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1.
Rev. bras. neurol ; 56(1): 19-22, jan.-mar. 2020. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1095933

ABSTRACT

This paper aims to describe a case of an immunocompetent 60-year-old patient presenting a subarachnoid hemorrhage in the absence of aneurysmal disease. Initial evaluation pointed to vasculitis of the central nervous system secondary to meningeal infection. After initial treatment, a cerebrospinal fluid leak was identified, with no antecedent of trauma, elucidating the origin of infection. Primary cerebrospinal fluid rhinorrhea has nonspecific symptomatology, defying diagnosis, and potentially serious complications. It represents an unusual predisposing factor for meningeal infection and secondary vasculitis. This case report exemplifies a feared complication of spontaneous cerebrospinal fluid leakage.


O estudo objetiva relatar um caso clínico de uma paciente imunocompetente de 60 anos apresentando hemorragia subaracnoide na ausência de doença aneurismática. Avaliação inicial apontou para vasculite de sistema nervoso central secundária à infecção meníngea. Após tratamento inicial, uma fístula liquórica foi identificada, sem antecedente de trauma, elucidando a origem da infecção. Rinorreia liquórica primária possui sintomatologia inespecífica, diagnóstico desafiador e complicações potencialmente graves. Representa um raro fator predisponente para infecção meníngea e vasculite. Este relato de caso exemplifica uma complicação temida da rinorreia liquórica espontânea.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Middle Aged , Cerebrospinal Fluid Rhinorrhea/complications , Vasculitis, Central Nervous System/diagnosis , Cerebrospinal Fluid Leak , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Vasculitis, Central Nervous System/etiology , Cerebrum/diagnostic imaging , Meningitis/etiology
2.
Rev. argent. neurocir ; 33(2): 100-106, jun. 2019. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1177738

ABSTRACT

Introducción: La hemorragia cerebelosa remota (RCH, por sus siglas en inglés) después de la cirugía de la columna vertebral es una complicación poco frecuente y se cree que es debida a una pérdida de líquido cefalorraquídeo (LCR) a través de un desgarro dural. Objetivo: Nuestro objetivo es describir un caso de RCH después de una cirugía de columna lumbar, discutir sus posibles mecanismos y revisar la literatura. Material y métodos: Una mujer de 17 años sufrió una caída de altura, presentando luxofractura lumbar sin déficit neurológico. Se realizó descompresión y artrodesis instrumentada. Durante la cirugía se observó un desgarro dural y fuga de líquido cefalorraquídeo. La duramadre desgarrada fue suturada y se dejó un drenaje espinal continuo. Al tercer día postoperatorio evolucionó con disartria y cefalea. La TC de cerebro evidenció una RCH. Resultados: Se retiró el drenaje espinal y la RCH fue tratada de forma conservadora. La paciente fue dada de alta a las 3 semanas sin compromiso neurológico. Conclusión: Aunque la RCH es un evento extremadamente raro, debe tenerse en cuenta como una posible complicación de la cirugía de la columna vertebral, especialmente en operaciones complicadas por desgarros durales.


Introduction: Remote cerebellar hemorrhage (RCH) after lumbar spine surgery is a rare complication and can happen as a result of a cerebro spinal fluid (CSF) leak during surgery. Objective: To describe a case of RCH, discuss the physiopathology and make a review of the literature. Material and methods: A 17 year-old woman presented with a lumbar fracture-dislocation with no neurological déficit after falling from height. A surgical decompression and fusion was performed. During surgery, a dural tear with CSF leakage was found. The tear was sutured and a lumbar drain was placed. 3 days after surgery, the patient presented headaches and dysarthria. Results: The lumbar drain was removed and the RCH was treated conservatively. Patient was discharged 3 weeks after, with no neurological déficit. Conclusion: Although RCH is an extremely rare complication, it should be suspected as a possible complication of spine surgery, specially in surgeries with dural tears.


Subject(s)
Hemorrhage , Spine , General Surgery , Cerebrospinal Fluid , Cerebrum , Cerebrospinal Fluid Leak , Headache
3.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-739671

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: One of the most frequent complications after endoscopic endonasal approach (EEA) for resection of pituitary tumors is cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leaks. With the introduction of the pedicled nasoseptal flap, the reconstruction of the skull base has improved significantly resulting in a decrease in the occurrence of persistent CSF leaks. We present our experience utilizing the pedicled nasoseptal flap technique after EEA for reconstruction of the skull base in cases where CSF leak was detected. METHODS: Data for patients undergoing EEA for pituitary tumors was retrospectively reviewed. These included demographic, clinical, operative, radiographic, and pathological information. Incidence of post-operative complications and CSF leaks were recorded. Descriptive statistical analysis was performed. RESULTS: Between 2008 and 2015, 67 patients and 69 hospital admissions with pituitary tumors underwent a nasoseptal flap to reconstruct a skull base defect at Johns Hopkins Hospital. The mean age at surgery was 54.5±14.2 years. Fifty-two percent of patients were male. Forty-six percent of patients were white, 33% African-American, and 12% belonged to other racial groups. There was an intraoperative CSF leak in 39% of patients. Seventy percent of patients with an intraoperative CSF leak had a nasoseptal flap reconstruction of the skull base. There were zero postoperative CSF leaks. CONCLUSION: With the introduction of the pedicled nasoseptal flap for reconstruction of the skull base after EEA for resection of pituitary adenomas, the incidence of postoperative CSF leaks has decreased significantly. In this retrospective analysis, we demonstrate the effectiveness of the use of nasoseptal flap in repairing CSF leak after EEA.


Subject(s)
Adenoma , Cerebrospinal Fluid Leak , Cerebrospinal Fluid , Humans , Incidence , Male , Neurosurgery , Pituitary Neoplasms , Retrospective Studies , Skull Base
4.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-766779

ABSTRACT

Intracranial hypotension usually arises in the context of known or suspected leak of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). This leakage leads to a fall in intracranial CSF pressure and CSF volume. The most common clinical manifestation of intracranial hypotension is orthostatic headache. Post-dural puncture headache and CSF fistula headache are classified along with headache attributed to spontaneous intracranial hypotension as headache attributed to low CSF pressure by the International Classification of Headache Disorders. Headache attributed to low CSF pressure is usually but not always orthostatic. The orthostatic features at its onset can become less prominent over time. Other manifestations of intracranial hypotension are nausea, spine pain, neck stiffness, photophobia, hearing abnormalities, tinnitus, dizziness, gait unsteadiness, cognitive and mental status changes, movement disorders and upper extremity radicular symptoms. There are two presumed pathophysiologic mechanisms behind the development of various manifestations of intracranial hypotension. Firstly, CSF loss leads to downward shift of the brain causing traction on the anchoring and supporting structures of the brain. Secondly, CSF loss results in compensatory meningeal venodilation. Headaches presenting acutely after an intervention or trauma that is known to cause CSF leakage are easy to diagnose. However, a high degree of suspicion is required to make the diagnosis of spontaneous intracranial hypotension and understanding various neurological symptoms of intracranial hypotension may help clinicians.


Subject(s)
Brain , Cerebrospinal Fluid , Cerebrospinal Fluid Leak , Classification , Diagnosis , Dizziness , Fistula , Gait , Headache , Headache Disorders , Hearing , Intracranial Hypotension , Movement Disorders , Nausea , Neck Pain , Photophobia , Post-Dural Puncture Headache , Spine , Tinnitus , Traction , Upper Extremity , Ventriculoperitoneal Shunt
5.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-765396

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Shunt-dependent hydrocephalus (SdHCP) is a well-known complication of aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). The risk factors for SdHCP have been widely investigated, but few risk scoring systems have been established to predict SdHCP. This study was performed to investigate the risk factors for SdHCP and devise a risk scoring system for use before aneurysm obliteration. METHODS: We reviewed the data of 301 consecutive patients who underwent aneurysm obliteration following SAH from September 2007 to December 2016. The exclusion criteria for this study were previous aneurysm obliteration, previous major cerebral infarction, the presence of a cavum septum pellucidum, a midline shift of >10 mm on initial computed tomography (CT), and in-hospital mortality. We finally recruited 254 patients and analyzed the following data according to the presence or absence of SdHCP : age, sex, history of hypertension and diabetes mellitus, Hunt-Hess grade, Fisher grade, aneurysm size and location, type of treatment, bicaudate index on initial CT, intraventricular hemorrhage, cerebrospinal fluid drainage, vasospasm, and modified Rankin scale score at discharge. RESULTS: In the multivariate analysis, acute HCP (bicaudate index of ≥0.2) (odds ratio [OR], 6.749; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.843–16.021; p=0.000), Fisher grade of 4 (OR, 4.108; 95% CI, 1.044–16.169; p=0.043), and an age of ≥50 years (OR, 3.938; 95% CI, 1.375–11.275; p=0.011) were significantly associated with the occurrence of SdHCP. The risk scoring system using above parameters of acute HCP, Fisher grade, and age (AFA score) assigned 1 point to each (total score of 0–3 points). SdHCP occurred in 4.3% of patients with a score of 0, 8.5% with a score of 1, 25.5% with a score of 2, and 61.7% with a score of 3 (p=0.000). In the receiver operating characteristic curve analysis, the area under the curve (AUC) for the risk scoring system was 0.820 (p=0.080; 95% CI, 0.750–0.890). In the internal validation of the risk scoring system, the score reliably predicted SdHCP (AUC, 0.895; p=0.000; 95% CI, 0.847–0.943). CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that the herein-described AFA score is a useful tool for predicting SdHCP before aneurysm obliteration. Prospective validation is needed.


Subject(s)
Aneurysm , Cerebral Infarction , Cerebrospinal Fluid Leak , Diabetes Mellitus , Hemorrhage , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Hydrocephalus , Hypertension , Multivariate Analysis , Prospective Studies , Risk Factors , ROC Curve , Septum Pellucidum , Subarachnoid Hemorrhage , Ventriculoperitoneal Shunt
6.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-788822

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Shunt-dependent hydrocephalus (SdHCP) is a well-known complication of aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). The risk factors for SdHCP have been widely investigated, but few risk scoring systems have been established to predict SdHCP. This study was performed to investigate the risk factors for SdHCP and devise a risk scoring system for use before aneurysm obliteration.METHODS: We reviewed the data of 301 consecutive patients who underwent aneurysm obliteration following SAH from September 2007 to December 2016. The exclusion criteria for this study were previous aneurysm obliteration, previous major cerebral infarction, the presence of a cavum septum pellucidum, a midline shift of >10 mm on initial computed tomography (CT), and in-hospital mortality. We finally recruited 254 patients and analyzed the following data according to the presence or absence of SdHCP : age, sex, history of hypertension and diabetes mellitus, Hunt-Hess grade, Fisher grade, aneurysm size and location, type of treatment, bicaudate index on initial CT, intraventricular hemorrhage, cerebrospinal fluid drainage, vasospasm, and modified Rankin scale score at discharge.RESULTS: In the multivariate analysis, acute HCP (bicaudate index of ≥0.2) (odds ratio [OR], 6.749; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.843–16.021; p=0.000), Fisher grade of 4 (OR, 4.108; 95% CI, 1.044–16.169; p=0.043), and an age of ≥50 years (OR, 3.938; 95% CI, 1.375–11.275; p=0.011) were significantly associated with the occurrence of SdHCP. The risk scoring system using above parameters of acute HCP, Fisher grade, and age (AFA score) assigned 1 point to each (total score of 0–3 points). SdHCP occurred in 4.3% of patients with a score of 0, 8.5% with a score of 1, 25.5% with a score of 2, and 61.7% with a score of 3 (p=0.000). In the receiver operating characteristic curve analysis, the area under the curve (AUC) for the risk scoring system was 0.820 (p=0.080; 95% CI, 0.750–0.890). In the internal validation of the risk scoring system, the score reliably predicted SdHCP (AUC, 0.895; p=0.000; 95% CI, 0.847–0.943).CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that the herein-described AFA score is a useful tool for predicting SdHCP before aneurysm obliteration. Prospective validation is needed.


Subject(s)
Aneurysm , Cerebral Infarction , Cerebrospinal Fluid Leak , Diabetes Mellitus , Hemorrhage , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Hydrocephalus , Hypertension , Multivariate Analysis , Prospective Studies , Risk Factors , ROC Curve , Septum Pellucidum , Subarachnoid Hemorrhage , Ventriculoperitoneal Shunt
7.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-759985

ABSTRACT

We encountered a very rare case of spontaneous spinal cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leakage and a spinal intradural arachnoid cyst (AC) that were diagnosed at different sites in the same patient. These two lesions were thought to have interfered with the disease onset and deterioration. A 30-year-old man presented with sudden neck pain and orthostatic headache. Diplopia, ophthalmic pain, and headache deteriorated. CSF leakage was confirmed in C2 by radioisotope cisternography, and an epidural blood patch was performed. While his symptoms improved gradually, paraparesis suddenly progressed. Thoracolumbar magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed an upper thoracic spinal intradural AC, which was compressing the spinal cord. We removed the outer membrane of the AC and performed fenestration of the inner membrane after T3-4 laminectomy. Postoperative MRI showed complete removal of the AC and normalized lumbar subarachnoid space. All neurological deficits including motor weakness, sensory impairment, and voiding function improved to normal. We present a case of spontaneous spinal CSF leakage and consecutive intracranial hypotension in a patient with a spinal AC. Our report suggests that if spinal CSF leakage and a spinal AC are diagnosed in one patient, even if they are located at different sites, they may affect disease progression and aggravation.


Subject(s)
Adult , Arachnoid , Blood Patch, Epidural , Cerebrospinal Fluid Leak , Cerebrospinal Fluid , Diplopia , Disease Progression , Headache , Humans , Intracranial Hypotension , Laminectomy , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Membranes , Neck Pain , Paraparesis , Spinal Cord , Subarachnoid Space
8.
Arq. neuropsiquiatr ; 76(8): 507-511, Aug. 2018. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-950575

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Spontaneous intracranial hypotension (SIH) is a syndrome that was unknown until the advent of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). It is a cause of orthostatic headache, which remains underdiagnosed and, rarely, can result in several complications including dural venous sinus thrombosis, subdural hematoma and subarachnoid hemorrhage. Some of these complications are potentially life-threatening and should be recognized promptly, mainly by imaging studies. We reviewed the MRI of nine patients with SIH and describe the complications observed in three of these patients. Two of them had subdural hematoma and one had a dural venous sinus thrombosis detected by computed tomography and MRI. We concluded that MRI findings are of great importance in the diagnosis of SIH and its complications, which often influence the clinical-surgical treatment of the patient.


RESUMO Hipotensão Intracraniana Espontânea (HIE) é uma síndrome desconhecida até o advento das imagens de Ressonância Magnética (RM). É uma causa de cefaleia ortostática que permanece subdiagnosticada e raramente resulta em complicações, como trombose de seios venosos durais, hematoma subdural e hemorragia subaracnoidea. Algumas dessas complicações são potencialmente ameaçadoras à vida e devem ser prontamente reconhecidas pelos estudos de imagem. Nós revisamos as RM de 9 pacientes com HIE e descrevemos as complicações observadas em 3 casos. Dois deles tiveram hematoma subdural e um teve trombose de seio venoso dural detectados por tomografia computadorizada e RM. Concluímos que achados de RM são de grande importância no diagnóstico de HIE e suas complicações, frequentemente influenciando o tratamento clínico-cirúrgico do paciente.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Intracranial Hypotension/complications , Intracranial Hypotension/diagnostic imaging , Sinus Thrombosis, Intracranial/etiology , Sinus Thrombosis, Intracranial/diagnostic imaging , Hematoma, Subdural, Intracranial/etiology , Hematoma, Subdural, Intracranial/diagnostic imaging , Cerebrospinal Fluid Leak/etiology , Cerebrospinal Fluid Leak/diagnostic imaging , Computed Tomography Angiography/methods , Headache/etiology
9.
Rev. otorrinolaringol. cir. cabeza cuello ; 78(1): 52-58, mar. 2018. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-902814

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN La fístula de líquido cefalorraquídeo (LCR) corresponde a una comunicación anormal entre el espacio subaracnoideo y la porción neumatizada de la base de cráneo anterior en relación con las cavidades paranasales. Fístulas persistentes requieren reparación quirúrgica por el riesgo de meningitis, abscesos cerebrales y neumoencéfalo asociado. El gold standard es el abordaje extracraneal endoscópico. Uno de los principales inconvenientes es dañar estructuras intracraneanas nobles. La ayuda de tecnologías como la cirugía guiada por imágenes, contribuye a disminuir este problema. A continuación se presentan dos casos clínicos de fístula de líquido cefalorraquídeo en base de cráneo anterior, asociado a meningoencefalocele, intervenidos por cirugía endonasal guiada por imágenes.


ABSTRACT Endoscopic management of anterior skull base meningoencephalocele. The cerebrospinal fluid leak (CSF) is an abnormal communication between the subaracnoid space and the pneumatic portion of the anterior cranial base which is related to the paranasal cavities. The persistent leak requires surgery due to the potential complications such as meningitis, cerebral abscess or pneumoencephalus. Extracranial endoscopic approach is the gold standard procedure. One of the most important risk of the surgery is to damage noble intracranial structures. This situation can be ameliorated by using image guided surgery. We present two cases of CSF in anterior cranial base associated with meningoencephalocele that were treated in our center using nasal image guided endoscopic surgery.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Endoscopy/methods , Cerebrospinal Fluid Leak/surgery , Meningocele/surgery , Nasal Cavity/surgery , Cerebrospinal Fluid Rhinorrhea/surgery , Skull Base , Fistula , Meningocele/diagnostic imaging
10.
Journal of Rhinology ; : 38-42, 2018.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-714405

ABSTRACT

After the trauma of frontoethmoidal sinus, post-traumatic mucocele may occur. Surgical removal of the lesions rarely produces cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leakage and even delayed tension pneumocephalus. We experienced a case of fronto-ethmoid mucocele complicated with peri-operative CSF leakage and post-operative tension pneumocephalus which was improved by conservative treatment. It is imperative to take into account the potential for tension pneumocephalus when a patient suffers from severe headache after sinus surgery.


Subject(s)
Cerebrospinal Fluid Leak , Cerebrospinal Fluid , Ethmoid Sinus , Frontal Sinus , Headache , Humans , Mucocele , Pneumocephalus
11.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-714254

ABSTRACT

About one-third of patients with transsphenoidal basal encephaloceles have associated congenital anomalies, including cleft palate. Moreover, they are often plagued by symptomatic exacerbations in the form of upper respiratory obstructions, cerebrospinal fluid leaks, meningitis, etc., with few patients being asymptomatic. We herein present a rare asymptomatic case of transsphenoidal basal encephalocele in an 18-month-old child with cleft palate and highlight a modified version of two-flap palatoplasty.


Subject(s)
Cerebrospinal Fluid Leak , Child , Cleft Palate , Encephalocele , Humans , Infant , Meningitis
12.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-713398

ABSTRACT

A 34-year-old woman came to the emergency room complaining of a severe orthostatic headache. Results of a cerebrospinal fluid tap and brain computed tomography were normal. Based on her history and symptoms, she was found to have spontaneous intracranial hypotension. She was hospitalized and her symptoms improved with conservative treatment. On the next day, her headache suddenly worsened. Cisternography was performed to confirm the diagnosis and determine the spinal level of her cerebrospinal fluid leak. It revealed multiple cerebrospinal fluid leaks in the lumbar and upper thoracic regions. It was strongly believed that she had an iatrogenic cerebrospinal fluid leak in the lumbar region. An epidural blood patch was performed level by level on the lumbar and upper thoracic regions. Her symptoms resolved after the epidural blood patch and she was later discharged without any complications. In this case, an iatrogenic cerebrospinal fluid leak was caused by a dural puncture made while diagnosing spontaneous intracranial hypotension, which is always a risk and hampers the patient's progress. Therefore, in cases of spontaneous intracranial hypotension, an effort to minimize dural punctures is needed and a non-invasive test such as magnetic resonance imaging should be considered first.


Subject(s)
Adult , Blood Patch, Epidural , Brain , Cerebrospinal Fluid Leak , Cerebrospinal Fluid , Diagnosis , Emergency Service, Hospital , Female , Headache , Humans , Intracranial Hypotension , Lumbosacral Region , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Post-Dural Puncture Headache , Punctures
13.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-740339

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Controversy related to the choice of surgical approach for vestibular schwannoma (VS) resection remains. Whether the retrosigmoid (RS) or translabyrinthine (TL) approach should be performed is a matter of debate. In the context of a lack of clear evidence favoring one approach, we conducted a retrospective study to compare the morbidity rate of both surgical approaches. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: 168 patients underwent surgical treatment (2007-2013) for VS at our tertiary care center. There were no exclusion criteria. Patients were separated into two groups according to the surgical approach: TL group and RS group. Signs and symptoms including ataxia, headache, tinnitus, vertigo and cranial nerve injuries were recorded pre- and postoperatively. Surgical complications were analyzed. Perioperative facial nerve function was measured according to House-Brackmann grading system. RESULTS: Tumor resection was similar in both groups. Facial paresis was significantly greater in RS group patients preoperatively, in the immediate postoperative period and at one year follow-up (p < 0.05). A constant difference was found between both groups at all three periods (p=0.016). The evolution of proportion was not found to be different between both groups (p=0.942), revealing a similar rate of surgically related facial paresis. Higher rate of ataxic gait (p=0.019), tinnitus (p=0.039) and cranial nerve injuries (p=0.016) was found in RS group patients. The incidence of headache, vertigo, vascular complications, cerebrospinal fluid leak and meningitis was similar in both groups. No reported mortality in this series. CONCLUSIONS: Both approaches seem similar in terms of resection efficacy. However, according to our analysis, the TL approach is less morbid. Thus, for VS in which hearing preservation is not considered, TL approach is preferable.


Subject(s)
Ataxia , Cerebrospinal Fluid Leak , Cranial Nerve Injuries , Facial Nerve , Facial Paralysis , Follow-Up Studies , Gait , Headache , Hearing , Humans , Incidence , Meningitis , Mortality , Neuroma, Acoustic , Postoperative Period , Retrospective Studies , Tertiary Care Centers , Tinnitus , Vertigo
14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-715678

ABSTRACT

Septoplasty/septorhinoplasty is a common ear, nose and throat procedure offered for those patients with deviated septum who are suffering from nasal obstruction and functional or cosmetic problems. Although it is a basic and simple procedure, it could lead to catastrophic complications including major skull base injuries which result in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leaks. We describe two different cases of traumatic CSF leaks following septoplasty/septorhinoplasty at two different sites. The first patient suffered a CSF leak following septoplasty and presented to Alexandria University Hospital. The leak was still active at presentation and identified as coming from a defect in the roof of the sphenoid sinus and was repaired surgically. The second patient presented 4 days after her cosmetic septorhinoplasty with a CSF leak and significant pneumocephalus. She was managed conservatively. Understanding the anatomical variations of the paranasal sinuses and implementing proper surgical techniques are crucial in preventing intracranial complications when performing either septoplasty or septorhinoplasty. A good quality computed tomography of the nose and paranasal sinuses is a valuable investigation to avoid major complications especially CSF leaks following either procedure.


Subject(s)
Cerebrospinal Fluid Leak , Cerebrospinal Fluid Rhinorrhea , Cerebrospinal Fluid , Diabetes Insipidus , Ear , Humans , Nasal Obstruction , Nose , Paranasal Sinuses , Pharynx , Pneumocephalus , Rhinoplasty , Skull Base , Sphenoid Sinus
15.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-728856

ABSTRACT

Spontaneous intracranial hypotension in childhood is rare, and a few cases have been reported as a cause of headache in children. A 9-year-old boy was admitted to our hospital with a 3-day history of new-onset headache that worsened upon standing or walking, and aggravating low back pain. No medical history of injury, connective tissue disorder or migraine was detected. A neurological examination revealed neck stiffness. His initial blood tests suggested acute kidney injury by increased blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and creatinine. Brain computed tomography (CT) and cerebral spinal fluid (CSF) analysis were normal: however, opening pressure was low (< 60 mm H₂O). Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the spine showed a collection of cerebral spinal fluid in the dorsal extradural space throughout the entire thoracic and lumbar spine level. The patient was diagnosed as having spontaneous intracranial hypotension accompanied by acute kidney injury. Magnetic resonance myelography and spinal MRI performed 14 days later did not show any cerebrospinal fluid leak. The headache and back pain were alleviated with strict bed rest and hydration. He remained free of headache and back pain at the 2-month follow-up. Here, we report a case of a 9-year-old boy with spontaneous intracranial hypotension.


Subject(s)
Acute Kidney Injury , Back Pain , Bed Rest , Blood Urea Nitrogen , Brain , Cerebrospinal Fluid Leak , Child , Connective Tissue , Creatinine , Follow-Up Studies , Headache , Hematologic Tests , Humans , Intracranial Hypotension , Low Back Pain , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Male , Migraine Disorders , Myelography , Neck , Neurologic Examination , Spine , Walking
16.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-970794

ABSTRACT

"Introducción: La rinoliquia resulta de una comunicación entre el espacio subarac¬noideo y las barreras de la cavidad nasal, lo que conlleva un riesgo de neuroinfección por paso de bacterias de las cavidades nasales al espacio intracraneal. Para su manejo existen técnicas extra e intracraneales. Sin embargo, las técnicas de cierre endoscó¬pico endonasal han ganado popularidad en los últimos años. Objetivo: Describir las características clínicas y quirúrgicas de una serie de casos con diagnóstico de fístula de líquido cefalorraquídeo manejados con cierre endoscópico endonasal en dos hos¬pitales de III nivel. Diseño: Estudio observacional descriptivo tipo serie de casos. Metodología: Se estudiaron 20 pacientes con diagnóstico de fístula de líquido ce¬falorraquídeo (LCR) llevados a manejo endoscópico endonasal. Se registraron sus antecedentes demográficos, forma de presentación, etiología, técnica quirúrgica, seguimiento, tasa de éxito y complicaciones. Resultados: El 60% de los pacien¬tes presentaba alguna comorbilidad asociada, principalmente meningitis recurrente. Todos los pacientes fueron estudiados mediante alguna imagen radiológica, princi¬palmente tomografía axial computarizada de alta resolución. El cierre endoscópico endonasal tuvo un porcentaje de éxito del 75% en la primera cirugía y una tasa del 100% para la cirugía revisional. La única complicación postoperatoria reportada fue meningitis. Conclusiones: Basados en la presente serie de casos y en la literatura disponible, el abordaje endoscópico endonasal para el cierre de fístulas de líquido cefalorraquídeo es un procedimiento bien tolerado para la mayoría de pacientes, con un porcentaje de cierre primario superior al 75% y secundario mayor del 95% en la mayoría de los casos. "


"Introduction: Cerebrospinal fluid rhinorrhea results from a communication between the subarachnoid space and the barriers of the nasal cavity, which carries a risk of neuroinfectious diseases by passage of bacteria from the nasal cavities to the intra¬cranial space. There are extra and intracranial techniques for its treatment. However, endonasal endoscopic closure techniques have gained popularity in recent years. Objective: To describe the clinical and surgical characteristics of patients with diag¬nosis of cerebrospinal fluid leak, managed with endonasal endoscopic repair in two III level hospitals. Design: Case series study. Methods: 20 patients diagnosed with cerebrospinal fluid leak and treated by endonasal endoscopic management were studied. Their demographic background, presentation, etiology, surgical technique, monitoring, success rate and complications were recorded. Results: 60% of patients had comorbid conditions, especially recurrent meningitis. All patients were studied by a radiological image, mostly high-resolution computed tomography. The endona¬sal endoscopic repair had a success rate of 75% in the first attempt and 100% success for revisional surgery. The only postoperative complication reported was meningitis. Conclusions: Based on this case of series, and the available literature, endonasal en¬doscopic repair of cerebrospinal fluid leak is well tolerated for most patients, with a percentage of primary and secondary closure more than 75% and 95%, respectively, in most case of series."


Subject(s)
Humans , Cerebrospinal Fluid Leak , Natural Orifice Endoscopic Surgery , Fistula , Nasal Cavity
17.
Journal of Rhinology ; : 123-129, 2018.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-718261

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Endoscopic repair of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leak can avoid morbidity of open approaches and has shown a favorable success rate. Free mucosal graft is a good method, and multi-layered repair is more favorable. The inferior turbinate has been commonly utilized for the free mucosal graft, but we newly designed it as a bone-periosteal-mucosal composite graft for multilayered reconstruction. SUBJECTS AND METHOD: Four subjects with a skull base defect were treated with this method. The inferior turbinate was partially resected including the conchal bone and was trimmed according to defect size. Both bony parts and periosteum were preserved on the basolateral side of the mucosa as a composite graft. The graft was applied to the defect site using an overlay technique. RESULTS: All cases were successfully repaired without any complications. Three of them had a defect size greater than 10–12 mm, and the graft stably repaired the CSF leakage. CONCLUSIONS: Endoscopic repair of CSF leakage using inferior turbinate composite graft is a simple and easy method and would be favorable for defect sizes greater than 10 mm.


Subject(s)
Cerebrospinal Fluid Leak , Cerebrospinal Fluid , Methods , Mucous Membrane , Periosteum , Skull Base , Transplants , Turbinates
18.
Singapore medical journal ; : 257-263, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-687891

ABSTRACT

<p><b>INTRODUCTION</b>Postoperative cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leak is a serious complication following transsphenoidal surgery for which elevated body mass index (BMI) has been implicated as a risk factor, albeit only in two recent North American studies. Given the paucity of evidence, we sought to determine if this association holds true in an Asian population, where the BMI criteria for obesity differ from the international standard.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>A retrospective study of 119 patients who underwent 123 transsphenoidal procedures for sellar lesions between May 2000 and May 2012 was conducted. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed to investigate the impact of elevated BMI and other risk factors on postoperative CSF leak.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>10 (8.1%) procedures in ten patients were complicated by postoperative CSF leak. The median BMI of patients with postoperative leak following transsphenoidal procedures was significantly higher than that of patients without postoperative CSF leak (27.0 kg/m vs. 24.6 kg/m; p = 0.018). Patients categorised as either moderate or high risk under the Asian BMI classification were more likely to suffer from a postoperative leak (p = 0.030). Repeat procedures were also found to be significantly associated with postoperative CSF leak (p = 0.041).</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>Elevated BMI is predictive of postoperative CSF leak following transsphenoidal procedures, even in an Asian population, where the definition of obesity differs from international standards. Thus, BMI should be considered in the clinical decision-making process prior to such procedures.</p>


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Anthropometry , Asian Continental Ancestry Group , Body Mass Index , Body Weight , Cerebrospinal Fluid Leak , Diagnosis , Cerebrospinal Fluid Rhinorrhea , Diagnosis , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Multivariate Analysis , Neurosurgical Procedures , Obesity , Classification , Postoperative Complications , Postoperative Period , Regression Analysis , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Singapore , Young Adult
19.
Rev. otorrinolaringol. cir. cabeza cuello ; 77(4): 373-379, dic. 2017. tab, ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-902790

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN Introducción: La elaboración de colgajos ha representado un cambio en reconstrucción de defectos resultantes de exéresis de tumoraciones de base de cráneo. No siempre indispensables, existen circunstancias, planificados o no, donde debemos emplearlos. Preservando los pedículos de la mucosa, damos cobertura a urgencias intraquirúrgicas, como fístula LCR no sospechada, así como reintervenciones. Objetivo: Presentar nuestra experiencia en pacientes, a quienes hemos realizado colgajo tipo rescue flap. Material y método: Se diseña este colgajo, sin comprometer su pedículo. En caso de fístula, sospecha de ésta o herniación del diafragma selar, se extiende, cubriendo el defecto. Resultados: De 34 pacientes intervenidos de patología hipofisaria endoscópicamente, en 18 diseñamos colgajo tipo rescue flap. 12 casos se elaboraron, no utilizándolos. En 4 pacientes con extenso tumores lo empleamos preventivamente. En 1 caso, de reintervención, previamente con colgajo Hadad izquierdo, realizamos colgajo de mucosa contralateral. En otro, diseñamos un rescue flap derecho, al objetivar salida de LCR, sellamos con este colgajo. No evidenciamos fístulas. Discusión: Esta técnica consiste en levantar parcialmente mucosa del potencial colgajo, preservando su pedículo, pudiendo utilizarse en casos de fístula LCR no programada, o reintervenciones. Sin realizar colgajos innecesariamente. Conclusión: La técnica rescue flap favorece un corredor quirúrgico, menos invasivo, manteniendo mucosa para eventuales reintervenciones.


ABSTRACT Introduction: The development of flaps has represented a change in reconstruction of defects resulting from excision of skull base tumors. It not always indispensable, there are circumstances, planned or not, where we must use them. Preserving the pedicles of the mucosa, we cover intraoperative emergencies, such as unsuspected CSF fistula, as well as reinterventions. Aim: We present our experience where we performed rescue flap. Material and method: This flap is designed without compromising its pedicle. In case of fistula, suspicion of this or herniation of the selar diaphragm, it extends, covering the defect. Results: Of 34 patients who underwent endoscopic surgery for pituitary pathology, in 18 we designed a rescue flap. 12 cases were made, not using them. In 4 patients with extensive tumors we used it preventively. In 1 case, of reintervention previously with left Hadad flap, we performed contralateral mucosa flap. In another, we designed a right rescue flap, when we observed LCR output, we seal with this flap. We did not show fistulas. Discussion: This technique consists in partially lifting the mucosa of the potential flap, preserving its pedicle, and may be used in cases of unscheduled CSF fistula, or reinterventions. Without flapping unnecessarily. Conclusions: The Rescue Flap technique favors a less invasive surgical corridor, maintaining mucosa for posible reinterventions.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Pituitary Neoplasms/surgery , Surgical Flaps , Adenoma/surgery , Reconstructive Surgical Procedures/methods , Skull Base/surgery , Endoscopy/methods , Cerebrospinal Fluid Leak/prevention & control
20.
Rev. otorrinolaringol. cir. cabeza cuello ; 77(4): 449-455, dic. 2017. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-902802

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN Las fístulas de líquido cefalorraquídeo (LCR) corresponden a una comunicación anómala entre el espacio subaracnoideo y la cavidad nasal. El origen de las fístulas laterales del seno esfenoidal se encuentra en un defecto congénito de la base del cráneo, con una incompleta o prematura fusión de los componentes óseos implicados en el complejo proceso de osificación del esfenoides. Ello origina un canal sin cobertura ósea, solo cubierto por tejido conectivo, denominado canal craneofaríngeo lateral o de Sternberg. Este es un punto débil donde pueden aparecer encefaloceles y/o fístulas, su ubicación lateral en el seno constituyen una zona de difícil abordaje quirúrgico. La reparación quirúrgica de fístulas de LCR ha progresado drásticamente con el desarrollo de ópticas endoscópicas y la mejora en el conocimiento de la anatomía de la base de cráneo. Los endoscopios permiten una visualización directa, localización del defecto y por ende una reparación precisa que traduce menos recidivas y menor morbilidad asociada a accesos transcraneales realizados previamente. El propósito de este artículo es presentar el caso de paciente con fístula del receso lateral del seno esfenoidal, su reparación endoscópica y discusión del origen de la persistencia del canal de Sternberg como causa del defecto.


ABSTRACT Fístulas liquid cerebrospinal (CSF) correspond to an abnormal communication between the subarachnoid space and the nasal cavity. The origin of lateral fístulas of the sphenoid sinus is a congenital defect of the skull base, with an incomplete or premature fusion of bone components involved in the complex process of ossification of sphenoid. This originates a channel without bone coverage, only covered by connective tissue, called channel craneofaringeo or Sternberg channel. This is a weak point where may appear encephaloceles and/or fístula, the lateral location in sinus is a difficult surgical approach. Surgical repair of fístulas of CSF has progressed dramatically with the development of endoscopic optics and the improvement in the knowledge of the anatomy of the skull base. Endoscopes enable a direct visualization, location of the defect and thus accurate reparation and less morbidity associated with transcraneales accesses made previously. The purpose of this article is to present the case of patient with fístula of the lateral recess of the sphenoid sinus, endoscopic repair and discussion of the origin of the persistence of the channel of Sternberg as a cause of the defect.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Sphenoid Sinus/diagnostic imaging , Cerebrospinal Fluid Leak/etiology , Cerebrospinal Fluid Leak/diagnostic imaging , Sphenoid Sinus/pathology , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Cerebrospinal Fluid Leak/surgery
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