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Hematol., Transfus. Cell Ther. (Impr.) ; 45(2): 188-195, Apr.-June 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1448354


ABSTRACT Introduction Oncohematological patients require the evaluation for possible infiltration of the central nervous system (CNS) by neoplastic cells at diagnosis and/or during the monitoring of the chemotherapeutic treatment. Morphological analysis using conventional microscopy is considered the method of choice to evaluate the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples, despite technical limitations. Objective This study aimed to compare the performance of the cytomorphology and flow cytometric immunophenotyping (FC) in the detection of CNS infiltration. Method We evaluated 520 CSF samples collected from 287 oncohematological patients for whom the detection of neoplastic cells was simultaneously requested by cytomorphology and FC. Results Laboratory analyses revealed 435/520 (83.7%) conclusive results by the two methods evaluated, among which 385 (88.5%) were concordant. Discordance between the methods was observed in 50/435 (11.5%) samples, 45 (90%) being positive by FC. Furthermore, the FC defined the results in 69/72 (95.8%) inconclusive samples by cytomorphology. The positivity of FC was particularly higher among hypocellular samples. Among 431 samples with a cell count of < 5/μL, the FC identified neoplastic cells in 75 (17.4%), while the cytomorphology reported positive results in 26 (6%). Among the samples that presented adequate cell recovery for evaluation by both methods (506/520), the comparative analysis between FC and cytomorphology revealed a Kappa coefficient of 0.45 (CI: 0.37-0.52), interpreted as a moderate agreement. Conclusion The data showed that the CSF analysis by FC helps in the definition of CNS infiltration by neoplastic cells, particularly in the cases with dubious morphological analysis or in the evaluation of samples with low cellularity.

Humans , Male , Female , Hematologic Neoplasms , Flow Cytometry , Patients , Central Nervous System , Cerebrospinal Fluid
Acta Physiologica Sinica ; (6): 197-204, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-980997


The purpose of this study was to establish a suitable method for extracting cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) from C57BL/6 mice. A patch clamp electrode puller was used to draw a glass micropipette, and a brain stereotaxic device was used to fix the mouse's head at an angle of 135° from the body. Under a stereoscopic microscope, the skin and muscle tissue on the back of the mouse's head were separated, and the dura mater at the cerebellomedullary cistern was exposed. The glass micropipette (with an angle of 20° to 30° from the dura mater) was used to puncture at a point 1 mm inboard of Y-shaped dorsal vertebral artery for CSF sampling. After the first extraction, the glass micropipette was connected with a 1 mL sterile syringe to form a negative pressure device for the second extraction. The results showed that the successful rate of CSF extraction was 83.33% (30/36). Average CSF extraction amount was (7.16 ± 0.43) μL per mouse. In addition, C57BL/6 mice were given intranasally ferric ammonium citrate (FAC) to establish a model of brain iron accumulation, and the CSF extraction technique established in the present study was used for sampling. The results showed that iron content in the CSF from the normal saline control group was not detected, while the iron content in the CSF from FAC-treated group was (76.24 ± 38.53) μmol/L, and the difference was significant. These results suggest that glass micropipette vacuum technique of CSF sampling established in the present study has the advantages of simplicity, high success rate, large extraction volume, and low bleeding rate, and is suitable for the research on C57BL/6 mouse neurological disease models.

Mice , Animals , Vacuum , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Cisterna Magna , Brain , Cerebrospinal Fluid
Actual. SIDA. infectol ; 30(110): 20-27, 20220000. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1413684


Antecedentes: El recuento de unidades formadoras de colonia (UFC) de Cryptococcus en el líquido cefalorraquídeo (LCR) sería un marcador fiable para el pronóstico del paciente y una herramienta simple y económica. Objetivo: Evaluar la utilidad del recuento de UFC de Cryptococcus spp. y compararlo con las variaciones de antígeno capsular de Cryptococcus (AgCr) en LCR.Materiales y métodos: Se realizó la revisión de historias clínicas de pacientes con meningoencefalitis por Cryptococcus asociada con el sida en nuestro centro, entre febrero de 2016 y julio de 2020. Se evaluaron los valores de UFC y AgCr en LCR durante la evolución de la micosis. Resultados y discusión: Se analizaron datos de 94 episodios clínicos de 85 pacientes, con un total de 297 observaciones de muestras de LCR. Se evidenció el valor del recuento de UFC por ser un marcador de viabilidad y de carga fúngica. El recuento de UFC bajo no necesariamente coexistió con un nivel bajo de AgCr. Con respecto a la evolución en el tiempo, la mayoría de los pacientes fueron diagnosticados con una alta carga fúngica y su descenso ocurrió más rápido que el del AgCr, por lo que reflejaría la mejora del paciente, permitiendo tomar conductas al respecto.Palabras clave: Criptococosis, carga fúngica, ufc/mL.

Background. The Cryptococcus' colony-forming unit (CFU) count in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) would be a reliable marker for patient prognosis and a simple and inexpensive tool. Objectives: To evaluate the usefulness of the CFU count of Cryptococcus spp. And to compare it with the variations of Cryptococcus' capsular antigen (CrAg) in CSF.Materials and methods. Clinical records of patients with aids-related meningoencephalitis caused by Cryptococcusassisted in our center between February 2016 and July 2020 were reviewed. CFU count and CrAg values in CSF were evaluated during the evolution of the mycosis.Results and Discussion. Data from 94 clinical episodes of 85 patients with a total of 297 observations of CSF samples were analyzed.The importance of using the CFU count was evidenced as it is a viability and fungal load marker.Low CFU count did not necessarily coexist with low CrAg.Regarding the evolution over time, most of the patients were diagnosed with a high fungal load and its decrease occurred faster than that the one of AgCr. This would reflect the improvement of the patient, allowing behaviors to be taken in this regard

Humans , Male , Female , Colony Count, Microbial , Cerebrospinal Fluid/immunology , Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome/immunology , Cryptococcosis/immunology , Antigens
Rev. bras. ciênc. vet ; 29(4): 175-181, out./dez. 2022. il.
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1427109


In research and academic activities, guidelines are essential and imperative especially on the use of animals. Alternative methods that do not bring academic or scientific harm should also be sought. This study aimed to develop a training model for the collection of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and myelography in the cervical and lumbar regions in cadavers of embalmed dogs, using an alcoholic solution and curing salts for fixation and conservation. The dogs were divided into 4 grups of 8 animal each and stored between 2ºC and 6ºC, for 30, 60, 90, or 120 days. Durotomy was performed to implant two urethral catheters (one in the cranial direction and another in the caudal direction to the spinal cord access site), in the subduraracnoid space. This space was fixed via manual infusion of saline solution with a 20-mL syringe to simulate the presence of the CSF and the positive pressure, while the puncture was made. Four cadavers of each group were randomly selected for the CSF puncture from the atlantooccipital joint and in the lumbar region between L5 and L6, respectively, and four were used for CSF puncture training, in which radiographic contrast (myelography) was injected in the same locations. This model was cost-effective, did not utilize toxic products, and can preserve cadavers for up to 120 days. In this novel anatomical model, a maximum of 15 students can be trained on CSF puncture, allowing cervical and lumbar myelography and at least 30 perforations per cadaver.

É essencial e imperioso ter critério quanto ao uso de animais em pesquisa e atividades de ensino e, consequentemente, buscar métodos alternativos que não causem prejuízo acadêmico ou científico. Para que não ocorra deterioração dos tecidos, a fixação e conservação de peças anatômicas e cadáveres devem ser realizadas. Objetivou-se, com este estudo, desenvolver um modelo anatômico para treinamento de colheita de líquido cerebroespinhal (LCE) e mielografia, nas regiões cervical e lombar. Os cães foram divididos em quatro grupos contendo oito animais cada e armazenados entre 2ºC e 6ºC, por 30, 60, 90 ou 120 dias. Foi realizada durotomia para implantação de duas sondas uretrais, no espaço subaracnóide. A infusão manual de solução fisiológica com seringa de 20 mL foi utilizada para simular a presença do LCE e a pressão positiva, enquanto era feita a punção. Quatro cadáveres de cada grupo foram selecionados para a punção de LCE na articulação atlantooccipital e na região lombar entre L5 e L6, e quatro foram utilizados para o treinamento da punção de LCE e injeção de contraste radiográfico (mielografia). A técnica anatômica empregada possibilitou o desenvolvimento de um modelo visando ao ensino e pesquisa da radiologia em cadáveres de cães quimicamente preparados, a custo baixo e sem utilização de produtos tóxicos, mantidos sob refrigeração por 120 dias. Com isso, um máximo de 15 alunos podem ser treinados em punção do LCR, permitindo mielografia cervical e lombar com 30 perfurações por cadáver.

Animals , Dogs , Spinal Puncture/veterinary , Cadaver , Myelography/veterinary , Radiography/veterinary , Cerebrospinal Fluid , Dogs/anatomy & histology , Models, Anatomic
Arq. ciências saúde UNIPAR ; 26(2): 135-145, maio-ago. 2022.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1372966


A meningite bacteriana é uma inflamação das leptomeninges que envolvem o Sistema Nervoso Central. Essa patologia, que possui diversos agentes etiológicos, apresenta-se na forma de síndrome, com quadro clínico grave. Entre as principais bactérias que causam a meningite, estão a Neisseria meningitis e Streptococcus pneumoniae. A transmissão ocorre através das vias aéreas por meio de gotículas, sendo a corrente sanguínea a principal rota para as bactérias chegarem à barreira hematoencefálica e, a partir dessa, até as meninges. Atualmente existem vários métodos de diagnóstico precisos, onde a cultura de líquido cefalorraquidiano (LCR) é o método padrão ouro. Ademais, a melhora na qualidade do tratamento com beta-lactâmicos e a maior possibilidade de prevenção, devido à elevação do número e da eficácia de vacinas, vem contribuindo para redução dos casos da doença e de sua gravidade. Porém, apesar desses avanços, ainda há um elevado número de mortalidades e sequelas causadas por essa síndrome.

Bacterial meningitis is an inflammation of the leptomeninges that surround the Central Nervous System. This pathology, which has several etiological agents, is presented as a syndrome with a severe clinical scenario. The main bacteria causing meningitis include Neisseria meningitis and Streptococcus pneumoniae. It can be transmitted by droplets through the airways, with the bacteria using the bloodstream as the main route to reach the blood-brain barrier, and from there to the meninges. There are currently several accurate diagnostic methods, with CSF culture being the gold standard. In addition, the improvement in the quality of beta-lactam treatment and the greater possibility of prevention due to the increased number and effectiveness of vaccines have contributed to reducing the number of cases and severity of the disease. Nevertheless, despite these advances, this syndrome still presents a high number of mortalities and sequelae.

Pregnancy , Child, Preschool , Child , Aged , Cerebrospinal Fluid , Meningitis, Bacterial/diagnosis , Meningitis, Bacterial/therapy , Streptococcus pneumoniae/pathogenicity , Syndrome , Bacteria/classification , Meningitis, Bacterial/drug therapy , beta-Lactams/therapeutic use , Gram-Negative Bacteria , Gram-Positive Bacteria , Meningitis, Pneumococcal/drug therapy , Neisseria/pathogenicity
Acta bioquím. clín. latinoam ; 56(2): 139-148, abr. 2022. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1402951


Resumen La ferritina es una proteína de gran tamaño que se encuentra fisiológicamente en el líquido cefalorraquídeo (LCR) en concentraciones de 2-10 ng/mL. Su elevación puede utilizarse como biomarcador en distintas condiciones patológicas. El procedimiento de validación tradicional para la medición en LCR no puede ser utilizado debido a la ausencia de controles y calibradores comerciales para esta matriz. El objetivo de este trabajo fue llevar a cabo una validación analítica de ferritina en LCR. Se realizaron ensayos de estimación de precisión y veracidad mediante el protocolo EP15-A3, linealidad por el protocolo EP6-A (ambos de la guía de la CLSI), recuperación, estabilidad, contaminación por arrastre, interferencia por hemólisis y bilirrubina y límite de detección (LoD). La ferritina en LCR en el autoanalizador DxI 800 de Beckman Coulter tuvo una performance intra e interensayo <3,7%, el ensayo denota linealidad en el intervalo de 2,1-547 ng/mL; se estableció estabilidad por un período de 5 días y la recuperación resultó ser aceptable. No se evidenció efecto de contaminación por arrastre ni interferencia por hemólisis hasta un rango entre 300-500 mg/dL de hemoglobina, ni interferencia por bilirrubina hasta una concentración de 16,0 mg/dL de bilirrubina total. El LoD fue de 0,4 ng/mL. Por medio de los ensayos realizados se logró validar la ferritina en LCR a partir de la utilización de pools de muestras, lo que pudo garantizar la confiabilidad y exactitud del método analítico.

Abstract Ferritin is a large protein physiologically present in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in concentrations of 2-10 ng/mL. Its elevation can be used as a biomarker in several pathological conditions. The traditional validation procedure for measurement in CSF cannot be used due to the absence of commercial controls and calibrators for this matrix. The objective of the present study was to perform CSF ferritin analytical validation. Assays such as precision and accuracy estimation through the EP15-A3 protocol, linearity according to the EP6-A protocol (both from the CLSI guidelines), recovery, stability, carry-over, hemolysis and bilirubin interference and limit of detection (LoD) were conducted. Serum samples with different concentrations of ferritin were added to aliquots of a normal CSF pool. CSF ferritin in the Beckman Coulter DxI 800 had a <3.7% intra and inter-assay performance, the assay shows linearity in the 2.1 -547 ng/mL interval, stability was established for a 5-day period and the recovery was acceptable. There was neither carry-over effect or hemolysis interference up to a range of 300-500 mg/dL of hemoglobin, nor interference by bilirubin up to 16.0 mg/dL of total bilirubin. The LoD was 0.4 ng/mL. By means of the performed assays, CSF ferritin was validated by using sample pools, thereby ensuring the reliability and accuracy of the analytical method.

Resumo A ferritina é uma grande proteína fisiologicamente encontrada no líquido cefalorraquidiano (LCR) em concentrações de 2 a 10 ng/mL. Sua elevação pode ser usada como biomarcador em diferentes condições patológicas. O procedimento de validação tradicional para medição no LCR não pode ser usado devido à ausência de controles e calibradores comerciais para esta matriz. O objetivo deste estudo foi realizar uma validação analítica da ferritina no LCR. Foram realizados estudos de precisão e veracidade utilizando o protocolo EP15-A3, linearidade pelo protocolo EP6-A (ambos das diretrizes do CLSI), recuperação, estabilidade, contaminação transportada, interferência de hemólise e bilirrubina e limite de detecção (LoD). A ferritina no LCR no DxI 800 da Beckman Coulter teve um desempenho intra e inter-ensaio <3,7%, o ensaio denota linearidade na faixa de 2,1-547 ng/mL, a estabilidade foi estabelecida em um período de 5 dias e a recuperação foi considerado aceitável. Nenhum efeito de transporte ou interferência por hemólise foi evidenciado até um intervalo entre 300-500 mg/dL de hemoglobina, nem interferência pela bilirrubina até uma concentração de 16,0 mg/dL de bilirrubina total. O LoD foi de 0,4 ng/mL. Através dos testes realizados, a ferritina no LCR foi validada, com base no uso de pool de amostras, o que poderia garantir a confiabilidade e a acurácia do método analítico.

Cerebrospinal Fluid , Ferritins , Bilirubin , Hemoglobins , Proteins , Lifting , Essay , Serum , Efficiency , Environmental Pollution , Hemolysis , Methods
Acta bioquím. clín. latinoam ; 56(1): 3-9, ene. 2022. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1402941


Resumen El método de referencia para el estudio bioquímico de la esclerosis múltiple (EM) es el isoelectroenfoque (IEE) y la evaluación de las cadenas livianas libres (CLL) podría brindar una información adicional de relevancia. Por lo tanto, se propone evaluar la presencia de las CLL y la aplicabilidad de los estados de polimerización en el estudio de la EM. Se puso a punto un método compuesto por una separación electroforética en gel de poliacrilamida al 12,5% con posterior electrotransferencia (PAGE-WB) y se realizó la evaluación de 121 pacientes con sospecha de EM en simultáneo al IEE. Los patrones de PAGE-WB relacionados con la EM fueron el aumento de la concentración de monómeros Kappa o dímeros Lambda en líquido cefalorraquídeo (LCR) en comparación con el suero. Este método tuvo una muy alta significación de asociación con el IEE (p<0,0001) con sensibilidad del 95%, especificidad del 90%, VPP 83% y VPN 97%. La síntesis intratecal de CLL quedó evidenciada por el aumento de intensidad del monómero Kappa y/o el dímero Lambda observado en LCR. La técnica de PAGE-WB para CLL demostró ser un método alternativo para detectar la síntesis intratecal en pacientes con sospecha de EM.

Abstract The reference method for the biochemical study of multiple sclerosis (MS) is isoelectric focusing (IEF) and the evaluation of free light chains (FLC) could provide additional information of relevance. Therefore, it is proposed here to evaluate the presence of FLC and the applicability of the polymerisation states in the study of MS. A method consisting of a 12.5% polyacrylamide gel electrophoretic separation with a subsequent electrotransfer (PAGE-WB) was developed and the evaluation of 121 patients with suspected MS was carried out simultaneously with the IEF. MS-related PAGE-WB patterns were the increase in the concentration of Kappa monomers or Lambda dimers in CSF compared to serum. This method had a very high significance of association with the IEF (p<0.0001) with 95% sensitivity, 90% specificity, 83% PPV and 97% NPV. Intrathecal synthesis of FLC was evidenced by the increased intensity of the Kappa monomers and/or Lambda dimers observed in CSF. The PAGE-WB technique for FLC proved to be an alternative method to detect intrathecal synthesis in patients with suspected MS.

Resumo O método de referência para o estudo bioquímico da esclerose múltipla (EM) é a focalização isoelétrica (IEE) e a avaliação de cadeias leves livres (CLL) poderiam fornecer informações adicionais de relevância. Assim, propõe-se avaliar a presença das CLL e a aplicabilidade dos estados de polimerização no estudo de EM. Foi desenvolvido um método que consiste na separação eletroforética em gel de poliacrilamida a 12,5% com posterior eletrotranferência (PAGE-WB) e a avaliação de 121 pacientes com suspeita de EM foi realizada paralelamente à IEE. Os padrões de PAGE-WB relacionados com a EM foram o aumento na concentração de monômeros Kappa ou dímeros Lambda em líquido cefalorraquidiano (LCR) em comparação com o soro. Este método teve uma associação de significância muito alta com o IEE (p<0,0001) com sensibilidade de 95%, especificidade de 90%, VPP 83% e VPN 97%. A síntese intratecal de CLL foi evidenciada pelo aumento de intensidade do monômero Kappa e/ou dímero Lambda observado em LCR. A técnica PAGE-WB para CLL mostrou-se um método alternativo para detectar a síntese intratecal em pacientes com suspeita de EM.

Oligoclonal Bands , Multiple Sclerosis , Reference Standards , Referral and Consultation , Association , Cerebrospinal Fluid , Sensitivity and Specificity , Serum , Polymerization , Isoelectric Focusing
Int. j. morphol ; 40(2): 304-313, 2022. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1385602


SUMMARY: Myodural bridges (MDB) are anatomical connections between the suboccipital muscles and the cervical dura mater which pass through both the atlanto-occipital and the atlanto-axial interspaces in mammals. In our previous studies, we found that the MDB exists in seven terrestrial mammal species, two marine mammal species, two reptilian species, and one bird species. A recent study suggested that given the "ubiquity" of myodural bridges in terrestrial vertebrates, the MDB may also exist in snakes. Specifically, we focused on the Gloydius shedaoensis, a species of Agkistrodon (pit viper snake) that is only found on Shedao Island, which is in the southeastern sea of Dalian City in China. Six head and neck cadaveric specimens of Gloydius shedaoensis were examined. Three specimens were used for anatomical dissection and the remaining three cadaveric specimens were utilized for histological analysis. The present study confirmed the existence of the MDB in the Gloydius shedaoensis. The snake's spinalis muscles originated from the posterior edge of the supraoccipital bones and the dorsal facet of the exocciput, and then extended on both sides of the spinous processes of the spine, merging with the semispinalis muscles. On the ventral aspect of this muscular complex, it gave off fibers of the MDB. These MDB fibers twisted around the posterior margin of the exocciput and then passed through the atlanto-occipital interspace, finally terminating on the dura mater. We observed that the MDB also existed in all of the snakes' intervertebral joints. These same histological findings were also observed in the Gloydius brevicaudus, which was used as a control specimen for the Gloydius shedaoensis. In snakes the spinal canal is longer than that observed in most other animals. Considering the unique locomotive style of snakes, our findings contribute to support the hypothesis that the MDB could modulate cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) pulsations.

RESUMEN: Los puentes miodurales (MDB) son conexiones anatómicas entre los músculos suboccipitales y la duramadre cervical que pasan a través de los espacios intermedios atlanto-occipital y atlanto-axial en los mamíferos. En nuestros estudios anteriores, encontramos que el MDB existe en siete especies de mamíferos terrestres, dos especies de mamíferos marinos, dos especies de reptiles y una especie de ave. Un estudio reciente sugirió que dada la "ubicuidad" de los puentes miodurales en los vertebrados terrestres, el MDB también puede existir en las serpientes. Específicamente, nos enfocamos en Gloydius shedaoensis, una especie de Agkistrodon (serpiente víbora) que solo se encuentra en la isla Shedao, en el mar sureste de la ciudad de Dalian en China. Se examinaron seis especímenes cadavéricos de cabeza y cuello de Gloydius shedaoensis. Se utilizaron tres especímenes para la disección anatómica y los tres especímenes cadavéricos restantes se utilizaron para el análisis histológico. El presente estudio confirmó la existencia del MDB en Gloydius shedaoensis. Los músculos espinosos de la serpiente se originaron en el margen posterior de los huesos supraoccipital y la cara dorsal del exoccipucio, y luego se extendieron a ambos lados de los procesos espinosas de la columna vertebral, fusionándose con los músculos semiespinosos. En la cara ventral de este complejo muscular se desprendían fibras del MDB. Estas fibras MDB se ubican alrededor del margen posterior del exoccipucio y luego atraviesan el interespacio atlanto-occipital, terminando finalmente en la duramadre. Observamos que el MDB también existía en todas las articulaciones intervertebrales de las serpientes. Estos mismos hallazgos histológicos también se observaron en Gloydius brevicaudus, que se utilizó como muestra de control para Gloydius shedaoensis. En las serpientes, el canal espinal es más largo que el observado en la mayoría de los otros animales. Teniendo en cuenta el estilo único locomotor de las serpientes, nuestros hallazgos contribuyen a respaldar la hipótesis de que el MDB podría modular las pulsaciones del líquido cerebroespinal.

Animals , Cerebrospinal Fluid/physiology , Viperidae/anatomy & histology , Connective Tissue , Dura Mater/anatomy & histology , Crotalinae , Anatomy, Comparative
Rev. bras. oftalmol ; 81: e0028, 2022. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1376785


ABSTRACT We report an unusual case of brucellosis presented with headache, diminished vision, papillitis and multiple peripapillary hemorrhages accompanied by subretinal fluid extending up to macula. Diagnosis of brucellosis was made based on positive polymerase chain reaction of cerebrospinal fluid sample for Brucella species DNA, accompanied by a raised titer of anti-brucella antibodies. Patient showed remarkable improvement on triple drug therapy in form of doxycycline, rifampicin and ceftriaxone.

RESUMO Relatamos um caso incomum de brucelose apresentada com cefaleia, visão diminuída, papilite e múltiplas hemorragias peripapilares acompanhadas por fluido sub-retinal, estendendo-se até a mácula. O diagnóstico de brucelose foi feito com base na reação em cadeia da polimerase positiva de amostra de líquido cefalorraquidiano para DNA de espécies de Brucella, acompanhada por um título elevado de anticorpos antibrucela. O paciente apresentou melhora notável com a terapia tripla com drogas na forma de doxiciclina, rifampicina e ceftriaxona.

Humans , Female , Aged , Brucellosis/diagnosis , Brucellosis/drug therapy , Eye Infections, Bacterial/diagnosis , Eye Infections, Bacterial/drug therapy , Ophthalmoscopy , Rifampin/therapeutic use , Ceftriaxone/therapeutic use , Brucella/isolation & purification , Fluorescein Angiography , Cerebrospinal Fluid/microbiology , Papilledema , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Doxycycline/therapeutic use , Tomography, Optical Coherence
Health sci. dis ; 23(7): 29-33, 2022. figures, tables
Article in French | AIM | ID: biblio-1379110


Introduction. Les méningites/méningo-encéphalites sont des urgences médicales d'étiologies variées. La technique de diagnostic Multiplex Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) permet de détecter la présence de bactéries et de virus dans le liquide céphalorachidien (LCR) avec une spécificité et une sensibilité ≥ 90%. L'objectif de cette étude était d'identifier en utilisant cette technique, les principaux germes responsables des méningites et méningo-encéphalites en réanimation à Libreville. Patients et méthodes. Nous avons mené une étude transversale allant d'octobre 2020 à septembre 2021. Les critères d'inclusion étaient : être admis en réanimation au CHUL et à l'HIAOBO pour suspicion de méningite ou méningo-encéphalite, obtenir l'accord des familles pour l'analyse du liquide céphalorachidien (LCR) par multiplex PCR. Les variables étudiées étaient : la fréquence, les données sociodémographiques, les aspects cliniques et paracliniques. Résultats. Soixante et onze patients ont répondu aux critères d'inclusion. L'âge moyen était de 21,1 ± 10,4 ans et le sex ratio de 1,2. Les motifs d'admission étaient l'altération de l'état de conscience (77%) et l'état de mal épileptique (21%). Plasmodium falciparum a été retrouvé seul chez 38 patients (53,5%) et associé à Listeria monocytogenes chez 4 patients (1,4%). Les méningo-encéphalites à Herpès simplex virus ont été observées chez 4 patients (1,4%) dont l'âge variait entre 40 ans et moins de 50 ans. Un patient (1,4%) présentait une coinfection à S. épidermidis, flavivirus et alphavirus. Des méningo-encéphalites sans germes ont été observées chez 5 patients (%). Conclusion. Le principal germe responsable de méningoencéphalite en réanimation à Libreville est P. falciparum. Des virus tels que le flavivirus et l'alphavirus non détectés par les méthodes usuelles ont aussi été mis en évidence grâce au multiplex PCR.

Introduction. Meningitis/meningoencephalitis are medical emergencies of various etiologies. The Multiplex Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) technique allows the detection of the presence of bacteria and viruses in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) with a specificity and sensibility of above 90%. The aim of this study was to identify the most common germs responsible for meningitis and meningoencephalitis in the intensive care units of Libreville using this technique,. Patients and methods. We conducted a transversal study from October 2020 to September 2021. Inclusion criteria were: being admitted to intensive care unit of CHUL and HIAOBO for suspicion of meningitis or meningoencephalitis and having the parent's approval for multiplex PCR analysis of CSF. Variables studied included frequency, sociodemographic data, clinical and paraclinical aspects. Results. Seventy one patients were included. Mean age was 21.1 ± 10.4 years and the sex ratio was 1.2. Reasons for admission were altered consciousness (77%) and epilepsy (21%). Plasmodium (P) faciparum was detected alone in 38 cases (53.5%) and associated to Listeria monocytogenes in 4 patients (5.6%). Herpex simplex viral meningoencephalitis was observed in 4 patients (5.6%) aged between 40 and less than 50 years. One patient (1.4%) had co-infection with S. epidermidis, flavivirus and alphavirus. Meningoencephalitis with no germs was found in 5 patients (7%). Conclusion. The main etiology of meningoencephalitis in intensive care units of Libreville is P. falciparum. Viruses not detected by usual methods like flavivirus and alphavirus were detected by multiplex PCR.

Humans , Male , Female , Cerebrospinal Fluid , Multiplex Polymerase Chain Reaction , Meningitis , Meningoencephalitis , Diagnosis , Emergency Medical Services
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928678


OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the prognostic value of serum and cerebrospinal fluid β2-microglobulin (β2-MG) in acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) with central nervous system invasion after chemotherapy.@*METHODS@#40 patients with leukemia who had been confirmed to have central nervous system infiltration were selected for treatment at the Second Affiliated Hospital of Chongqing Medical University from January 2015 to May 2017, and the serum levels of β2-MG and CSF-β2MG were dynamically monitored and performed statistical analysis.@*RESULTS@#After chemotherapy, the changes in serum β2-MG were not statistically significant (P>0.05); the absolute level of CSF-β2MG and the percentage of relative baseline changes were statistically different in different clinical outcome groups(P<0.05), and the decreasing CSF-β2MG levels suggest a better prognosis, with cut-off values of 1.505 and -25%, respectively.@*CONCLUSION@#The best cut-off point may be a predictor of complete remission; the reduction of the absolute and relative levels of CSF-β2MG can suggest a good prognosis for patients.

Humans , Central Nervous System , Cerebrospinal Fluid , Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma , Prognosis , Remission Induction , beta 2-Microglobulin
Biomédica (Bogotá) ; 41(4): 625-630, oct.-dic. 2021. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1355737


Resumen | Como los otros herpesvirus alfa, el virus de la varicela-zóster (VZV) permanece en estado de latencia en los ganglios neurales después de la infección primaria (varicela). La reactivación de una infección latente por VZV en los ganglios de la raíz dorsal, produce el herpes zóster. La erupción que este provoca se caracteriza por lesiones cutáneas metaméricas que se acompañan de dolor neurítico y comprometen con mayor frecuencia a ancianos y sujetos inmunocomprometidos, en especial, aquellos infectados con el virus de la inmunodeficiencia humana (HIV). Las complicaciones que se observan en esta población de pacientes incluyen neumonía, hepatitis y compromiso del sistema nervioso central (meningitis y encefalitis). Varios síndromes clínicos se asocian con el herpes zóster de localización craneal, incluida la parálisis facial periférica y el síndrome de Ramsay-Hunt, el cual constituye la segunda causa de parálisis facial periférica y tiene una gran variedad de presentaciones clínicas. La parálisis facial se presenta en 60 a 90 % de los casos de síndrome de Ramsay-Hunt, puede preceder o aparecer después de las lesiones cutáneas y tiene peor pronóstico que la parálisis de Bell. Se describen aquí dos casos de herpes zóster del ganglio geniculado, con parálisis facial periférica que coincidió con la aparición de las lesiones cutáneas vesiculosas en el conducto auditivo externo y el pabellón auricular (síndrome de Ramsay-Hunt multimetamérico). En ambos casos, se identificó el genoma del VZV mediante PCR en el líquido cefalorraquídeo (LCR).

Abstract | Like other alpha-herpesviruses, the varicella-zoster virus (VZV) remains latent in the neural ganglia following the primary varicella infection. The reactivation of the VZV in the dorsal root ganglia results in herpes zoster. Herpes zoster eruption is characterized by localized cutaneous lesions and neuralgic pain mostly in older and immunocompromised persons, especially those living with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). The most commonly reported complications include VZV pneumonia, meningitis, encephalitis, and hepatitis. Several neurologic syndromes have been described associated with herpes zoster localized in cranial areas including peripheral nerve palsies and the Ramsay-Hunt syndrome, which has a varied clinical presentation and is the second most common cause of peripheral facial paralysis. Facial paralysis in this syndrome occurs in 60 to 90% of cases and it may precede or appear after the cutaneous lesions with a worse prognosis than idiopathic Bell paralysis. Here we present two cases of herpes zoster from the geniculate ganglia with peripheral facial paralysis that appeared simultaneously with vesicular herpetic otic lesions (multimetameric Ramsay-Hunt syndrome). In the two cases, amplifiable varicella-zoster viral DNA was found in the cerebrospinal fluid by RT-PCR Multiplex.

Facial Paralysis , Herpes Zoster , Cerebrospinal Fluid , Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome , HIV
Rev. chil. infectol ; 38(3): 410-416, jun. 2021. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1388241


INTRODUCCIÓN: La tuberculosis (TBC) continúa siendo un problema de salud pública mundial; su forma meníngea conlleva mayor letalidad y secuelas, en particular si se asocia a la infección por VIH/SIDA. OBJETIVO: Describir las características demográficas, presentación clínica, laboratorio y de las imágenes de los pacientes con TBC meníngea (aislamiento de Mycobacterium tuberculosis en LCR), analizando diferencias entre pacientes con y sin infección por VIH/SIDA. PACIENTES Y MÉTODOS: Estudio observacional y descriptivo, retrospectivo, de una serie de casos atendidos en el Hospital Dr. Alejandro Posadas de Buenos Aires, Argentina, desde enero de 2005 hasta diciembre de 2017. RESULTADOS: Se analizaron 36 pacientes, 22 de ellos mujeres, con una mediana de edad de 36,5 años. Veintidós pacientes presentaron co-infección por VIH, todos en estadio SIDA. El tiempo de inicio de síntomas tuvo una mediana 11 días. predominando fiebre, estado de conciencia alterado y cefalea. En el LCR se hallaron linfocitosis, hipoglucorraquia, hiperproteinorraquia y ácido láctico elevado. Se realizó tomografía computada de encéfalo a 34 pacientes, 16 sin alteraciones. En otros 16 se realizó resonancia magnética (RM) cerebral, 9 presentaban trastornos vasculares. La RM fue más sensible para identificar refuerzo meníngeo, trastornos de tipo vasculares, y lesiones de tipo granulomatosas. La mediana de inicio de tratamiento fue de 1 día, con 72,2% recibiendo co-adyuvancia con corticosteroides. La mortalidad observada fue de 27,7% y secuelas hubo en 36,1%. Sólo 5 pacientes requirieron intervención neuro-quirúrgica. CONCLUSIÓN: Siendo la TBC meníngea una afección de alta morbimortalidad, es imperioso asegurar un diagnóstico temprano en su evolución mediante la incorporación de la biología molecular e imagenología (RM) al amplio uso clínico.

BACKGROUND. Tuberculosis (TB) continues to be a global public health problem; its meningeal form leads to greater lethality and sequelae, particularly if it is associated with HIV / AIDS infection. AIM: To describe the demographic characteristics, clinical presentation, laboratory and images of patients with meningeal TB (isolation of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in CSF), analyzing differences between HIV and non-HIV patients. METHODS: We performed an observational and descriptive study, with retrospective analysis of patients attending at the Dr. Alejandro Posadas Hospital, Buenos Aires, since January 2005 to December 2017. RESULTS: Thirty-six patients were analyzed, with 22 women with a median age of 36.5 years. Twenty two patients had HIV coinfection, all in the AIDS stage. The symptom onset time was median 11 days. The predominant ones were fever, altered consciousness and headache. In the cerebrospinal fluid were lymphocitosis, hypoglycorrhachia, hyperproteinorrhachia and high lactic acid, according to previously described findings. Of 34 patients who underwent brain scan, 16 patients had no significant pathological findings. MRI was performed in 16 patients, 9 had vascular disorders. Brain MRI was more sensitive to identify meningeal reinforcement than computerized tomography, vascular disorders, and granulomatous lesions. The median onset of treatment was 1 day, with 72.2% of the total receiving coadjuvants with corticosteroids. Mortality of 27.7% and sequelae in 36.1% were observed. Only 5 patients required neurosurgical intervention. CONCLUSION: Since meningeal TB is a disease with high morbidity and mortality, it is imperative to ensure an early diagnosis in its evolution by incorporating molecular biology and imaging (MRI) into broad clinical use.

Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Young Adult , Tuberculosis, Meningeal/diagnosis , Tuberculosis, Meningeal/epidemiology , HIV Infections/complications , HIV Infections/epidemiology , Tuberculosis, Meningeal/drug therapy , Cerebrospinal Fluid , Retrospective Studies , Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/isolation & purification
Arch. argent. pediatr ; 119(1): e58-e60, feb. 2021.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1147267


El virus SARS-CoV-2, responsable de la pandemia de COVID-19, es un agente infeccioso emergente. El conocimiento tanto de sus mecanismos de infectividad como de las posibles complicaciones y tratamientos específicos es motivo de constante investigación.Para comprender la afectación del sistema nervioso central en los niños, se estudia el comportamiento de este germen basándose en las propiedades neuroinvasivas de ciertos virus respiratorios, el daño neurológico causado por otros coronavirus y las manifestaciones clínicas en adultos con COVID-19.Se describe el caso clínico de un paciente de 2 meses de edad que consultó por un cuadro febril sin foco con detección de SARS-CoV-2 por reacción en cadena de la polimerasa con transcriptasa inversa en secreciones nasofaríngeas y el líquido cefalorraquídeo. Presentó buena evolución, con resolución de la fiebre y sin compromiso ni manifestaciones neurológica

The SARS-CoV-2 virus, responsible for the COVID-19 pandemic, is an emerging infectious agent. The knowledge of both its infectivity mechanisms and the possible complications and specific treatments is the subject of constant research. To understand the involvement of the central nervous system in children, the behavior of this germ is studied based on the neuroinvasive properties of certain respiratory viruses, the neurological damage caused by other coronaviruses, and the clinical manifestations in adults with COVID-19.We describe the clinical case of a 2-month-old patient who consulted for fever without a focus with detection of SARS-CoV-2 by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction in nasopharyngeal secretions and cerebrospinal fluid. The infant presented good evolution, with resolution of the fever and without compromise or neurological manifestation

Humans , Male , Infant , Coronavirus , Pediatrics , Cerebrospinal Fluid , Polymerase Chain Reaction
Rev. peru. med. exp. salud publica ; 38(1): 89-94, ene-mar 2021. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1280551


RESUMEN El objetivo del estudio fue describir las características clínicas, la respuesta al tratamiento y posibles factores asociados de los pacientes con síndrome de Guillain Barré en el Instituto Nacional de Ciencias Neurológicas. Se realizó un estudio descriptivo sobre egresos hospitalarios durante el periodo 2017-2019. La respuesta al tratamiento se evaluó mediante la escala de discapacidad de Hughes. De los 31 pacientes el 61,3% eran varones, y la edad promedio fue de 50 años. Al ingreso, el 87,1% de pacientes se encontraban en el grado 3 o 4 de la escala de Hughes, la mayoría con compromiso axonal, el cual estuvo asociado a discapacidad. Solo 22 pacientes recibieron recambio plasmático; luego de seis meses el 90,9% disminuyó al menos en un grado en la escala de Hughes y el 42,8% quedaron sin discapacidad. En conclusión, se encontró un predominio del sexo masculino y del compromiso axonal, este último asociado a discapacidad.

ABSTRACT The objective of the study was to describe the clinical characteristics, treatment response and possible associated factors of patients with Guillain-Barré syndrome at the National Institute of Neurological Sciences. A descriptive study on hospital discharges was conducted during the period 2017-2019. Treatment response was evaluated based on Hughes' disability scale. From 31 patients 61.3% were males and the mean age was 50 years. At admission, 87.1% of patients were on grade 3 or 4 of Hughes scale, most of them with axonal compromise which was associated to disability. Only 22 patients received plasma exchange; 6 months thereafter, 90.9% of patients decreased by at least one degree in Hughes scale and 42.8% were left without disability. In conclusion, a male and axonal subtype predominance was found, been the latter associated to disability.

Humans , Male , Female , Patients , Therapeutics , Guillain-Barre Syndrome , Cerebrospinal Fluid , Plasmapheresis , Giant Axonal Neuropathy , Hospitals
Rev. peru. med. exp. salud publica ; 38(1): 89-94, ene-mar 2021. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1280587


RESUMEN El objetivo del estudio fue describir las características clínicas, la respuesta al tratamiento y posibles factores asociados de los pacientes con síndrome de Guillain Barré en el Instituto Nacional de Ciencias Neurológicas. Se realizó un estudio descriptivo sobre egresos hospitalarios durante el periodo 2017-2019. La respuesta al tratamiento se evaluó mediante la escala de discapacidad de Hughes. De los 31 pacientes el 61,3% eran varones, y la edad promedio fue de 50 años. Al ingreso, el 87,1% de pacientes se encontraban en el grado 3 o 4 de la escala de Hughes, la mayoría con compromiso axonal, el cual estuvo asociado a discapacidad. Solo 22 pacientes recibieron recambio plasmático; luego de seis meses el 90,9% disminuyó al menos en un grado en la escala de Hughes y el 42,8% quedaron sin discapacidad. En conclusión, se encontró un predominio del sexo masculino y del compromiso axonal, este último asociado a discapacidad.

ABSTRACT The objective of the study was to describe the clinical characteristics, treatment response and possible associated factors of patients with Guillain-Barré syndrome at the National Institute of Neurological Sciences. A descriptive study on hospital discharges was conducted during the period 2017-2019. Treatment response was evaluated based on Hughes' disability scale. From 31 patients 61.3% were males and the mean age was 50 years. At admission, 87.1% of patients were on grade 3 or 4 of Hughes scale, most of them with axonal compromise which was associated to disability. Only 22 patients received plasma exchange; 6 months thereafter, 90.9% of patients decreased by at least one degree in Hughes scale and 42.8% were left without disability. In conclusion, a male and axonal subtype predominance was found, been the latter associated to disability.

Humans , Male , Female , Patients , Plasma Exchange , Therapeutics , Guillain-Barre Syndrome , Cerebrospinal Fluid , Plasmapheresis , Giant Axonal Neuropathy
Arq. neuropsiquiatr ; 79(1): 56-67, Jan. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153137


ABSTRACT Background: Increased concentrations of serum proteins in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) are interpreted as blood-CSF barrier dysfunction. Frequently used interpretations such as barrier leakage, disruption or breakdown contradict CSF protein data, which suggest a reduced CSF flow rate as the cause. Results: Even the severest barrier dysfunctions do not change the molecular size-dependent selectivity or the interindividual variation of the protein transfer across barriers. Serum protein concentrations in lumbar CSF increase with hyperbolic functions, but the levels of proteins that do not pass the barrier remain constant (brain proteins) or increase linearly (leptomeningal proteins). All CSF protein dynamics above and below a lumbar blockade can also be explained, independent of their barrier passage, by a reduced caudally directed flow. Local accumulation of gadolinium in multiple sclerosis (MS) is now understood as due to reduced bulk flow elimination by interstitial fluid (ISF). Nonlinear change of the steady state in barrier dysfunction and along normal rostro-caudal gradients supports the diffusion/flow model and contradicts obstructions of diffusion pathways. Regardless of the cause of the disease, pathophysiological flow blockages are found in bacterial meningitis, leukemia, meningeal carcinomatosis, Guillain-Barré syndrome, MS and experimental allergic encephalomyelitis. In humans, the fortyfold higher albumin concentrations in early fetal development decrease later with maturation of the arachnoid villi, i.e., with beginning CSF outflow, which contradicts a relevant outflow to the lymphatic system. Respiration- and heartbeat-dependent oscillations do not disturb net direction of CSF flow. Conclusion: Blood-CSF and blood-brain barrier dysfunctions are an expression of reduced CSF or ISF flow rate.

RESUMO Introdução: Concentrações aumentadas de proteínas séricas no líquido cefalorraquidiano são interpretadas como disfunção da barreira (hemato-liquórica) sanguínea do LCR. Interpretações frequentemente usadas, como vazamento de barreira (quebra ou rompimento de barreira), rompimento ou quebra, contradiz os dados de proteína do LCR, que sugerem uma taxa de fluxo reduzida do LCR como a causa. Resultados: Mesmo as disfunções de barreira mais graves não alteram a seletividade dependente do tamanho molecular nem a variação interindividual da transferência de proteína através de barreiras. As concentrações de proteínas séricas no LCR lombar aumentam com as funções hiperbólicas, mas as proteínas que não passam a barreira permanecem constantes (proteínas do cérebro) ou aumentam linearmente (proteínas leptomeningeais). Toda a dinâmica das proteínas do LCR acima e abaixo de um bloqueio lombar também pode ser explicada, independente de sua passagem pela barreira, por um fluxo caudal reduzido. O acúmulo local de gadolínio na esclerose múltipla (EM) é agora entendido como decorrente da redução da eliminação do bulk flow pelo fluido intersticial (FIS). A mudança não linear do estado estacionário na disfunção da barreira e ao longo dos gradientes rostro-caudais normais apoia o modelo de difusão/fluxo e contradiz as obstruções das vias de difusão. Independentemente da causa da doença, os bloqueios fisiopatológicos do fluxo são encontrados na meningite bacteriana, leucemia, carcinomatose meníngea, síndrome de Guillain-Barré, EM e encefalomielite alérgica experimental. Em humanos, as concentrações de albumina quarenta vezes mais altas no desenvolvimento fetal inicial diminuem tarde com a maturação das vilosidades aracnoides, isto é, com o início do fluxo de LCR, o que contradiz um fluxo relevante para o sistema linfático. As oscilações dependentes da respiração e do batimento cardíaco não perturbam a direção do fluxo do LCR. Conclusão: As disfunções das barreiras hemato-liquórica e hemato-encefálica são uma expressão da redução da taxa de fluxo do LCR ou FIS.

Humans , Brain/metabolism , Blood-Brain Barrier/metabolism , Blood Proteins/metabolism , Cerebrospinal Fluid/metabolism
Rev. cuba. invest. bioméd ; 40(supl.1): e1584, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1289475


Introduction: MASP-2 is a mannose blinding lectin associate to serine protease in cerebrospinal fluid and its dynamics through the blood brain barrier is unknown. Objective: To describe MASP-2 diffusion pattern from blood to cerebrospinal fluid. Methods: A transversal observational prospective study was performed 56 control samples of cerebrospinal fluid and serum were employed. ELISA measured MASP-2. Two groups were made: control patients without organic brain disease with normal cerebrospinal fluid and normal barrier function and patients without inflammatory diseases with a blood cerebrospinal fluid barrier dysfunction. Results: MASP-2 concentration in cerebrospinal fluid increase with augment the Q Albumin. QMASP-2 vs. Q Albumin saturation curve indicates that MASP-2 is interacting with other molecules in the subarachnoid environment. The higher inter-individual variation of cerebrospinal fluid MASP-2 of the control compared to the serum MASP-2 indicates that MASP-2 is a protein derived from blood. Conclusions: MASP-2 in CSF is predominantly blood-derived. The saturation curve demonstrates that MASP-2 interacts with the starters of the lectin pathway like mannose binding lectin, ficolins and collectin LK(AU)

Introducción: MASP2 es una proteína de unión a manosa asociada a una proteasa de serina encontrada en la periferia, pero puede pasar a líquido cefalorraquídeo. Sin embargo, su dinámica a través de la barrera sangre-líquido cefalorraquídeo es aún desconocida. Objetivo: Describir la difusión del MASP-2 desde la sangre al líquido cefalorraquídeo. Métodos: Se realiza estudio observacional prospectivo de corte transversal donde se emplearon 56 muestras de suero y líquido cefalorraquídeo. Fue seleccionado un grupo control con pacientes sin enfermedad orgánica del cerebro, con líquido cefalorraquídeo y función de barrera normal y otro grupo de pacientes sin enfermedades inflamatorias del cerebro con disfunción de barrera sangre-líquido cefalorraquídeo. Resultados: La concentración de MASP-2 en líquido cefalorraquídeo aumentó con el incremento de la Q Albúmina. La curva de saturación de Q MASP-2 contra la Q Albúmina indicó que el MASP-2 se encuentra interactuando con otras moléculas en el espacio subaracnoideo. El aumento del coeficiente de variación individual de MASP-2 en líquido cefalorraquídeo de los controles comparado con el MASP-2 en suero indicó que el MASP-2 es una proteína derivada de la sangre. Conclusiones: La producción de MASP-2 en líquido cefalorraquídeo es predominantemente derivada de la sangre. La curva de saturación demostró que el MASP-2 interactúa con los iniciadores de la vía de las lectinas como lectina unida a manosa, las ficolinas y la colectina LK(AU)

Humans , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Blood-Brain Barrier , Cerebrospinal Fluid/physiology , Mannose-Binding Protein-Associated Serine Proteases , Mannose , Cross-Sectional Studies , Prospective Studies
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 41: e06912, 2021. tab, graf, ilus
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1346689


Equine leukoencephalomalacia (LEM) is a disease caused by the ingestion of food, especially corn, contaminated by fumonisin, a Fusarium verticillioides (synonymous with F. moniliforme) metabolite. The clinical signs of brain injuries have an acute onset and rapid evolution. This study aimed to describe the clinical findings in 11 animals diagnosed with LEM, including cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) analysis. Of these animals, 91% (10/11) were horses, and only 9% (1/11) were asinine. The clinical localization of the lesions was 64% (7/10) cerebral, manifested mainly by altered mental state and behavioral disturbance, and 36% (4/11) were brainstem lesions, manifested by incoordination, head tilt, nystagmus, facial hypoalgesia, difficulty in apprehension, chewing, and swallowing food. Postmortem findings revealed that 82% (9/11) of the lesions were in the cerebrum and 18% (2/11) in the brainstem. CSF findings, such as xanthochromia (43%, 3/7), hyperproteinorrachia (50%, 3/6), and pleocytosis (43%, 3/7) were observed. The affected animals showed neurological signs that were compatible with cerebral and/or brainstem injuries. The CSF from animals with LEM may present with xanthochromia, hyperproteinorrachia, and pleocytosis, reinforcing the fact that this disease should be included in the differential diagnosis of encephalomyelopathies.(AU)

A leucoencefalomalácia (LEM) é uma enfermidade que acomete equídeos causada pela ingestão de milho e seus derivados e feno contaminados pela micotoxina fumonisina, um metabólito do fungo Fusarium verticillioides (sinônimo para F. moniliforme). Os sinais clínicos apresentam início agudo e evolução rápida e são decorrentes de lesões encefálicas. O objetivo deste estudo é descrever os achados clínicos de 11 equídeos diagnosticados com LEM, incluindo a análise do líquido cefalorraquidiano (LCR). 91% dos animais afetados eram equinos e somente 9% (1/11) era asinino. A localização clínica das lesões era 64% (7/10) cerebrais, manifestadas por alterações no estado mental e comportamento e 36% (4/10) no tronco encefálico, manifestadas por incoordenação, desvio lateral de cabeça, nistagmo, hipoalgesia da face e dificuldade de apreensão, mastigação e deglutição de alimentos. Comparativamente, os achados post mortem revelaram que 82% (9/11) das lesões eram no cérebro e 18% (2/11) no tronco encefálico. Alterações no LCR, tais como xantocromia (43%, 3/7), hiperproteinorraquia (50%, 3/6) e pleocitose (43%, 3/7), foram observadas. Os animais afetados apresentaram sinais clínicos compatíveis com lesões encefálicas e/ou de tronco cerebral. O LCR de animais com LEM pode apresentar xantocromia, hiperproteinorraquia, e pleocitose, reforçando que esta doença deve ser incluída como diagnóstico diferencial de encefalomielites.(AU)

Animals , Brain Injuries , Cerebrospinal Fluid , Leukoencephalopathies/microbiology , Fusarium , Horses , Leukocytosis , Mycotoxins , Eating
An. Fac. Cienc. Méd. (Asunción) ; 53(3): 173-176, 20201201.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1178015


Introducción: Los Quistes Aracnoideos son colecciones benignas de líquido cefalorraquídeo que representan el 1% de lesiones ocupantes de espacios intracraneales. Se detecta frecuentemente antes de los 20 años, entre 60 a 90% de los casos. La prevalencia estimada es de 1,4% en adultos, siendo la menos frecuente la ubicación intraventricular. Caso Clínico: Mujer de 60 años de edad, consultó por cefalea holocraneana de larga data y ocasionales mareos. Sin alteraciones al examen físico neurológico. Se le realizó tomografía axial computarizada donde llamó la atención una leve alteración de la densidad intraventricular por lo que se procedió a realizar resonancia magnética nuclear que demostró imágenes quísticas en atrio de ventrículos laterales, bilateral. No se requirió de una intervención quirúrgica debido a que la paciente no presentaba sintomatología significativa. Discusión: El tratamiento quirúrgico es recomendado en pacientes sintomáticos, en quistes de gran extensión y en los que cursan con complicaciones. Para los pacientes que cursen sólo con dolor de cabeza, sin hidrocefalia secundaria o un aumento evidente de la presión intracraneal se recomienda la observación con o sin repetición de las imágenes.

Introduction: Arachnoid cysts are benign collections of cerebrospinal fluid that represents 1% of lesions occupying intracranial spaces. It is frequently detected before the age of 20, between 60 to 90% of cases. The estimated prevalence is 1.4% in adults, the least frequent being intraventricular location. Clinical Case: A 60-year-old woman attended for a long-standing holocranial headache and occasional dizziness. No alteration in the neurological physical examination. A computerized axial tomography was performed, where a slight alteration in the intraventricular density drew attention, for which a nuclear magnetic resonance was carried out, which showed cystic images in the atrium of bilateral lateral ventricles. No surgical intervention was required because the patient did not present a significant symptomatology. Discussion: Surgical treatment is recommended in symptomatic patients, in cysts of great extension and in those with complications. For patients with only headache, without secondary hydrocephalus or an obvious increase in intracranial pressure, observation with or without repetition of the images is recommended.

Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy , Tomography , Headache , Hydrocephalus , Women , Intracranial Pressure , Cerebrospinal Fluid , Observation