with cerebral hemorrhage, with 599 in the treatment group and 597 in the control group, and all of them were treated with internal medicine. The results of Meta-analysis showed that compared with conventional therapy, the combined administration with Angong Niuhuang Pills could improve the effective rate in patients with cerebral hemorrhage(RR=1.25, 95%CI[1.18, 1.34], P<0.000 01), the National Institutes of Health stroke scale(NIHSS)score(MD=-5.18, 95%CI[-8.12,-2.23], P=0.000 6) and Glasgow coma scale(GCS) score(MD=1.12, 95%CI[0.46, 1.78], P=0.000 9), activity of daily living(ADL)(MD=15.70, 95%CI[14.05, 17.36 ], P<0.000 01), reduce the malondialdehyde(MDA)(MD=-1.73,95%CI[-2.81,-0.64],P=0.002), but with no statistically significant difference in hematoma volume changes between the two groups. In terms of safety, the combined administration with Angong Niuhuang Pills reduced the incidence of adverse reactions compared with the single administration of conventional therapy(RR=0.40, 95%CI[0.28, 0.57], P<0.000 01), with no serious adverse events. The existing clinical study evidences show that Angong Niuhuang Pills had a good effect in adjuvant treatment of cerebral hemorrhage, and can improve the treatment efficacy, activity of daily living and symptoms of neurological deficits, and reduce oxidative stress, with a higher safety. However, the methodological quality of the included studies is not high, so the above conclusions still need to be verified with more high-quality studies.


Subject(s)
Cerebral Hemorrhage/drug therapy , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/therapeutic use , Humans , Treatment Outcome
10.
Rev. bras. ter. intensiva ; 32(4): 603-605, out.-dez. 2020. graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1156248

ABSTRACT

RESUMO As alterações neurológicas associadas à COVID-19 têm sido frequentemente descritas, principalmente nos casos de maior severidade, e estão relacionadas a causas multifatoriais, como a disfunção endotelial, a liberação de mediadores inflamatórios (cytokine storm), a disfunção endotelial e a hipoxemia. Relatamos o caso de uma paciente do sexo feminino, 88 anos, com quadro de hemorragia cerebral associada à angiopatia amiloide, no contexto de infecção por SARS-CoV-2.


ABSTRACT The neurological changes associated with COVID-19 have been frequently described, especially in cases of greater severity, and are related to multifactorial causes, such as endothelial dysfunction, inflammatory mediator release (cytokine storm), endothelial dysfunction and hypoxemia. We report the case of a female patient, 88 years old, with cerebral hemorrhage associated with amyloid angiopathy in the context of SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Aged, 80 and over , Cerebral Hemorrhage/diagnostic imaging , Cerebral Amyloid Angiopathy/diagnostic imaging , COVID-19/complications , Cerebral Hemorrhage/virology , Cerebral Amyloid Angiopathy/virology , COVID-19/diagnosis
11.
Med. infant ; 27(2): 92-100, Diciembre 2020. Tab, ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS, UNISALUD | ID: biblio-1147907

ABSTRACT

Introducción: La incidencia de ACV (Accidente Cerebrovascular) en niños es de 2-13/100.000 niños por año, siendo una de las 10 causas más frecuentes de muerte en la infancia. La misma varía entre 6-40% dependiendo de las series publicadas y de los subtipos de ACV. Existen diferencias importantes entre el ACV en niños y adultos, ya que las características neurológicas y de la hemostasia son muy distintas en cada grupo. En niños deben ser investigados múltiples factores de riesgo que a menudo se superponen entre sí. Materiales y métodos: Trabajo descriptivo retrospectivo por revisión de historias clínicas, de una población de niños con diagnóstico de ACV ingresados en UCIP en un período de 10 años. Resultados: Se confirmó el diagnóstico de ACV en un total de 84 pacientes. El 70,24% de la población correspondía a ACVH (Accidente Cerebrovascular Hemorrágico) y un 29,76% ACVI (Accidente Cerebrovascular Isquémico). El 60,71 % eran masculinos. La mediana del tiempo entre el inicio de los síntomas y el ingreso a UCIP, en ambos grupos fue de 1 día con rango entre 1-17 días para los ACVH y 1-9 para los ACVI. Se evaluaron variables clínicas, de diagnóstico y de tratamiento según ambos tipos de ACV. Conclusión: El ACV requiere de un abordaje multidisciplinario. La realización de neuro-imágenes es un pilar fundamental para el diagnóstico y no debe ser pospuesto. El monitoreo y tratamiento está enfocado en minimizar el daño en el parénquima cerebral circundante (AU)


Introduction: The incidence of stroke in children is 2-13/100,000 children a year, being one of the 10 most common causes of death in childhood. Mortality varies between 6 and 40% depending on the series reported and according to the different subtypes of stroke. There are important differences between childhood and adult stroke, as the neurological features and characteristics of hemostasis vary greatly. In children, multiple risk factors that often overlap should be investigated. Material and methods: A retrospective descriptive review of the clinical records of a series of patients with stroke admitted to the pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) over a period of 10 years was conducted. Results: The diagnosis of stroke was confirmed in 84 patients; 70.24% had hemorrhagic and 29.76% ischemic stroke. Overall, 60.71% were boys. Median time between symptom onset and admission to the PICU was one day in both groups, ranging from 1-17 días for those with hemorrhagic and from 1-9 days for those with ischemic stroke. Clinical, diagnostic, and treatment variables were evaluated for both types of stroke. Conclusion: Stroke requires a multidisciplinary approach. Neuroimaging is essential for the diagnosis and should not be postponed. Monitoring and treatment is focused on minimizing damage to the surrounding brain parenchyma (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Intensive Care Units, Pediatric , Cerebral Hemorrhage , Brain Ischemia , Stroke/surgery , Stroke/classification , Stroke/diagnosis , Stroke/etiology , Stroke/epidemiology , Stroke/diagnostic imaging , Retrospective Studies
12.
Biomédica (Bogotá) ; 40(4): 609-615, oct.-dic. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1142427

ABSTRACT

Resumen: Las mordeduras de serpientes son un problema de salud pública en regiones tropicales y subtropicales del mundo. Ocurren, especialmente, en trabajadores rurales, y son una importante fuente de discapacidad y mortalidad. Se presenta el caso de un hombre de 59 años, agricultor de la región del Catatumbo (Colombia), quien sufrió la mordedura de una serpiente Bothrops asper, la cual le produjo una hemorragia cerebral fatal. Se llama la atención sobre el grave trastorno hemorrágico en contraste con los leves cambios en el sitio de la mordedura, así como sobre la necesidad del tratamiento temprano de la intoxicación con el suero antiofídico, incluso, en ausencia de manifestaciones cutáneas significativas.


Abstract: Snake bites are a public health problem in tropical and subtropical regions of the world. They occur especially in rural workers and are an important source of disability and mortality. We present the case of a 59-year-old farmer from the Catatumbo region of Colombia who was bitten by a B. asper snake and suffered a fatal brain hemorrhage after the event. We draw attention to the severe bleeding disorder in contrast with the slight changes at the site of the bite, as well as on the importance of the early treatment of poisoning with antivenom even in the absence of significant skin manifestations.


Subject(s)
Snake Bites , Cerebral Hemorrhage , Bothrops , Viper Venoms , Colombia
13.
Arq. neuropsiquiatr ; 78(10): 651-659, Oct. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1131690

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH), defined as bleeding into the brain parenchyma, is a significant public health issue. Although it accounts for only 10 to 15% of strokes, it is associated with the highest morbidity and mortality rates. Despite advances in the field of stroke and neurocritical care, the principles of acute management have fundamentally remained the same over many years. The main treatment strategies include aggressive blood pressure control, early hemostasis, reversal of coagulopathies, clot evacuation through open surgical or minimally invasive surgical techniques, and the management of raised intracranial pressure.


RESUMO A hemorragia cerebral é definida como um sangramento no parênquima cerebral e representa um importante problema de saúde pública. Ela corresponde a 10 a 15% das causas de AVC e está associada a altas taxas de morbimortalidade. Apesar dos avanços no campo do AVC e dos cuidados neurocríticos, os princípios do manejo agudo permaneceram fundamentalmente os mesmos por muitos anos. As principais estratégias de tratamento incluem controle agressivo da pressão arterial, hemostasia precoce, reversão de coagulopatias, evacuação do coágulo por meio de técnicas cirúrgicas abertas ou cirúrgicas minimamente invasivas e gerenciamento da pressão intracraniana elevada.


Subject(s)
Humans , Cerebral Hemorrhage , Stroke , Blood Pressure/physiology , Brain , Minimally Invasive Surgical Procedures/methods
14.
Arq. neuropsiquiatr ; 78(7): 390-396, July 2020. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1131731

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Background: Hemorrhagic transformation (HT) is a common complication after ischemic stroke. It may be associated to poor outcomes. Some predictors of HT have been previously identified, but there remain controversies. Objective: To describe the risk factors for HT more frequently reported by a panel of experts surveyed for this project. Methods: We sent a standard questionnaire by e-mail to specialists in Vascular Neurology from 2014 to 2018. Forty-five specialists were contacted and 20 of them responded to the invitation. Predictors cited by three or more specialists were included in a table and ranked by the frequency in which they appeared. A review of the literature looking for published predictive scores of HT was performed, comparing to the answers received. Results: The 20 responding specialists cited 23 different risk factors for HT. The most frequent factors in the order of citation were the volume of ischemia, previous use of antithrombotic medication, neurological severity, age, hyperglycemia at presentation, hypertension on admission, and cardioembolism. Most variables were also found in previously published predictive scores, but they were reported by the authors with divergences of frequency. Conclusion: Although many studies have evaluated HT in patients with acute ischemic stroke, the published risk factors were neither uniform nor in agreement with those cited by the stroke specialists. These findings may be helpful to build a score that can be tested with the goal of improving the prediction of HT.


RESUMO Introdução: A transformação hemorrágica (TH) é uma complicação comum após a isquemia cerebral e pode estar associada a desfechos desfavoráveis. Alguns fatores de risco para TH têm sido identificados, mas ainda há controvérsias. Objetivo: Descrever os fatores de risco para TH mais frequentemente reportados por um painel de especialistas consultados para esse projeto. Métodos: Enviamos um questionário padronizado por e-mail para 45 especialistas em Neurologia Vascular no período de 2014 a 2018. Vinte dos 45 especialistas responderam ao convite. Preditores citados por três ou mais especialistas foram incluídos em uma tabela e classificados pela frequência em que foram reportados. Uma revisão de literatura foi realizada em busca de escores preditivos de TH publicados anteriormente, comparando-os com as respostas recebidas. Resultados: Os 20 especialistas citaram 23 diferentes fatores de risco para TH. Os fatores mais frequentemente citados foram, pela ordem, volume da isquemia, uso prévio de medicação antitrombótica, gravidade neurológica, idade, hiperglicemia na apresentação, hipertensão na admissão e cardioembolismo. A maioria das variáveis também foi incluída em escores preditivos de TH já publicados, mas sem a mesma frequência e com divergências entre os especialistas consultados. Conclusão: Embora muitos estudos tenham avaliado a TH em pacientes com isquemia cerebral, os fatores de risco já publicados não foram uniformes na concordância com aqueles reportados pelos neurologistas vasculares consultados. Esses achados podem ser úteis para elaborar um escore que possa ser testado para aperfeiçoar a predição de transformação hemorrágica.


Subject(s)
Humans , Cerebral Hemorrhage/diagnosis , Brain Ischemia/diagnosis , Stroke/complications , Cerebral Hemorrhage/pathology , Risk Factors , Stroke/etiology
15.
Rev. argent. neurocir ; 34(2): 124-134, jun. 2020. graf, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1123379

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: Revisar sistemáticamente la evidencia de la terapia endovascular comparado con el manejo estándar. Criterios de inclusión: Ensayos clínicos aleatorizados que incluyan a: pacientes adultos mayores de 18 años, haber sufrido accidente cerebrovascular isquémico manejados con terapia endovascular en comparación con manejo médico. Métodos: Se realizó la búsqueda en las siguientes bases de datos: MEDLINE, the Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL); PubMed, HINARI, EMBASE; Cochrane Injuries group y lista de referencia de los artículos. Resultados: La trombectomía se asoció con disminución de la mortalidad (OR 0,78, IC del 95%: 0,63-0,95 p= 0,01), aumento de la tasa de revascularización (OR 6,16, IC del 95%: 4,39-8,64 p= <0,0001), mejoría de desenlace funcional (OR 1,78, IC del 95%: 1,52 ­ 2,08 p= <0,0001). No hubo diferencia en cuanto a la recurrencia de isquemia cerebral ni de la aparición de hemorragia intracerebral (OR 0,86, IC del 95%: 0,51 ­ 1,47 p= 0,59; OR 1,13, IC del 95%: 0,79 ­ 1,62 p= 0,5, respectivamente). Conclusiones: La terapia endovascular comparada con la fibrinólisis endovenosa mejora el pronóstico funcional, aunque se necesitan más estudios.


Objective: Systematically review the evidence of endovascular therapy compared with standard management. Inclusion criteria: Randomized clinical trials that include adult patients older than 18 years, have suffered an ischemic stroke managed with endovascular therapy compared to medical management. Methods: The search is performed in the following databases: MEDLINE, the Central Registry of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL); PubMed, HINARI, EMBASE; Cochrane Injury Group and reference list of articles. Results: Thrombectomy was associated with decreased mortality (OR 0.78, 95% CI 0.63-0.95 p = 0.01), increased revascularization rate (OR 6.16, CI 95%: 4.39-8.64 p = <0.0001), improvement in functional outcome (OR 1.78, 95% CI: 1.52 - 2.08 p = <0.0001). There was no difference in the recurrence of cerebral ischemia or the appearance of intracerebral hemorrhage (OR 0.86, 95% CI 0.51 - 1.47 p = 0.59, OR 1.13, 95% CI %: 0.79 - 1.62 p = 0.5, respectively). Conclusions: Endovascular therapy compared with the treatment of fibrinolysis improves functional prognosis


Subject(s)
Humans , Stroke , Cerebral Hemorrhage , Brain Ischemia , Mortality , Thrombectomy
16.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 53(5): e9162, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1098111

ABSTRACT

In this study, we aimed to explore the relationship among miR-22, deep cerebral microbleeds (CMBs), and post-stroke depression (PSD) 1 month after ischemic stroke. We consecutively recruited 257 patients with first-ever and recurrent acute cerebral infarction and performed PSD diagnosis in accordance with the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual IV criteria for depression. Clinical information, assessments of stroke severity, and imaging data were recorded on admission. We further detected plasma miR-22 using quantitative PCR and analyzed the relationship among miR-22, clinical data, and PSD using SPSS 23.0 software. Logistic regression showed that deep (OR=1.845, 95%CI: 1.006-3.386, P=0.047) and brain stem CMBs (OR=2.652, 95%CI: 1.110-6.921, P=0.040), as well as plasma miR-22 levels (OR=2.094, 95%CI: 1.066-4.115, P=0.032) were independent risk factors for PSD. In addition, there were significant differences in baseline National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale scores (OR=1.881, 95%CI: 1.180-3.011, P=0.007) and Widowhood scores (OR=1.903, 95%CI: 1.182-3.063, P=0.012). Analysis of the receiver operating curve (AUC=0.723, 95%CI: 0.562-0.883, P=0.016) revealed that miR-22 could predict PSD one month after ischemic stroke. Furthermore, plasma miR-22 levels in brainstem and deep CMBs patients showed an upward trend (P=0.028) relative to the others. Patients with acute ischemic stroke, having brainstem and deep cerebral microbleeds, or a higher plasma miR-22 were more likely to develop PSD. These findings indicate that miR-22 might be involved in cerebral microvascular impairment and post-stroke depression.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Cerebral Hemorrhage/psychology , Brain Infarction/psychology , MicroRNAs/metabolism , Depression/psychology , Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale , Recurrence , Socioeconomic Factors , Severity of Illness Index , Brain Stem/blood supply , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Biomarkers/metabolism , Cerebral Hemorrhage/metabolism , Acute Disease , Risk Factors , Depression/metabolism
17.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-826659

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To observe the effect of acupuncture at "Baihui" (GV 20) through "Qubin" (GB 7) on NLRP3 inflammatory corpuscle in rats with intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH), and to explore the action mechanism of acupuncture on promoting the recovery of neural function in rats with ICH.@*METHODS@#Forty SPF six-week-old male SD rats were randomly divided into a sham operation group, a model group, a non-acupoint group and an acupuncture group, 10 rats in each group. The rats in the model group, non-acupoint group and acupuncture group were intervened with autologous blood injection to prepare ICH model, while the rats in the sham operation group were only intervened with operation but not injection with autologous blood. About 3 hours after the establishment of the model, the rats in the acupuncture group were intervened with acupuncture at "Baihui" (GV 20) through "Qubin" (GB 7), once every 12 hours, for 7 days; the rats in the non-acupoint group were intervened with acupuncture at the non-acupoint [parallel to the "Baihui" (GV 20), 1 cm next to the midline] on the affected side, and other treatment was the same as the acupuncture group. At the end of the intervention, the composite nerve function score of each group was evaluated; the histomorphology of the hemorrhage penumbra was observed by HE staining; the expression of NLRP3 inflammatory corpuscle in the brain was detected by immunohistochemistry; the relative protein expression levels of NLRP3, interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and interleukin-18 (IL-18) in brain were detected by the method of Western blot.@*RESULTS@#Seven days into intervention, compared with the sham operation group, each item score and total score of composite nerve function in the model group were significantly reduced (<0.01, <0.05). There was edema and karyopyknosis in brain neuron as well as necrocytosis and inflammatory cell infiltration in the model group. Compared with the model group and the non-acupoint group, the total score of composite nerve function and the scores of symmetrical movement of limbs (LS) and proprioception of tentacles (VP) in the acupuncture group were increased (<0.01, <0.05), and the cell necrosis and inflammatory cell infiltration were relieved. Compared with the sham operation group, NLRP3 inflammatory corpuscle expression and the relative protein expression levels of NLRP3, IL-1β and IL-18 in brain tissue in the model group were increased (<0.01); compared with the model group and the non-acupoint group, NLRP3 inflammatory corpuscle expression and the relative protein expression levels of NLRP3, IL-1β and IL-18 in brain tissue in the acupuncture group were reduced (<0.01).@*CONCLUSION@#Acupuncture at "Baihui" (GV 20) through "Qubin" (GB 7) could downregulate the expression of NLRP3, IL-1β and IL-18 in the brain tissue of ICH rats, inhibit the inflammatory response, and promote the recovery of neural function.


Subject(s)
Acupuncture Points , Acupuncture Therapy , Animals , Brain , Cerebral Hemorrhage , Metabolism , Therapeutics , Interleukin-18 , Metabolism , Interleukin-1beta , Metabolism , Male , NLR Family, Pyrin Domain-Containing 3 Protein , Metabolism , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley
18.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-828442

ABSTRACT

In this study, Tabu search algorithm was used to analyze the effect of Xingnaojing Injection in the treatment of cerebral hemorrhage in the real world. Through the analysis of the results, the therapies based on the pathogeny of cerebral hemorrhage were screened out: Xingnaojing Injection+hemostatic drugs for promoting blood circulation and removing stasis. Cerebral hemorrhage complicated with brain edema: combined with mannitol or mannitol+aescin. The patients with relevant complications in the acute stage of cerebral hemorrhage could select according to the indications: ①Aminocycline+Oxiracetam+Piperacillin Sodium Sulbactam Sodium+Sodium Lactate Ringer; ②Aminocycline+Oxiracetam+Nifedipine+Captopril+Metoclopramide+Cimetidine; ③Insulin+Pantoprazole+So-dium Nitroprusside. The combined therapies for patients of the stable stage with complicating diseases could select according to the indications: ① Monosialotetrahexosyl Ganglioside Sodium+Deproteinized Calf Blood Serum+Nitroglycerin+Compound Potassium Dihydrogn Phosphate; ② Edaravone+Gangliosides+Captopril+Levofloxacin+Tanreqing Injection+Aminophylline. The analysis of subgroup module of drugs for promoting blood circulation and removing blood stasis suggested that the safety of traditional Chinese medicine should be paid attention to in the treatment of cerebral hemorrhage. This study was based on the data of the real world, but with some problems, such as lack of data and confounding factors. The summarized medication plan is only for the reference of clinicians. The clinical application shall be based on the specific situation of patients and the clinical benefits and risks, and pay attention to the incompatibility.


Subject(s)
Algorithms , Brain Edema , Cerebral Hemorrhage , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Humans , Medicine, Chinese Traditional
19.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-828418

ABSTRACT

To explore the population characteristics and clinical application characteristics of patients with cerebral hemorrhage treated with Xingnaojing Injection in real world. The model was established by Apriori algorithm, and the general information and medication information of 8 369 patients with cerebral hemorrhage treated with Xingnaojing Injection were analyzed by using Clementine 12.0 in the databases of information systems of 33 class Ⅲ grade A hospitals in China. The results showed that among the 8 369 patients with cerebral hemorrhage treated with Xingnaojing Injection, the median age was 59 years old. And the male to female ratio was about 1.74∶1. Most of them did manual labor(31.26%), and were hospitalized in winter(27.46%), especially during the Cold Dew(5.1%). The majority of the patients were in a stable condition(50.94%), and preferred neurosurgery department(48.82%). 29.03% of patients were hospitalized for 15-28 days, and 42.47% of patients spent 10 000-50 000 Yuan of hospitalization expenses. The single dose of Xingnaojing Injection was 10-20 mL at most(46.03%). And the course of medication was mostly 3 days or less(68.60%). Lidocain was the most frequently used Western medicine in drug combination(5.05%), and Huayu Tongmai Ji was the most frequently used traditional Chinese medicine in drug combination(10.73%). The most frequently used one type of traditional Chinese medicine combined with one type of Western medicine was Huayu Tongmai Ji + Dexamethasone(8.08%). The most frequently used two Western medicines in drug combination were Omeprazole + Dexamethasone(5.07%). Prilosec + Dexamethasone + Lidocaine(3.35%) were three Western drugs with the most frequent combination. When the dosage was 10-20 mL and the number of days of treatment was > 15 days, the largest number of the patients was cured and improved(44.78%, 45.85%). The results showed that cerebral hemorrhage patients treated with Xingnaojing Injection were mostly middle-aged and elderly people, with more males than females. Brain hemorrhage often occurred in winter and spring. Xingnaojing Injectiont was often combined with glucocorticoids, proton pump inhibitors and cardiovascular drugs to prevent cerebral hemorrhage complications. The clinical medication met the guidelines for the treatment of cerebral hemorrhage. Some patients had over-treatment use, which can provide a reference for clinicians in treating cerebral hemorrhage.


Subject(s)
Aged , Cerebral Hemorrhage , China , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Female , Humans , Male , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Middle Aged
20.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-828089

ABSTRACT

Xiaoxuming Decoction is the ancient classic herbal formulae for the treatment of stroke. Before the Han and Tang Dynasties, Xiaoxuming Decoction was highly praised by doctors of all dynasties as the "No.1 prescription of internal medicine". However, it was gradually declined in later generations and even abandoned by doctors of all dynasties. The reason why Xiaoxuming Decoction was anybody to care for it and the changes of physicians' understanding of the pathogenesis of "stroke" in the ancient times. In ancient times, the connotation of stroke was very extensive, including facial neuritis, acute cerebral infarction, acute cerebral hemorrhage, sequelae of cerebral hemorrhage, unexplained weakness of limbs, cervical spondylosis, acute myelitis, acute radiculitis, Guillain Barre syndrome, multiple sclerosis, myasthenia gravis, motor neuron disease, dermatomyositis, hypokalemic paralysis peripheral neuritis. According to studies, in the treatment of cerebral infarction and cerebral hemorrhage, Xiaoxuming Decoction can significantly shorten the course of acute stage and promote the recovery of hemiplegia, and its mechanism is consistent with the treatment principle of modern medicine for cerebrovascular diseases. In addition, this prescription is forbidden for patients with red face, fast heart rate, high blood pressure, blocked stool, red tongue, yellow fur, rapid pulse string or strong pulse string, and strong pulse on the wrist.


Subject(s)
Brain Ischemia , Cerebral Hemorrhage , Cerebral Infarction , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Humans , Stroke
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