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1.
Medisan ; 25(3)2021. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1287298

ABSTRACT

Introducción: El método clínico por sí solo no es definitivo para diagnosticar una enfermedad cerebrovascular, por lo que es importante el uso de medios de diagnóstico imagenológicos como la tomografía axial computarizada, que permite investigar los aspectos morfológicos y funcionales del cerebro. Objetivo: Describir las características clínicas y tomográficas de pacientes con infarto cerebral. Métodos: Se efectuó un estudio descriptivo y transversal de 269 pacientes con infarto cerebral, atendidos en el Hospital Provincial Docente Clinicoquirúrgico Saturnino Lora Torres de Santiago de Cuba, desde enero hasta diciembre de 2019. Resultados: Predominaron el sexo masculino (54,6 %), el grupo etario de 70-79 años, las afectaciones motoras (76,5 %), la alteración de la conciencia (51,3 %) y el trastorno del lenguaje (50,5 %). En 38 pacientes los resultados de la tomografía fueron negativos antes de las 24 horas de evolución y 64,0 % se consideraron mejorados con secuelas. Conclusiones: La tomografía antes de las 24 horas demuestra una baja positividad y los hallazgos evolucionan con el tiempo, aunque es posible reconocer varios signos precoces de ictus agudo en menos de 4-6 horas.


Introduction: The clinical method by itself is not definitive to diagnose a cerebrovascular disease, reason why the use of imaging diagnostic means, as the computerized axial tomography is important, as it allows to investigate the morphological and functional aspects of the brain. Objective: To describe the clinical and tomographic characteristics of patients with complete stroke. Methods: A descriptive and cross-sectional study of 269 patients with complete stroke, assisted in Saturnino Lora Torres Teaching Clinical Surgical Provincial Hospital was carried out in Santiago de Cuba, from January to December, 2019. Results: There was a prevalence of the male sex (54.6 %), 70-79 age group, motor disorders (76.5 %), alteration of the conscience (51.3 %) and language disorder (50.5 %). In 38 patients the results of the tomography were negative before the 24 hours of clinical course and 64.0 % were better with aftereffects of the disease. Conclusions: Tomography before the 24 hours demonstrates a low positivity and findings have a favorable clinical course as time goes by, although it is possible to recognize several early signs of acute ictus in less than 4-6 hours.


Subject(s)
Brain Diseases , Cerebral Infarction/diagnostic imaging , Brain Ischemia/diagnostic imaging , Tomography, Spiral Computed
2.
Rev. bras. neurol ; 56(3): 21-24, jul.-set. 2020. ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1120507

ABSTRACT

O infarto da artéria de Percheron é uma apresentação rara de acidente vascular cerebral, caracterizado principalmente por isquemia talâmica bilateral. A apresentação clinica desse infarto se apresenta de maneira inesperada e variável. Relata-se um caso de um paciente masculino, idoso, acometido por diversas comorbidades, admitido na emergência em coma e hemiplégico a direita, demonstrando acometimento neurológico. A condição clínica do paciente variou durante a hospitalização, apresentando melhora do quadro neurológico focal e midríase fixa à direita, levando a um diagnóstico tardio. Paciente evoluiu ao óbito devido a causas não neurológicas.


The artery of Percheron infarct is a rare presentation of stroke, featured mainly by thalamic bilateral ischemia. The clinical presentation of this infarct is unexpected and variable. It's reported a case of a male patient, elderly, affected with several comorbidities, admitted to the emergency in comatose state and right hemiplegic, proving neurological involvement. The patient's clinical condition has fluctuated throughout the hospitalization presenting improvement of the focal neurologic implication and right mydriasis, culminating in a lagged diagnosis. Patient's death due to non neurologic causes.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Aged , Thalamus/blood supply , Cerebral Infarction/complications , Cerebral Infarction/diagnostic imaging , Posterior Cerebral Artery/diagnostic imaging , Thalamus/diagnostic imaging , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Comorbidity , Risk Factors , Fatal Outcome
3.
Clinics ; 75: e1339, 2020. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1089602

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Cerebral ischemia seriously threatens human health and is characterized by high rates of incidence, disability and death. Developing an ideal animal model of cerebral ischemia that reflects the human clinical features is critical for pathological studies and clinical research. The goal of this study is to establish a local cerebral ischemia model in rhesus macaque, thereby providing an optimal animal model to study cerebral ischemia. METHODS: Eight healthy rhesus monkeys were selected for this study. CT scans were performed before the operation to exclude cerebral vascular and intracranial lesions. Under guidance and monitoring with digital subtraction angiography (DSA), a microcatheter was inserted into the M1 segment of the middle cerebral artery (MCA) via the femoral artery. Then, autologous white thrombi were introduced to block blood flow. Immediately following embolization, multisequence MRI was used to monitor cerebrovascular and brain parenchymal conditions. Twenty-four hours after embolization, 2 monkeys were sacrificed and subjected to perfusion, fixation and pathological examination. RESULTS: The cerebral ischemia model was established in 7 rhesus monkeys; one animal died during intubation. DSA and magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) indicated the presence of an arterial occlusion. MRI showed acute local cerebral ischemia. HE staining revealed infarct lesions formed in the brain tissues, and thrombi were present in the cerebral artery. CONCLUSION: We established a rhesus macaque model of local cerebral ischemia by autologous thrombus placement. This model has important implications for basic and clinical research on cerebral ischemia. MRI and DSA can evaluate the models to ensure accuracy and effectiveness.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Male , Cerebral Infarction/diagnostic imaging , Brain Ischemia/diagnostic imaging , Angiography, Digital Subtraction , China , Macaca mulatta , Models, Biological , Models, Cardiovascular
6.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 111(3): 419-422, Sept. 2018. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1038531

ABSTRACT

Abstract Heart failure predisposes to an increased risk of silent cerebral infarction, and data related to left ventricular ejection fraction are still limited. Our objective was to describe the clinical and echocardiographic characteristics and factors associated with silent cerebral infarction in patients with heart failure, according to the left ventricular ejection fraction groups. A prospective cohort was performed at a referral hospital in Cardiology between December 2015 and July 2017. The left ventricular ejection fraction groups were: reduced (≤ 40%), mid-range (41-49%) and preserved (≥ 50%). All patients underwent cranial tomography, transthoracic and transesophageal echocardiography. Seventy-five patients were studied. Silent cerebral infarction was observed in 14.7% of the study population (45.5% lacunar and 54.5% territorial) and was more frequent in patients in the reduced left ventricular ejection fraction group (29%) compared with the mid-range one (15.4%, p = 0.005). There were no cases of silent cerebral infarction in the group of preserved left ventricular ejection fraction. In the univariate analysis, an association was identified between silent cerebral infarction and reduced (OR = 8.59; 95%CI: 1.71 - 43.27; p = 0.009) and preserved (OR = 0.05; 95%CI: 0.003-0.817, p = 0.003) left ventricular ejection fraction and diabetes mellitus (OR = 4.28, 95%CI: 1.14-16.15, p = 0.031). In patients with heart failure and without a clinical diagnosis of stroke, reduced and mid-range left ventricular ejection fractions contributed to the occurrence of territorial and lacunar silent cerebral infarction, respectively. The lower the left ventricular ejection fraction, the higher the prevalence of silent cerebral infarction.


Resumo A insuficiência cardíaca predispõe a um risco aumentado de infarto cerebral silencioso, e dados relacionados com a fração de ejeção do ventrículo esquerdo ainda são limitados. Nosso objetivo foi descrever as características clínicas e ecocardiográficas, e os fatores associados com infarto cerebral silencioso, em pacientes com insuficiência cardíaca, de acordo com os grupos de fração de ejeção do ventrículo esquerdo. Realizou-se uma coorte prospectiva, em um hospital referência em Cardiologia, entre dezembro de 2015 e julho de 2017. Os grupos da fração de ejeção do ventrículo esquerdo foram: reduzida (≤ 40%), intermediária (41-49%) e preservada (≥ 50%). Todos os pacientes realizaram tomografia de crânio, ecocardiograma transtorácico e transesofágico. Foram estudados 75 pacientes. Infarto cerebral silencioso foi observado em 14,7% da população do estudo (45,5% lacunar e 54,5% territorial), tendo sido mais frequente nos pacientes do grupo de fração de ejeção do ventrículo esquerdo reduzida (29%) em comparação com a intermediária (15,4%; p = 0,005). Não ocorreram casos de infarto cerebral silencioso no grupo de fração de ejeção do ventrículo esquerdo preservada. Na análise univariada, identificou-se associação de infarto cerebral silencioso com fração de ejeção do ventrículo esquerdo reduzida (OR = 8,59; IC95% 1,71- 43,27; p = 0,009), preservada (OR = 0,05; IC95% 0,003-0,817; p = 0,003) e diabetes melito (OR = 4,28; IC95% 1,14-16,15; p = 0,031). Em pacientes com insuficiência cardíaca e sem diagnóstico clínico de acidente vascular cerebral, as frações de ejeção do ventrículo esquerdo reduzida e intermediária contribuíram para ocorrência de infarto cerebral silencioso territoriais e lacunares, respectivamente. Quanto menor foi a fração de ejeção do ventrículo esquerdo, maior a prevalência de infarto cerebral silencioso.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Stroke Volume/physiology , Cerebral Infarction/physiopathology , Heart Failure/physiopathology , Echocardiography , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Cerebral Infarction/diagnostic imaging , Prospective Studies , Ventricular Function, Left/physiology , Statistics, Nonparametric , Diabetes Mellitus/physiopathology , Asymptomatic Diseases , Heart Failure/diagnostic imaging
7.
Rev. méd. Chile ; 146(8): 857-863, ago. 2018. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-978768

ABSTRACT

Background: Cerebral ptosis is understood as the bilateral paralysis of eyelid elevation linked to a stroke or hemorrhage of the middle cerebral artery (MCA). It is a transient condition, independent of the evolution of the lesion. Aim: To analyze six patients with the condition. Patients and Methods: Report of five women and one male aged 42 to 72 years. Results: All suffered an infarction or hemorrhage in the territory of the middle cerebral artery of the non-dominant hemisphere and developed a bilateral palpebral ptosis. The recovery started after the fourth day. At the tenth day, eye opening was effortless and did not require frontal help, despite the persistence of hemiplegia. Conclusions: Cerebral ptosis is a mimetic dysfunction of a specific non-injured area of the cerebral cortex, originated from a nearby parenchymal damage such as the middle cerebral artery of the same hemisphere. Cerebral ptosis expresses the inhibition of the voluntary eyelid elevation center, of prefrontal location in the non-dominant hemisphere.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Blepharoptosis/diagnostic imaging , Cerebral Infarction/diagnostic imaging , Middle Cerebral Artery/diagnostic imaging , Blepharoptosis/physiopathology , Blepharoptosis/therapy , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Cerebral Infarction/physiopathology , Cerebral Infarction/therapy , Middle Cerebral Artery/physiopathology
8.
An. Facultad Med. (Univ. Repúb. Urug., En línea) ; 5(1): 56-63, jun. 2018. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BNUY, UY-BNMED | ID: biblio-1088672

ABSTRACT

La vasculitis Primaria del Sistema Nervioso Central (VPSNC) se refiere a un grupo de enfermedades que resultan de la inflamación y destrucción de los vasos sanguíneos de la medula espinal, encéfalo y meninges, tanto en el sector venoso como arterial. La presentación es heterogénea y poco sistematizable. El diagnóstico se establece con un cuadro clínico compatible, una angiografía que evidencie vasculitis y/o biopsia del parénquima encefálico o meninges. Las alteraciones en los estudios de imagen son constantes pero inespecíficas para el diagnóstico y se acompañan habitualmente de alteraciones en el líquido cefalorraquídeo (LCR) y electroencefalograma (EEG) Presentamos un paciente con probable VPSNC basados en un cuadro clínico compatible, hallazgos imagenológicos sugestivos, junto con alteraciones en LCR y EEG. Se realizó tratamiento en base a corticoides e inmunosupresores con mala respuesta y evolución.


The primary central nervous system vasculitis (VPSNC) refers to a group of diseases that result from inflammation and destruction of the blood vessels of the spinal cord, brain and meninges, both in the venous and arterial sector. The presentation is heterogeneous and unsystematized. The diagnosis is made based on compatible symptoms, supported by an angiography showing evidence of vasculitis and/or biopsy of the brain parenchyma or meninges. Alterations in imaging studies are consistent but nonspecific for diagnostic and are usually accompanied by alterations in the electroencephalogram (EEG) and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). We present a clinical case of probable VPSNC based on clinical presentation and findings on imagenological studies suggestive vasculitis, along with alterations in CSF and EEG. Treatment was based on Corticosteroids and immunosuppressive agents with poor response and evolution.


Vasculite Primária do Sistema Nervoso Central (VPSNC) refere-se a um grupo de doenças que resultam de inflamação e destruição dos vasos sanguíneos na medula espinal, o sector venosa arterial cerebral e meninges, ambos. A apresentação é heterogênea e não muito sistematizável. O diagnóstico é estabelecido com um quadro clínico compatível, uma angiografia que evidencia vasculite e / oubiópsia do parênquima cerebral ou meninges. Alterações nos estudos de imagemsão constantes, mas não específica para o diagnóstico e são normalmente acompanhadas por alterações no líquido cefalorraquidiano (LCR) e eletroencefalograma (EEG) descrevem um paciente com VPSNC provável com base em um quadro clínico, achados de imagem sugestivos compatíveis, em conjunto com alterações no CSF e EEG. O tratamento foi realizado com base em corticosteróides e imunos supressores compouca resposta e evolução.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Middle Aged , Methylprednisolone/administration & dosage , Prednisolone/administration & dosage , Vasculitis, Central Nervous System/drug therapy , Vasculitis, Central Nervous System/diagnostic imaging , Cyclophosphamide/administration & dosage , Immunosuppressive Agents/administration & dosage , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/administration & dosage , Cerebral Infarction/diagnostic imaging , Treatment Outcome , Constriction, Pathologic/diagnostic imaging , Anterior Cerebral Artery/pathology , Middle Cerebral Artery/pathology , Vasculitis, Central Nervous System/diagnosis
9.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 950-955, 2016.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-63327

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Lacunar stroke, in the context of small vessel disease, is a type of cerebral infarction caused by occlusion of a penetrating artery. Pulsatility index (PI) is an easily measurable parameter in Transcranial Doppler ultrasound (TCD) study. PI reflects distal cerebral vascular resistance and has been interpreted as a surrogate marker of small vessel disease. We hypothesized that an increased PI, a marker of small vessel disease, might be associated with a larger infarct volume in acute lacunar stroke. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This study included 64 patients with acute lacunar stroke who underwent TCD and brain MRI. We evaluated the association between the mean PI value of bilateral middle cerebral arteries and infarct volume on diffusion-weighted MRI using univariate and multivariate linear regression. RESULTS: The mean infarct volume and PI were 482.18±406.40 mm3 and 0.86±0.18, respectively. On univariate linear regression, there was a significant positive association between PI and infarct volume (p=0.001). In the multivariate model, a single standard deviation increase of PI (per 0.18) was associated with an increase of 139.05 mm3 in infarct volume (95% confidence interval, 21.25 to 256.85; p=0.022). CONCLUSION: We demonstrated that PI was an independent determinant of infarct volume in acute lacunar stroke. The PI value measured in acute stroke may be a surrogate marker of the extent of ischemic injury.


Subject(s)
Aged , Cerebral Infarction/diagnostic imaging , Diffusion Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Female , Humans , Linear Models , Male , Middle Aged , Middle Cerebral Artery , Pulsatile Flow/physiology , Retrospective Studies , Stroke, Lacunar/diagnostic imaging , Ultrasonography, Doppler, Transcranial , Vascular Resistance/physiology
11.
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-88082

ABSTRACT

AIM: To differentiate between cerebral infarct and intracerebral haemorrhage on the basis of clinical stroke score (Siriraj Stroke Score and Guy's Hospital Score) and to find out the sensitivity and overall accuracy of these scoring systems by comparing it with CT scan findings. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Two hundred patients with acute stroke were analysed by Siriraj and Guy's Hospital Score simultaneously CT scan was performed and patients with subarachnoid haemorrhage, tuberculoma, tumours and trauma were excluded. RESULT: CT scan revealed cerebral infarction in 152 (76%) patients and cerebral haemorrhage in 48 (24%) patients. The sensitivity of Siriraj Stroke Score was 92.54% for infarction and 87% for haemorrhage (equivocal and infratentorial cases were excluded) and it's overall accuracy was 91.11%. The Guy's Hospital Score had a sensitivity of 93.42% for infarction, 66.66% for haemorrhage and overall accuracy was 87%. CONCLUSION: Siriraj Stroke Score is easier to use at bed side and has a greater accuracy (especially in diagnosis of haemorrhage) than the Guy's Hospital Score.


Subject(s)
Aged , Brain/diagnostic imaging , Cerebral Hemorrhage/diagnostic imaging , Cerebral Infarction/diagnostic imaging , Diagnosis, Differential , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Sensitivity and Specificity , Severity of Illness Index , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
12.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-59998

ABSTRACT

A previously healthy 16-month-old Korean girl with symptoms of fever, vomiting, and generalized tonic seizure was diagnosed to have Group D non-typhoid Salmonella meningitis. The patient was treated with ceftriaxone (100 mg/kg/day) and amikin (22.5 mg/kg/day) initially and ciprofloxacin (30 mg/kg/day) was added later because of clinical deterioration and disseminated intravascular coagulation. Brain CT performed on the second day showed a well-demarcated low density lesion in the right lentiform nucleus and both caudate nuclei, without evidence of increased intracranial pressure. MRI performed on the 11th day confirmed CT scan findings as well as right subdural fluid collection, brain atrophy, and ventriculomegaly. She underwent subdural drainage and later ventriculo-peritoneal shunt operation. Despite receiving intensive treatment, she still has severe neurologic sequelae. Our case shows that infarctions of basal ganglia and thalami are not specific for tuberculous meningitis and that meningitis complicated by infarction is indicative of grave prognosis.


Subject(s)
Basal Ganglia Diseases/diagnostic imaging , Basal Ganglia Diseases/pathology , Basal Ganglia Diseases/complications , Basal Ganglia Diseases/cerebrospinal fluid , Brain/diagnostic imaging , Brain/pathology , Cerebral Infarction/diagnostic imaging , Cerebral Infarction/pathology , Cerebral Infarction/complications , Cerebral Infarction/cerebrospinal fluid , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Infant , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Meningitis, Bacterial/diagnostic imaging , Meningitis, Bacterial/pathology , Meningitis, Bacterial/complications , Meningitis, Bacterial/cerebrospinal fluid , Salmonella Infections/complications , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/methods
13.
Alexandria Journal of Pediatrics. 1998; 12 (2): 229-234
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-47428

ABSTRACT

Cerebral infarctions are a major source of disability in children with sickle cell disease [SCD], leading to serious impairment in cognitive and motor functions. The aim of the present work is to assess the value of transcranial Doppler ultrasonography [TCD] of the middle cerebral artery [MCA] and neurologic examination in detection of cerebral infarction in children with SCD. The present work included 28 children [10 boys, and 18 girls] aged 5 to 13 years, underwent full neurologic examination, non-contrast CT of the brain, and TCD. TCD was evaluated for maximum flow velocity in the right and left MCAs. The sensitivity and specificity of neurologic examination for identification of patients with infarction were 55.6% and 89.5% respectively. Depending on the alteration in the maximum flow velocity of the MCA either <100 cm/sec or > 200 cm/sec, the TCD allowed detection of 7 out of 9 patients with documented CT evidence of cerebral infarction with only one false positive result [77.9% sensitivity and 94.4% specificity]. The combination of neurologic examination and TCD produced 88.9% sensitivity and specificity, for detection of cerebral infarction. We conclude that TCD of the MCA can be used as a screening method for identifying children with SCD at risk for developing strokes. Single vessel examination namely MCA makes the examination more easy, of shorter duration, and more suitable for children with no need for special preparation or sedation. The combination of neurologic examination and TCD is promising as a sensitive screening test in this patient population


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Cerebral Infarction/diagnostic imaging , Anemia, Sickle Cell/pathology , Neurologic Examination , Ultrasonography, Doppler, Transcranial , Child
14.
Indian Pediatr ; 1996 Jun; 33(6): 465-8
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-11091

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To study the diagnostic test characteristics of computed tomography (CT scan) in differentiating tuberculous (TBM) and pyogenic (PM) meningitis. DESIGN: Prospective diagnostic test evaluation. SETTING: Teaching hospital. METHODS: Children beyond 1 month of age admitted with meningitis were enrolled prospectively and CT scan done. Results of CT scan were compared with predefined gold standards for the diagnosis of either TBM or PM. RESULTS: CT scan was performed in 154 patients with meningitis. Of these 94 were TBM, 52 had PM and 8 were indeterminate and excluded from analysis. Basal enhancement, ventriculomegaly, tuberculoma and infarction were all significantly more common in the TBM group, while subdural collections were seen more in the PM group. The highest sensitivity (89.2%) and specificity (100%) for diagnosis of TBM were found for basal enhancement or tuberculoma or both. CONCLUSIONS: CT scan can be used to effectively distinguish TBM and PM.


Subject(s)
Cerebral Infarction/diagnostic imaging , Child , Child, Preschool , Diagnosis, Differential , Humans , Infant , Meningitis/microbiology , Prospective Studies , Sensitivity and Specificity , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Tuberculoma/diagnostic imaging , Tuberculosis, Meningeal/diagnostic imaging
16.
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-90464

ABSTRACT

We report a 25 year old male who suffered thalamic and multiple cerebellar infarctions during infrequent attacks of basilar artery migraine. Migraine-related infarcts at these sites are uncommon.


Subject(s)
Adult , Cerebellum/blood supply , Cerebral Infarction/diagnostic imaging , Humans , Male , Migraine Disorders/diagnostic imaging , Thalamus/blood supply , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Vertebrobasilar Insufficiency/diagnostic imaging
18.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 310-314, 1989.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-34916

ABSTRACT

Occlusion of the anterior choroidal artery (AChA) can cause infarction in the posterior limb of the internal capsule. Infarction is less frequently observed in the thalamus, midbrain, temporal lobe, and lateral geniculate body (LGB) territories of the AChA. The most common clinical finding is hemiparesis. Hemianesthesia may be severe at onset but is usually transient. Homonymous hemianopia, upper-quadrant anopia, or upper- and lower-quadrant sector anopia can be present. Occasionally these patients are reported to have transient abnormalities of higher cortical function. The most common stroke mechanism is known to be small-vessel occlusive disease, predominantly found in hypertensive and diabetic patients. Vasospasm due to ruptured aneurysm or intraoperative mechanical manipulation, and cardiac origin the AChA territory. The infarct lesion is usually recognized and diagnosed by computed tomography. The best treatment is still unknown.


Subject(s)
Aged , Carotid Artery, Internal/diagnostic imaging , Cerebral Angiography , Cerebral Infarction/diagnostic imaging , Choroid Plexus/blood supply , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
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