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1.
Arq. ciências saúde UNIPAR ; 25(2)maio-ago. 2021.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1252417

ABSTRACT

A Anatomia da região cervical é de particular importância para os clínicos e cirurgiões de diversas especialidades médicas. Em se tratando da organização nervosa presente na região anterolateral do pescoço, encontra-se o plexo cervical, formado pelos ramos anteriores dos nervos cervicais C1 a C4, cuja função é promover a sensibilidade da pele anterolateral cervical, torácica anterossuperior e do couro cabeludo posterior, na cabeça, além de controlar a musculatura infra-hióidea e diafragmática. Logo, lesões a essa estrutura nervosa e aos seus ramos podem causar graves complicações ao corpo humano. Esse trabalho objetivou utilizar a dissecção da região anterolateral do pescoço como uma ferramenta pedagógica para o estudo das relações anatômicas dos nervos do plexo cervical observados durante essa prática, assim como relatar algumas de suas importâncias clínicas e cirúrgicas. O presente estudo é caracterizado como qualitativo/descritivo. A dissecção foi realizada semanalmente, durante o segundo semestre de 2018 e o primeiro semestre de 2019, com a supervisão do professor responsável e auxílio do técnico de laboratório, no Laboratório de aulas práticas da Universidade Estadual de Londrina (UEL). Considera-se que a dissecção da região anterolateral do pescoço permitiu a visualização de diversos nervos cutâneos e musculares do plexo cervical, assim como de alguns de seus ramos e suas relações anatômicas. Também contribuiu para o conhecimento da topografia em que se encontravam tais estruturas e sua organização em camadas. Esse conhecimento anatômico é essencial para a prática médica, tanto clínica quanto cirúrgica.(AU)


The anatomy of the cervical region is of particular importance for surgeons and physicians of different medical specialties. The cervical plexus can be found in the anterolateral region of the neck, formed by the anterior branches of the cervical nerves C1 to C4, whose function is to promote the sensitivity of the cervical anterolateral skin, anterosuperior thoracic skin, and posterior scalp, on the head, in addition to controlling the infrahyoid and diaphragmatic muscles. Therefore, injuries to this nervous structure and its branches may cause serious complications to the human body. This work aimed at using the dissection of the anterolateral neck region as a pedagogical tool for the study of the anatomical relationships of the cervical plexus nerves observed during this practice, as well as to highlight some of its clinical and surgical importance. This is a qualitative/descriptive study. The dissection was performed weekly, during the second semester of 2018 and the first semester of 2019, with the supervision of the professor in charge and the assistance of the laboratory technician at the Laboratory of Practical Classes at the State University of Londrina (UEL). It is considered that the dissection of the anterolateral neck region allowed the visualization of several cutaneous and muscular nerves present in the cervical plexus. It also contributed to the knowledge of the topography in which these structures were found and their organization in layers. This anatomical knowledge is essential for both clinical and surgical medical practice.(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Cervical Plexus/anatomy & histology , Education, Medical/methods , Anatomy, Regional , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Dissection/education
2.
Int. j. morphol ; 38(5): 1235-1243, oct. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1134431

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN: El nervio occipital mayor (NOM) se forma del ramo dorsal del nervio espinal C2 y asciende entre la musculatura cervical posterior para inervar la piel del cuero cabelludo. Diversos autores han descrito su recorrido, sin embargo, es escasa la información referente a la relación que presenta este nervio con el músculo oblicuo inferior de la cabeza (OIC) y su trayecto intramuscular. El objetivo de este estudio fue determinar el recorrido y relaciones que el NOM estableció en el intervalo existente entre los músculos OIC y músculo trapecio (T). Para ello, se midieron las distancias verticales y horizontales a la altura de la protuberancia occipital externa y línea mediana, y se dividió al músculo OIC en tercios para observar variaciones del recorrido de este nervio. Junto con medir el diámetro del NOM, se midieron las distancias vertical y horizontal de este nervio a través de cinco puntos de referencia muscular y un punto de referencia vascular. Estos puntos musculares fueron: a) sobre el vientre del músculo OIC (punto 1); b) en la cara profunda del músculo semiespinoso de la cabeza (SEC) (punto 2); c) en la cara superficial del músculo SEC (punto 3); d) en la cara profunda del músculo T (punto 4); y e) en la cara superficial del músculo T (punto 5). A este se sumó el punto 6, en el cual se establecieron las distancias vertical y horizontal con la arteria occipital a la altura de la cara superficial del músculo T. Para ello se disecaron 18 cabezas (36 triángulos suboccipitales) de cadáveres adultos brasileños pertenecientes al laboratorio de Anatomía de la Universidade Federal de Alagoas (UFAL), Maceió, Brasil. Las distancias verticales y horizontales obtenidas respecto de los seis puntos fueron: 63,67 y 27,15 mm (punto 1); 53,89 y 21,44 mm (punto 2); 30,61 y 14,49 mm (punto 3); 20,39 y 22,8 mm (punto 4); 5,86 y 33,46 mm (punto 5); 5,99 y 35,56 mm (punto 6), respectivamente. En relación al músculo OIC, el NOM se ubicó en un 72,22 % de las muestras en el tercio medio de este músculo, 19,44% en su tercio lateral y un 8,33 % en su tercio medial. Todos estos hallazgos deben ser considerados al momento de diagnosticar correctamente posibles atrapamientos del NOM en la región cervical profunda, siendo además, una contribución para el éxito de procedimientos quirúrgicos de esta región.


SUMMARY: The great occipital nerve (GON) is formed from the dorsal branch of the C2 spinal nerve and ascends between the posterior cervical musculature to innervate the skin of the scalp. Various authors have described its course, however, there is little information regarding the relationship that this nerve presents with the obliquus capitis inferior (OCI) and its intramuscular path. The objective of this study was to determine the route and relationships that the GON established in the interval between the OCI muscles and the trapezius muscle (T). For this, the vertical and horizontal distances were measured at the height of the external occipital protuberance and median line, and the OCI muscle was divided into thirds to observe variations in the path of this nerve. Along with measuring the diameter of the GON, the vertical and horizontal distances of this nerve were measured through five muscle reference points and one vascular reference point. These muscle points were: a) on the belly of the OCI muscle (point 1); b) in the deep face of the semispinalis capitis muscle (SCM) (point 2); c) on the surface of the SCM (point 3); d) on the deep face of the T (point 4); and e) on the surface face of the T (point 5). To this was added point 6, in which the vertical and horizontal distances were established with the occipital artery at the height of the superficial face of the T. For this, 18 heads (36 suboccipital triangles) of Brazilian adult corpses belonging to the Anatomy laboratory of the Universidade Federal de Alagoas (UFAL), Maceió, Brazil, were dissected. The vertical and horizontal distances obtained with respect to the six points were: 63.67 and 27.15 mm (point 1); 53.89 and 21.44 mm (point 2); 30.61 and 14.49 mm (point 3); 20.39 and 22.8 mm (point 4); 5.86 and 33.46 mm (point 5); 5.99 and 35.56 mm (point 6), respectively. In relation to the OCI, the GON was located in 72.22 % of the samples in the middle third of this muscle, 19.44 % in its lateral third and 8.33 % in its medial third. All these findings should be considered when correctly diagnosing possible entrapments of GON in the deep cervical region, being a contribution to the success of surgical procedures in this region.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Spinal Nerves/anatomy & histology , Neck Muscles/innervation , Cadaver , Cervical Plexus , Anatomic Variation
3.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-761393

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Recently, the cases about successful regional anesthesia using combined superficial cervical plexus block and interscalene brachial plexus block for clavicle surgery have been reported. The aim of this study was to compare regional anesthesia using combined superficial cervical plexus block and interscalene brachial plexus block with general anesthesia. METHODS: In this prospective randomized study, 26 patients scheduled for elective clavicle surgery were divided into two groups: the first group was general anesthesia group (GA group, n=13) and the second group for peripheral nerve block group (PNB group, n=13). Standardized general anesthesia was done to the patients assigned to the GA group and ultrasonography-guided combined superficial cervical plexus block and interscalene brachial plexus block was done to the patients assigned to the PNB group. Postoperative sedation scale was assessed at post-anesthesia care unit, and pain scale using 10-cm Visual Analog Scale (VAS) was assessed at immediate postoperative, 30 minutes, 1 hour, 6 hours, and 24 hours. Patients needed additional analgesics, and time for first analgesic demand and duration from surgery to discharge was recorded. RESULTS: The pain VAS scales were less in PNB group than GA group from immediate postoperative time to 6 hours. The patients' immediate postoperative sedation scale less than 4 were significantly less in PNS group than GA group. The duration from surgery to discharge was shorter in PNS group than GA group. CONCLUSION: Regional anesthesia using combined superficial cervical plexus block and interscalene brachial plexus block is a successful alternative to general anesthesia for clavicle surgery.


Subject(s)
Analgesics , Anesthesia, Conduction , Anesthesia, General , Brachial Plexus Block , Brachial Plexus , Cervical Plexus Block , Cervical Plexus , Clavicle , Humans , Peripheral Nerves , Prospective Studies , Visual Analog Scale , Weights and Measures
4.
Rev. bras. ortop ; 53(5): 532-536, Sept.-Oct. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-977896

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: To evaluate the clinical and radiological outcomes of the surgical treatment in patients diagnosed with odontoid fracture who underwent open reduction and internal fixation (ORIF) with screws. Methods: This was a retrospective study with nine patients. Pain (visual analog scale [VAS]) and neurological status (Frankel scale) were assessed. The neck disability index (NDI) and the post-operative cervical range of motion were calculated. The cervical spine was radiologically evaluated (X-ray and CT) pre- and postoperatively. Results: The mean age of patients was 70 years. All patients presented type IIb (Grauer classification) fractures, with a mean deviation of 2.95 mm. Two patients had subaxial lesions. The mean follow-up was 30 months. The mean time from trauma to surgery was seven days. The pre-operative Frankel score was E in all except one patient (B), in whom a post-operative improvement from B to D was observed. Post-operative pain was 2/10 (VAS). A total of 77% of patients presented a mild or moderate disability (NDI). Six patients regained full range of cervical movement, and bone union required approximately 14 weeks. Pseudarthrosis complications were observed in two patients (77% union rate), one patient presented screw repositioning and one case, dysphonia. Conclusion: Delayed diagnosis is still an issue in the treatment of odontoid fractures, especially in elderly patients. Concomitant lesions, especially in younger patients, are not uncommon. The literature presents high fusion rates with ORIF (≥80%), which was also observed in the present study. However, surgical success depends on proper patient selection and strict knowledge of the technique. This pathology presents a reserved functional prognosis in the medium-term, especially in the elderly.


RESUMO Objetivo: Avaliar os resultados clínicos e radiológicos do tratamento cirúrgico em pacientes com diagnóstico de fratura do processo odontoide submetidos a redução aberta e fixação interna (RAFI) com parafusos. Métodos: Estudo retrospectivo com nove pacientes. Avaliada a dor (escala visual analógica [EVA]) e o estado neurológico (escala de Frankel). O Neck Disability Index (NDI) e a amplitude de movimento cervical pós-operatória foram calculados. A coluna cervical foi avaliada radiologicamente (raios X e TC) nos períodos pré- e pós-operatório. Resultados: A idade média dos pacientes foi de 70 anos. Todos apresentaram fraturas do tipo IIb (classificação de Grauer), com desvio médio de 2,95 mm. Dois apresentaram lesões subaxiais. O seguimento médio foi de 30 meses. O tempo médio entre trauma e cirurgia foi de sete dias. O escore pré-operatório de Frankel foi E em todos, exceto em um paciente (B), no qual se observou uma melhoria pós-operatória de B para D. A dor pós-operatória foi 2/10 (EVA). Apresentaram incapacidade leve ou moderada (NDI) 77% pacientes. Seis pacientes recuperaram toda a amplitude de movimento cervical; a consolidação óssea levou aproximadamente 14 semanas. Foram observadas complicações de pseudartrose em dois pacientes (taxa de consolidação: 77%), um paciente necessitou reposicionamento do parafuso e um paciente, disfonia. Conclusão: O diagnóstico tardio ainda é um problema no tratamento de fraturas do odontoide, especialmente em pacientes idosos. As lesões concomitantes, especialmente em pacientes mais jovens, não são incomuns. A literatura apresenta altas taxas de consolidação com RAFI (≥ 80%), o que também foi observado no presente estudo. No entanto, o sucesso cirúrgico depende da seleção adequada do paciente e do conhecimento rigoroso da técnica. Essa patologia apresenta um prognóstico funcional reservado em médio prazo, especialmente em idosos.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Bone Screws , Cervical Plexus/injuries , Spinal Fractures , Odontoid Process
5.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-714300

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Bilateral superficial cervical plexus block (BSCPB) provides good postoperative analgesia, but its effect on anesthetic consumption is unknown. This study evaluated the effects of BSCPB on sevoflurane consumption during thyroid surgery. METHODS: Fifty patients were randomly allocated into groups A and B of 25 each in this prospective double-blind study. Group A received BSCPB with 20 ml 0.25% bupivacaine, whereas group B received 20 ml saline immediately before entropy-guided general anesthesia. Intraoperative hemodynamic parameters, end-tidal sevoflurane concentration, minimum alveolar concentration, and sevoflurane consumption were recorded. Postoperative pain was assessed using a visual analog scale, and the time of the first request for analgesia was noted. All side effects were recorded. RESULTS: Demographics were comparable. Mean sevoflurane consumption [for 30 min: group A = 7.2 (1.1) ml, group B = 8.8 (2.0) ml, P = 0.001; for 60 min: group A = 13.5 (1.7) ml, group B = 16.5 (3.9) ml, P = 0.002] and mean end-tidal sevoflurane concentration [for 30 min: group A = 1.2% (0.2%), group B = 1.4% (0.2%), P = 0.008; for 60 min: group A = 1.2% (0.1%), group B = 1.4% (0.2%), P = 0.010] were significantly lower in group A. Patients in group A had a longer duration of analgesia [361.6 (79.5) min vs. 151.0 (60.2) min, P < 0.001] compared to those in group B. CONCLUSIONS: Preinduction BSCPB during thyroid surgery significantly reduced sevoflurane consumption and increased the duration of postoperative analgesia.


Subject(s)
Analgesia , Anesthesia, General , Bupivacaine , Cervical Plexus Block , Cervical Plexus , Demography , Double-Blind Method , Entropy , Hemodynamics , Humans , Nerve Block , Pain, Postoperative , Prospective Studies , Thyroid Gland , Thyroidectomy , Visual Analog Scale
6.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-716349

ABSTRACT

Cervical plexus blocks (CPBs) have been used in various head and neck surgeries to provide adequate anesthesia and/or analgesia; however, the block is performed in a narrow space in the region of the neck that contains many sensitive structures, multiple fascial layers, and complicated innervation. Since the intermediate CPB was introduced in addition to superficial and deep CPBs in 2004, there has been some confusion regarding the nomenclature and definition of CPBs, particularly the intermediate CPB. Additionally, as the role of ultrasound in the head and neck region has expanded, CPBs can be performed more safely and accurately under ultrasound guidance. In this review, the authors will describe the methods, including ultrasound-guided techniques, and clinical applications of conventional deep and superficial CPBs; in addition, the authors will discuss the controversial issues regarding intermediate CPBs, including nomenclature and associated potential adverse effects that may often be neglected, focusing on the anatomy of the cervical fascial layers and cervical plexus. Finally, the authors will attempt to refine the classification of CPB methods based on the target compartments, which can be easily identified under ultrasound guidance, with consideration of the effects of each method of CPB.


Subject(s)
Airway Obstruction , Analgesia , Anesthesia , Cervical Plexus Block , Cervical Plexus , Classification , Head , Methods , Neck , Ultrasonography
7.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-787095

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Carotid endarterectomy (CEA) has been performed under regional and general anesthesia (GA). The general anesthesia versus local anesthesia for carotid surgery study compared the two techniques and concluded that there was no difference in perioperative outcomes. However, since this trial, new sedative agents have been introduced and devices that improve the delivery of regional anesthesia (RA) have been developed. The primary purpose of this pilot study was to compare intraoperative hemodynamic stability and postoperative outcomes between GA and ultrasound-guided superficial cervical plexus block (UGSCPB) under dexmedetomidine sedation for CEA.METHODS: Medical records from 43 adult patients who underwent CEA were retrospectively reviewed, including 16 in the GA group and 27 in the RA group. GA was induced with propofol and maintained with sevoflurane. The UGSCPB was performed with ropivacaine under dexmedetomidine sedation. We compared the intraoperative requirement for vasoactive drugs, postoperative complications, pain scores using the numerical rating scale, and the duration of hospital stay.RESULTS: There was no difference between groups in the use of intraoperative antihypertensive drugs. However, intraoperative inotropic and vasopressor agents were more frequently required in the GA group (p < 0.0001). In the GA group, pain scores were significantly higher during the first 24 h after surgery (p < 0.0001 between 0–6 h, p < 0.004 between 6–12 h, and p < 0.001 between 12–24 h). The duration of hospital stay was significantly more in the GA group (13.3±4.6 days in the GA group vs. 8.5±2.4 days in the RA group, p < 0.001).CONCLUSION: In this pilot study, intraoperative hemodynamic stability and postoperative outcomes were better in the RA compared to the GA group.


Subject(s)
Adult , Anesthesia, Conduction , Anesthesia, General , Anesthesia, Local , Antihypertensive Agents , Cervical Plexus Block , Cervical Plexus , Dexmedetomidine , Endarterectomy, Carotid , Hemodynamics , Humans , Length of Stay , Medical Records , Pilot Projects , Postoperative Complications , Propofol , Retrospective Studies , Ultrasonography , Vasoconstrictor Agents
8.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-208826

ABSTRACT

The neck has intricately connected neural structures, including cervical and brachial plexi, the sympathetic system, lower cranial nerves, and their branches. Except for brachial plexus, there has been little research regarding the normal imaging appearance or corresponding pathologies of neural structures in the neck. The development in imaging techniques with better spatial resolution and signal-to-noise ratio has made it possible to see many tiny nerves to predict complications related to image-guided procedures and to better assess treatment response, especially in the management of oncology patients. The purposes of this review is to present imaging-based anatomy of major nerves in the neck and explain their relevant clinical significance according to representative pathologies of regarded nerves in the neck.


Subject(s)
Accessory Nerve , Brachial Plexus , Cervical Plexus , Cervical Vertebrae , Cranial Nerves , Female , Ganglia, Sympathetic , Humans , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Neck , Pathology , Signal-To-Noise Ratio , Vagus Nerve
9.
The Ewha Medical Journal ; : 168-170, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-123923

ABSTRACT

We present an uncommon case of hypoesthesia in the posterior and upper third of the superior area on the left ear auricle, after arthroscopic surgery of the shoulder in the lateral position under general anesthesia with ultrasound guided-interscalene brachial plexus block. A 65-year-old man underwent arthroscopic rotator cuff repair of the left shoulder in the right lateral decubitus position. Two days after operation, he complained of numbness around the left auricle; his symptoms persisted until 6 weeks after surgery. Audiometry and sensory examinations were normal. He recovered naturally by 6 months postoperatively. Postoperative neurological deficits that may not be block-related can be attributed to a combination of factors, such as patient-, anesthesia-, and surgery-related factors, including direct trauma, positioning, and retraction. Anesthesiologists should be aware that the injury may not be block-related and consider other possible causes.


Subject(s)
Aged , Anesthesia, General , Arthroscopy , Audiometry , Brachial Plexus Block , Cervical Plexus , Ear Auricle , Humans , Hypesthesia , Patient Positioning , Peripheral Nerves , Rotator Cuff , Shoulder , Ultrasonography
10.
Arq. bras. neurocir ; 35(4): 323-328, 30/11/2016.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-911045

ABSTRACT

This is a case report of a 33-year-old woman with cervical myelopathy caused by an enlargement of the cervical venous plexus, after she was submitted to a ventriculoperitoneal (VP) shunt that evolved to overdrainage. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) revealed an epidural venous enlargement within the spinal channel, with a 50% narrowing from C2 to C5, and spinal cord compression. A shunt revision was performed using a programmable drainage system, and a second MRI revealed the absence of the venous enlargement, resulting in cervical spinal cord decompression and remission of neurological symptoms. Compressive myelopathy consequent to the enlargement of the epidural venous plexus related to the overdrainage of the ventriculoperitoneal shunt system without typical signs of intracranial hypotension may result in misleading etiological diagnoses. Acknowledging this disorder is important to distinguish it from neoplastic processes or hematomas, for which surgical intervention may be needed.


Este é um relato de caso de uma paciente de 33 anos de idade que apresentou mielopatia cervical devido a alargamento do plexo venoso cervical, após ser submetida a uma derivação ventriculoperitoneal que evoluiu com hiperdrenagem. Exame de Ressonância Nuclear Magnética (RNM) revelou alargamento do plexo venoso epidural no canal espinhal, com estreitamento de 50% em C2 a C5, e compressão da medula espinhal. Uma revisão da derivação foi feita com um sistema de drenagem programável, e uma segunda RNM revelou ausência de ingurgitamento venoso, resultando em descompressão medular e remissão dos sintomas neurológicos. Mielopatia compressiva consequente ao alargamento do plexo venoso epidural relacionado à hiperdrenagem do sistema de derivação ventriculoperitoneal sem sinais típicos de hipotensão intracraniana pode resultar em diagnósticos incorretos. O conhecimento dessa patologia é importante para distingui-la de processos neoplásicos ou hematomas, nos quais intervenções cirúrgicas podem ser necessárias.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adult , Spinal Cord Compression , Cervical Plexus , Spinal Cord Compression/pathology , Spinal Cord Injuries
11.
Rev. bras. anestesiol ; 66(1): 86-93, Jan.-Feb. 2016. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-773485

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The manufacture of minimally traumatic needles and synthesis of pharmacological adjuncts with safe and effective action on inhibitory and neuromodulatory synapses distributed along the nociceptive pathways were crucial for a new expansion phase of spinal anesthesia. The objectives of this paper are present our clinical experience with 1330 lumbar spinal anesthesia performed with purposeful nociceptive blockade of the thoracic and cervical spinal nerves corresponding to dermatomes C4 or C3; warn about the method pathophysiological risks, and emphasize preventive standards for the safe application of the technique. CONTENT: Review of the historical background and anatomical spinal anesthesia with cervical levels of analgesia. Description of the technique used in our institution; population anesthetized; and surgery performed with the described method. Critical exposition of the physiological, pathophysiological, and clinical effects occurred and registered during anesthesia-surgery and postoperative period. CONCLUSION: Spinal anesthesia with nociceptive blockade to dermatome C4, or C3, is an effective option for surgery on somatic structures distal to the metamer of the third cervical spinal nerve, lasting no more than four or five hours. The method safety depends on the unrestricted respect for the essential rules of proper anesthesia.


JUSTIFICATIVA E OBJETIVOS: A fabricação de agulhas minimamente traumáticas e a síntese de coadjuvantes farmacológicos com ação efetiva e segura nas sinapses inibitórias e neuromoduladoras distribuídas ao longo das vias nociceptivas foram determinantes para uma nova fase de expansão da anestesia subaracnoidea. Os objetivos deste artigo são: apresentar a experiência clínica dos autores com a realização de 1.330 Raquianestesias lombares com bloqueio nociceptivo proposital dos nervos espinhais torácicos e cervicais até os dermátomos correspondentes a C4 ou C3; alertar sobre os riscos fisiopatológicos do método e enfatizar as normas preventivas para a realização da técnica com segurança. CONTEÚDO: Revisão dos fundamentos históricos e anatomofuncionais da anestesia subaracnoidea com níveis cervicais de analgesia. Descrição da técnica utilizada em nossa instituição; da população anestesiada e das cirurgias realizadas com o método descrito. Exposição crítica dos efeitos fisiológicos, clínicos e fisiopatológicos ocorridos e registrados durante o ato anestésico-cirúrgico e no período pós-operatório. CONCLUSÃO: A Raquianestesia com bloqueio nociceptivo até o dermátomo de C4, ou de C3 é uma opção efetiva para cirurgias sobre estruturas somáticas distais ao metâmero do terceiro nervo espinhal cervical com duração não superior a 4 ou 5 horas. A segurança do método depende do respeito irrestrito às regras essenciais da correta prática anestésica.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Young Adult , Anesthesia, Spinal/methods , Anesthetics, Local/administration & dosage , Nerve Block/methods , Thoracic Nerves , Cervical Plexus , Retrospective Studies , Anesthesia, Spinal/adverse effects , Lumbar Vertebrae , Middle Aged , Nerve Block/adverse effects
12.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-177914

ABSTRACT

A 70-year-old woman with an infectious thrombus in her left internal jugular vein (IJV) underwent carotid endarterectomy for stenosis and a highly movable plaque in her right carotid artery. She had been treated with antibiotics for four weeks before surgery due to Lemierre syndrome, a rare septic thrombophlebitis in the IJV secondary to an oropharyngeal infection. The right IJV was in a two-fold dilated state due to compensation for a thrombotic left IJV. Accordingly, superficial cervical plexus block was performed under ultrasound guidance to ensure safety and accuracy. During surgery, the alertness was maintained and the patient did not complain of pain in the absence of additional analgesics. No block-related complications were encountered. The authors report for the first time their regional anesthetic experiences in a patient with Lemierre syndrome.


Subject(s)
Aged , Analgesics , Anti-Bacterial Agents , Carotid Arteries , Cervical Plexus Block , Cervical Plexus , Compensation and Redress , Constriction, Pathologic , Endarterectomy, Carotid , Female , Humans , Jugular Veins , Lemierre Syndrome , Thrombophlebitis , Thrombosis , Ultrasonography
13.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-47937

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Secondary hyperparathyroidism (SHPT) develops in patients with chronic renal failure. This study aimed to compare analgesic efficacy in SHPT patients who undergo subtotal parathyroidectomy after superficial versus deep cervical plexus block. METHODS: Sixty chronic renal failure patients with SPHT scheduled for subtotal parathyroidectomy were randomized to receive general anesthesia (group GA), general anesthesia plus bilateral superficial and deep cervical plexus block (group BD), or general anesthesia plus bilateral superficial cervical plexus block (group BS) (n = 20). Bilateral superficial cervical plexus block or combined superficial and deep cervical plexus block with 0.5% ropivacaine was administered. Postoperative pain was assessed using visual analogue scale (VAS). RESULTS: VAS score at 1 hour, 4 hours, and 8 hours after operation was 3.71 +/- 0.60, 2.72 +/- 0.54, 2.17 +/- 0.75 in BS group; 4.00 +/- 0.28, 2.89 +/- 0.21, and 2.46 +/- 1.01 in BD group, significantly lower than in GA group (6.50 +/- 0.50, 5.02 +/- 0.54, and 4.86 +/- 0.51, respectively). The dosage of tramadol was 109.0 +/- 35.2 mg in BS group and 93.0 +/- 24.52 mg in BD group, significantly lower than in GA group (300.0 +/- 27.13 mg). The incidence of complications in GA group (90%) was significantly higher than in BS group (30%) and BD group (15%). Serum glucose and norepinephrine levels were significantly higher at 1 hour, 4 hours, and 8 hours after operation, but returned to baseline levels at 24 hours after operation. CONCLUSION: Superficial cervical plexus block or combined superficial and deep cervical plexus block effectively reduces postoperative pain, stress response, and complications in SHPT patients who undergo subtotal parathyroidectomy.


Subject(s)
Anesthesia, General , Blood Glucose , Cervical Plexus , Humans , Hyperparathyroidism, Secondary , Incidence , Kidney Failure, Chronic , Norepinephrine , Pain, Postoperative , Parathyroidectomy , Tramadol
14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-38875

ABSTRACT

Herpes zoster most commonly occurs in elderly patients, and usually affects sensory neurons. Therefore, its characteristic symptoms are segmental pain, itching, and sensory changes in the affected areas. A 71-yr-old woman experienced painful herpetic rash on the right cervical 2-4 dermatomes for 16 days. Two days after the onset of the rash, she was diagnosed with herpes zoster, and prescribed 250 mg famciclovir three times a day for 7 days, pregabalin 150 mg twice a day, and tramadol 150 mg once a day for 14 days, by a dermatologist. Despite medication, her pain was rated at an intensity of 6/10 on the numeric rating scale. In addition, she complained of severe itching sensation on the affected dermatomes. Superficial cervical plexus block (SCPB) was performed at the right C4 level with 15 ml 0.5% lidocaine plus triamcinolone 30 mg. Five days after the procedure, pain and itching completely disappeared. SCPB may be an effective option for the treatment of acute pain and itching arising from herpes zoster, and for the prevention of postherpetic neuralgia.


Subject(s)
Acute Pain , Aged , Cervical Plexus Block , Cervical Plexus , Exanthema , Female , Herpes Zoster , Humans , Lidocaine , Neuralgia, Postherpetic , Pregabalin , Pruritus , Sensation , Sensory Receptor Cells , Tramadol , Triamcinolone
15.
Keimyung Medical Journal ; : 152-156, 2015.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-12460

ABSTRACT

A 50-year-old man visited our pain clinic due to acute herpes zoster with rash occurred 10 days ago. The crusts formed and covered left C3-4 dermatome. Neuroaxial block was worried about infection. Superficial cervical plexus block (SCPB) was performed at left C4 level twice for a month with 1% lidocaine 20 mL and triamcinolone 20 mg. After SCPB, pain and itching were reduced and the patient could sleep at night without awakening. But pregabaline 150 /day was kept due to mild to moderate pain and itching 7 months later from rash. In this case, SCPB was effective method to reduce acute pain and itching but it could not prevent postherpetic neuralgia.


Subject(s)
Acute Pain , Cervical Plexus , Exanthema , Herpes Zoster , Humans , Lidocaine , Middle Aged , Nerve Block , Neuralgia, Postherpetic , Pain Clinics , Pruritus , Triamcinolone
16.
Rev. chil. cir ; 66(6): 531-535, dic. 2014. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-731614

ABSTRACT

Background: Bilateral superficial cervical plexus block is a simple non-invasive technique that can be used as preventive analgesia in the perioperative period of thyroidectomy. Aim: to assess the analgesic effects of the technique during the postoperative period of thyroidectomy. Material and Methods: Patients with indication of total thyroidectomy, with a low operative risk according to the American Society of Anesthesiology, were studied. All were operated with general anesthesia using Fentanyl, Propofol, Vecuronium and Isoflurane. Patients were randomly and blindly assigned to superficial cervical plexus block using Bupivacaine 0.25% or to a placebo injection. Postoperative pain, need for analgesics and patient satisfaction were assessed...


Introducción: La cirugía de la glándula tiroides es reconocida como un procedimiento que produce un dolor leve a moderado. El bloqueo bilateral de plexo cervical superficial es una técnica simple, poco invasiva, que pudiera ser beneficioso en estos pacientes como modelo de analgesia preventiva. Objetivos: Evaluar la calidad de la analgesia del postoperatorio de la cirugía de tiroides, con el uso de bloqueo bilateral del plexo cervical superficial. Material y Métodos: Se estudiaron pacientes ASA I y II propuestos para cirugía de tiroides bajo anestesia general. En todos los pacientes se hizo anestesia general balanceada con Fentanyl, Propofol, Vecuronio e Isoflurano. En forma aleatoria y ciega se asignaron los pacientes en 2 grupos: grupo A, Bupivacaína 0,25% 20 ml y grupo B placebo. Se evaluó características demográficas, dolor postoperatorio, necesidad de analgésicos de rescate, náuseas, vómitos y satisfacción del paciente...


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Female , Middle Aged , Anesthesia/methods , Pain, Postoperative/prevention & control , Morphine/administration & dosage , Thyroidectomy/methods , Cervical Plexus , Patient Satisfaction , Preoperative Care
17.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-93332

ABSTRACT

We report a case of multiple cervical schwannomas mimicking cervical nodal metastasis in a 45-year-old female patient with papillary thyroid carcinoma. Ultrasonography revealed a hypoechoic lesion with irregular contour in the left isthmus of the thyroid gland. A contrast-enhanced CT of the neck showed two well-circumscribed, cystic masses in the left cervical level II. The preoperative results of ultrasonography guided fine needle aspiration biopsy from both thyroid and lateral neck masses were papillary thyroid cancer and atypical cell, respectively. Considering clinical and imaging results, the lateral neck masses were suspected to be metastatic cervical lymphadenopathy. During surgery, however, we identified that two lateral neck masses were originated from spinal accessory nerve and cervical plexus. The pathologic examination confirmed that lateral neck masses were typical schwannomas. Before surgery, it is important to make every efforts to discriminate metastatic lymphadenopathy from the cystic neck mass in patients with papillary carcinoma.


Subject(s)
Accessory Nerve , Biopsy , Biopsy, Fine-Needle , Carcinoma, Papillary , Cervical Plexus , Female , Humans , Lymph Nodes , Lymphatic Diseases , Middle Aged , Neck , Neoplasm Metastasis , Neurilemmoma , Thyroid Gland , Thyroid Neoplasms , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Ultrasonography
20.
Int. j. morphol ; 30(4): 1321-1326, dic. 2012. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-670144

ABSTRACT

The formation of ansa cervicalis (AC) is somewhat complex with both its course and location along the common carotid artery and internal jugular vein (IJV) varying. The aim of the study was to document the anatomy, formation and variations of AC. Forty fetuses (gestational age: 15 to 28 weeks) were obtained from the Department of Clinical Anatomy, Westville Campus, UKZN. A detailed micro-dissection of the posterior triangle of the neck and AC were completed using standard micro-dissecting instruments. Results of the formation of AC, its relationship to IJV and variations were recorded. The superior root was identified as a long willowy nerve that branched from the hypoglossal nerve, descended on the carotid sheath, anterior to the common carotid artery and IJV in 70 % and posterior to IJV in 30 % of the specimens. The inferior root of AC originated from the ventral rami of C2-C3 in 26%; ventral ramus of C3 in 58% and ventral ramus of C2 in 16%. Variations: a) Formation: (i) Dual formation of AC: The Hypoglossal nerve formed separate loops with the ventral rami of C2 and C3 (3%); (ii) "W" shaped appearance of AC above the superior belly of omohyoid (1%); (iii) A "vago-cervical complex" 3%; b) Origin and course: The superior root of AC received a contribution from the hypoglossal nerve, a short distance later it formed a loop around the IJV to ascend to the ventral ramus of C2 as the inferior root. The precise understanding of the anatomy of AC together with variations may assist anesthetists and surgeons to accurately identify the vascular and neural relations during surgical procedures.


La formación del asa cervical (AC) compleja, tanto en su curso como en ubicación, pueden variar a lo largo de la arteria carótida común y de la vena yugular interna (VYI). El objetivo del estudio fue determinar la anatomía, formación y variaciones del AC en fetos humanos. Cuarenta fetos (edad gestacional: 15 a 28 semanas) fueron obtenidos desde el Departamento de Anatomía Clínica, Westville Campus, UKZN. En cada muestra se realizó una detallada microdisección del triángulo posterior del cuello y del AC utilizando instrumental de microdisección estándar. Fueron registrados los resultados de la formación del AC, su relación con VYI y sus variaciones. La raíz superior fue identificada como un nervio largo y delgado que se ramificaba desde el nervio hipogloso, descendía por la vaina carotídea, anterior a la a. carótida común y la VYI en el 70% de los casos, y posterior a la VYI el 30%. La raíz inferior del AC se originaba desde los ramos ventrales de C2-C3 en el 26% de los casos; desde el ramo ventral de C3 en el 58% y desde el ramo ventral de C2 en 16% de los casos. Se observaron variaciones de formación: (i) dual del AC: el nervio hipogloso formó asas separadas con los ramos ventrales de C2 y C3 (3%), (ii) forma aparente de "W" sobre el vientre superior del m. omohioideo (1%) y (iii) un "complejo vago-cervical" (3%), y variaciones de origen y curso: la raíz superior del AC recibió una contribución del nervio hipogloso, y a corta distancia formó un bucle alrededor de la VYI para ascender al ramo ventral de C2 como una raíz inferior. El conocimiento preciso de la anatomía del AC junto con variaciones pueden ayudar a identificar con precisión las relaciones vasculares y neuronales durante los procedimientos quirúrgicos a anestesistas y cirujanos.


Subject(s)
Humans , Cervical Plexus/anatomy & histology , Fetus , Anatomic Variation , Hypoglossal Nerve/anatomy & histology , Jugular Veins/anatomy & histology , Cadaver
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