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1.
Rev. bras. anestesiol ; 70(5): 553-555, Sept.-Oct. 2020. graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1143970

ABSTRACT

Abstract Hydatid cyst in the cervical region is an extremely rare condition that can create challenges for anesthesiologists. Timely recognition of difficult airway and preparing the management plan is crucial to avoid life-threatening complications such as hypoxic brain damage. We describe a case of difficult airway management in a patient with massive cervical hydatid cyst. We used a low-dose ketamine-propofol sedation and lidocaine spray for local oropharyngeal anesthesia. Muscular relaxants were not used, and spontaneous breathing was maintained during intubation. Recognition, assessment, and perioperative planning are essential for difficult airway management in patients with cervical hydatid cyst.


Resumo O cisto hidático na região cervical é uma condição extremamente rara que pode criar desafios para os anestesiologistas. O reconhecimento oportuno das vias aéreas difíceis e a preparação do plano de manejo são cruciais para evitar complicações com risco de vida, como danos cerebrais hipóxicos. Descrevemos um caso de difícil controle das vias aéreas em um paciente com cisto hidático cervical maciço. Utilizamos sedação com cetamina-propofol em baixa dose e spray de lidocaína para anestesia local orofaríngea. Relaxantes musculares não foram utilizados e a respiração espontânea foi mantida durante a intubação. O reconhecimento, a avaliação e o planejamento perioperatório são essenciais para o manejo difícil das vias aéreas em pacientes com cisto hidático cervical.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Airway Obstruction/parasitology , Echinococcosis/complications , Cervical Cord/parasitology , Propofol/administration & dosage , Echinococcosis/surgery , Airway Management , Intubation, Intratracheal , Ketamine/administration & dosage , Anesthesia, Local/adverse effects , Lidocaine/administration & dosage
2.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 72(3): 799-806, May-June, 2020. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1129181

ABSTRACT

The purpose of this study was to verify the applicability of the compressive radiographic technique (pressures of 5, 10, 15 and 20mmHg) in the diagnosis of tracheal collapse in small breed dogs, in lateral cervicothoracic radiography. Out of the 50 dogs evaluated, 25 presented tracheal collapse (TG group), 23 did not present tracheal collapse (CG) and two were excluded because they did not tolerate a pressure of 20 mmHg. The TG group presented a smaller internal diameter of the trachea in the region of the fourth cervical vertebra (D4) and at the entrance of the thorax (TDE) compared to the CG group, in all the radiographic projections performed, as well as within the TG group where the compressive technique differed from conventional. Furthermore, there was a correlation between the clinical sign of coughing during cervical collar use and the presence of radiographic tracheal collapse at a pressure of 20 mmHg. It was concluded that the compressive radiographic technique was feasible and efficient in confirming the diagnosis of tracheal collapse in dogs, especially in the pressure of 20 mmHg, where it was associated with clinical signs, and can be used in isolation or complementary to the conventional technique.(AU)


O objetivo deste trabalho foi verificar a aplicabilidade da técnica radiográfica compressiva no diagnóstico do colapso de traqueia em cães de raças pequenas, por meio da comparação do diâmetro da traqueia durante a radiografia cervicotorácica lateral convencional e sobre influência da compressão externa com pressões de 5, 10, 15 e 20mmHg (técnica compressiva). Dos 50 cães avaliados, 25 apresentaram colapso de traqueia (grupo TG), 23 não apresentaram o colabamento traqueal (grupo controle - CG) e dois foram excluídos por não tolerarem a pressão de 20mmHg. Os diâmetros internos da traqueia na região da quarta vértebra cervical (D4) e na entrada do tórax (DET) foram menores no grupo TG em relação ao CG, em todas as projeções radiográficas realizadas, bem como dentro do grupo TG, no qual a técnica compressiva diferiu da convencional. Houve correlação entre o sinal clínico de tosse durante o uso de coleira cervical e a presença do colapso de traqueia radiográfico, na pressão de 20mmHg. Concluiu-se que a técnica radiográfica compressiva foi exequível e eficiente na confirmação do diagnóstico do colapso de traqueia em cães, especialmente na pressão de 20mmHg, em que houve associação com sinais clínicos, podendo ser utilizada de forma isolada ou complementar à técnica convencional.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Dogs , Trachea/pathology , Trachea/diagnostic imaging , Cough/veterinary , Radiography/methods , Radiography, Thoracic/veterinary , Cervical Cord/diagnostic imaging
3.
Coluna/Columna ; 18(4): 268-271, Oct.-Dec. 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1055991

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: To evaluate the profile of patients with fracture and / or dislocation of the subaxial cervical spine using the new AOSpine classification and to correlate it with the trauma mechanism and the type of neurological deficit. Methods: Analyses were performed of the medical records of patients admitted to a tertiary hospital with fracture and / or subaxial cervical dislocation during the period from 2009 to 2016. For the evaluation of the association between the two categorical variables, the Chi-square test was used with a significance level of p <0.05. Results: A total of 67 medical records were analyzed, in which a higher prevalence of type C fractures (49.3%) was observed. The neurological subclassification N4 (35.8%) was the most prevalent type found, followed by subtype N0 (26.9%). Among the main injury mechanisms found, the most prevalent was the motorcycle accident (29.9%). There was no statistically significant association between the injury mechanism and the AOSpine morphological classification (p> 0.05) or neurological deficit (p> 0.05). Conclusion: Cervical fractures of type C, due to automobile accidents were the most prevalent. It was not possible to determine an association between the degree of neurological involvement and the morphology of the injury. Level of Evidence II; Retrospective study.


RESUMO Objetivo: Avaliar o perfil dos pacientes com fratura e/ou luxação da coluna cervical subaxial por meio da nova classificação AOSpine e correlacionar com o mecanismo de trauma e o tipo de déficit neurológico. Métodos: Foram realizadas análises dos prontuários médicos dos pacientes admitidos em um hospital terciário com fratura e/ou luxação cervical subaxial entre o período de 2009 a 2016. Para a avaliação da associação entre as duas variáveis categóricas, utilizou-se o teste Qui-quadrado com nível de significância de p<0,05. Resultados: Foram analisados 67 prontuários, em que se obteve maior prevalência para as fraturas do tipo C (49,3%). A subclassificação neurológica N4 (35,8%) foi o tipo mais prevalente encontrado, seguido pelo subtipo N0 (26,9%). Entre os principais mecanismos de lesão encontrados, o mais prevalente foi o acidente motociclístico (29,9%). Não foi observada associação estatisticamente significativa entre o mecanismo de lesão com a classificação morfológica AOSpine (p > 0,05) ou com o déficit neurológico (p > 0,05). Conclusão: As fraturas cervicais do tipo C, devido a acidentes automobilísticos, foram as mais prevalentes. Não foi possível obter associação entre o grau de acometimento neurológico e a morfologia da lesão. Nível de evidência II; Estudo Retrospectivo.


RESUMEN Objetivo: Evaluar el perfil de los pacientes con fractura y / o luxación de la columna cervical subaxial por medio de la nueva clasificación AOSpine y correlacionar con el mecanismo de trauma y el tipo de déficit neurológico. Métodos: Se realizaron análisis de los historiales médicos de los pacientes admitidos en un hospital terciario con fractura y/o luxación cervical subaxial entre el período de 2009 a 2016. Para la evaluación de la asociación entre dos variables categóricas, se utilizó el test Chi-cuadrado, con nivel de significancia de p <0,05. Resultados: Se analizaron 67 historiales, en que se obtuvo mayor prevalencia para las fracturas del tipo C (49,3%). La subclasificación neurológica N4 (35,8%) fue el tipo más prevalente encontrado, seguido del subtipo N0 (26,9%). Entre los principales mecanismos de lesión encontrados, el más prevalente fue el accidente motociclístico (29,9%). No se observó asociación estadísticamente significativa entre el mecanismo de lesión con la clasificación morfológica AOSpine (p> 0,05) o con el déficit neurológico (p> 0,05). Conclusión: Las fracturas cervicales del tipo C, debido a accidentes automovilísticos, fueron las más prevalentes. No fue posible obtener asociación entre el grado de afectación neurológica y la morfología de la lesión. Nivel de evidencia II; Estudio retrospectivo.


Subject(s)
Humans , Spinal Injuries , Spine , Spinal Fractures , Cervical Cord
4.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-785611

ABSTRACT

Late-onset Brown-Séquard syndrome (BSS) is a rare condition resulting from a spinal cord injury that develops weeks to years after a blunt trauma. Acute-onset BSS after a blunt injury has been rarely reported. Here, we report on a case of BSS, in a 58-year-old man, that developed immediately after a motor vehicle accident. Upon admission, loss of right thoracic motion, complete right paresis, and loss of pain and temperature sensations below the C3 level on the left side were observed. Magnetic resonance imaging showed hyperintensities within the cervical spinal cord at the C2–C3 level, confirming the diagnosis of BSS. Thoracic motion rapidly recovered, but other neurological sequelae persisted. BSS related to cervical cord injury should be suspected when patients develop hemiparesis and contralateral sensory loss immediately after a blunt trauma. Likewise, clinicians should be aware that unilateral loss of thoracic motion could be an important sign of BSS.


Subject(s)
Brown-Sequard Syndrome , Cervical Cord , Diagnosis , Humans , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Middle Aged , Motor Vehicles , Paresis , Sensation , Spinal Cord Injuries , Wounds, Nonpenetrating
5.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-759990

ABSTRACT

Presyrinx consists of reversible spinal cord swelling without frank cavitation, as observed on T2 weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The condition may evolve into syringomyelia, but timely surgical interventions have achieved meaningful results. Here, we report the case of a 27-year-old woman who presented with headache, dizziness, and diplopia 2 months after suffering a mild head trauma. On MRI, hydrocephalus, downward herniation of the cerebellar tonsil, and a diffuse high signal change in the cervical spinal cord were detected. After insertion of a ventriculoperitoneal shunt, her neurological symptoms resolved, and she has had no signs of presyrinx recurrence for >4 years.


Subject(s)
Adult , Arnold-Chiari Malformation , Cervical Cord , Craniocerebral Trauma , Diplopia , Dizziness , Female , Headache , Humans , Hydrocephalus , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Palatine Tonsil , Recurrence , Spinal Cord , Syringomyelia , Ventriculoperitoneal Shunt
6.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-759988

ABSTRACT

Involuntary movement of the cervical spine can cause damage to the cervical spinal cord. Cervical myelopathy may occur at an early age in involuntary movement disorders, such as tics. We report the case of a 21-year-old man with Tourette syndrome, who developed progressive quadriparesis, which was more severe in the upper extremities. The patient had abnormal motor tics with hyperflexion and hyperextension of the cervical spine for more than 10 years. High-signal intensity intramedullary lesions were observed at C3-4-5-6 level on T2 weighted magnetic resonance imaging. Examinations were performed for high-signal intensity intramedullary lesions that may occur at a young age, but no other diseases were detected. Botulinum toxin injection to the neck musculature and medication for tic disorders were administered. However, the myelopathy was further aggravated, as the involuntary cervical movement still remained. Therefore, laminoplasty was performed at C3-4-5-6, with posterior fixation at C2-3-4-5-6-7 to alleviate the symptoms. The neurological signs and symptoms improved dramatically. The management of tic disorders should be the first priority during treatment. However, surgical treatment may be necessary, if symptoms worsen after appropriate treatment.


Subject(s)
Botulinum Toxins , Cervical Cord , Dyskinesias , Humans , Laminoplasty , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Neck , Quadriplegia , Spinal Cord Diseases , Spine , Spondylosis , Tic Disorders , Tics , Tourette Syndrome , Upper Extremity , Young Adult
7.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-759973

ABSTRACT

Trigeminal neuralgia is caused by compression of trigeminal nerve root and it leads to demyelination gradually. It was almost idiopathic and occurred unexpected. The upper cervical spinal cord contains the spinal trigeminal tract and nucleus. Fibers with cell bodies in the trigeminal ganglion enter in the upper pons and descend caudally to C2 level. We experienced a rare patient with facial pain, which was paroxysmal attack with severe pain after a clear event, cervical spinal injury (C2). So, this case reminds us of a possible cause of trigeminal neuralgia after a trauma of the head and neck.


Subject(s)
Cell Body , Cervical Cord , Demyelinating Diseases , Facial Pain , Head , Humans , Neck , Odontoid Process , Pons , Spinal Cord , Spinal Injuries , Trigeminal Ganglion , Trigeminal Nerve , Trigeminal Neuralgia
8.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-762662

ABSTRACT

It is difficult to distinguish Hirayama disease (HD) from other mimicking disorders in adolescent patients with distal upper limb weakness. The prevailing theory of HD postulates that the lower cervical cord is susceptible to compression during neck flexion because of insufficient growth of the dura relative to the spinal column. Confirmation of a dynamic change in the dorsal epidural space on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) during neck flexion is essential for diagnosing HD. However, neck flexion MRI has not been routinely performed in juvenile patients with distal upper limb weakness in the absence of suspected HD. We report two cases of HD that were initially confused with other diseases because of insufficient or absent cervical flexion during MRI. Full-flexion MRI showed typical findings of HD in both cases. Our cases suggest that dynamic cervical MRI in the fully flexed position is necessary for evaluating suspected HD.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Cervical Cord , Diagnosis , Epidural Space , Humans , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Neck , Spinal Cord Diseases , Spine , Upper Extremity
9.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-762651

ABSTRACT

We report two cases of subacute combined degeneration (SCD) caused by nitrous oxide (N₂O) gas intoxication, which is rarely reported in Korea. Two patients recreationally inhaled N₂O gas daily for several months. They presented with paresthesia of limbs, voiding difficulty, and gait disturbance. The initial vitamin B₁₂ levels were normal or decreased, but homocysteine levels of the two patients were increased. Magnetic resonance imaging of the cervical spine showed T2-weighted hyperintensity in the bilateral dorsal columns of the cervical spinal cord. Electromyography and somatosensory evoked potential tests for both patients suggested posterior column lesion of the spinal cord combined with sensorimotor polyneuropathy. According to these findings, we concluded that the two patients had SCD. The patient’s symptoms partially improved after cessation of N₂O gas inhalation and the receiving of vitamin B₁₂ supplementation therapy. As the incidence of recreational N₂O gas inhalation is increasing in Korea, physicians must be alert to the N₂O induced SCD in patients presenting with progressive myelopathy.


Subject(s)
Cervical Cord , Electromyography , Evoked Potentials, Somatosensory , Extremities , Gait , Homocysteine , Humans , Incidence , Inhalation , Korea , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Nitrous Oxide , Paresthesia , Polyneuropathies , Recreation , Spinal Cord , Spinal Cord Diseases , Spine , Subacute Combined Degeneration , Vitamin B 12 , Vitamins
10.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-766744

ABSTRACT

We describe a case of vertebral artery dissection (VAD) presenting with acute infarctions in cervical spinal cord and cerebellum in a 78-year-old man. Diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance (MR) imaging of the brain demonstrated diffusion-restricted lesions in the right cerebellum and sagittal T2-weighted MR imaging of spinal cord showed a hyperintense lesion of the cervical spinal cord at C2-C4 level. Right VAD was identified by transfemoral cerebral angiography and computed tomography angiography which showed segmental occlusion in the right vertebral artery.


Subject(s)
Aged , Angiography , Brain , Cerebellum , Cerebral Angiography , Cervical Cord , Humans , Infarction , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Spinal Cord , Spinal Cord Ischemia , Vertebral Artery Dissection , Vertebral Artery
11.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-765918

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Spinal cord involvement of primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL) is rare in a young immunocompetent patient and can be misdiagnosed as an inflammatory demyelinating disease (IDD) of the central nervous system.


Subject(s)
Biopsy , Brain , Central Nervous System , Cerebrospinal Fluid , Cervical Cord , Demyelinating Diseases , Drug Therapy , Electrons , Hand , Humans , Leukocytosis , Lymphoma , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Medulla Oblongata , Methotrexate , Middle Aged , Multiple Sclerosis , Neuromyelitis Optica , Spinal Cord
12.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-740007

ABSTRACT

It is well known that trigeminal nerve injury causes hyperexcitability in trigeminal ganglion neurons, which become sensitized. Long after trigeminal nerve damage, trigeminal spinal subnucleus caudalis and upper cervical spinal cord (C1/C2) nociceptive neurons become hyperactive and are sensitized, resulting in persistent orofacial pain. Communication between neurons and non-neuronal cells is believed to be involved in these mechanisms. In this article, the authors highlight several lines of evidence that neuron-glial cell and neuron macrophage communication have essential roles in persistent orofacial pain mechanisms associated with trigeminal nerve injury and/or orofacial inflammation.


Subject(s)
Cell Communication , Cervical Cord , Facial Pain , Inflammation , Macrophages , Neurons , Nociceptors , Trigeminal Ganglion , Trigeminal Nerve , Trigeminal Nerve Injuries , Trigeminal Nucleus, Spinal
13.
Arq. bras. neurocir ; 37(2): 140-144, 24/07/2018.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-912275

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Inclusion cysts of the spinal cord are rarely intramedullary. Such cysts are commonly located in the lumbar and thoracic regions and are usually associated with congenital spinal dysraphism and dermal sinus. Intramedullary dermoid cysts in the cervical region without spinal dysraphism are extremely rare. To our knowledge, only seven such cases are reported in the literature to date. Materials and Methods: An 18-year-old female patient presented with weakness in all four limbs, more distal than proximal muscle weakness, that had been progressing for 3 years. The magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed an intramedullary lesion from C5­ C7 with peripheral ring enhancement. "Whorls" were observed within the lesion on T2 weighted image, with associated excavation of vertebral bodies C5­ C7. Operative procedure and findings: partial laminectomy of C5­ D1was performed. The dura was opened. A small myelotomy was made in the root entry zone. About 1.5 ml of yellowish colored fluid was drained. White shiny debris with hair, whitish pultaceous content and teeth were removed. Complete excision of cyst and its wall was performed. Results The histopathological examination revealed that the cyst wall was lined by stratified squamous epithelium with underlying dermis showing hair follicles, sebaceous glands, adipose tissue and cyst filled with keratin debris suggestive of dermoid cyst. Conclusion: The intramedullary location of the dermoid cyst in the cervical cord and the absence of any congenital spinal dysraphism make this case a very unique and rare entity and warrants its inclusion in the reported cases of rare intramedullary space occupying lesions.


Introdução: Cistos de inclusão da medula espinhal raramente são intramedulares. Tais cistos são comumente localizados nas regiões lombares e torácicas e geralmente estão associados com disrafismo espinhal congênito e sinus dérmico. Cistos dermoides intramedulares na região cervical sem a presença de disrafismo espinhal são extremamente raros. Apenas sete casos foram relatados na literatura até a data do presente estudo. Materiais e Métodos: Uma paciente de 18 anos de idade apresentou fraqueza nos quatro membros, mais distal que proximal, com três anos progressivos de duração. A ressonância magnética apresentou uma lesão intramedular de C5 a C7 com realce do anel periférico. Espirais foram observadas dentro da lesão na imagem ponderada em T2, com escavação dos corpos vertebrais C5­C7. Procedimentos operatórios e achados: realização de laminectomia parcial de C5 a D1. A dura cervical foi aberta. Uma pequena mielotomia foi feita na zona de entrada da raiz. Cerca de 1,5 ml de fluído amarelado foi extraído. Detritos brancos brilhantes com cabelo, polpa esbranquiçada e dentes foram removidos. Foi realizada a excisão completa do cisto com parede de cisto. Resultados O exame histopatológico revelou que a parede do cisto estava alinhada por epitélio escamoso estratificado com derme subjacente apresentando folículos capilares, glândulas sebáceas, tecido adiposo e cisto cheio de detritos de creatinina, sugerindo cisto dermoide. Conclusão: A posição intramedular do cisto dermoide no cordão cervical e a ausência de disrafismo espinhal congênito faz deste um caso único, uma entidade rara, e assegura sua inclusão junto aos casos relatados de lesões raras ocupando espaço intramedulares.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adolescent , Dermoid Cyst , Cervical Cord , Spinal Dysraphism , Muscle Weakness
14.
Arq. bras. neurocir ; 37(2): 151-153, 24/07/2018.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-912284

ABSTRACT

Schistosomiasis is an infectious disease caused by trematode platyhelminths of the genus Schistosoma. The involvement of the cervical spinal cord is rare, with few cases reported in the literature. The management of such patients is particularly challenging, since clinical and radiological findings may be confounded with other inflammatory diseases and/ or spinal cord tumors. We describe a 20-year old male with a history of swimming outdoors. He first presented pain in the back of the neck extending to shoulders and upper limbs paresis associated with four limbs hyperreflexia. The magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed a hypointense T1-weighted lesion in the cervical spinal cord, which was hyperintense on T2 images. The serologic testing was negative for schistosomiasis. A cervical cord biopsy at the C5-C6 level showed Schistosoma eggs in the histopathological examination. The treatment was performed using a single dose of praziquantel 50 mg/kg, with prednisone 40 mg/day for 3 weeks. On the follow-up, 1 year later, the patient presented mild reduction of the vibratory sensitivity in the distal third of both legs. Our illustrative case strengthens that, in endemic regions, Schistosoma mansoni infestation should be included in the differential diagnosis of intramedullary expansive lesions.


A esquistossomose é uma doença infecciosa causada por platelmintos trematódeos do gênero Schistosoma. O acometimento da medula espinhal cervical é raro, com poucos casos apresentados na literatura. O manejo desses pacientes é particularmente difícil, uma vez que os achados clínicos e radiológicos podem ser confundidos com outras doenças inflamatórias e/ou tumores da medula espinhal. Descrevemos um homem de 20 anos de idade com história de natação ao ar livre. Primeiramente, ele apresentou cervicalgia que se estendeu até os ombros e paresia dos membros superiores, associada à hiperreflexia de quatro membros. A ressonância magnética (RM) mostrou lesão hipointensa em T1 na medula espinhal cervical, a qual foi hiperintensa nas imagens em T2. O teste sorológico foi negativo para esquistossomose. Uma biópsia da medula cervical ao nível C5-C6 evidenciou ovos de Schistosoma no exame histopatológico. O tratamento foi realizado com dose única de praziquantel 50 mg/ kg, com prednisona 40 mg/dia por 3 semanas. No seguimento de 1 ano, o paciente apresentou discreta redução da sensibilidade vibratória no terço distal de ambas as pernas. Nosso caso ilustrativo reforça que, em regiões endêmicas, a infestação pelo Schistosoma mansoni deve ser incluída no diagnóstico diferencial de lesões expansivas intramedulares.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Neuroschistosomiasis , Cervical Cord/parasitology , Paresis/parasitology , Neuroschistosomiasis/drug therapy
15.
Rev. argent. neurocir ; 32(2): 71-76, jun. 2018. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1223423

ABSTRACT

Objetivos: Realizar un análisis morfométrico del atlas por tomografía computada, determinando los valores promedio, medianos, y de variabilidad de dicha vértebra para la correcta colocación de tornillos trans-masas laterales. Introducción: Existe una significativa variabilidad interpersonal en los aspectos morfológicos del atlas, y dada su proximidad a estructuras neurovasculares (arteria vertebral, médula cervical, raíz de C2), hacen mandatario un exhaustivo planeamiento prequirúrgico para la elección de la técnica de artrodesis, tipo de tornillos a utilizar, y su trayectoria. Material y métodos: Se realizó un estudio de diseño de tipo exploratorio, descriptivo, observacional, retrospectivo, transversal. Se revisaron 99 tomografías computadas de la columna cervical. Se midieron parámetros morfométicos y angulaciones desde un "punto de entrada" en la masa lateral de C1, que fueron llamados A, B, C, D, E, F, G y H. Las mediciones de los parámetros a estudiar fueron realizadas con el programa RadiAnt DICOM Viewer (64-bit) y posteriormente volcadas a una ficha de registro de datos. Discusión: La distribución según género fue de 34 varones y 65 mujeres. Se encontró una diferencia estadísticamente significativa no solo en lo referente al género (masculino vs femenino; parámetros A, B, C, D, F, G, H p-valor < 0,05) de los parámetros medidos, sino también según lateralidad (derecha vs izquierda; parámetros C, E, F, G p-valor < 0,05). La investigación propone además la generación de una base de datos con información morfométrica del atlas. Conclusión: Existe una diferencia estadísticamente significativa en las propiedades morfológicas del atlas, tanto en lo relativo al género (masculino vs femenino), como en la lateralidad (derecha vs izquierda). Es por ello que el presente estudio enfatiza en la importancia de la realización prequirúrgica de una tomografía computada de la columna cervical superior para garantizar una efectiva y segura instrumentación a éste nivel, según el largo, ancho y trayectoria de los tornillos a utilizar.


Objectives: To morphometrically analyze the atlas, using computed tomography, thereby defining mean, median and variability values of C1 for the correct placement of lateral mass screws. Introduction: Significant interpersonal variability exists among the various morphological characteristics of the atlas. Given the structure's close relationship to neurovascular structures like the vertebral arteries, cervical spinal cord, and cervical roots, exhaustive pre-surgical planning becomes mandatory. Such planning assists in the choice of arthrodesis technique, and the dimensions and trajectory of screws. Material and Methods: A retrospective, observational study was performed, for which the computed tomography (CT) scans of 99 cervical spines were reviewed. Morpho-metric parameters and angulations were measured from an "entry point" in the lateral mass at C1; these parameters were alphabetically labeled from A through H. The RadiAnt DICOM Viewer (64-bit) program was used to measure all parameters of interest, the values of which then were entered into a data collection file.Discussion: By gender, there were 34 men and 65 women. A statistically-significant difference was found between the two genders for all parameters except parameter E (all p-values < 0,05), and between the two sides (right vs. left) for parameters C, E, F, and G. Our results argue for the creation of a general database containing morphometric information on the atlas. Conclusion: Statistically-significant differences exist between men and women, and from right to left, among the morphometrical features of the atlas. This underscores the need for careful preoperative surgical planning, including the use of CT scanning to estimate optimum screw lengths and trajectories.


Subject(s)
Humans , Cervical Cord , Arthrodesis , Vertebral Artery , Tomography , Functional Laterality
16.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-788720

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the magnetic resonance (MR) imaging features that have a statistically significant association with the need for a tracheostomy in patients with cervical spinal cord injury (SCI) during the acute stage of injury.METHODS: This study retrospectively reviewed the clinical data of 130 patients with cervical SCI. We analyzed the factors believed to increase the risk of requiring a tracheostomy, including the severity of SCI, the level of injury as determined by radiological assessment, three quantitative MR imaging parameters, and eleven qualitative MR imaging parameters.RESULTS: Significant differences between the non-tracheostomy and tracheostomy groups were determined by the following five factors on multivariate analysis : complete SCI (p=0.007), the radiological level of C5 and above (p=0.038), maximum canal compromise (MCC) (p=0.010), lesion length (p=0.022), and osteophyte formation (p=0.015). For the MCC, the cut-off value was 46%, and the risk of requiring a tracheostomy was three times higher at an interval between 50–60% and ten times higher between 60–70%. For lesion length, the cut-off value was 20 mm, and the risk of requiring a tracheostomy was two times higher at an interval between 20–30 mm and fourteen times higher between 40–50 mm.CONCLUSION: The American Spinal Injury Association grade A, a radiological injury level of C5 and above, an MCC ≥50%, a lesion length ≥20 mm, and osteophyte formation at the level of injury were considered to be predictive values for requiring tracheostomy intervention in patients with cervical SCI.


Subject(s)
Cervical Cord , Humans , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Multivariate Analysis , Osteophyte , Retrospective Studies , Spinal Cord , Spinal Injuries , Spine , Tracheostomy
17.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-765290

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the magnetic resonance (MR) imaging features that have a statistically significant association with the need for a tracheostomy in patients with cervical spinal cord injury (SCI) during the acute stage of injury. METHODS: This study retrospectively reviewed the clinical data of 130 patients with cervical SCI. We analyzed the factors believed to increase the risk of requiring a tracheostomy, including the severity of SCI, the level of injury as determined by radiological assessment, three quantitative MR imaging parameters, and eleven qualitative MR imaging parameters. RESULTS: Significant differences between the non-tracheostomy and tracheostomy groups were determined by the following five factors on multivariate analysis : complete SCI (p=0.007), the radiological level of C5 and above (p=0.038), maximum canal compromise (MCC) (p=0.010), lesion length (p=0.022), and osteophyte formation (p=0.015). For the MCC, the cut-off value was 46%, and the risk of requiring a tracheostomy was three times higher at an interval between 50–60% and ten times higher between 60–70%. For lesion length, the cut-off value was 20 mm, and the risk of requiring a tracheostomy was two times higher at an interval between 20–30 mm and fourteen times higher between 40–50 mm. CONCLUSION: The American Spinal Injury Association grade A, a radiological injury level of C5 and above, an MCC ≥50%, a lesion length ≥20 mm, and osteophyte formation at the level of injury were considered to be predictive values for requiring tracheostomy intervention in patients with cervical SCI.


Subject(s)
Cervical Cord , Humans , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Multivariate Analysis , Osteophyte , Retrospective Studies , Spinal Cord , Spinal Injuries , Spine , Tracheostomy
18.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-740156

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The objective of this study was to obtain improved susceptibility weighted images (SWI) of the cervical spinal cord using respiratory-induced artifact compensation. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The artifact from B0 fluctuations by respiration could be compensated using a double navigator echo approach. The two navigators were inserted in an SWI sequence before and after the image readouts. The B0 fluctuation was measured by each navigator echoes, and the inverse of the fluctuation was applied to eliminate the artifact from fluctuation. The degree of compensation was quantified using a quality index (QI) term for compensated imaging using each navigator. Also, the effect of compensation was analyzed according to the position of the spinal cord using QI values. RESULTS: Compensation using navigator echo gave the improved visualization of SWI in cervical spinal cord compared to non-compensated images. Before compensation, images were influenced by artificial noise from motion in both the superior (QI = 0.031) and inferior (QI = 0.043) regions. In most parts of the superior regions, the second navigator resulted in better quality (QI = 0.024, P < 0.01) compared to the first navigator, but in the inferior regions the first navigator showed better quality (QI = 0.033, P < 0.01) after correction. CONCLUSION: Motion compensation using a double navigator method can increase the improvement of the SWI in the cervical spinal cord. The proposed method makes SWI a useful tool for the diagnosis of spinal cord injury by reducing respiratory-induced artifact.


Subject(s)
Artifacts , Cervical Cord , Compensation and Redress , Diagnosis , Methods , Noise , Qi , Respiration , Spinal Cord , Spinal Cord Injuries
19.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-715563

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In patients who need sustained endotracheal intubation and mechanical ventilation due to respiratory failure after traumatic cervical spinal cord injury, tracheostomy can be performed to reduce the duration of mechanical ventilation and respiratory complications. The purpose of this study was to determine criteria and timing of tracheostomy in patients with severe traumatic cervical spinal cord injury accompanied by motor weakness. METHODS: We reviewed 22 patients who underwent tracheostomy (study group) and 27 patients who did not (control group) from January 2005 to March 2016. We assessed the American Spinal Injury Association (ASIA) impairment scale score and investigated accompanying thoracic injury, paradoxical respiration, postoperative endotracheal intubation and other clinical parameters. The study group was also subdivided into the early tracheostomy group and late tracheostomy group depending on whether the tracheostomy was performed within or later than 7 days after surgery. RESULTS: Twenty-two patients in the study group had a mean ASIA impairment scale score of 14.1 points, which was lower than the control group's 23.4 points. Paradoxical respiration was observed in 77% of the patients in the study group compared to 18% in the control group. Postoperative intubation was maintained in 68% in the study group; 32% underwent endotracheal intubation due to respiratory failure within 4 days after surgery and had a tracheostomy. In the control group, postoperative intubation was maintained in 22%, and all of them were weaned off intubation within 4 days after surgery. The duration of intensive care unit hospitalization was 11.4 days for the early tracheostomy group, which was shorter than the late tracheostomy group's 19.7 days. CONCLUSIONS: In patients with severe traumatic cervical spinal cord injury, tracheostomy may be needed when the motor grade of the ASIA scale is low, above the C4 segment is injured, or paradoxical respiration occurs after injuries. In addition, if endotracheal extubation is not feasible within 4 days after surgery, an early tracheostomy should be considered.


Subject(s)
Airway Extubation , Asia , Cervical Cord , Hospitalization , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Intubation , Intubation, Intratracheal , Respiration , Respiration, Artificial , Respiratory Insufficiency , Spinal Injuries , Thoracic Injuries , Tracheostomy
20.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-715532

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To analyze the respiratory function of high cervical cord injury according to ventilator dependence and to examine the correlations between diaphragm movement found on fluoroscopy and sensory and motor functions. METHODS: A total of 67 patients with high cervical spinal cord injury (SCI), admitted to our hospital were enrolled in the study. One rehabilitation physician performed sensory and motor examinations on all patients while each patient was in the supine position on the American Spinal Injury Association (ASIA) standard. In addition, fluoroscopic diaphragm movement studies and bedside spirometry were performed. RESULTS: Bedside spirometry and diaphragm fluoroscopic tests were analyzed according to ventilator dependence. Forced vital capacity and maximal inspiratory pressure were significantly higher in the ventilator weaned group. Natural breathing during the fluoroscopic diaphragm examinations and ventilator weaning showed statistical significance with the movement on the right, while deep breathing showed statistical significance with the movement on both sides. Deep breathing movement has correlation with the C5 key muscle. Diaphragm movement has correlation with right C3 and bilateral C4 sensory functions. CONCLUSION: The present expansion study showed that, through simple bedside physical examinations, rehabilitation physicians could relatively easily predict diaphragm movement and respiratory function recovery, which showed significance with ventilator weaning in patients with high cervical SCI.


Subject(s)
Cervical Cord , Diaphragm , Fluoroscopy , Humans , Physical Examination , Recovery of Function , Rehabilitation , Respiration , Respiratory Function Tests , Sensation , Spinal Cord Injuries , Spinal Injuries , Spirometry , Supine Position , Ventilator Weaning , Ventilators, Mechanical , Vital Capacity
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