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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 81(4): 989-998, Oct.-Dec. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153442

ABSTRACT

Abstract This checklist of parasites of Kerodon rupestris, an endemic rodent from the Brazilian semiarid region, revealed records of 25 enteroparasite taxa comprising Cestoda (Anoplocephalidae), Trematoda, Acanthocephala and Nematoda (Ancylostomidae, Ascarididae, Heterakidae, Oxyuridae, Pharyngodonidae, Trichuridae, Capillariidae, Trichostrongylidae, and Strongyloididae), and two taxa of coccidian. Paleoparasitological and parasitological studies published until 2019 were assessed in the present study and locality information, site of infection, sample dating, and host data were summarized from each reference. Analyses of recent feces and coprolites revealed the highest species richness in the Piauí State. The chronological data corroborated that Trichuris spp. and oxyurids are part of the parasitic fauna of K. rupestris. This represents the first checklist of intestinal parasites from K. rupestris.


Resumo Este levantamento de parasitos intestinais de Kerodon rupestris, um roedor endêmico da região semiárida brasileira, revelou registros de 25 táxons de enteroparasitos compreendendo Cestoda (Anoplocephalidae), Trematoda, Acanthocephala e Nematoda (Ancylostomidae, Ascarididae, Heterakidae, Oxyuridae, Pharyngodonidae, Trichuridae, Capillariidae, Trichostrongylidae, and Strongyloididae), e dois táxons de coccídios. Os estudos paleoparasitológicos e parasitológicos publicados até 2019 foram avaliados no presente trabalho e as informações de localização, local da infecção, datação da amostra e dados do hospedeiro, foram resumidas a partir de cada referência. Análises de fezes recentes e coprólitos revelaram a maior riqueza de espécies no estado do Piauí. Os dados cronológicos corroboram que Trichuris spp. e oxiurídeos fazem parte da fauna parasitária de K. rupestris. Essa é a primeira lista de verificação de parasitos intestinais de K. rupestris.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cestoda , Helminths , Rodentia , Brazil , Checklist
2.
Braz. j. biol ; 81(3): 822-834, July-Sept. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153390

ABSTRACT

Abstract This study was aimed at determining the concentration of pyrethroid in the surface water, sediment, Weyonia acuminata and Synodontis clarias fish in Lekki lagoon, Lagos, Nigeria. In-situ physicochemical analysis of the surface water was conducted using a calibrated handheld multi-parameter probe (Horiba Checker Model U-10). Intestinal samples from infected and uninfected fish were analyzed for pyrethroid concentrations, microbial colonization, proteins (PRO), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), reduced glutathione (GSH), malonaldehyde (MDA) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx). The histopathology of infected and uninfected intestinal tissues were analyzed using Haematoxylin and Eosin (H&E) stains and examined under a binocular light microscope (Model 230485). A total of 39 out of 98 S. clarias fish were infected with cestode parasite, Wenyonia acuminate, amounting to 39% parasite prevalence. Among the tested pyrethroids, Cyfluthrin and Alpha -cypermethrin had significant sorption of 1.62 and 3.27 respectively from the aqueous phase to the bottom sediment of the lagoon. Pyrethroid concentration was in the order of sediment > parasite> water > intestine> liver. The cholesterol, triglycerides, and LDL (low density lipids) in the parasite were higher than in the host fish (p<0.05). On the other hand, the fish hepatic protein, high density lipids (HDL) and glucose were higher than the levels in the parasites (p<0.05). There was a high prevalence of gut microbes (30 - 40%), which include Salmonella sp, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas sp and Bacillus sp among individuals infected with gut Cestodes, Wenyonia sp compared with uninfected individual which had higher gut Staphylococcus sp., Klebsiella sp., and Proteus sp. (10- 40%). among the congeners of pyrethroids analyzed, Cyfluthrin > Alpha-Cyermethrin had significant sorption on the sediment, however unlike a benthopelagic fish, no pyrethroid was accumulated in the S. clarias from the sediment. The fish however accumulated Alpha-Cypermethrin from the aqueous phase. The parasite on the other hand accumulated Bathroid significantly from the surface water and bottom sediment which may be linked to the higher stress levels observed in the parasite than the host fish. The parasite in turn inflicted histological alterations on the host intestine, marked by moderate inflammation of mucosa, alteration of the villi microstructure, moderate stunting of the villous structure and moderate fibrosis of villous structure. The study demonstrated the efficiency of histopathological and microbial analysis in biomonitoring studies enteric parasites and early detection of pyrethroid toxicity respectively compared to bioaccumulation analysis.


Resumo Este estudo teve como objetivo determinar a concentração de piretroide nos peixes de águas superficiais, sedimentos, Wenyonia acuminata e Synodontis clarias na lagoa de Lekki, Lagos, Nigéria. A análise físico-química in situ da água de superfície foi realizada usando uma sonda multiparâmetro manual calibrada (Horiba Checker Modelo U-10). Amostras intestinais de peixes infectados e não infectados foram analisadas quanto a concentrações de piretroides, colonização microbiana, proteínas (PRO), superóxido dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutationa reduzida (GSH), malonaldeído (MDA) e glutationa peroxidase (GPx). A histopatologia dos tecidos intestinais infectados e não infectados foi analisada usando manchas de Hematoxilina e Eosina (H&E) e examinada sob um microscópio de luz binocular (Modelo 230485). Um total de 39 dos 98 peixes de S. clarias foi infectado com o parasita cestoide Wenyonia acuminata, totalizando 39% de prevalência do parasita. Entre os piretroides testados, ciflutrina e alfa-cipermetrina tiveram sorção significativa de 1,62 e 3,27, respectivamente, da fase aquosa ao sedimento de fundo da lagoa. A concentração de piretroides estava na ordem de sedimentos > parasita > água > intestino > fígado. O colesterol, os triglicerídeos e o LDL (lipídios de baixa densidade) no parasita foram maiores que no peixe hospedeiro (p < 0,05). Por outro lado, a proteína hepática dos peixes, os lipídios de alta densidade (HDL) e a glicose foram superiores aos níveis nos parasitas (p < 0,05). Houve uma alta prevalência de micróbios intestinais (30-40%), incluindo Salmonella sp., Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas sp. e Bacillus sp. entre indivíduos infectados no intestino com o parasita cestoide Wenyonia sp. em comparação com indivíduos não infectados com Staphylococcus sp., Klebsiella intestinal sp. e Proteus sp. (10-40%). Entre os congêneres dos piretroides analisados, ciflutrina > alfa-cipermetrina teve sorção significativa no sedimento, porém, diferentemente de um peixe bentopelágico, nenhum piretroide foi acumulado no S. clarias do sedimento. No entanto, os peixes acumularam alfa-cipermetrina a partir da fase aquosa. O parasita, por outro lado, acumulou Bathroid significativamente da água superficial e do sedimento do fundo, o que pode estar relacionado aos níveis mais altos de estresse observados no parasita do que no peixe hospedeiro. O parasita, por sua vez, causou alterações histológicas no intestino hospedeiro, marcadas por inflamação moderada da mucosa, alteração da microestrutura das vilosidades, atrofia moderada da estrutura das vilosidades e fibrose moderada da estrutura das vilosidades. O estudo demonstrou a eficiência da análise histopatológica e microbiana nos estudos de biomonitoramento de parasitas entéricos e detecção precoce da toxicidade dos piretroides, respectivamente, em comparação à análise de bioacumulação.


Subject(s)
Animals , Parasites , Pyrethrins , Water Pollutants, Chemical/analysis , Cestoda , Bioaccumulation , Nigeria
3.
Acta amaz ; 51(3): 255-259, set 2021. map, ilus
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1455403

ABSTRACT

The southern lapwing, Vanellus chilensis, is a bird frequently seen in most of Brazil. Although it is widely distributed in other Brazilian biomes, including some parts of the Brazilian Amazon, it has only been recorded in the western Amazonian state of Acre since 2000. We report the presence of intestinal parasites in individuals of V. chilensis from the Cazumbá-Iracema Extractive Reserve in Acre through a coproparasitological analysis. Seven of the nine sampled individuals were parasitized. We observed larvae of Strongyloides sp. (28.5% of the samples), and eggs of Ascaridia sp. (28.5%), Ancylostoma sp. (14.2%), and Choanotaenia sp. (42.8%). These parasites are reported for the first time parasitizing V. chilensis in Brazil. The parasitized birds may act as reservoirs and were recorded in a peridomicile area, which may facilitate their contact with domestic birds.


O quero-quero, Vanellus chilensis é uma ave vista com frequência no Brasil. Apesar de ser uma espécie amplamente distribuída em todos os biomas brasileiros, incluindo algumas partes da Amazônia bresileira, somente a partir de 2000 começou a ser observado no Estado do Acre. Neste trabalho relatamos a presença de parasitas intestinais em indivíduos de V. chilensis capturados na Reserva Extrativista Cazumbá-Iracema, no Acre, por meio de análise coproparasitológica. Dos nove indivíduos com amostras coletadas, sete estavam parasitados. Foram encontradas larvas de Strongyloides sp. (28,5%), ovos de Ascaridia sp. (28,5%), ovos de Ancylostoma sp. (14,2%) e ovos de Choanotaenia sp. (42,8%). Estes parasitos são registrados pela primeira vez parasitando V. chilensis no Brasil. As aves parasitadas podem atuar como reservatórios e foram registradas em área de peridomicílio, o que pode facilitar o contato com aves domésticas.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cestoda , Charadriiformes/classification , Charadriiformes/parasitology , Nematoda
4.
Rev. bras. parasitol. vet ; 30(3): e006021, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1288703

ABSTRACT

Abstract The present study investigated the metazoan parasite community in Pimelodus ornatus from the Amazon River, in the state of Amapá (Brazil). Of 71 fish examined, 70.4% were parasitized by Demidospermus sp. (Monogenea), Cucullanus pinnai, Procamallanus (Spirocamallanus) inopinatus and Contracaecum sp. (Nematoda) and plerocercoids from Proteocephalidae gen. sp. (Cestoda). The dominance was of nematode species such as Procamallanus (S.) inopinatus and Contracaecum sp. The parasites showed a highly aggregated dispersion and a predominance of hosts infected by one species of parasite. The parasite community was characterized by a low Shannon diversity index, low evenness and low species richness. The richness of parasite species, Shannon's diversity index, abundance of P. (S.) inopinatus and Proteocephalidae gen. sp. showed a positive correlation with the length of the hosts. Therefore, the size of the hosts had an influence on the parasite community and infracommunities, as well as their intermediate position in the food web. This is the first record of P. (S.) inopinatus and Contracaecum sp. for P. ornatus.


Resumo Este estudo investigou a comunidade de parasitos metazoários em Pimelodus ornatus do Rio Amazonas, no estado do Amapá (Brasil). De 71 peixes examinados, 70,4% estavam parasitados. Um total de 147 parasitos foi coletado, entre Demidospermus sp. (Monogenea), Cucullanus pinnai (Nematoda), Procamallanus (Spirocamallanus) inopinatus e Contracaecum sp. (Nematoda) e plerocercoides de Proteocephalidae gen. sp. (Cestoda). A dominância foi de nematoides como Procamallanus (S.) inopinatus e Contracaecum sp. Os parasitos apresentaram dispersão altamente agregada e predomínio de hospedeiros infectados por uma espécie de parasito. A comunidade de parasitos foi caracterizada por baixo índice de diversidade de Shannon, baixa equitabilidade e baixa riqueza de espécies. A riqueza de espécies de parasitos, índice de diversidade de Shannon, abundância de P. (S.) inopinatus e Proteocephalidae gen. sp. apresentaram correlação positiva com o comprimento dos hospedeiros. Portanto, o tamanho dos hospedeiros teve influência sobre a comunidade e infracomunidades de parasitos, bem como sua posição intermediária na cadeia alimentar. Este é o primeiro registro de P. (S.) inopinatus e Contracaecum sp. para P. ornatus.


Subject(s)
Animals , Parasites , Catfishes , Cestoda , Brazil , Rivers
5.
Rev. bras. parasitol. vet ; 28(4): 773-778, Oct.-Dec. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1057977

ABSTRACT

Abstract The aim of the present study was to identify, through morphological and morphometric analyses, the species of trypanorhynch cestodes found as plerocerci in the intestinal serosa of Mugil liza and to determine their parasitic indices. One hundred and fifty specimens of this mullet collected off the coast of the state of Rio de Janeiro were necropsied and the trypanorhynch cestodes found were fixed and preserved as whole mounts for morphological analysis. The plerocerci were identified as Callitetrarhynchus gracilis and Pterobothrium crassicole, both with a prevalence of 0.67%, an intensity of 1 and abundance of 0.0067, in single infections. This is the first record of a trypanorhynch cestode parasitizing M. liza in Brazil. Although the parasitic indexes were low, from a hygienic-sanitary perspective the plerocerci of these species are visible to the naked eye, and thus can disgust consumers and make marketing the fish unfeasible.


Resumo O presente estudo objetivou determinar taxonomicamente as espécies de plerocercos de cestoides Trypanorhyncha encontradas na serosa intestinal das tainhas Mugil liza, através do estudo morfológico e morfométrico e indicar seus índices parasitários. Foram coletados 150 espécimes desta espécie de tainha do litoral do estado do Rio de Janeiro. Após as necropsias, os cestoides Trypanorhyncha encontrados foram fixados e preservados em montagens permanentes para permitir a análise de suas estruturas morfológicas. Os plerocercos foram identificados como Callitetrarhynchus gracilis e Pterobothrium crassicole e ambas as espécies apresentaram prevalência de 0,67%, intensidade de 1 e abundância de 0,0067, em infecções únicas. Este é o primeiro registro de cestoides Trypanorhyncha parasitando M. liza no Brasil. Quanto ao aspecto higiênico-sanitário, vale ressaltar que, embora os índices parasitários registrados tenham sido baixos, os plerocercos dessas espécies estavam visíveis a olho nu, podendo causar repugnância ao consumidor e inviabilizar a comercialização do pescado.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cestoda/anatomy & histology , Cestoda/classification , Fishes/parasitology , Brazil , Cestoda/isolation & purification , Commerce
6.
Hig. aliment ; 33(288/289): 2023-2026, abr.-maio 2019.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1482454

ABSTRACT

Alguns parasitos, podem conferir aspecto repugnante ao pescado, sendo condenados pelo Serviço de Inspeção, quando na indústria de beneficiamento. Entre novembro de 2010 e maio de 2018 foram adquiridos 36 espécimes de Xystreurys rasile em mercados de pescados no município do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil. Os peixes foram identificados, medidos, pesados e necropsiados. Os cestoides foram processados segundo as técnicas usuais em helmintologia. Cinco linguados estavam parasitados por 29 cestoides do gênero Pterobothrium, os índices parasitários foram: prevalência (14%), intensidade média (5,8), abundância média (0,8) e amplitude de infecção (2-12) e os sítios de infecção foram estômago, intestino, rim, fígado, serosas do estômago, baço e fígado e cavidade abdominal. Este é o primeiro registro de Pterobothrium sp. parasitando X. rasile.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cestoda/classification , Cestoda/parasitology , Flounder/anatomy & histology , Flounder/parasitology , Food Inspection
7.
Hig. aliment ; 33(288/289): 2085-2087, abr.-maio 2019.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1482467

ABSTRACT

A presença de helmintos no pescado resulta em perdas econômicas devido a repugnância, além do risco de desenvolver reações alérgicas, reforçando a importância da inspeção higiênico-sanitária, como o caso dos cestoides da ordem Trypanorhyncha. Entre janeiro e setembro de 2018 foram adquiridos 30 espécimes de Fistularia petimba no Estado do Rio de Janeiro. Após a necropsia no Laboratório de Inspeção e Tecnologia de Pescado da Faculdade de Veterinária-UFF, foi verificado a positividade de dois peixes para o cestoide identificado como sendo da espécie Tentacularia coryphaenae, presente na cavidade abdominal e mesentério, apresentando os seguintes índices parasitários: prevalência 6,6%, intensidade média 1; abundância média 0,06.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cestoda/parasitology , Food Parasitology , Fishes/parasitology , Food Inspection
8.
Rev. bras. parasitol. vet ; 28(2): 266-282, Apr.-June 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1013738

ABSTRACT

Abstract Forty specimens of the Narrowstripe cardinal fish Apogon exostigma were examined for gastrointestinal helminthes, and 62.5% were infected with a new trypanorhynchid larval cestode parasite. The morphology of its larval stage was studied based on light and scanning electron microscopy. The data revealed plerocercoid larvae characterized by a pyriform body lined with prominent microtriches; the acraspedote scolex had four overlapping bothridia; four tentacles protruded through the pars bothridialis; the armature of the tentacles was homeocanthous, homeomorphous, and consisted of falcate compact rose-thorn-shaped tentacular hooks; four oval-shaped bulbs in pars bulbosa; and short appendix at terminal end of the body. Molecular analysis of the 18S rRNA sequences verified the taxonomy of this parasite and supported its morphology. We discovered that there was a close identity (up to 87%) with alternative species obtained for comparison from GenBank. The data also showed that there were high blast scores and low divergence values between this parasite and other Tentaculariidae species. The phyletic analysis showed that parasite sequences in conjunction with existing data places this trypanorhynchid species among the Tentaculariidae. This species is deeply embedded within genus Nybelinia with close relationships to Nybelinia queenslandensis as a putative sister taxon.


Resumo Quarenta espécimes do peixe cardinal Apogon exostigma da Narrowstripe foram examinados para identificar helmintos gastrointestinais, destes 62,5% foram infectados com um novo parasito larval cestóide tripanorrinquídeo. A morfologia de seu estágio larval foi estudada na microscopia de luz e eletrônica de varredura. Os dados revelaram larvas plerocercoides caracterizadas por uma forma piriforme com um corpo revestido por microtrícinos proeminentes; o escolex acraspedótico tinha quatro sobreposições; quatro tentáculos se projetavam através da pars botridialis; a armadura dos tentáculos era homeocante, homeomorfa e consistia de ganchos tentaculares em forma de espinhos, em forma de falcão; quatro bulbos ovais em pars bulbosa; e apêndice curto na extremidade terminal do corpo. A análise molecular das sequências de RNAr 18S verificou a taxonomia desse parasita e apoiou sua morfologia. Descobrimos que havia uma identidade próxima (até 87%) com espécies alternativas obtidas para comparação do GenBank. Os dados também mostraram que houve altos escores de brusone e baixos valores de divergência entre este parasita e outras espécies de Tentaculariidae. A análise filética mostrou que as sequências de parasitas em conjunto com os dados existentes colocam esta espécie de tripanorimidídeo entre os Tentaculariidae. Esta espécie está profundamente enraizada no gênero Nybelinia, tendo relações próximas com Nybelinia queenslandensis como um putativo táxon irmão.


Subject(s)
Animals , Perciformes/parasitology , Cestoda/isolation & purification , Cestode Infections/parasitology , Fish Diseases/parasitology , Phylogeny , Perciformes/classification , RNA, Ribosomal, 18S/genetics , Cestoda/anatomy & histology , Cestoda/classification , Cestoda/genetics
9.
Epidemiology and Health ; : e2019024-2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-763738

ABSTRACT

Human echinococcosis is an infectious disease caused by tapeworms belonging to the species Echinococcus. This parasite has a worldwide distribution and is considered a neglected tropical disease by the World Health Organization. Due to the diversity of Echinococcus spp. hosts, as well as variation in geographical, climatic, and socio-ethnic conditions, the question of the strains or genotypes of Echinococcus spp. that are involved in human infections is important. The aim of this study was to provide a summary of the available data on genotypes of Echinococcus obtained from the Iranian population. Four international databases (PubMed, Scopus, Science Direct, and Web of Science) and 4 Persian databases (Magiran, Scientific Information Database, Iran Medex, and IranDoc) were searched for cross-sectional studies that reported the genotypes of Echinococcus spp. in human echinococcosis cases using molecular methods in Iran through July 2018. The Newcastle-Ottawa Scale was used to assess the quality of the selected studies. A total of 559 cases of human cystic echinococcosis were reported in the 21 included articles. The majority of cases belonged to genotype G1 (89.2%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 80.1 to 95.8), genotype G6 (8.2%; 95% CI, 2.8 to 15.9), and genotype G3 (2.3%; 95% CI, 1.1 to 3.9). Since genotype G1 of Echinococcus appears to be the most prevalent genotype affecting humans in Iran, disease control initiatives aimed at sheep intermediate hosts may be the most beneficial. In addition, educational programs and serological screening in individuals may help reduce the national impact of the disease.


Subject(s)
Humans , Cestoda , Communicable Diseases , Cross-Sectional Studies , Echinococcosis , Echinococcus , Genotype , Iran , Mass Screening , Parasites , Sheep , World Health Organization
10.
The Korean Journal of Parasitology ; : 55-60, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-742304

ABSTRACT

This study was undertaken to determine the complete mitochondrial DNA sequence and structure of the mitochondrial genome of Spirometra ranarum, and to compare it with those of S. erinaceieuropaei and S. decipiens. The aim of this study was to provide information of the species level taxonomy of Spirometra spp. using the mitochondrial genomes of 3 Spirometra tapeworms. The S. ranarum isolate originated from Myanmar. The mitochondrial genome sequence of S. ranarum was compared with that of S. erinaceieuropaei (GenBank no. KJ599680) and S. decipiens (Gen-Bank no. KJ599679). The complete mtDNA sequence of S. ranarum comprised 13,644 bp. The S. ranarum mt genome contained 36 genes comprising 12 protein-coding genes, 22 tRNAs and 2 rRNAs. The mt genome lacked the atp8 gene, as found for other cestodes. All genes in the S. ranarum mitochondrial genome are transcribed in the same direction and arranged in the same relative position with respect to gene loci as found for S. erinaceieuropaei and S. decipiens mt genomes. The overall nucleotide sequence divergence of 12 protein-coding genes between S. ranarum and S. decipiens differed by 1.5%, and 100% sequence similarity was found in the cox2 and nad6 genes, while the DNA sequence divergence of the cox1, nad1, and nad4 genes of S. ranarum and S. decipiens was 2.2%, 2.1%, and 2.6%, respectively.


Subject(s)
Base Sequence , Cestoda , Classification , DNA, Mitochondrial , Genes, vif , Genome , Genome, Mitochondrial , Myanmar , RNA, Transfer , Spirometra
11.
The Korean Journal of Parasitology ; : 575-580, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-786648

ABSTRACT

The aim of this study is to determine the species of parasites that affected the inhabitants of the city of Acre on the coast of the eastern Mediterranean during the Ottoman Period. This is the first archaeological study of parasites in the Ottoman Empire. We analysed sediment from a latrine dating to the early 1800s for the presence of helminth eggs and protozoan parasites which caused dysentery. The samples were examined using light microscopy and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kits. We found evidence for roundworm (Ascaris lumbricoides), whipworm (Trichuris trichiura), fish tapeworm (Dibothriocephalus sp.), Taenia tapeworm (Taenia sp.), lancet liver fluke (Dicrocoelium dendriticum), and the protozoa Giardia duodenalis and Entamoeba histolytica. The parasite taxa recovered demonstrate the breadth of species present in this coastal city. We consider the effect of Ottoman Period diet, culture, trade and sanitation upon risk of parasitism in this community living 200 years ago.


Subject(s)
Cestoda , Diet , Dysentery , Eggs , Entamoeba histolytica , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Fasciola hepatica , Giardia lamblia , Helminths , Microscopy , Ottoman Empire , Ovum , Parasites , Sanitation , Taenia , Toilet Facilities
12.
The Korean Journal of Parasitology ; : 613-619, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-786642

ABSTRACT

Paleoparasitological analysis was carried on 4 Merovingian skeletons, dated from the late-5th to the late-9th centuries, and recovered in the church of Saint-Martin-au-Val in Chartres (Center region, France). The corpses were buried in stone sarcophagi, which were still sealed at the time of excavation. Parasite marker extraction was conducted on sediment samples taken from the abdominal and pelvic regions, but also on samples taken from under the head and the feet as control samples. Microscopic observation revealed the presence of 3 gastrointestinal parasites, namely the roundworm (Ascaris lumbricoides), the whipworm (Trichuris trichiura) and the fish tapeworm (genus Diphyllobothrium). This analysis contributes to a better knowledge of the health status and the lifestyle of ancient medieval populations during the Merovingian period, for which very few paleoparasitological data were available, up until now. It demonstrates the presence of the fish tapeworm for the first time during this period.


Subject(s)
Cadaver , Cestoda , Foot , Head , Life Style , Parasites , Pelvis , Skeleton
13.
The Korean Journal of Parasitology ; : 639-645, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-786638

ABSTRACT

In the present study, a Spirometra species of Tanzania origin obtained from an African leopard (Panthera pardus) and spotted hyena (Crocuta crocuta) was identified based on molecular analysis of cytochrome c oxidase I (cox1) and NADH dehydrogenase subunit I (nad1) as well as by morphological observations of an adult tapeworm. One strobila and several segments of a Spirometra species were obtained from the intestine of an African male leopard (Panthera pardus) and spotted hyena (Crocuta crocuta) in the Maswa Game Reserve of Tanzania. The morphological characteristics of S. theileri observed comprised 3 uterine loops on one side and 4 on the other side of the mid-line, a uterine pore situated posterior to the vagina and alternating irregularly either to the right or left of the latter, and vesicular seminis that were much smaller than other Spirometra species. Sequence differences in the cox1 and nad1 genes between S. theileri (Tanzania origin) and S. erinaceieuropaei were 10.1% (cox1) and 12.0% (nad1), while those of S. decipiens and S. ranarum were 9.6%, 9.8% (cox1) and 13.0%, 12.6% (nad1), respectively. The morphological features of the Tanzania-origin Spirometra specimens coincided with those of S. theileri, and the molecular data was also consistent with that of S. theileri, thereby demonstrating the distribution of S. theileri in Tanzania. This places the leopard (Panthera pardus) and spotted hyena (Crocuta crocuta) as new definitive hosts of this spirometrid tapeworm.


Subject(s)
Adult , Animals , Humans , Male , Cestoda , Electron Transport Complex IV , Hyaenidae , Intestines , NADH Dehydrogenase , Panthera , Spirometra , Tanzania , Vagina
14.
The Korean Journal of Parasitology ; : 417-422, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-761756

ABSTRACT

From October 2015 to August 2018, tapeworm proglottids were obtained from 10 patients who were residents of Daegu and Gyeongbuk provinces and had a history of raw beef consumption. Most of them had no overseas travel experience. The gravid proglottids obtained from the 10 cases had 15–20 lateral uterine branches. A part of internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1) DNA of the 10 cases, amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and digested with AleI restriction enzyme, produced the same band pattern of Taenia saginata, which differentiated from T. asiatica and T. solium. Sequences of ITS1 and cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox1) showed higher homology to T. saginata than to T. asiatica and T. solium. Collectively, these 10 cases were identified as T. saginata human infections. As taeniasis is one of the important parasitic diseases in humans, it is necessary to maintain hygienic conditions during livestock farming to avoid public health concerns.


Subject(s)
Humans , Agriculture , Cestoda , DNA , DNA, Ribosomal , Electron Transport Complex IV , Livestock , Parasitic Diseases , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Public Health , Red Meat , Republic of Korea , Taenia saginata , Taenia , Taeniasis
15.
The Korean Journal of Parasitology ; : 423-427, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-761755

ABSTRACT

Coenurosis is an important zoonotic helminthic disease caused by the larval stage of the tapeworm Taenia multiceps. This parasite typically infects the brain of the intermediate hosts, including sheep, goat, cattle and even humans. We report a case of T. multiceps infection in a yak confirmed by clinical symptoms, morphological characteristics, and molecular and phylogenetic analyses. The coenurus was thin-walled, whitish, and spherical in shape with a diameter of 10 cm. The parasite species was identified as T. multiceps by PCR amplification and sequencing of the 18S rRNA, cox1 and nad1 genes. Three gene sequences all showed high homology (all above 97%) with the reference sequences from different hosts. Moreover, phylogenetic reconstructions with the 3 published Taenia gene sequences confirmed that the Qinghai yak isolate was closely related to T. multiceps. Although there are advanced diagnosis and treatment methods for coenurosis, early infection is difficult to diagnose. Importantly, the findings of yak infection case should not be ignored due to its zoonotic potential.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cattle , Humans , Brain , Cestoda , China , Diagnosis , Goats , Helminths , Parasites , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Sheep , Taenia
16.
The Korean Journal of Parasitology ; : 451-456, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-761750

ABSTRACT

Adult specimens of Echinochasmus caninus n. comb. (Verma, 1935) (Trematoda: Echinostomatidae) (syn. Episthmium caninum Yamaguti, 1958) were recovered from 11 riparian people who resided along the Mekong River in Khammouane Province, Lao PDR. In fecal examinations done by the Kato-Katz technique, the cases revealed eggs of Opisthorchis viverrini/minute intestinal flukes, hookworms, and in 2 cases echinostome eggs. To recover the adult helminths, praziquantel 30–40 mg/kg and pyrantel pamoate 10–15 mg/kg in a single dose were given and purged with magnesium salts. Various species of trematodes (including O. viverrini and Haplorchis spp.), cestodes, and nematodes were recovered from their diarrheic stools. Among the trematodes, small echinostome flukes (n=42; av. 3.8 specimens per case) of 0.7–1.2 mm in length are subjected in this study. They are morphologically characterized by having 24 collar spines interrupted dorsally and anterior extension of vitellaria from the cirrus sac or genital pore level to the posterior end of the body. Particularly based on this extensive distribution of vitellaria, the specific diagnosis was made as Echinochasmus caninus. The cases were co-infected with various other helminth parasites; thus, clinical manifestations specific for this echinostome infection were difficult to determine. The present paper describes for the first time human E. caninus infections in Lao PDR. Our cases marked the 4–14th human infections with this echinostome around the world following the 3 previous cases reported from Thailand.


Subject(s)
Adult , Animals , Humans , Ancylostomatoidea , Cestoda , Comb and Wattles , Diagnosis , Eggs , Helminths , Magnesium , Opisthorchis , Ovum , Parasites , Praziquantel , Pyrantel Pamoate , Rivers , Salts , Spine , Thailand , Trematoda
17.
The Korean Journal of Parasitology ; : 313-318, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-761735

ABSTRACT

In recent years, the taeniasis has been rarely reported in the Republic of Korea (Korea). But in this study, we intend to report 4 taeniasis cases caused by Taenia saginata during a 5-month period (February to June 2018) at a unversity hospital in Gwangju, Korea. Worm samples (proglottids) discharged from all cases were identified by phenotypic and molecular diagnostics. Mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I sequences showed 99.4–99.9% identity with T. saginata but, differed by 4% from T. asiatica and by 7% from T. multiceps, respectively. We found that tapeworms in 2 cases (Cases 2 and 3) yielded exactly the same sequences between them, which differed from those in Cases 1 and 4, suggesting intra-species variation in tapeworms. These taeniasis cases by T. saginata infection in this study, which occurred within a limited time period and region, suggest the possibility of a mini-outbreak. This study highlights the need for further epidemiological investigation of potentially overlooked cases of T. saginata infection in Korea.


Subject(s)
Cestoda , Electron Transport Complex IV , Korea , Pathology, Molecular , Republic of Korea , Taenia saginata , Taeniasis
18.
The Korean Journal of Parasitology ; : 179-184, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-761722

ABSTRACT

Sparganosis is a parasitic infestation caused by sparganum, a plerocercoid tapeworm larva of the genus Spirometra. Since the first case of human sparganosis reported in 1908, sparganosis has been a global disease, and is common in China, Japan, and Southeast Asian countries. Consumption of raw snakes, frogs, fish, or drinking contaminated beverages are sources of human infections. Human sparganosis usually manifests in subcutaneous fat in areas such as the abdomen, genitourinary tract, and limbs. Breast sparganosis cases are rare, representing less than 2% of total cases of human infections. Complete surgical extraction of the sparganum is the treatment of choice. Because of the rarity of the disease, clinical suspicion is vital to reach the diagnosis of breast sparganosis. Here we report 2 rare cases of breast sparganosis presenting with a painless breast lump, both treated with surgical excision and sparganum extraction.


Subject(s)
Humans , Abdomen , Asian People , Beverages , Breast , Cestoda , China , Diagnosis , Drinking , Extremities , Japan , Larva , Snakes , Sparganosis , Sparganum , Spirometra , Subcutaneous Fat
19.
Epidemiology and Health ; : 2019024-2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-785762

ABSTRACT

Human echinococcosis is an infectious disease caused by tapeworms belonging to the species Echinococcus. This parasite has a worldwide distribution and is considered a neglected tropical disease by the World Health Organization. Due to the diversity of Echinococcus spp. hosts, as well as variation in geographical, climatic, and socio-ethnic conditions, the question of the strains or genotypes of Echinococcus spp. that are involved in human infections is important. The aim of this study was to provide a summary of the available data on genotypes of Echinococcus obtained from the Iranian population. Four international databases (PubMed, Scopus, Science Direct, and Web of Science) and 4 Persian databases (Magiran, Scientific Information Database, Iran Medex, and IranDoc) were searched for cross-sectional studies that reported the genotypes of Echinococcus spp. in human echinococcosis cases using molecular methods in Iran through July 2018. The Newcastle-Ottawa Scale was used to assess the quality of the selected studies. A total of 559 cases of human cystic echinococcosis were reported in the 21 included articles. The majority of cases belonged to genotype G1 (89.2%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 80.1 to 95.8), genotype G6 (8.2%; 95% CI, 2.8 to 15.9), and genotype G3 (2.3%; 95% CI, 1.1 to 3.9). Since genotype G1 of Echinococcus appears to be the most prevalent genotype affecting humans in Iran, disease control initiatives aimed at sheep intermediate hosts may be the most beneficial. In addition, educational programs and serological screening in individuals may help reduce the national impact of the disease.


Subject(s)
Humans , Cestoda , Communicable Diseases , Cross-Sectional Studies , Echinococcosis , Echinococcus , Genotype , Iran , Mass Screening , Parasites , Sheep , World Health Organization
20.
Braz. j. biol ; 78(3): 414-420, Aug. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-951581

ABSTRACT

Abstract This study evaluated the parasite fauna on the gills of spotted goatfish Pseudupeneus maculatus captured in the dry and rainy seasons in the coast of the State of Pernambuco, Brazil. Eight parasite species were identified belonging to the following taxa: Monogenea (Haliotrema caraïbensis, Haliotrema caballeroi and Haliotrema golvani); Crustacea (Rocinela signata, Hamaticolax scutigerulus and Caligidae gen. sp.) and Cestoda (Nybelinia indica and Pseudolacistorhynchus noodti). The most prevalent parasites were: Monogenea (100%), H. scutigerulus (35%), N. indica (11.7%), R. signata (8.3%), Caligidae gen. sp. (3.33%) and P. noodti (0.83%). Values of infestation are compared to other studies, and the uncommon occurrence of Trypanorhyncha on the gills suggests that the spotted goatfish could be an intermediate host for the parasite.


Resumo O presente estudo investigou a fauna parasitária das brânquias do peixe conhecido como saramunete Pseudupeneus maculatus, capturados nas estações seca e chuvosa na costa do estado de Pernambuco, Brasil. Oito espécies de parasitos foram identificadas, pertencentes aos seguintes táxons: Monogenea (Haliotrema caraïbensis, Haliotrema caballeroi e Haliotrema golvani); Crustacea (Rocinela signata, Hamaticolax scutigerulus e Caligidae gen. sp.) e Cestoda (Nybelinia indica e Pseudolacistorhynchus noodti). Os parasitos mais prevalentes foram: Monogenea (100%), H. scutigerulus (35%), N. indica (11,7%), R. signata (8,3%), Caligidae gen. sp. (3,33%) e P. noodti (0,83%). Os valores de infestação são comparados a outros estudos, e a ocorrência incomum de cestóides Trypanorhyncha sugere que o saramunete pode ser um hospedeiro intermediário para o parasito.


Subject(s)
Animals , Perciformes/parasitology , Cestoda/growth & development , Fish Diseases/parasitology , Fishes/parasitology , Parasites , Seasons , Species Specificity , Brazil/epidemiology , Prevalence , Copepoda , Fishes/classification , Gills/parasitology
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