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Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 115: e190364, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1091242


Oral transmission of Chagas disease has been increasing in Latin American countries. The present study aimed to investigate changes in hepatic function, coagulation factor levels and parasite load in human acute Chagas disease (ACD) secondary to oral Trypanosoma cruzi transmission. Clinical and epidemiological findings of 102 infected individuals attended in the State of Pará from October 2013 to February 2016 were included. The most common symptoms were fever (98%), asthenia (83.3%), face and limb edema (80.4%), headache (74.5%) and myalgia (72.5%). The hepatic enzymes alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) of 30 ACD patients were higher compared with controls, and this increase was independent of the treatment with benznidazole. Moreover, ACD individuals had higher plasma levels of activated protein C and lower levels of factor VII of the coagulation cascade. Patients with the highest parasite load had also the most increased transaminase levels. Also, ALT and AST were associated moderately (r = 0.429) and strongly (r = 0.595) with parasite load respectively. In conclusion, the present study raises the possibility that a disturbance in coagulation and hepatic function may be linked to human ACD.

Animals , Male , Female , Adult , Aspartate Aminotransferases/blood , Protein C/analysis , Factor VIIa/analysis , Chagas Disease/physiopathology , Alanine Transaminase/blood , Liver/physiopathology , Brazil/epidemiology , Biomarkers/blood , Case-Control Studies , Acute Disease , Prospective Studies , Chagas Disease/enzymology , Chagas Disease/blood , Chagas Disease/transmission , Parasite Load , Liver/enzymology , Middle Aged
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 52: e20180505, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1041570


Abstract INTRODUCTION: The microscopic examination of microhematocrit tubes (mHCT) has been proposed as the gold standard for acute and congenital Chagas disease diagnosis. We compared different mHCT methodologies detecting T. cruzi parasites in the blood. METHODS: The rotating method, water mount, and immersion oil methods were compared for their suitability, sensitivity, and specificity. RESULTS: The rotating method was easier, faster, and more sensitive than the others with 100% specificity. CONCLUSIONS: The rotating method is feasible for laboratory technicians with standard training in microscopic techniques and is recommended for the diagnosis of acute Chagas disease in primary health care facilities.

Humans , Animals , Trypanosoma cruzi/isolation & purification , Centrifugation/methods , Chagas Disease/diagnosis , Parasitemia/diagnosis , Capillary Tubing , Hematocrit/methods , Sensitivity and Specificity , Chagas Disease/parasitology , Chagas Disease/blood , Parasitemia/parasitology , Clinical Laboratory Services
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 52: e20190133, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1020438


Abstract INTRODUCTION: Chagas disease (CD) is an important public health problem in Brazil and worldwide. Aging and obesity are important matters in patients with CD, as is hypovitaminosis D3, which can decrease the quality of life of these patients. Immunomodulation mediated by vitamin D3, especially the production of antimicrobial peptides such as cathelicidin LL-37, might be related to the severity and symptoms of CD. This study aimed to determine the serum levels of vitamin D and LL-37 and VDR gene polymorphisms in patients with chronic CD. METHODS: This study included male patients with cardiac and indeterminate clinical forms of CD. Clinical, anthropometric, and blood parameters were obtained. Serum levels of 25(OH)D3 and LL-37 were determined by chemiluminescence and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay respectively. Fok (rs731236), Bsm (rs1544410), Apa (rs7975232), and Taq (rs731236) polymorphisms of the VDR gene were investigated by PCR-RFLP. RESULTS: Sixty-four patients were included in the study: 18 of the cardiac form and 46 of the indeterminate form. No differences in age, ethnicity, BMI, arterial hypertension, diabetes mellitus, or dyslipidemias were observed between groups. However, the serum levels of 25(OH)D3, but not of LL-37, were lower in the cardiac form group. The association among polymorphisms, vitamin D, and clinical form was not significant. CONCLUSIONS: Decreased levels of vitamin D suggest an association with the cardiac form of CD. Studies investigating the roles of vitamin D and LL-37 in the immune response and their associations with VDR polymorphisms and disease susceptibility are necessary.

Humans , Male , Polymorphism, Genetic/genetics , Chagas Disease/genetics , Chagas Disease/blood , Receptors, Calcitriol/genetics , Cholecalciferol/blood , Antimicrobial Cationic Peptides/blood , Biomarkers/blood , Middle Aged
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 52: e20190146, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1013302


Abstract INTRODUCTION: Chagas disease (CD) affects 5.7-7.0 million individuals worldwide, and its prevalence reached 25.1% in the state of Bahia, Brazil. There is an association between the prevalence of CD, the socioeconomic status of the population, and the risk of re-emergence due to non-vectorial transmission, such as blood transfusion. This study determined the seroprevalence of T. cruzi infection among blood donors in the state of Bahia, located in northeastern Brazil, and their epidemiological profile during a 10-year period. METHODS: We performed a descriptive cross-sectional study involving a database review. Data were collected from patients with non-negative results for T. cruzi infection during a 10-year period. RESULTS: A total of 3,084 (0.62%) samples were non-negative for T. cruzi infection in an initial serological screening, and 810 (0.16%) samples were non-negative in the second screening. The correlation between infection and age (30 years or older) and between infection and lower educational level (12 years or less) in the first and second screening was statistically significant. The seroprevalence of T. cruzi infection was higher in men in the first screening. In addition, 99.52% of the municipalities of Bahia had at least one case of CD. Livramento de Nossa Senhora and Salvador presented the highest disease prevalence and recurrence, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The seroprevalence of T. cruzi infection in these populations was lower than that found in other studies in Brazil but was comparatively higher in densely-populated areas. The demographic characteristics of our population agreed with previous studies.

Humans , Male , Female , Trypanosoma cruzi/isolation & purification , Blood Donors/statistics & numerical data , Chagas Disease/epidemiology , Socioeconomic Factors , Brazil/epidemiology , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Antibodies, Protozoan/blood , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Mass Screening/statistics & numerical data , Prevalence , Cross-Sectional Studies , Chagas Disease/blood , Chagas Disease/transmission , Sex Distribution , Age Distribution
Rev. bras. parasitol. vet ; 27(2): 232-236, Apr.-June 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1042468


Abstract The aim of this study were to detect antibodies anti-Leishmania spp. and anti-Trypanosoma cruzi in two different populations of domestic cats (Felis catus domesticus) from North Paraná referred for surgical castration and to determine which characteristics of the animals studied may be associated with seropositivity. Serum samples from 679 cats were analyzed using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and indirect immunofluorescence antibody test (IFAT) in series. Associations between age, sex, race, year of care and animal group were verified using the simple logistic regression. Percentage of 8.5% (58/679) of cats were positive for Leishmania spp. and 7.6% (51/673) for T. cruzi by the tests ELISA and IFAT. Animals collected by non-governmental animal protection organizations presented more seropositivity for Leishmania spp. (p<0.0001). Results shown that Leishmania spp. and T. cruzi are present in domestic cats in the northern part of the state of Paraná, as well as, owners of non-governmental animal protection organizations may be more exposed to leishmaniasis when compared to other animal owners evaluated in the present study.

Resumo O objetivo desse estudo foi detectar a presença de anticorpos IgG anti-Leishmania spp. e anti-Trypanosoma cruzi em duas populações de gatos domésticos (Felis catus domesticus) do Norte do Paraná encaminhados para castração cirúrgica e determinar quais as características dos animais estudados que podem estar associadas à soropositividade. Amostras de soro de 679 gatos foram analisadas utilizando-se os testes imunoenzimático (ELISA) e a reação de imunofluorescência indireta (RIFI), em série. Associações entre idade, sexo, raça, ano de atendimento e grupo animal ​​foram verificadas usando regressão logística simples. Um percentual de 8,5% (58/679) dos gatos apresentou positividade para Leishmania spp. e 7,6% (51/673) para T. cruzi pelos testes ELISA e RIFI. Gatos mantidos em organizações não governamentais de proteção animal apresentaram maior sororeatividade para Leishmania spp. (p<0.0001). As sorologias reativas para Leishmania spp. e Trypanosoma cruzi mostram que esses agentes estão presentes em gatos domésticos na parte norte do estado do Paraná, bem como, os proprietários de organizações não governamentais de proteção animal podem estar mais expostos à leishmaniose quando comparados com outros proprietários de animais avaliados no presente estudo.

Animals , Male , Female , Trypanosoma cruzi/immunology , Antibodies, Protozoan/blood , Cat Diseases/parasitology , Cat Diseases/blood , Leishmaniasis/veterinary , Cats/parasitology , Chagas Disease/veterinary , Leishmania/immunology , Brazil/epidemiology , Cat Diseases/epidemiology , Leishmaniasis/blood , Leishmaniasis/epidemiology , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Chagas Disease/blood , Chagas Disease/epidemiology , Risk Assessment
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 51(5): e6690, 2018. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-889090


Trypanosoma cruzi triggers a progressive inflammatory response affecting cardiovascular functions in humans and experimental models. Angiotensin II, a key effector of the renin-angiotensin system, plays roles in mediating hypertension, heart failure, and inflammatory responses. T. cruzi and AngII can induce inflammatory responses by releasing inflammatory mediators. The aim of this study was to evaluate systemic AngII, tumor necrosis factor (TNF), and CX3CL1 mediators in a two-kidney one-clip (2K1C) renovascular hypertension model using Wistar rats infected with T. cruzi. Our data showed an increase in serum AngII in uninfected and T. cruzi-infected rats 1 week after 2K1C surgery compared to non-2K1C (Sham) animals. The baseline systolic blood pressure was higher in both uninfected and infected 2K1C rats. Despite no difference in circulating parasites in the acute phase of infection, elevated serum TNF and CX3CL1 were observed at 8 weeks post-infection in 2K1C rats in association with higher cardiac inflammatory infiltration. In summary, AngII-induced hypertension associated with T. cruzi infection may act synergistically to increase TNF and CX3CL1 in the 2K1C rat model, thereby intensifying cardiac inflammatory infiltration and worsening the underlying inflammation triggered by this protozoan.

Animals , Male , Rats , Chagas Disease/blood , Chemokine CX3CL1/blood , Hypertension, Renovascular/blood , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/blood , Biomarkers/blood , Chagas Disease/complications , Disease Models, Animal , Hypertension, Renovascular/parasitology , Rats, Wistar
Cad. Saúde Pública (Online) ; 34(2): e00123716, 2018. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-952371


Apesar do declínio na prevalência da doença de Chagas no Brasil, a Região Nordeste apresenta condições propícias ao seu recrudescimento. O objetivo deste estudo foi analisar a positividade por doença de Chagas entre doadores de sangue do Piauí entre 2004 e 2013. A prevalência de sorologia reagente para doenças de Chagas na triagem de doadores foi de 1%, variando de 0,4% na Regional de Saúde de Uruçuí a 2,4% na Regional de Saúde de São Raimundo Nonato. Dos 220 municípios, 58,6% apresentaram casos. Apenas 34,5% das amostras positivas na triagem foram encaminhadas para testes complementares e entre estes, 84,4% apresentaram resultados negativos. Nossos resultados indicam a possibilidade da manutenção da transmissão vetorial em áreas do Estado do Piauí e a necessidade da implantação de ações que melhorem o índice de realização dos testes complementares referentes aos casos positivos na triagem.

Despite the decline in prevalence of Chagas disease in Brazil, the Northeast region of the country has favorable conditions for its resurgence. The study aimed to analyze positive Chagas disease serology rates among blood donors in Piauí State from 2004 to 2013. Prevalence of positive Chagas disease serology in blood donor screening was 1%, ranging from 0.4% in the Uruçuí Regional Health District to 2.4% in the São Raimundo Nonato Regional Health District. Of the state's 220 municipalities, 58.6% reported cases. Only 34.5% of the positive samples in screening were referred for complementary tests, and 84.4% of these showed negative results. Our findings suggest the possibility of persistent vector-borne transmission in areas of Piauí State and the need for measures to improve complementary testing in positive cases detected by screening.

A pesar del declive en la prevalencia de la enfermedad de Chagas en Brasil, la Región Nordeste presenta condiciones propicias para su recrudecimiento. El objetivo de este estudio fue analizar la positividad por enfermedad de Chagas entre donadores de sangre de Piauí entre 2004 y 2013. La prevalencia de la serología reactiva para la enfermedad de Chagas en la clasificación de donadores fue de un 1%, variando de 0,4% en la Regional de Salud de Uruçuí, a 2,4% en la Regional de Salud de São Raimundo Nonato. De los 220 municipios, un 58,6% presentaron casos. Sólo un 34,5% de las muestras positivas en la clasificación fueron dirigidas a test complementarios y entre estos, un 84,4% presentaron resultados negativos. Nuestros resultados indican la posibilidad del mantenimiento de la transmisión vectorial en áreas del Estado de Piauí y la necesidad de la implantación de acciones que mejoren el índice de realización de los test complementarios referentes a los casos positivos en la clasificación.

Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Young Adult , Blood Donors , Chagas Disease/blood , Chagas Disease/transmission , Donor Selection , Socioeconomic Factors , Trypanosoma cruzi/isolation & purification , Brazil/epidemiology , Residence Characteristics , Prevalence , Chagas Disease/epidemiology
J. venom. anim. toxins incl. trop. dis ; 24: 25, 2018. graf, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-954850


Autologous whole blood (AWB) administration is described as alternative/complementary medical practice widely employed in medical and veterinary therapy against infections, chronic pathologies and neoplasias. Our aim is to investigate in vivo biological effect of AWB using healthy murine models under the course of Trypanosoma cruzi acute infection. Methods: The first set of studies consisted of injecting different volumes of AWB and saline (SAL) into the posterior region of quadriceps muscle of healthy male Swiss mice under distinct therapeutic schemes evaluating: animal behavior, body and organ weight, hemogram, plasmatic biochemical markers for tissue damage and inflammatory cytokine levels and profile. To assess the impact on the experimental T. cruzi infection, different schemes (prior and post infection) and periods of AWB administration (from one up to 10 days) were conducted, also employing heterologous whole blood (HWB) and evaluating plasma cytokine profile. Results: No major adverse events were observed in healthy AWB-treated mice, except gait impairment in animals that received three doses of 20 µL AWB in the same hind limb. AWB and SAL triggered an immediate polymorphonuclear response followed by mononuclear infiltrate. Although SAL triggered an inflammatory response, the kinetics and intensity of the histological profile and humoral mediator levels were different from AWB, the latter occurring earlier and more intensely with concomitant elevation of plasma IL-6. Inflammatory peak response of SAL, mainly composed of mononuclear cells with IL-10, was increased at 24 h. According to the mouse model of acute T. cruzi infection, only minor decreases (< 30%) in the parasitemia levels were produced by AWB and HWB given before and after infection, without protecting against mortality. Rises in IFN-gamma, TNF-alpha and IL-6 were detected at 9 dpi in all infected animals as compared to uninfected mice but only Bz displayed a statistically significant diminution (p= 0.02) in TNF-alpha levels than infected and untreated mice. Conclusions: This study revealed that the use of autologous whole blood (AWB) in the acute model employed was unable to reduce the parasitic load of infected mice, providing only a minor decrease in parasitemia levels (up to 30%) but without protecting against animal mortality. Further in vivo studies will be necessary to elucidate the effective impact of this procedure.(AU)

Animals , Male , Rats , Trypanosoma cruzi , Blood Transfusion, Autologous , Chagas Disease/blood , Complementary Therapies
Cad. Saúde Pública (Online) ; 33(10): e00050216, oct. 2017. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-952323


Resumen: El objetivo del presente estudio fue determinar la seroprevalencia de la infección por Trypanosoma cruzi en el estado Sucre (Venezuela) y su asociación con factores de riesgo epidemiológicos. El diseño muestral por conglomerados permitió seleccionar 96 centros poblados y 576 viviendas en los 15 municipios del estado. Asimismo, se evaluaron un total de 2.212 muestras de sueros, a través de las pruebas de ELISA, HAI e IFI. La seroprevalencia en el estado Sucre fue de 3,12%. Los factores de riesgo asociados a la infección por T. cruzi fueron: deposición de basura, materiales predominantes en el piso y paredes, tipo de vivienda, vivir en casas con paredes de bahareque y/o techos de palmas, vivir en casa con paredes y techos de riesgo, construcciones de riesgo y anexos de bahareque, aves dentro de la vivienda y la presencia de leña. La infección se encontró asociada a la edad de los individuos, se detectaron tres casos seropositivos en menores de 15 años. En el estado Sucre existen variables epidemiológicas que favorecen el riesgo a contraer la infección por T. cruzi.

Abstract: The current study aimed to determine the seroprevalence of Trypanosoma cruzi infection in Sucre State, Venezuela, and its association with epidemiological risk factors. The cluster sampling design allowed selecting 96 villages and 576 dwellings in the State's 15 municipalities. A total of 2,212 serum samples were analyzed by ELISA, HAI, and IFI. Seroprevalence in Sucre State was 3.12%. Risk factors associated with T. cruzi infection were: accumulated garbage, flooring and wall materials, type of dwelling, living in a house with wattle and daub walls and/or straw roofing, living in a house with risky walls and roofing, risky buildings and wattle and daub outbuildings, poultry inside the human dwelling, and presence of firewood. Infection was associated with individual age, and three seropositive cases were found in individuals less than 15 years of age. Sucre State has epidemiological factors that favor the risk of acquiring T. cruzi infection.

Resumo: O estudo teve como objetivo determinar a soroprevalência da infecção pelo Trypanosoma cruzi no Estado de Sucre, Venezuela, e a associação com fatores de risco epidemiológicos. O delineamento da amostragem em clusters permitiu a seleção de 96 vilarejos e 576 moradias nos 15 municípios do Estado. No total, 2.212 amostras de soro foram analisadas com ELISA, HAI e IFI. O estudo mostrou uma soroprevalência de 3,12% no Estado de Sucre. Os seguintes fatores de risco estiveram associados à infecção pelo T. cruzi: acúmulo de lixo, materiais de piso e paredes impróprios, tipo de moradia, moradias com paredes de pau-a-pique e/ou teto de palha, moradias em situação de risco e construções anexas feitas de pau-a-pique, aves dentro das moradias e presença de lenha. A infecção esteve associada à idade individual, e três casos soropositivos foram identificados em indivíduos com menos de 15 anos de idade. O Estado de Sucre apresenta fatores epidemiológicos que aumentam o risco de infecção pelo T. cruzi.

Humans , Animals , Male , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Young Adult , Trypanosoma cruzi , Rural Health/statistics & numerical data , Chagas Disease/blood , Chagas Disease/epidemiology , Venezuela/epidemiology , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Residence Characteristics , Cross-Sectional Studies , Risk Factors , Chagas Disease/transmission , Middle Aged
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 50(4): 506-515, July-Aug. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-896996


Abstract INTRODUCTION In order to detect Trypanosoma cruzi and determine the genetic profiles of the parasite during the chronic phase of Chagas disease (ChD), parasitological and molecular diagnostic methods were used to assess the blood of 91 patients without specific prior treatment. METHODS Blood samples were collected from 68 patients with cardiac ChD and 23 patients with an indeterminate form of ChD, followed by evaluation using blood culture and polymerase chain reaction. T . cruzi isolates were genotyped using three different genetic markers. RESULTS: Blood culture was positive in 54.9% of all patients, among which 60.3% had the cardiac form of ChD, and 39.1% the indeterminate form of ChD. There were no significant differences in blood culture positivity among patients with cardiac and indeterminate forms. Additionally, patient age and clinical forms did not influence blood culture results. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was positive in 98.9% of patients, although comparisons between blood culture and PCR results showed that the two techniques did not agree. Forty-two T . cruzi stocks were isolated, and TcII was detected in 95.2% of isolates. Additionally, one isolate corresponded to TcIII or TcIV, and another corresponded to TcV or TcVI. CONCLUSIONS Blood culture and PCR were both effective for identifying T. cruzi using a single blood sample, and their association did not improve parasite detection. However, we were not able to establish an association between the clinical form of ChD and the genetic profile of the parasite.

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Aged , Trypanosoma cruzi/isolation & purification , Trypanosoma cruzi/genetics , DNA, Protozoan/genetics , Chagas Disease/diagnosis , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Chronic Disease , Sensitivity and Specificity , Chagas Disease/blood , Blood Culture , Genotype , Middle Aged
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 50(3): 341-349, May-June 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-896979


Abstract INTRODUCTION: Enriched environments normally increase behavioral repertoires and diminish the expression of abnormal behaviors and stress-related physiological problems in animals. Although it has been shown that experimental animals infected with microorganisms can modify their behaviors and physiology, few studies have evaluated how environmental enrichment affects these parameters. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of environmental enrichment on the behavior and physiology of confined mice infected with Trypanosoma cruzi. METHODS: The behaviors of 20 T. cruzi-infected mice and 20 non-infected mice were recorded during three treatments: baseline, enrichment, and post-enrichment. Behavioral data were collected using scan sampling with instantaneous recording of behavior every 30s, totaling 360h. Plasma TNF, CCL2, and IL-10 levels and parasitemia were also evaluated in infected enriched/non-enriched mice. Behavioral data were evaluated by Friedman's test and physiological data by one-way ANOVA and area under the curve (AUC) analysis. RESULTS: Results showed that environmental enrichment significantly increased exploratory behaviors and diminished inactivity. The use of environmental enrichment did not diminish circulating levels of TNF and IL-10 but diminished circulating levels of CCL2 and parasitemia. CONCLUSIONS: Positive behavioral and physiological effects of environmental enrichment were observed in mice living in enriched cages. Thus, environmental enrichment improved the welfare of these animals.

Animals , Male , Behavior, Animal/physiology , Chagas Disease/physiopathology , Environment , Time Factors , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha , Interleukin-10/blood , Chagas Disease/blood , Parasitemia/physiopathology , Chemokine CCL2/blood , Disease Models, Animal , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL
Clin. biomed. res ; 37(1): 11-17, 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-833269


Introduction: Blood donation should be voluntary, anonymous and altruistic, and the donor should not, directly or indirectly, receive any remuneration or benefit by virtue of donating blood. Like any other therapeutic method, transfusion procedures are not risk free and can expose the patient to a several complications. Serological screening is of great importance to ensure transfusion safety. The present study aimed to estimate the prevalence of serological ineligibility among blood donors from a Hemotherapy Center in Caxias do Sul (RS). Method: An exploratory, descriptive and quantitative study was conducted on data from July 2010 to December 2015 collected at a Hemotherapy Center in Caxias do Sul (RS). Results: During the study period, 14,267 blood donors attended the Hemotherapy Center, of which 9,332 (65.40%) were males and 4,935 (34.60%) were female. Considering only the suitable donors, 12,702 blood donations were performed, 144 (1.13%) presented positive serological tests. The most prevalent positive serology was for hepatitis B (anti-HBc) with 98 cases (0.77%), followed by syphilis with 19 cases (0.15%); Chagas disease, with 10 (0.08%); hepatitis C, with nine (0.07%); and HIV and HTLV, with four (0.03%) reactive samples each. Conclusion: The results presented are important for health surveillance and make it possible to take measures to ensure safe blood stocks (AU)

Humans , Blood Donors/statistics & numerical data , Communicable Disease Control , Communicable Diseases/blood , Chagas Disease/blood , Deltaretrovirus Antibodies/blood , Hepatitis Antibodies , HIV Seropositivity/blood , Prevalence , Retrospective Studies , Syphilis Serodiagnosis
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 111(6): 365-371, June 2016. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-784247


This study aimed to evaluate well-documented diagnostic antigens, named B13, 1F8 and JL7 recombinant proteins, as potential markers of seroconversion in treated chagasic patients. Prospective study, involving 203 patients treated with benznidazole, was conducted from endemic areas of northern Argentina. Follow-up was possible in 107 out of them and blood samples were taken for serology and PCR assays before and 2, 3, 6, 12, 24 and 36 months after treatment initiation. Reactivity against Trypanosoma cruzi lysate and recombinant antigens was measured by ELISA. The rate of decrease of antibody titers showed nonlinear kinetics with an abrupt drop within the first three months after initiation of treatment for all studied antigens, followed by a plateau displaying a low decay until the end of follow-up. At this point, anti-B13, anti-1F8 and anti-JL7 titers were relatively close to the cut-off line, while anti-T. cruzi antibodies still remained positive. At baseline, 60.8% (45/74) of analysed patients tested positive for parasite DNA by PCR and during the follow-up period in 34 out of 45 positive samples (75.5%) could not be detected T. cruzi DNA. Our results suggest that these antigens might be useful as early markers for monitoring antiparasitic treatment in chronic Chagas disease.

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Antibodies, Protozoan/blood , Chagas Disease/drug therapy , Nitroimidazoles/therapeutic use , Trypanocidal Agents/therapeutic use , Antigens, Protozoan/immunology , Argentina , Chagas Disease/blood , Chronic Disease , Cohort Studies , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Follow-Up Studies , Prospective Studies , Time Factors
Salvador; s.n; 2016. 110 p. ilus, tab.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1001002


INTRODUÇÃO: A doença de Chagas é uma relevante causa de insuficiência cardíaca na América Latina, onde cerca de 30% dos indivíduos infectados por Trypanosoma cruzi desenvolvem a cardiopatia chagásica crônica (CCC). Fatores relacionados à interação parasito-hospedeiro, resposta imune, reparo e regeneração tecidual participam da fisiopatologia da doença. A identificação de novos alvos terapêuticos depende de um melhor entendimento destes processos. Anteriormente, demonstramos que a galectina-3 (Gal-3), uma lectina com capacidade de ligação a β-galactosídeos, é superexpressa no tecido cardíaco em um modelo experimental de CCC. OBJETIVOS: O objetivo deste estudo foi investigar o papel exercido pela Gal-3 na patogênese da CCC e seu potencial uso como alvo terapêutico. MATERIAIS E MÉTODOS: A expressão de Gal-3 foi avaliada no coração de camundongos C57Bl/6...

INTRODUCTION: Chagas disease is a relevant cause of heart failure in Latin America, where about 30% of individuals infected with Trypanosoma cruzi develop chronic Chagas' disease cardiomyopathy (CCC). Several factors related to host-parasite interactions, immune response, tissue repair and regeneration participate in the pathophysiology of the disease. The identification of novel therapeutic targets relies on a better understanding of these processes. Previously, we have demonstrated that the galectin-3 (Gal-3) - a β-galactoside binding lectin - is overexpressed in the cardiac tissue in an experimental model of CCC. AIM: The aim of this study was to investigate the role of Gal-3 in the pathogenesis of CCC and its potential use as a therapeutic target. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The expression of Gal-3 was assessed in the hearts of T. cruzi infected C57BL/6...

Humans , Chagas Disease/diagnosis , Chagas Disease/mortality , Chagas Disease/parasitology , Chagas Disease/pathology , Chagas Disease/blood , Chagas Disease/transmission , Trypanosoma cruzi/immunology , Trypanosoma cruzi/pathogenicity
Rev. Inst. Med. Trop. Säo Paulo ; 57(6): 461-465, Nov.-Dec. 2015. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-770121


Despite public health campaigns and epidemiological surveillance activities, Chagas disease remains a major health problem in Latin America. According to data from the World Health Organization, there are approximately 7-8 million people infected with Trypanosoma cruzi worldwide, a large percentage of which in Latin America. This study aims to examine the serological profile of blood donors in blood banks of Hemominas hematology center, in the town of Ituiutaba, Minas Gerais State, Brazil. The study sample consisted of 53,941 blood donors, which were grouped according to gender and age. Sample collections were performed from January 1991 to December 2011, and 277 donors (0.5%) were considered serologically ineligible due to Chagas disease. Analysis of data showed no significant difference between genders. As for age, the highest proportion of ineligible donors was from 40 to 49 years (30%), and there was a positive correlation between increasing age and the percentage of patients seropositive for Chagas disease. Therefore, adopting strategies that allow the safe identification of donors with positive serology for Chagas disease is essential to reduce or eliminate indeterminate serological results.

A doença de Chagas, apesar das campanhas de saúde pública e das ações de vigilância epidemiológica, ainda constitui-se um sério problema de saúde na América Latina. De acordo com dados divulgados pela Organização Mundial de Saúde, existem cerca de 7 a 8 milhões de pessoas infectadas com Trypanosoma cruzi em todo o mundo, principalmente na América Latina. Este estudo tem por objetivo analisar o perfil sorológico de doadores de sangue dos bancos de sangue do Hemominas de Ituiutaba, Minas Gerais. Os doadores também foram separados de acordo com o sexo e a idade. A amostra do estudo foi composta por 53.941 doadores de sangue durante o período de janeiro de 2001 a dezembro de 2011. Duzentos e setenta e sete doações (0,5%) foram considerados sorologicamente inaptas para a doença de Chagas. Quanto à idade, a maior proporção de doadores impróprios foi de 40 a 49 anos (30%). Os dados não revelaram diferença significativa entre os sexos (p < 0,05). Houve correlação positiva entre o aumento da idade e o percentual de pacientes soropositivos para doença de Chagas. É imprescindível a adoção de estratégias que permitam a identificação segura de um doador com sorologia positiva para doença de Chagas, tentando assim minimizar ou eliminar resultados sorológicos indeterminados.

Adult , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Blood Donors/statistics & numerical data , Blood/parasitology , Chagas Disease/epidemiology , Age Distribution , Brazil/epidemiology , Chagas Disease/blood , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Fluorescent Antibody Technique, Indirect , Prevalence , Trypanosoma cruzi/isolation & purification
Rev. Inst. Med. Trop. Säo Paulo ; 57(5): 385-392, Sept.-Oct. 2015. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-766271


SUMMARY Chagas disease is a public health problem worldwide. The availability of diagnostic tools to predict the development of chronic Chagas cardiomyopathy is crucial to reduce morbidity and mortality. Here we analyze the prognostic value of adenosine deaminase serum activity (ADA) and C-reactive protein serum levels (CRP) in chagasic individuals. One hundred and ten individuals, 28 healthy and 82 chagasic patients were divided according to disease severity in phase I (n = 35), II (n = 29), and III (n = 18). A complete medical history, 12-lead electrocardiogram, chest X-ray, and M-mode echocardiogram were performed on each individual. Diagnosis of Chagas disease was confirmed by ELISA and MABA using recombinant antigens; ADA was determined spectrophotometrically and CRP by ELISA. The results have shown that CRP and ADA increased linearly in relation to disease phase, CRP being significantly higher in phase III and ADA at all phases. Also, CRP and ADA were positively correlated with echocardiographic parameters of cardiac remodeling and with electrocardiographic abnormalities, and negatively with ejection fraction. CRP and ADA were higher in patients with cardiothoracic index ≥ 50%, while ADA was higher in patients with ventricular repolarization disturbances. Finally, CRP was positively correlated with ADA. In conclusion, ADA and CRP are prognostic markers of cardiac dysfunction and remodeling in Chagas disease.

Introdução e objetivo . A Doença de Chagas é um problema de saúde pública mundial. A disponibilidade de ferramentas diagnósticas para prever o desenvolvimento de miocardiopatia chagásica crônica é fundamental para reduzir a morbidade e a mortalidade. Aqui estudamos o valor prognóstico da atividade sérica da adenosina deaminase (ADA) e dos níveis de proteína C reativa (PCR) em indivíduos chagásicos. Métodos : 110 indivíduos: 28 saudáveis e 82 pacientes chagásicos foram divididos de acordo com a gravidade da doença em fase I (n = 35), II (n = 29) e III (n = 18). Para cada indivíduo foram feitos uma história médica, eletrocardiograma, radiografia de tórax e ecocardiografía transtorácica. O diagnóstico de Chagas foi confirmado por ELISA e MABA utilizando antígenos recombinantes, a atividade sérica da enzima ADA foi determinada por espectrofotometria, e os níveis séricos de PCR por ELISA. Resultados : os níveis de PCR e da atividade da ADA aumentaram linearmente em relação à fase da doença, sendo a PCR significativamente maior na fase III, e a ADA em todas as fases. Além disso, PCR e ADA foram correlacionados positivamente com parâmetros ecocardiográficos de remodelamento cardíaco e alterações eletrocardiográficas, e negativamente com a fração de ejeção. PCR e ADA foram mais elevadas em pacientes com índice cardiotorácico ≥ 50%, enquanto que a ADA foi maior em pacientes com alterações da repolarização ventricular. Finalmente, os níveis de PCR foram correlacionados positivamente com a atividade da ADA. Conclusão : ADA e PCR são marcadores prognósticos de disfunção e remodelamento cardíaco na Doença de Chagas, e devem ser incluídos na avaliação e acompanhamento dos pacientes.

Adult , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Adenosine Deaminase/blood , C-Reactive Protein/analysis , Chagas Disease/blood , Biomarkers/blood , Case-Control Studies , Chronic Disease , Chagas Cardiomyopathy/blood , Chagas Disease/enzymology , Disease Progression , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Prognosis , Severity of Illness Index , Spectrophotometry
Braz. j. phys. ther. (Impr.) ; 19(3): 211-217, May-Jun/2015. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-751376


Background: Hippotherapy uses horseback riding movements for therapeutic purposes. In addition to the horse's movement, the choice of equipment and types of floor are also useful in the intervention. The quantification of dynamic parameters that define the interaction of the surface of contact between horse and rider provides insight into how the type of floor surface variations act upon the subject's postural control. Objective: To test whether different types of surfaces promote changes in the amplitude (ACOP) and velocity (VCOP) of the center of pressure (COP) displacement during the rider's contact with the saddle on the horse's back. Method: Twenty two healthy adult male subjects with experience in riding were evaluated. The penetration resistances of asphalt, sand and grass surfaces were measured. The COP data were collected on the three surfaces using a pressure measurement mat. Results: ACOP values were higher in sand, followed by grass and asphalt, with significant differences between sand and asphalt (anteroposterior, p=0.042; mediolateral, p=0.019). The ACOP and VCOP values were higher in the anteroposterior than in the mediolateral direction on all surfaces (ACOP, p=0.001; VCOP, p=0.006). The VCOP did not differ between the surfaces. Conclusion: Postural control, measured by the COP displacement, undergoes variations in its amplitude as a result of the type of floor surface. Therefore, these results reinforce the importance of the choice of floor surface when defining the strategy to be used during hippotherapy intervention. .

Animals , Male , Blood Transfusion/veterinary , Chagas Disease/veterinary , Immunocompromised Host , Macaca nemestrina/parasitology , Monkey Diseases/parasitology , Trypanosoma cruzi/isolation & purification , Antibodies, Protozoan/blood , Biomarkers/blood , Blood Transfusion/adverse effects , Chagas Disease/blood , Chagas Disease/immunology , Chagas Disease/transmission , Dose Fractionation, Radiation , Genetic Therapy , Models, Animal , Macaca nemestrina/blood , Macaca nemestrina/immunology , Monkey Diseases/blood , Monkey Diseases/immunology , Stem Cell Transplantation , Trypanosoma cruzi/immunology
Rev. Inst. Med. Trop. Säo Paulo ; 57(3): 245-250, May-Jun/2015. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-752591


Introduction: In order to examine the effectiveness of vitamin C (ascorbic acid) in combating the oxidative insult caused by Trypanosoma cruzi during the development of the chronic phase of Chagas disease, Swiss mice were infected intraperitoneally with 5.0 × 104 trypomastigotes of T. cruzi QM1strain. Methods: Mice were given supplements of two different doses of vitamin C for 180 days. Levels of lipid oxidation (as indicated by thiobarbituric acid reactive substances-TBARS), total peroxide, vitamin C, and reduced glutathione were measured in the plasma, TBARS, total peroxide and vitamin C were measured in the myocardium and histopathologic analysis was undertaken in heart, colon and skeletal muscle. Results: Animals that received a dose equivalent to 500 mg of vitamin C daily showed increased production of ROS in plasma and myocardium and a greater degree of inflammation and necrosis in skeletal muscles than those that received a lower dose or no vitamin C whatsoever. Conclusion: Although some research has shown the antioxidant effect of vitamin C, the results showed that animals subject to a 500 mg dose of vitamin C showed greater tissue damage in the chronic phase of Chagas disease, probably due to the paradoxical actions of the substance, which in this pathology, will have acted as a pro-oxidant or pro-inflammatory. .

Introdução: Para verificar a eficácia da vitamina C em combater o insulto oxidativo causado pelo Trypanosoma cruzi durante a evolução da fase crônica da doença de Chagas, camundongos Swiss foram previamente infectados via intraperitoneal com 5.0 × 104 tripomastigotas da cepa QM1 de T. cruzi. Métodos: Camundongos foram suplementados com duas diferentes doses de vitamina C por 180 dias. Foram mensurados os níveis de peroxidação lipídica (indicado por substâncias reativas ao ácido tiobarbitúrico-TBARS), peróxido total, vitamina C, e glutationa reduzida no plasma e TBARS, peróxido total e vitamina C no miocárdio, e foi realizado o estudo histopatológico em coração, cólon e músculo esquelético. Resultados: Animais que receberam diariamente uma dosagem equivalente a 500 mg de vitamina C apresentaram aumento na produção de ROS e RNS no plasma e no miocárdio e maior grau de inflamação e necrose em músculo esquelético em comparação àqueles que receberam doses menores ou nenhuma vitamina C. Conclusão: Embora muitas pesquisas tenham mostrado o efeito antioxidante da vitamina C, nossos resultados mostraram que os animais que foram expostos a 500 mg de vitamina C apresentaram maior dano tecidual na fase crônica da doença de Chagas, provavelmente devido a ações paradoxais desta substância, onde nesta patologia, poderá agir como pró-oxidante ou pró-inflamatória. .

Animals , Male , Mice , Antioxidants/administration & dosage , Ascorbic Acid/administration & dosage , Chagas Disease/drug therapy , Dietary Supplements , Biomarkers/blood , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Chronic Disease , Chagas Disease/blood , Chagas Disease/pathology , Disease Models, Animal , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Glutathione/blood , Lipid Peroxidation , Nitric Oxide/blood , Peroxidase/blood , Thiobarbituric Acid Reactive Substances