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1.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 112(3): 240-246, Mar. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-989336

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background: In the past two decades, a new epidemiological profile of Chagas' disease (CD) has been registered in the Brazilian Amazon where oral transmission has been indicated as responsible for the increase of acute cases. In the Amazonas state, five outbreaks of acute CD have been registered since 2004. The cardiac manifestations in these cases may be characterized by diffuse myocarditis, with alteration in the electrocardiogram (ECG) and transthoracic echocardiogram (TTE). Objective: To perform a cardiac evaluation in autochthonous patients in the acute phase and at least one year after submitted to treatment for acute CD and evaluate the demographic variables associated with the presence of cardiac alterations. Methods: We evaluated patients diagnosed with acute CD through direct parasitological or serological (IgM) methods from 2007 to 2015. These patients were treated with benznidazole and underwent ECG and TTE before and after treatment. We assumed a confidence interval of 95% (CI 95%, p < 0.05) for all variables analyzed. Results: We observed 63 cases of an acute CD in which oral transmission corresponded to 75%. Cardiac alterations were found in 33% of the cases, with a greater frequency of ventricular repolarization alteration (13%), followed by pericardial effusion (10%) and right bundle branch block and left anterior fascicular block (2%). The follow-up occurred in 48 patients with ECG and 25 with TTE for a mean period of 15.5 ± 4.1 months after treatment. Of these, 8% presented normalization of the cardiac alterations in ECG, 62.5% remained with the normal exams. All of the patients presented normal results in TTE in the post-treatment period. As for the demographic variables, isolated cases presented more cardiac alterations than outbreaks (p = 0.044) as well as cases from Central Amazonas mesoregion (p = 0.020). Conclusions: Although cardiac alterations have not been frequent in most of the studied population, a continuous evaluation of the clinical-epidemiological dynamics of the disease in the region is necessary in order to establish preventive measures.


Resumo Fundamento: Nas últimas duas décadas, um novo perfil epidemiológico da Doença de Chagas (DC) foi registrado na Amazônia brasileira, onde a transmissão oral foi indicada como responsável pelo aumento dos casos agudos. No estado do Amazonas, foram registrados cinco surtos da doença desde 2004. As manifestações cardíacas nesses casos podem ser caracterizadas por miocardite difusa, com alteração nos resultados eletrocardiograma (ECG) e ecocardiografia transtorácica (ETT). Objetivo: avaliar parâmetros cardíacos em pacientes autóctones com DC na fase aguda e em um ano ou mais após tratamento, e avaliar as variáveis demográficas associadas com a presença de alterações cardíacas. Métodos: Avaliamos os pacientes diagnosticados com DC aguda por método direto parasitológico e exame sorológico (IgM) entre 2007 e 2015. Os pacientes foram tratados com benzonidazol e submetidos à ECG e ETT antes e após tratamento. Assumimos um intervalo de confiança de 95% (p < 0,05) para todas as variáveis analisadas. Resultados: Observamos 63 casos de DC aguda em que a transmissão oral ocorreu em 75% dos casos. Alterações cardíacas foram encontradas em 33% dos casos, com maior frequência de repolarização ventricular (13%), seguida de derrame pericárdico (10%), e bloqueio do ramo direito e bloqueio fascicular anterior esquerdo (2%). O acompanhamento foi realizado com 48 pacientes com ECG e 25 com ETT por um período médio de 15,5±4,1 meses após o tratamento. Desses pacientes, observou-se normalização das alterações eletrocardiográficas em 8% dos pacientes, e 62,5% continuaram com os parâmetros normais. Todos os pacientes apresentaram resultados da ETT normais no período pós-tratamento. Quanto às variáveis demográficas, os casos isolados apresentaram mais alterações cardíacas em comparação aos casos de surtos (p=0,044) e os casos identificados na mesorregião do Amazonas Central (p = 0,020). Conclusões: Apesar de as alterações cardíacas não terem sido frequentes na maioria da população do estudo, é necessária uma avaliação contínua da dinâmica clínica-epidemiológica da doença na região para se estabelecer medidas preventivas.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Young Adult , Trypanocidal Agents/therapeutic use , Chagas Cardiomyopathy/parasitology , Chagas Disease/drug therapy , Nitroimidazoles/therapeutic use , Trypanosoma cruzi/isolation & purification , Brazil/epidemiology , Echocardiography , Chagas Cardiomyopathy/diagnostic imaging , Follow-Up Studies , Chagas Disease/complications , Chagas Disease/epidemiology , Electrocardiography
2.
Salvador; s.n; 2018. 85 p. ilus, tab.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1005571

ABSTRACT

INTRODUÇÃO: A doença de Chagas é uma doença parasitária causada pelo Trypanosoma cruzi, a qual representa uma das principais causas de morbimortalidade na América Latina. As intervenções terapêuticas existentes não são totalmente eficazes, sendo o transplante cardíaco a única alternativa para os pacientes com cardiopatia chagásica crônica (CCC) grave. Neste sentido, a ausência de terapias capazes de atuar diretamente sobre os determinantes fisiopatológicos da doença torna necessária a identificação de novas abordagens terapêuticas. Estudos previamente realizados pelo nosso grupo mostraram que a utilização de célulastronco obtidas da medula óssea e de outras fontes teve efeitos benéficos no tratamento da CCC experimental. A possibilidade de potencializar os efeitos parácrinos das células-tronco através de modificação genética tem sido alvo de investigações científicas. OBJETIVO: Avaliar os efeitos da terapia com células-tronco mesenquimais (CTMs) da medula óssea, modificadas geneticamente para superexpressar o fator estimulador de colônias de granulócitos (hG-CSF) ou o fator de crescimento semelhante à insulina 1 (hIGF-1) em um modelo experimental de CCC. MATERIAL E MÉTODOS: Camundongos C57BL/6 foram infectados com 1000 tripomastigotas da cepa Colombiana de T. cruzi e, após seis meses de infecção, foram tratados com CTM, CTM-G-CSF, ou CTM-IGF-1. Grupos de animais não infectados ou infectados tratados com salina (veículo) foram utilizados como controles. Todos os animais foram eutanasiados sob anestesia após dois meses de tratamento para análises histopatológicas e morfométricas do coração ou músculo esquelético, bem como para avaliação da expressão de citocinas inflamatórias. RESULTADOS: As secções de corações de camundongos dos grupos tratados com CTM, CTM-GCSF ou CTM-IGF-1 apresentaram redução significativa do número de células inflamatórias e do percentual de fibrose em comparação aos animais chagásicos tratados com salina, sendo esta diferença mais evidente no grupo que foi tratado com células-tronco que superexpressam o G-CSF. Além disto, a terapia com CTM-G-CSF induziu a mobilização de células imunomoduladoras para o coração, tais como células supressoras de origem mielóide (MDSC) e células T regulatórias Foxp3+ que expressam IL-10. A avaliação da expressão gênica das citocinas inflamatórias no tecido cardíaco mostrou um aumento das citocinas inflamatórias em animais chagásicos crônicos quando comparados aos controles não infectados, sendo a maioria delas moduladas de forma significativa nos grupos que foram tratados com CTM ou CTM-G-CSF. Apesar da terapia utilizando CTM-IGF-1 não ter apresentado benefício adicional ao tecido cardíaco comparado ao grupo que foi tratado com CTM não modificadas, foi observado um efeito regenerativo desta terapia no músculo esquelético dos animais, resultando em um aumento de fibras musculares esqueléticas 60 dias após o tratamento. CONCLUSÃO: Nossos resultados demonstram que o tratamento com CTM da medula óssea que superexpressam hG-CSF ou hIGF-1 potencializou o efeito terapêutico das CTMs através de ações imunomoduladoras e pró-regenerativas no coração e músculo esquelético de camundongos cronicamente infectados por T. cruzi. Desse modo, a modificação genética de CTMs para superexpressão de fatores com potencial terapêutico representa uma estratégia promissora para o desenvolvimento de novas terapias para a cardiomiopatia chagásica crônica


INTRODUCTION: Chagas' disease is a parasitic disease caused by Trypanosoma cruzi, which is one of the main causes of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in Latin America. Existing therapeutic interventions are not fully effective, and heart transplantation is the only alternative for patients with severe chronic Chagas' heart disease. In this sense, the absence of therapies capable of acting directly on the pathophysiological determinants of the disease demonstrates the necessity of identifying new therapeutic approaches. Studies previously conducted by our group demonstrated that the use of stem cells obtained from bone marrow and other sources had beneficial effects in the treatment of experimental chagas disease. Additionally, the possibility of enhancing stem cell paracrine effects through genetic modification has been the subject of scientific investigations. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effects of genetically modified mesenchymal stem cell therapy to overexpress granulocyte colony stimulating factor (hG-CSF) or insulin-like growth factor 1 (hIGF-1) in an experimental model of Chagas disease. MATERIAL AND METHODS: C57BL/6 mice were infected with 1000 trypomastigotes from the Colombian strain of T. cruzi and, after six months of infection, were treated with CTM, CTM-G-CSF, or CTM-IGF-1. Groups of uninfected or infected animals treated with saline (vehicle) were used as controls. All animals were euthanized under anesthesia after two months of treatment for histopathological and morphometric analysis of the heart or skeletal muscle, as well as for evaluation of inflammatory cytokine expression. RESULTS: Mouse heart sections from groups treated with CTM, CTM-GCSF or CTM-IGF-1 showed a significant reduction in the number of inflammatory cells and the percentage of fibrosis when compared to chagasic animals treated with saline.This difference was more evident in the group that was treated with stem cells overexpressing G-CSF. In addition, CTM-G-CSF therapy induced mobilization of immunomodulatory cells to the heart, including myeloid suppressor cells (MDSC) and Foxp3 + regulatory T cells expressing IL-10. Expression of inflammatory cytokine genes in cardiac tissue revealed an increase in inflammatory cytokines in chronic chagasic animals when compared to uninfected controls, where most cytokines were significantly modulated in groups treated with CTM or CTM-G-CSF. Although CTM-IGF-1 therapy demonstrated no additional benefit to cardiac tissue when compared to the group treated with unmodified CTM, a regenerative effect of this therapy was observed in chagasic mice skeletal muscle, resulting in an increase in skeletal muscle fibers 60 days after treatment. CONCLUSION: Our results demonstrate that bone marrow derived CTM treatment overexpressing hG-CSF or hIGF-1 enhanced the therapeutic effects of MSCs through immunomodulation and proregenerative actions in the heart and skeletal muscle of mice chronically infected wthT. cruzi. Thus, the genetic modification of CTMs for overexpression of factors with therapeutic potential represents a promising strategy for the development of new therapies for chronic chagasic cardiomyopathy


Subject(s)
Humans , Stem Cells/immunology , Chagas Cardiomyopathy/diagnosis , Chagas Cardiomyopathy/parasitology , Chagas Cardiomyopathy/pathology , Chagas Cardiomyopathy/therapy
3.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 113(9): e180171, 2018. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-955120

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND The anti-inflammatory and cardioprotective properties of curcumin (Cur), a natural polyphenolic flavonoid isolated from the rhizomes of Curcuma longa, are increasingly considered to have beneficial effects on the progression of Chagas heart disease, caused by the protozoan parasite Trypanosoma cruzi. OBJECTIVE To evaluate the effects of oral therapy with Cur on T. cruzi-mediated cardiovasculopathy in acutely infected mice and analyse the in vitro response of parasite-infected human microvascular endothelial cells treated with this phytochemical. METHODS Inflammation of heart vessels from Cur-treated and untreated infected mice were analysed by histology, with benznidazole (Bz) as the reference compound. Parasitaemia was monitored by the direct method. Capillary permeability was visualised by Evans-blue assay. Myocardial ET-1, IL-6, and TNF-α mRNA expressions were measured by quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). Microvascular endothelial HMEC-1 cells were infected in vitro with or without addition of Cur or Bz. Induction of the Ca2+/NFAT pathway was assessed by fluorometry, immunoblotting, and reporter assay. FINDINGS Oral Cur therapy of recently infected mice reduced inflammatory cell infiltration of myocardial arteries without lowering parasite levels. Compared to that of the phosphate-buffered saline-receiving group, hearts from Cur-treated mice showed significantly decreased vessel inflammation scores (p < 0.001), vascular permeabilities (p < 0.001), and levels of IL-6/TNF-α (p < 0.01) and ET-1 (p < 0.05) mRNA. Moreover, Cur significantly (p < 0.05 for transcript; p < 0.01 for peptide) downregulated ET-1 secretion from infected HMEC-1 cells. Remarkably, Cur addition significantly (p < 0.05 at 27.0 μM) interfered with T. cruzi-dependent activation of the Ca2+/NFATc1 signalling pathway that promotes generation of inflammatory agents in HMEC-1 cells. CONCLUSIONS Oral treatment with Cur dampens cardiovasculopathy in acute Chagas mice. Cur impairs the Ca2+/NFATc1-regulated release of ET-1 from T. cruzi-infected vascular endothelium. These findings identify new perspectives for exploring the potential of Cur-based interventions to ameliorate Chagas heart disease.


Subject(s)
Humans , Chagas Cardiomyopathy/parasitology , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , NFATC Transcription Factors/analysis , Blotting, Western , Acute Disease/rehabilitation , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/pharmacology
4.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 112(8): 551-560, Aug. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-894864

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND Chagas disease is a public health problem caused by infection with the protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi. There is currently no effective therapy for Chagas disease. Although there is some evidence for the beneficial effect of bone marrow-derived cells in chagasic disease, the mechanisms underlying their effects in the heart are unknown. Reports have suggested that bone marrow cells are recruited to the chagasic heart; however, studies using chimeric mouse models of chagasic cardiomyopathy are rare. OBJECTIVES The aim of this study was to investigate the migration of bone marrow cells to the heart after T. cruzi infection in a model of chagasic disease in chimeric mice. METHODS To obtain chimerical mice, wild-type (WT) C57BL6 mice were exposed to full body irradiation (7 Gy), causing bone marrow ablation. Then, bone marrow cells from green fluorescent protein (GFP)-transgenic mice were infused into the mice. Graft effectiveness was confirmed by flow cytometry. Experimental mice were divided into four groups: (i) infected chimeric (iChim) mice; (ii) infected WT (iWT) mice, both of which received 3 × 104 trypomastigotes of the Brazil strain; (iii) non-infected chimeric (Chim) mice; and (iv) non-infected WT mice. FINDINGS At one-month post-infection, iChim and iWT mice showed first degree atrioventricular block with decreased heart rate and treadmill exercise parameters compared to those in the non-infected groups. MAIN CONCLUSIONS iChim mice showed an increase in parasitaemia, myocarditis, and the presence of amastigote nests in the heart tissue compared to iWT mice. Flow cytometry analysis did not detect haematopoietic progenitor cells in the hearts of infected mice. Furthermore, GFP+ cardiomyocytes were not detected in the tissues of chimeric mice.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Mice , Trypanosoma cruzi/physiology , Bone Marrow Cells/physiology , Chagas Cardiomyopathy/parasitology , Bone Marrow Transplantation/methods , Chagas Disease/parasitology , Cell Movement , Animal Diseases
5.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 112(3): 224-235, Mar. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-841775

ABSTRACT

Chagas cardiomyopathy is the most frequent and most severe manifestation of chronic Chagas disease, and is one of the leading causes of morbidity and death in Latin America. Although the pathogenesis of Chagas cardiomyopathy is incompletely understood, it may involve several mechanisms, including parasite-dependent myocardial damage, immune-mediated myocardial injury (induced by the parasite itself and by self-antigens), and microvascular and neurogenic disturbances. In the past three decades, a consensus has emerged that parasite persistence is crucial to the development and progression of Chagas cardiomyopathy. In this context, antiparasitic treatment in the chronic phase of Chagas disease could prevent complications related to the disease. However, according to the results of the BENEFIT trial, benznidazole seems to have no benefit for arresting disease progression in patients with chronic Chagas cardiomyopathy. In this review, we give an update on the main pathogenic mechanisms of Chagas disease, and re-examine and discuss the results of the BENEFIT trial, together with its limitations and implications.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Trypanocidal Agents/therapeutic use , Trypanosoma cruzi/drug effects , Trypanosoma cruzi/genetics , Chagas Cardiomyopathy/etiology , Chagas Cardiomyopathy/parasitology , Chagas Cardiomyopathy/drug therapy , Nitroimidazoles/therapeutic use , Chronic Disease , Clinical Trials as Topic , Treatment Outcome , Disease Progression
6.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 98(3): 252-258, mar. 2012.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-622517

ABSTRACT

FUNDAMENTO: Métodos convencionais de dissector atualmente requerem consideráveis custos financeiros, técnicos e operacionais para estimar o número de células, incluindo cardiomiócitos, em uma área de 3D. OBJETIVO: Usar a microscopia de fluorescência em um método de dissector modificado para determinar o número de miócitos no tecido cardíaco em condições normais e patológicas. MÉTODOS: O estudo empregou camundongos Wistar machos com quatro meses de idade e peso de 366,25 ± 88,21 g randomizados em grupos controles (GC, n = 8) e infectados (GI, n = 8). Os animais do GI foram inoculados com cepa Y de T. cruzi (300.000 tripomastigotas/50 g). Após oito semanas, os animais foram pesados e sacrificados. Os Ventrículos Esquerdos (VE) foram removidos para análise estereológica da densidade numérica de cardiomiócitos (Nv [c]) e o número total dessas células no VE (N [c]). Esses parâmetros foram estimados usando um dissector fluorescente (DF) e comparados com os métodos convencionais de dissector óptico (DO) e dissector físico (DFi). RESULTADOS: Em ambos os métodos de dissector, os animais do GI apresentaram queda significativa de Nv[c] e N[c] em comparação com os animais do GC (P > 0,05). Uma correlação forte, igual ou superior a 96%, foi obtida entre DF, DO e DFi. CONCLUSÃO: O método DF parece ser igualmente confiável para determinar Nv[c] e N[c] em condições normais e patológicas, apresentando algumas vantagens em relação aos métodos convencionais de dissector: redução de cortes histológicos e imagens na análise estereológica, redução do tempo de análise das imagens, a construção de DF em microscópios simples, utilizando o modo de epifluorescência, distinção de planos de dissector em ampliações inferiores.


BACKGROUND: Conventional disector methods currently require considerable financial, technical and operational costs to estimate the number of cells, including cardyomyocytes, in a 3D area. OBJECTIVE: To use fluorescence microscopy in a modified disector method to determine the number of myocytes in cardiac tissue in normal and pathological conditions. METHODS: The study employed four-month-old male Wistar rats with weight of 366.25 ± 88.21g randomized in control (CG, n=8) and infected (IG, n=8) groups. IG animals were inoculated with T. cruzi Y strain (300,000 trypomastigotes/50g wt). After eight weeks, the animals were weighted and euthanized. The left ventricles (LV) were removed for stereological analysis of numerical density of cardiomyocytes (Nv[c]) and total number of these cells in the LV (N[c]). These parameters were estimated using a fluorescent disector (FD) and compared with the conventional optical (OD) and physical (PD) disector methods. RESULTS: In both disector methods, IG animals presented significant decrease of Nv[c] and N[c] compared to CG animals (P< 0.05). There was no significant difference in these variables despite the disector method applied in CG and IG animals (P> 0.05). A strong correlation, equal or above 96%, was obtained between FD, OD and PD. CONCLUSION: The FD method seems to be equally reliable to determine Nv[c] and N[c] in normal and pathological conditions and presents some advantages compared to conventional disector methods: reduction of histological slices and images in the stereological analysis, reduction of time to analyze the images, construction of FD in simple microscopes using the epifluorescence mode, distinction of disector planes in lower magnifications.


FUNDAMENTO: Métodos convencionales de disector actualmente requieren considerables costos financieros, técnicos y operativos para estimar el número de células, incluyendo cardiomiocitos, en un área de 3D. OBJETIVO: Usar la microscopia de fluorescencia en un método de disector modificado para determinar el número de miocitos en el tejido cardíaco en condiciones normales y patológicas. MÉTODOS: El estudio empleó ratones Wistar machos de cuatro meses de edad y peso de 366,25 ± 88,21 g randomizados en grupos controles (GC, n = 8) e infectados (GI, n = 8). Los animales del GI fueron inoculados con cepa Y de T. cruzi (300.000 tripomastigotas/50 g). Después de ocho semanas, los animales fueron pesados y sacrificados. Los Ventrículos Izquierdos (VI) fueron removidos para análisis estereológico de la densidad numérica de cardiomiocitos (Nv [c]) y el número total de esas células en el VI (N [c]). Esos parámetros fueron estimados usando un disector fluorescente (FD) y comparados con los métodos convencionales de disector óptico (OD) y disector físico (PD). RESULTADOS: En ambos métodos de disector, los animales del GI presentaron caída significativa de Nv[c] y N[c] en comparación con los animales del GC (P > 0,05). Una correlación fuerte, igual o superior a 96%, fue obtenida entre FD, OD y PD. CONCLUSIÓN: El método FD parece ser igualmente confiable para determinar Nv[c] y N[c] en condiciones normales y patológicas, presentando algunas ventajas en relación a los métodos convencionales de disector: reducción de cortes histológicos e imágenes en el análisis estereológico, reducción del tiempo de análisis de las imágenes, la construcción de FD en microscopios simples, utilizando el modo de epifluorescencia, distinción de planos de disector en ampliaciones inferiores.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Chagas Cardiomyopathy/pathology , Heart Ventricles/pathology , Microscopy, Fluorescence/methods , Myocytes, Cardiac/cytology , Cell Count/methods , Chagas Cardiomyopathy/parasitology , Disease Models, Animal , Heart Ventricles/parasitology , Imaging, Three-Dimensional/methods , Microscopy, Fluorescence/economics , Myocytes, Cardiac/parasitology , Random Allocation , Rats, Wistar , Time Factors , Trypanosoma cruzi
7.
Biomédica (Bogotá) ; 31(4): 503-513, dic. 2011. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-635471

ABSTRACT

Introducción. Trypanosoma cruzi es el agente causal de la enfermedad de Chagas. Durante la infección en los huéspedes mamíferos, se observan dos formas del parásito: tripomastigotes y amastigotes. En el curso de la diferenciación del parásito cada estadio expresa un patrón de proteínas específicas de fase, las cuales son responsables de sus características morfológicas, bioquímicas y biológicas, que podrían estar determinando un papel importante en la capacidad infecciosa, virulencia y supervivencia del parásito. Objetivo. Analizar la expresión diferencial entre los estadios tripomastigote y amastigote de un aislamiento de T. cruzi I, utilizando la electroforesis en dos dimensiones y la identificación de las proteínas diferencialmente expresadas mediante espectrometría de masas. Materiales y métodos. Se utilizó un clon del aislamiento MHOM/07/338 de T. cruzi I y, mediante electroforesis en dos dimensiones, se compararon los perfiles proteicos de los estadios tripomastigote y amastigote del parásito. Las imágenes se analizaron con el software PDQuest y las proteínas diferencialmente expresadas se identificaron por MALDI TOF o LC MS/MS. Resultados. Los geles bidimensionales mostraron un promedio de 325 manchas proteicas en cada estadio. En los análisis comparativos se detectaron 21 manchas "sobre expresadas" en el estadiotripomastigote y 30, en el estadio amastigote. Se seleccionaron 16 proteínas para identificación por espectrometría de masas y se clasificaron en diferentes categorías funcionales. Conclusiones. Las proteínas exclusivas de T. cruzi relacionadas, principalmente, con metabolismo glucolítico y ensamble del citoesqueleto, fueron las que presentaron una mayor expresión diferencial entre los estadios tripomastigote y amastigote del parásito. Estas proteínas podrían ser utilizadas para el diseño de fármacos.


Introduction. Trypanosoma cruzi is the causative agent of Chagas disease. During infection inmammalian hosts, two main forms of the parasite are observed: trypomastigotes and amastigotes. During differentiation, each stage of the parasite expresses a pattern of proteins specific to each phase-proteins which are responsible for the cell’s morphological, biochemical and biological properties. These properties ultimately govern the infectivity, virulence and survival of the parasite. Objective. A differential expression analysis was conducted to compare trypomastigote and amastigote stages of T. cruzi I isolate, and to identify proteins differentially expressed by means of mass spectrometry. Materials and methods. A T. cruzi clone of the strain MHOM/07/338 was used to analyze the differential expression between trypomastigote stages of a T. cruzi isolate, using two-dimensional electrophoresis and identification of diferentially expressed proteins by mass spectrometry. The protein profiles of the stages of the parasite were obtained by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and visualized in gels dyed with Coomassie blue. The images were analyzed with PDQuest software and the differential expression of the proteins was identified by MALDI TOF or LC MS/MS. Results. The two-dimensional gels revealed an average of 325 protein spots in each stage. The comparative analyses detected 21 spots that were over expressed in the trypomastigote stage and 30 in the amastigote stage. Sixteen of the over expressed proteins were selected for identification by mass spectrometry and classified in several functional categories. Mass spectrophotometry determined that the proteins were associated mainly with glucolytic metabolism and assembly of the cytoskeleton constituents. Conclusions. The differential expression between trypomastigote and amastigote stages consisted of proteins specific to T. cruzi and are potential targets for the design of treatment drugs.


Subject(s)
Humans , Chagas Cardiomyopathy/parasitology , Protozoan Proteins/biosynthesis , Trypanosoma cruzi/growth & development , Trypanosoma cruzi/metabolism , Trypanosoma cruzi/isolation & purification
8.
Biol. Res ; 43(3): 323-331, 2010.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-571994

ABSTRACT

There are approximately 7.8 million people in Latin America, including Chile, who suffer from Chagas disease and another 28 million who are at risk of contracting it. Chagas is caused by the flagellate protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi. It is a chronic disease, where 20 percent-30 percent of infected individuals develop severe cardiopathy, with heart failure and potentially fatal arrhythmias. Currently, Chagas disease treatment is more effective in the acute phase, but does not always produce complete parasite eradication during indeterminate and chronic phases. At present, only nifurtimox or benznidazole have been proven to be superior to new drugs being tested. Therefore, it is necessary to find alternative approaches to treatment of chronic Chagas. The current treatment may be rendered more effective by increasing the activity of anti-Chagasic drugs or by modifying the host's immune response. We have previously shown that glutathione synthesis inhibition increases nifurtimox and benznidazole activity. In addition, there is increasing evidence that cyclooxygenase inhibitors present an important effect on T. cruzi infection. Therefore, we found that aspirin reduced the intracellular infection in RAW 264.7 cells and, decreased myocarditis extension and mortality rates in mice. However, the long-term benefit of prostaglandin inhibition for Chagasic patients is still unknown.


Subject(s)
Animals , Humans , Mice , Chagas Disease/drug therapy , Trypanocidal Agents/therapeutic use , Trypanosoma cruzi/pathogenicity , Acute Disease , Chronic Disease , Chagas Cardiomyopathy/drug therapy , Chagas Cardiomyopathy/immunology , Chagas Cardiomyopathy/parasitology , Chagas Disease/immunology , Chagas Disease/parasitology , Cyclooxygenase 1/physiology , /physiology , Nifurtimox/therapeutic use , Nitroimidazoles/therapeutic use , Trypanosoma cruzi/immunology
9.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 104(supl.1): 187-198, July 2009.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-520879

ABSTRACT

Despite the wealth of information generated by trans-disciplinary research in Chagas disease, knowledge about its multifaceted pathogenesis is still fragmented. Here we review the body of experimental studies in animal models supporting the concept that persistent infection by Trypanosoma cruzi is crucial for the development of chronic myocarditis. Complementing this review, we will make an effort to reconcile seemingly contradictory results concerning the immune profiles of chronic patients from Argentina and Brazil. Finally, we will review the results of molecular studies suggesting that parasite-induced inflammation and tissue damage is, at least in part, mediated by the activities of trans-sialidase, mucin-linked lipid anchors (TLR2 ligand) and cruzipain (a kinin-releasing cysteine protease). One hundred years after the discovery of Chagas disease, it is reassuring that basic and clinical research tends to converge, raising new perspectives for the treatment of chronic Chagas disease.


Subject(s)
Animals , Humans , Chagas Disease/immunology , Trypanosoma cruzi/immunology , /immunology , Chronic Disease , Chagas Cardiomyopathy/immunology , Chagas Cardiomyopathy/parasitology , Chagas Disease/parasitology , Disease Models, Animal , Epitopes, B-Lymphocyte/immunology , Receptors, Chemokine/immunology , Trypanosoma cruzi/genetics , Trypanosoma cruzi/pathogenicity
10.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 104(supl.1): 319-324, July 2009.
Article in English | LILACS, SES-SP | ID: lil-520894

ABSTRACT

Among the pathophysiological derangements operating in the chronic phase of Chagas disease, parasite persistence is likely to constitute the main mechanism of myocardial injury in patients with chronic chagasic cardiomyopathy. The presence of Trypanosoma cruzi in the heart causes a low-grade, but relentless, inflammatory process and induces myocardial autoimmune injury. These facts suggest that trypanocidal therapy may positively impact the clinical course of patients with chronic Chagas heart disease. However, the experimental and clinical evidence currently available is insufficient to support the routine use of etiologic treatment in these patients. The BENEFIT project - Benznidazole Evaluation for Interrupting Trypanosomiasis - is an international, multicenter, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of trypanocidal treatment with benznidazole in patients with chronic Chagas heart disease. This project is actually comprised of two studies. The pilot study investigates whether etiologic treatment significantly reduces parasite burden, as assessed by polymerase chain reaction-based techniques and also determines the safety and tolerability profile of the trypanocidal drug in this type of chagasic population. The full-scale study determines whether antitrypanosomal therapy with benznidazole reduces mortality and other major cardiovascular clinical outcomes in patients with chronic Chagas heart disease.


Subject(s)
Animals , Humans , Chagas Cardiomyopathy/drug therapy , Clinical Trials as Topic , Nitroimidazoles/administration & dosage , Trypanocidal Agents/administration & dosage , Chagas Cardiomyopathy/parasitology , Chronic Disease , Double-Blind Method , Drug Administration Schedule , Evidence-Based Medicine , Nitroimidazoles/therapeutic use , Patient Selection , Pilot Projects , Trypanocidal Agents/therapeutic use
11.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 42(2): 170-174, Mar.-Apr. 2009. graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-512923

ABSTRACT

A doença de Chagas é causada pelo Trypanosoma cruzi e o coração é o órgão mais acometido. O óxido nítrico apresenta importante ação anti-Trypanosoma, porém, com pouca evidência de seu papel no mecanismo de lesão tecidual. O objetivo deste estudo foi analisar a contribuição do óxido nítrico no desenvolvimento da inflamação e da fibrose cardíaca na fase aguda da infecção experimental por cepas Y e Colombiana do Trypanosoma cruzi. A inflamação foi significativamente maior nos animais infectados pela cepa Colombiana, comparada com os infectados com a cepa Y, tanto nos animais C57BL/6 (3,98x1,87 por cento; p=0,004) quanto nos animais C57BL/6 deficientes na sintase do óxido nítrico induzível (3,99x2,4 por cento; p=0,013). O parasitismo cardíaco dos animais C57BL/6 deficientes na sintase do óxido nítrico induzível infectados pela cepa Colombiana foi significativamente maior que o destes mesmos animais infectados com a cepa Y (2,78x0,17 ninhos/mm²; p=0,004) assim como, os animais C57BL/6 infectados com a cepa Colombiana (2,78x1,33 ninhos/mm²; p=0,006) ou cepa Y (2,78x0,53 ninhos/mm²; p=0,005). Os dados reforçam o papel do óxido nítrico no controle do parasitismo e sugerem seu papel na proteção tecidual, controlando a inflamação e potencialmente diminuindo lesões cardíacas durante a fase aguda na doença de Chagas experimental.


Chagas disease is caused by Trypanosoma cruzi and the heart is the organ most affected. Nitric oxide has notable anti-Trypanosoma action, but with little evidence regarding its role in the mechanism for tissue injury. The objective of this study was to analyze the contribution of nitric oxide towards the development of inflammation and cardiac fibrosis during the acute phase of experimental infection by Y and Colombian strains of Trypanosoma cruzi. The inflammation was significantly more intense in animals infected with the Colombian strain, compared with those infected with the Y strain, both in C57BL/6 animals (3.98 vs 1.87 percent; p = 0.004) and in C57BL/6 animals deficient in inducible nitric oxide synthase (3.99 vs 2.4 percent; p = 0.013). The cardiac parasite load in inducible nitric oxide synthase-deficient C57BL/6 animals infected with the Colombian strain was significantly greater than in those infected with the Y strain (2.78 vs. 0.17 nests/mm²; p = 0.004), and also significantly greater than in the C57BL/6 infected with both the Colombian strain (2.78 vs 1.33 nests/mm²; p = 0.006) and Y strains (2.78 vs 0.53 nests/mm²; p = 0.005). The data confirm that nitric oxide has a role in parasite load control and suggest that it has a role in tissue protection, through controlling inflammation and potentially reducing cardiac lesions during the acute phase of Chagas disease.


Subject(s)
Animals , Mice , Chagas Cardiomyopathy/enzymology , Myocarditis/enzymology , Nitric Oxide/physiology , Trypanosoma cruzi/pathogenicity , Acute Disease , Chagas Cardiomyopathy/parasitology , Chagas Cardiomyopathy/pathology , Fibrosis , Myocarditis/parasitology , Myocarditis/pathology , Nitric Oxide Synthase Type II/deficiency , Species Specificity
12.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 103(6): 528-534, Sept. 2008. ilus, graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-495726

ABSTRACT

The goals of the present study were to evaluate the kinetics of blood parasitism by examination of fresh blood, blood culture (BC) and PCR assays and their correlation with heart parasitism during two years of infection in Beagle dogs inoculated with the Be-78, Y and ABC Trypanosoma cruzi strains. Our results showed that the parasite or its kDNA is easily detected during the acute phase in all infected animals. On the other hand, a reduced number of positive tests were verified during the chronic phase of the infection. The frequency of positive tests was correlated with T. cruzi strain. The percentage of positive BC and blood PCR performed in samples from animals inoculated with Be-78 and ABC strains were similar and significantly larger in relation to animals infected with the Y strain.Comparison of the positivity of PCR tests performed using blood and heart tissue samples obtained two years after infection showed two different patterns associated with the inoculated T. cruzi strain: (1) high PCR positivity for both blood and tissue was observed in animals infected with Be-78 or ABC strains; (2) lower and higher PCR positivity for the blood and tissue, respectively, was detected in animals infected with Y strains. These data suggest that the sensitivity of BC and blood PCR was T. cruzi strain dependent and, in contrast, the heart tissue PCR revealed higher sensitivity regardless of the parasite stock.


Subject(s)
Animals , Dogs , Female , Male , Chagas Cardiomyopathy/parasitology , Parasitemia/parasitology , Trypanosoma cruzi/pathogenicity , Acute Disease , Chronic Disease , Chagas Cardiomyopathy/pathology , Disease Models, Animal , Fibrosis/parasitology , Fibrosis/pathology , Inflammation/parasitology , Inflammation/pathology , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Parasitemia/pathology , Trypanosoma cruzi/classification
13.
Parasitol. latinoam ; 62(3/4): 148-153, dez. 2007. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-481417

ABSTRACT

The agent of Chagas disease, Trypanosoma cruzi, is one of the major causes of myocarditis and dilated myocardiopathy in America. In Costa Rica, the latest studies revealed that the improvement of the general live conditions, has decreased the Chagas disease incidence in this country and its deadly complications. We described the clinical history and the autopsy findings of an infrequent case of death by this disease in Costa Rica, represented by myocarditis and dilated myocardiopathy manifestations caused by T. cruzi, where the diagnosis was made post-mortem.


El Trypanosoma cruzi, agente causal de la Enfermedad de Chagas, constituye una de las principales causas de miocarditis y miocardiopatía dilatada en el continente americano. En Costa Rica, las últimas encuestas indican que las mejores condiciones de vida actuales han disminuido la incidencia de esta enfermedad y por consiguiente sus complicaciones; sin embargo, en el presente artículo se describió el cuadro clínico y los hallazgos de autopsia, de uno de los pocos casos de muerte por esta parasitosis en Costa Rica; se trata de un caso de miocarditis y miocardiopatía dilatada causada por T. cruzi, cuyo diagnóstico fue hecho post mortem.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Chagas Cardiomyopathy/parasitology , Chagas Cardiomyopathy/pathology , Cardiomyopathy, Dilated/parasitology , Cardiomyopathy, Dilated/pathology , Autopsy , Costa Rica , Chagas Disease/parasitology , Trypanosoma cruzi
14.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 102(2): 141-147, Mar. 2007. ilus, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-447547

ABSTRACT

Trypanosoma cruzi is a hemoflagelate parasite associated with heart dysfunctions causing serious problems in Central and South America. Beagle dogs develop the symptoms of Chagas disease in humans, and could be an important experimental model for better understanding the immunopathogenic mechanisms involved in the chagasic infection. In the present study we investigated the relation among biological factors inherent to the parasite (trypomastigote polymorphism and in vitro infectivity) and immunoglobulin production, inflammation, and fibrosis in the heart of Beagle dogs infected with either T. cruzi Y or Berenice-78 strains. In vitro infectivity of Vero cells as well as the extension of cardiac lesions in infected Beagle was higher for Y strain when compared to Berenice-78 strain. These data suggested that in vitro infectivity assays may correlate with pathogenicity in vivo. In fact, animals infected with Y strain, which shows prevalence of slender forms and high infectivity in vitro, presented cardiomegaly, inflammation, and fibrosis in heart area. Concerning the immunoglobulin production, no statistically significant difference was observed for IgA, IgM or IgG levels among T. cruzi infected animals. However, IgA together IgM levels have shown to be a good marker for the acute phase of Chagas disease.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Dogs , Chagas Cardiomyopathy/parasitology , Immunoglobulins/biosynthesis , Trypanosoma cruzi/pathogenicity , Acute Disease , Biomarkers , Chronic Disease , Chagas Cardiomyopathy/immunology , Chagas Cardiomyopathy/pathology , Disease Models, Animal , Fibrosis/parasitology , Fibrosis/pathology , Inflammation/parasitology , Inflammation/pathology , Parasitemia , Time Factors , Trypanosoma cruzi/classification , Virulence
15.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 40(3): 391-399, Mar. 2007. graf, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-441761

ABSTRACT

Chagas' disease, caused by the protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi, is a major cause of cardiovascular disability in countries where it is endemic. Damage to the heart microvasculature has been proposed to be an important factor in the pathogenesis of heart dysfunction. Endothelin-1 (ET-1) is a potent vasoconstrictor and exerts its effects via specific ET A and ET B receptors. A few studies have suggested a role for ET-1 and its receptors in the pathogenesis of Chagas' disease. We investigated the effects of treatment with bosentan, an ET A/ET B receptor antagonist, on the course of T. cruzi infection (Y strain) in C57Bl/6 mice. Treatment with bosentan (100 mg kg-1 day-1) was given per os starting day 0 after infection until sacrifice. Bosentan significantly increased myocardial inflammation, with no effects on parasitemia. Although the total number of nests was similar, a lower number of intact amastigote nests was found in the heart of bosentan-treated animals. Bosentan failed to affect the infection-associated increase in the cardiac levels of the cytokines IFN-g and TNF-a and the chemokines CCL2/MCP-1, CCL3/MIP-1a and CCL5/RANTES. In vitro, pre-incubation with ET-1 (0.1 æM) 4 h before infection enhanced the uptake of the parasites by peritoneal macrophages, and this effect was abrogated when macrophages were pre-treated with bosentan (1 æM) 15 min before incubation with ET-1. However, ET-1 did not alter killing of intracellular parasites after 48 h of in vitro infection. Our data suggest that bosentan-treated mice have a delay in controlling parasitism which is compensated for exacerbated inflammation. Infection is eventually controlled in these animals and lethality is unchanged, demonstrating that ET-1 plays a minor role in the protection against acute murine T. cruzi infection.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Mice , Chagas Cardiomyopathy/metabolism , Endothelin-1/physiology , Parasitemia/metabolism , Receptors, Endothelin/antagonists & inhibitors , Sulfonamides/pharmacology , Trypanosoma cruzi/physiology , Acute Disease , Chagas Cardiomyopathy/parasitology , Chagas Cardiomyopathy/pathology , Cytokines/analysis , Disease Models, Animal , Parasitemia/immunology , Trypanosoma cruzi/isolation & purification
16.
Genet. mol. res. (Online) ; 5(1): 138-142, Mar. 31, 2006. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-449138

ABSTRACT

One of the goals of gene expression experiments is the identification of differentially expressed genes among populations that could be used as markers. For this purpose, we implemented a model-free Bayesian approach in a user-friendly and freely available web-based tool called BayBoots. In spite of a common misunderstanding that Bayesian and model-free approaches are incompatible, we merged them in the BayBoots implementation using the Kernel density estimator and Rubin 's Bayesian Bootstrap. We used the Bayes error rate (BER) instead of the usual P values as an alternative statistical index to rank a class marker's discriminative potential, since it can be visualized by a simple graphical representation and has an intuitive interpretation. Subsequently, Bayesian Bootstrap was used to assess BER 's credibility. We tested BayBoots on microarray data to look for markers for Trypanosoma cruzi strains isolated from cardiac and asymptomatic patients. We found that the three most frequently used methods in microarray analysis: t-test, non-parametric Wilcoxon test and correlation methods, yielded several markers that were discarded by a time-consuming visual check. On the other hand, the BayBoots graphical output and ranking was able to automatically identify markers for which classification performance was consistent. BayBoots is available at: http://www.vision.ime.usp.br/~rvencio/BayBoots.


Subject(s)
Animals , Humans , Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis/methods , Bayes Theorem , Genes, Protozoan/genetics , Models, Genetic , Trypanosoma cruzi/genetics , Chagas Cardiomyopathy/parasitology , Genetic Markers
17.
Salvador; s.n; 2006. 119 p. ilus, tab, graf.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-560410

ABSTRACT

A doença de Chagas, evolui em diferentes fases: aguda, com sintomas gerais e comprometimento cardíaco devido ao parasitismo pelo T. cruzi, das miocélulas cardíacas e sua rotura o que determina intensa miocardite, pela presença dos parasitos e por mecanismos imunes. Após a fase aguda, os pacientes passam a uma forma indeterminada com escassos parasitos e lesões miocárdicas focais e discretas. Os pacientes na forma indeterminada, em 40% dos casos, evoluem para uma forma crônica cardíaca. Nesta forma, os parasitos são raros nas miocélulas cardíacas, porém uma miocardite crônica difusa e fibrosante se instala, evoluindo para a insuficiência cardíaca e o óbito. A patogenia das lesões cardíacas é controvertida, sendo atribuída ao parasito o papel de estimular a resposta imune ou a um mecanismo de autoimunidade. No presente trabalho, utilizando-se o modelo do camundongo, procura-se investigar o papel dos antígenos parasitários na manutenção das lesões da fase crônica da infecção pelo T. cruzi, pela pesquisa de parasitos e de antígenos parasitários em focos inflamatórios ou pela demonstração de antígenos seqüestrados e expressos na membrana de células dendríticas intersticiais do miocárdio (CDls), pela marcação in situ, por métodos imunohistoquimicos, utilizando anticorpo anti-T.cruzi. Em camundongos cronicamente infectados, tratados com quimioterápico específico, as lesões histopatológicas regridem, permanecendo, entretanto um processo inflamatório residual. Foi desenvolvida uma investigação, com o objetivo de esclarecer, em camundongos cronicamente infectados, tratados e não tratados com o Benzonidazol, a presença de parasitos ou de seus antígenos, em focos de destruição de miocélulas parasitadas ou capturadas por CDls, e a sua relação com a persistência de infiltrados inflamatórios residuais no coração. Foram utilizados camundongos Suíços infectados com a cepa Colombiana (resistentes ao Benzonidazol) ou com um clone da 21SF (susceptível) tratados na fase crônica a partir de 90 e 120 dias de infecção durante 90 dias. O inóculo para ambos os Grupos experimentais foi de 104 formas saguícolas do T. cruzi por via intraperitoneal. Os camundongos tratados foram sacrificados 150 ou 200 dias após o tratamento, juntamente com os controles não tratados. Foram realizados os testes de cura parasitemia, subinoculação em camundongos recém-nascidos, (hemocultura, sorologia). Secções de coração e de músculo esquelético foram fixadas e processadas para estudo histopatológico em secções coradas pela Hematoxilina e Eosina ou pelo método do Picro-Sirius para colágeno e para imunohistoquímica com anticorpos anti-T. cruzi e anti-MAC. Os resultados mostraram na infecção crônica pela cepa Colombiana lesões inflamatórias, moderadas a intensas, com necrose de miocélulas cardíacas e infiltrados mononucleares e fibrose intersticial difusa e focal. Nos tratados, houve regressão parcial das lesões permanecendo infiltrados inflamatórios residuais que variaram de discretos a moderadas e sinais de regressão da fibrose. Na infecção crônica pelo clone 21SF C3 havia miocardite crônica difusa discreta ou moderada na maioria dos casos. Nos tratados, houve decréscimo das lesões inflamatórias, com sinais de regressão da fibrose. Testes imunohistoquimicos com anticorpos anti- T.cruzi revelaram detritos parasitários positivos em focos inflamatórios. As CDls do miocárdio apresentaram em todos os casos, marcação positiva para antígeno do T. cruzi, comprovando o papel das células apresentadoras de antígenos na manutenção das lesões na fase crônica da infecção.


Subject(s)
Animals , Mice , Chagas Cardiomyopathy/physiopathology , Chagas Cardiomyopathy/parasitology , Chagas Cardiomyopathy/drug therapy , Dendritic Cells/parasitology , Trypanosoma cruzi/parasitology , Trypanosoma cruzi/pathogenicity , Animal Experimentation , Mice/parasitology , Chagas Disease/drug therapy
18.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 100(3): 281-283, May 2005. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-411025

ABSTRACT

Trypanosoma cruzi is classified into two major groups named T. cruzi I and T. cruzi II. In the present work we analyzed 16 stocks isolated from human cases and four isolated from triatomines from diverse geographical origins (Mexico and Guatemala). From human cases four were acute cases, six indeterminates, and six from chronic chagasic cardiophatic patients with diagnosis of dilated cardiomyopathy established based on the left-ventricular end systolic dimension and cardiothoracic ratio on chest X-radiography and impaired contracting ventricle and different degree conduction/rhythm aberrations. DNA samples were analyzed based on mini-exon (ME) polymorphism, using a pool of three oligonucleotide for the amplification of specific intergenic region of T. cruzi ME gene. All the Mexican and Guatemalan isolates regardless their host or vector origin generated a 350 bp amplification product. In conclusion T. cruzi I is dominant in Mexico and Guatemala even in acute and chronic chagasic cardiopathy patients. To our knowledge, this is the first study describing predominance of T. cruzi I in human infection for North and Central America.


Subject(s)
Animals , Humans , Chagas Cardiomyopathy/parasitology , DNA, Protozoan/analysis , Trypanosoma cruzi/genetics , Acute Disease , Chronic Disease , Guatemala , Mexico , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Sequence Analysis, DNA , Triatominae/parasitology , Trypanosoma cruzi/classification , Trypanosoma cruzi/isolation & purification
19.
Rev. med. nucl. Alasbimn j ; 6(22)oct. 2003. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-385318

ABSTRACT

Successive periods of reactivation of Trypanosoma cruzi in the myocardium may contribute to chronic, progressive myocardial damage and fibrosis, indicating that viable parasites are still present in the host, although the infection may remain quiescent or inapparent. Identifying the presence of active infection as well as the intensity of the inflammatory process can lead to the administration of more effective chemotherapeutic agents to exterminate the parasite. We investigated the use of Tc-99m-mononuclear leukocytes as a complementary tool for the diagnosis of active chagasic myocarditis. Using the stannous chloride labeling method, previously reported by us, 22 patients underwent Tc-99m-leukocyte scintigraphy. Planar images were obtained after 30 minutes, 3 and 24 hours of endovenous administration of approximately 444MBq (12 mCi) of the labeled cells. There was abnormal cardiac uptake in 3 of the 22 patients. These findings suggest the presence of markedly Chagas' disease activity with important clinical implications.


Subject(s)
Humans , Adult , Middle Aged , Chagas Cardiomyopathy , Chagas Cardiomyopathy/parasitology , Myocarditis , Myocarditis/parasitology , Trypanosoma cruzi/pathogenicity , Chagas Disease , Leukocytes, Mononuclear , Technetium
20.
Acta méd. colomb ; 26(3): 116-121, mayo-jun. 2001. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-358390

ABSTRACT

Introducción: en la enfermedad de Chagas, con los métodos parasitológicos convencionales sólo se detecta un número reducido de parásitos en los individuos infectados crónicamente lo que ha conducido a la teoría que sugiere que los hallazgos clínicos y anatomopatológicos pueden ser primariamente autoinmunes en su origen. Objetivo: establecer si la detección de antígenos de T. cruzi circulantes por la reacción en cadena de la polimerasa (PCR) en pacientes con diagnóstico de cardiomiopatía chagásica crónica (criterios OMS) puede relacionarse con la severidad de la enfermedad. Métodos: evaluación clínica y paraclínica (electrocardiograma de rutina, radiografía de tórax, ecocardiograma doppler color, test de Holter de 24 horas y/o estudio electrofisiológico) asociada a la realización de una prueba de PCR efectuada en sangre y suero. La severidad en la cardiomiopatía fue definida por la presencia de uno o más de los siguientes hallazgos: disfunción ventricular izquierda (<40 por ciento), disfunción del nodo sinusal, bloqueo auriculoventricular completo y taquicardia ventricular sostenida. Tipo de estudio: observacional analítico de corte transversal. Análisis estadístico: se comparó la prevalencia de los hallazgos definidos como severidad de la cardiomiopatía entre los pacientes con y sin detección de antígenos circulantes por PCR. Se calcularon los riesgos relativos con intervalos de confianza del 95 por ciento. El valor de p considerado como estadísticamente significativo fue de ¿0.05. Resultados: se estudiaron 64 pacientes, 29 hombres y 35 mujeres , edad media 55.5 ±13 años. En 34 de los 64 pacientes (55 por ciento) se encontraron antígenos de T. cruzi circulantes por PCR. No se observó una diferencia estadísticamente significativa con relación a la edad, el género, ni con la severidad de la cardiomiopatía entre el grupo de pacientes con antígenos de T. cruzi circulantes comparado con el grupo en el que este hallazgo no fue encontrado. Conclusión: Se detectó una infección activa o la presencia de antígenos circulantes de T. cruzi por la PCR en el 55 por ciento de los pacientes con diagnóstico de cardiomiopatía chagásica crónica. No se encontró ninguna relación entre la presencia de antígenos de T. cruzi circulantes y la severidad de la cardiomiopatía en esta población. Otros mecanismos posiblemente de tipo autoinmune pueden estar relacionados con la severidad de la cardiomiopatía en estos casos.


Subject(s)
Chagas Cardiomyopathy/diagnosis , Chagas Cardiomyopathy/immunology , Chagas Cardiomyopathy/parasitology , Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods , Polymerase Chain Reaction
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