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5.
Medicina (B.Aires) ; 81(2): 154-158, June 2021. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1287265

ABSTRACT

Resumen La enfermedad de Chagas es endémica en América Latina y sigue siendo un problema regional a pesar de que su frecuencia ha disminuido gracias a importantes avances en salud ambiental. Para determinar su frecuencia en pacientes con enfermedades miocárdicas de El Salvador, se llevó a cabo una in vestigación observacional retrospectiva en nuestro hospital que es un centro de referencia de nivel nacional. Se revisó el registro del Laboratorio de Chagas en el período 2013-2015 para conocer cuántos individuos internados en la Unidad Cardiológica eran positivos por serología para infección chagásica y cuáles fueron sus diagnósticos. Se realizó un total de 1472 pruebas a pacientes individuales durante los 36 meses del período de estudio. De los 557 pacientes con serología positiva para Chagas, 97 (17.4%) fueron eventualmente hospitalizados en la Unidad Cardiológica. A su vez, estos 97 pacientes representaron el 33.7% de los 288 pacientes con cardiopatías. Entre los 97 con cardiopatía chagásica, 40 (41.2%) cumplieron criterios para colocación de marcapaso permanente, mientras que solo 13 de 191 (6.8%) enfermos con cardiopatías no chagásicas cumplieron esos criterios. La frecuencia de bloqueos auriculoventriculares asociados a infección por Trypanosoma cruzi resultó mucho mayor que las publicadas en estudios previos realizados en Sudamérica.


Abstract Chagas disease is endemic in Latin America and remains a regional problem despite improvements in en vironmental health conditions that have helped to control its transmission. To know more about its prevalence in heart disease patients, we carried out a survey in our national (El Salvador) reference hospital. We reviewed the Chagas Lab´s records 2013-2015 to find out how many of the patients admitted to the Hospital´s Heart Unit were serologically positives for Trypanosoma cruzi infection and which the associated diagnoses were. A total of 1472 patients were tested along the 36-month study period. Out of 557 (37.8%) patients with positive serology for Chagas infection, 97 (17.4%) were eventually admitted to the Heart Unit. Among these 97 Chagas infected patients with heart disease, 40 (41.2%) met the criteria for permanent pacemaker placement, while only 13 of 191 (6.8%) patients with non-chagasic heart disease met these criteria. The frequency of heart atrioventricular block associated with Trypanosoma cruzi infection was higher than frequencies reported in South American studies.


Subject(s)
Humans , Trypanosoma cruzi , Chagas Disease/diagnosis , Chagas Disease/epidemiology , Atrioventricular Block/etiology , Atrioventricular Block/epidemiology , El Salvador , Latin America
6.
Biomédica (Bogotá) ; 41(supl.1): 113-120, mayo 2021. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1285453

ABSTRACT

Resumen | Introducción. La mayoría de las personas con enfermedad de Chagas desarrolla anticuerpos específicos contra Trypanosoma cruzi. En la infección temprana se producen anticuerpos IgM contra T. cruzi que son reemplazados por IgG durante el curso de la enfermedad. Los primeros síntomas de la enfermedad suelen ser muy leves y atípicos, por lo que a menudo no se detecta en la fase aguda. Objetivos. Evaluar la sensibilidad y la especificidad clínica y analítica, la precisión y la eficacia del UMELISA CHAGAS® con la incorporación de nuevos péptidos sintéticos en la fase sólida representativos de la proteína SAPA (Shed Acute Phase Antigen) y del antígeno TSA (Trypomastigote Surface Antigen). Materiales y métodos. Se evaluó un panel de desempeño de título mixto anti-I cruzi y uno de seroconversión de Chagas, así como muestras de suero positivas y negativas provenientes de zonas endémicas de la enfermedad y muestras positivas de otras enfermedades que podían interferir con la prueba. Las pruebas Bioelisa CHAGAS, Chagatest ELISA recombinante v. 4.0, Chagatest HAI y SD BIOLINE CHAGAS Ab Rapid, se emplearon como referencia. Resultados. Los porcentajes de sensibilidad y especificidad clínica fueron de 97,73 % (IC95% 96,23-99,24) y 99,33 % (IC95% 98,88-99,78), respectivamente. Se obtuvo un 98,96 % de eficacia y una buena precisión. Conclusiones. Los resultados demuestran que la nueva fase sólida del UMELISA CHAGAS® puede utilizarse para el inmunodiagnóstico, la certificación de sangre y la vigilancia epidemiológica en países endémicos y no endémicos con población de alto riesgo.


Abstract | Introduction: Most people with Chagas disease develop specific antibodies against Trypanosoma cruzi. In early infection, IgM antibodies against T. cruzi are produced and later replaced for IgG antibodies during the course of the disease. The first symptoms of the infection may be very mild and atypical, which is why the disease is often not detected in the acute phase. Objectives: To evaluate the clinical and analytical sensitivity, and specificity, accuracy, and efficacy of UMELISA CHAGAS™ with the addition of new synthetic peptides in the solid phase representative of the shed acute phase antigen protein (SAPA) and the trypomastigote surface antigen (TSA). Materials and methods: We evaluated a mixed anti-T. cruzi titer performance panel and a Chagas seroconversion one, as well as positive and negative serum samples from endemic areas of the disease and positive samples for other diseases that may interfere with the assay. The Bioelisa CHAGAS assay, Chaga test recombinant ELISA v.4.0, Chagatest HAI, and SD BIOLINE CHAGAS Ab Rapid were used as reference tests. Results: The sensitivity of the assay was 97.73% (95% CI: 96,23-99,24) and the clinical specificity, 99.33% (95% CI: 98,88-99,78) while the efficacy and the accuracy were 98.96%. Conclusions: Our results show that the new solid phase of UMELISA CHAGAS® can be used for immunodiagnostic, blood certification, and epidemiological surveillance in endemic and non-endemic countries with high-risk populations.


Subject(s)
Chagas Disease/diagnosis , Peptides , Trypanosoma cruzi , Antibodies
7.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 54: e20200326, 2021. graf
Article in English | LILACS, ColecionaSUS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1143884

ABSTRACT

Abstract Chagas Disease is caused by Trypanosoma cruzi. This infection is endemic in the Americas region. Neurological Chagas reactivation is diagnosed through the visualization of the parasite in the cerebrospinal fluid, blood, or tissue samples. Herein, we report the visualization of trypomastigotes by direct microscopic observation of a brain biopsy specimen and its preservation fluid (PF) in a paitient infected with VIH and T. cruzi. This easy and simple diagnostic method coupled with quantitative polymerase chain reaction can be used in all tissue biopsies and PF of T. cruzi seropositive patients, suspected of Chagas disease reactivation.


Subject(s)
Humans , Trypanosoma cruzi , Chagas Disease/diagnosis , Biopsy , Diagnostic Tests, Routine
8.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 54: e02542021, 2021.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1288071

ABSTRACT

Abstract Chagas disease (CD) remains a serious endemic disease in Latin America and a major public health problem. Because of globalization, the disease has spread to non-endemic areas in the northern hemisphere. In the chronic phase of the disease, most patients present with the indeterminate form (IF), characterized by positive serology for Trypanosoma cruzi, absence of clinical findings, and normal findings in electrocardiogram (ECG). IF was not recognized as a clinical entity until decades after the discovery of the disease, and only in the 1940-50s, it was categorized as a form of CD, and its conceptual definition was ratified in the 1980s. Children, adolescents, and young adults with the IF benefit from etiological treatment and tend to have less progression to heart disease in the long term than the untreated ones. IF patients have an essentially benign clinical condition, and their prognosis can be compared to that of healthy individuals with normal ECG findings. Currently, because of aging, patients with the IF have comorbidities that require attention in health services.


Subject(s)
Trypanosoma cruzi , Chagas Disease/diagnosis , Chagas Disease/epidemiology , Prognosis , Endemic Diseases , Latin America
9.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 54: e00402021, 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1250818

ABSTRACT

Abstract INTRODUCTION We aimed to describe the sociodemographic, epidemiological, and clinical characteristics of patients with chronic Chagas disease (CD) at an infectious disease referral center. Changes in patient profiles over time were also evaluated. METHODS This retrospective study included patients with CD from November 1986-December 2019. All patients underwent an evaluation protocol that included sociodemographic profile; epidemiological history; anamnesis; and physical, cardiologic, and digestive examinations. Trend differences for each 5-year period from 1986 to 2019 were tested using a nonparametric trend test for continuous and generalized linear models with binomial distribution for categorical variables. RESULTS A total of 2,168 patients (52.2% women) were included, with a mean age of 47.8 years old. White patients with low levels of education predominated. The reported transmission mode was vectorial in 90.2% of cases. The majority came from areas with a high prevalence (52.2%) and morbidity (67.8%) of CD. The most common clinical presentation was the indeterminate form (44.9%). The number of patients referred gradually decreased and the age at admission increased during the study period, as did the patients' levels of education. CONCLUSIONS The clinical profile of CD is characterized by a predominance of the indeterminate form of the disease. Regarding the patients who were followed up at the referral center, there was a progressive increase in the mean age and a concomitant decrease in the number of new patients. This reflects the successful control of vector and transfusion transmission in Brazil as well as the aging population of patients with CD.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Male , Aged , Chagas Disease/diagnosis , Chagas Disease/epidemiology , Referral and Consultation , Brazil/epidemiology , Prevalence , Retrospective Studies , Middle Aged
10.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 54: e0873-2020, 2021. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1155567

ABSTRACT

Abstract Chagas disease is caused by the protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi. Seven lineages have been identified based on different molecular markers, namely TcI, TcII, TcIII, TcIV, TcV, TcVI, and TcBat. Dogs play the role of epidemiological sentinels being domestic reservoirs of T. cruzi. The aim of the current study was to report the first case of CD in a domestic dog in Manaus, Amazonas, Brazil, infected with T. cruzi DTU TcIV. We hope our report encourages veterinarians and surveillance professionals to a take a deeper look at T. cruzi infection in domestic animals.


Subject(s)
Animals , Dogs , Trypanosoma cruzi/genetics , Chagas Disease/diagnosis , Chagas Disease/veterinary , Brazil , Genotype
11.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 54: e0269-2020, 2021. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1155566

ABSTRACT

Abstract Reactivation of chronic Trypanosoma cruzi infection in solid organ transplant recipients (SOTRs) has been reported. The patient presented with a 2-week history of two painful erythematous, infiltrated plaques with central ulceration and necrotic crust on the left thigh. She had a history of chronic indeterminate Chagas disease (CD) and had received a kidney transplant before 2 months. Skin biopsies revealed lobular panniculitis with intracellular amastigote forms of T. cruzi. The patient was diagnosed with CD reactivation. Treatment with benznidazole significantly improved her condition. CD reactivation should be suspected in SOTRs living in endemic areas with clinical polymorphism of skin lesions.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Trypanosoma cruzi , Panniculitis , Kidney Transplantation/adverse effects , Chagas Disease/diagnosis , Thigh
12.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 115(6): 1082-1091, dez. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1152955

ABSTRACT

Resumo Fundamento A doença de Chagas (DC) é considerada um problema de saúde pública na América Latina. A região nordeste, principalmente o estado do Ceará, ainda representa grande preocupação em termos de risco de transmissão da doença. Objetivo Estimar a prevalência de T. cruzi em doadores de sangue do estado do Ceará. Métodos Trata-se um de estudo retrospectivo descritivo realizado no período de 2010 a 2015, a partir de dados registrados no sistema informatizado do Centro de Hematologia e Hemoterapia do Ceará (HEMOCE). Resultados Dos 763.731 potenciais doadores de sangue, 14.159 foram considerados impedidos de fazer a doação devido à sorologia, sendo que 1.982 (0,33%) o foram devido à positividade/inconclusão para doença de Chagas. Compareceram à Hemorrede para a repetição 425 indivíduos, sendo confirmados 28,2% (120/425) como impedidos de doar devido a DC. Conclusão Não houve redução significativa das sorologias positivas/inconclusivas no período entre 2010-2015, porém foi observada redução em relação a 1996/1997 no estado. A determinação da prevalência da doença de Chagas em bancos de sangue pode ser relevante como indicador do risco de transmissão transfusional em determinada região. Novos testes sorológicos para triagem com melhor acurácia são necessários, reduzindo o descarte desnecessário de bolsas de sangue, os custos para o Sistema Único de Saúde e a insegurança para os pacientes e familiares. (Arq Bras Cardiol. 2020; 115(6):1082-1091)


Abstract Background Chagas disease (CD) is considered a public health problem in Latin America. The northeastern region, especially the state of Ceará, still represents a major concern in terms of the risk of transmission of CD. Objective To estimate the prevalence of T. cruzi in blood donors from the state of Ceará. Methods This is a retrospective descriptive study that was performed in the period from 2010 to 2015 from data recorded in the computerized system of the Hematology and Hemotherapy Center of Ceará (HEMOCE in Portuguese). Results Of the 763,731 potential blood donors, 14,159 were serologically ineligible; 1,982 (0.33%) were serologically ineligible due to positive / inconclusive diagnosis for CD. A total of 425 individuals came to the HEMOCE to repeat the test, with 28.2% (120/425) declared ineligible for donations due to CD. Conclusion No significant reduction of positive / inconclusive serology was observed in the period between 2010 and 2015, but a reduction was observed when compared to 1996/1997 in the state. The determination of the prevalence of CD in blood banks may be relevant as an indicator of the risk of CD transmission through blood transfusions in a given region. New serological tests for triage with better accuracy in screening are needed, in an attempt to reduce the unnecessary disposal of blood bags, reduce costs for the Brazilian Unified Health System, and diminish insecurity for the patient and family members. (Arq Bras Cardiol. 2020; 115(6):1082-1091)


Subject(s)
Humans , Trypanosoma cruzi , Chagas Disease/diagnosis , Chagas Disease/epidemiology , Blood Donors , Brazil/epidemiology , Antibodies, Protozoan , Prevalence , Retrospective Studies , Latin America
14.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 115: e200214, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1135280

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND Chagas disease, resulting from Trypanosoma cruzi infections, continues to be a health concern mainly in Latin American countries where the parasite is endemic. The laboratory diagnosis of a chronic infection is determined through serological assays for antibodies against T. cruzi and several tests are available that differ in key components, formats and methodologies. To date, no single test meets the criteria of a gold standard. The situation is further complicated by the difficulties associated with performance comparisons between different immunoassays or methodologies executed at different times and geographical areas. OBJECTIVE To improve the diagnosis of Chagas disease, the WHO coordinated the development of two International Biological Reference Standards for antibodies against anti-T. cruzi: NIBSC 09/186 and NIBSC 09/188 that respectively represent geographical regions with the highest prevalence of TcII and TcI lineages of the parasite. METHODS The principle goal of this study was to verify the behavior of these standards when assayed by several commercially available serological tests that employ different methods to capture and detect human anti-T. cruzi antibodies. FINDINGS AND MAIN CONCLUSIONS The results reinforce the recommendation that these standards be considered for performance evaluations of commercialised immunoassays and should be an integral step in the development of new test components or assay paradigms.


Subject(s)
Humans , Trypanosoma cruzi/isolation & purification , Serologic Tests/standards , Chagas Disease/diagnosis , Reference Standards , Trypanosoma cruzi/immunology , World Health Organization , Immunoassay/methods , Serologic Tests/methods , Antibodies, Protozoan/blood , Chagas Disease/parasitology
15.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 53: e20200225, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, ColecionaSUS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1136876

ABSTRACT

Abstract INTRODUCTION: Patients with Chagas disease (CD), caused by Trypanosoma cruzi, present a higher risk of developing other chronic diseases, which may contribute to CD severity. Since CD is underreported in the southern state of Paraná, Brazil, we aimed to characterize clinical and epidemiological aspects of individuals chronically infected with T. cruzi in Southern Brazil. METHODS: A community hospital-based study was performed, recording clinical/demographic characteristics of 237 patients with CD from Southern Brazil. To estimate the association between different forms of CD and sociodemographic and clinical variables, multiple logistic regression models were built using the Akaike information criterion. RESULTS: Mean age was 57.5 years and 59% were females. Most patients' (60%) place of origin/birth was within Paraná and they were admitted to the CD outpatient clinic after presenting with cardiac/digestive symptoms (64%). The predominant form of CD was cardiac (53%), followed by indeterminate (36%), and digestive (11%). The main electrocardiographic changes were in the right bundle branch block (39%) and left anterior fascicular block (32%). The average number of comorbidities per patient was 3.9±2.3; systemic arterial hypertension was most common (64%), followed by dyslipidemia (34%) and diabetes (19%); overlapping comorbidities were counted separately. Male sex was associated with symptomatic cardiac CD (OR=2.92; 95%CI: 1.05-8.12; p=0.040). CONCLUSIONS: This study provided greater understanding of the distribution and clinical profile of CD patients in Southern Brazil, indicating a high prevalence of comorbidities among these patients who are a vulnerable group due to advanced age and substantial risk of morbidity.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Trypanosoma cruzi , Chagas Disease/diagnosis , Chagas Disease/epidemiology , Brazil/epidemiology , Chronic Disease , Prevalence , Middle Aged
17.
Rev. panam. salud pública ; 44: e28, 2020. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1101769

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN Introducción. La enfermedad de Chagas o tripanosomiasis americana es causada por el protozoo flagelado Trypanosoma cruzi, transmitido principalmente por insectos vectores (denominados popularmente en las diferentes zonas de la Región de las Américas "vinchucas", "pitos", "chinches", "chirimachas" o "kissing bugs"). El parásito es transmitido por vía transplacentaria, transfusiones y, menos frecuentemente, por vía oral o trasplante de órganos. La implementación de políticas públicas y el manejo de la condición clínica requiere ser fortalecido debido a las dificultades diagnósticas y terapéuticas que presenta esta parasitosis sistémica. Para contribuir con ello, la Organización Panamericana de la Salud (OPS) desarrolló una guía para el manejo de la tripanosomiasis americana. Objetivos. Sintetizar las recomendaciones incluidas en la Guía para el diagnóstico y el tratamiento de la enfermedad de Chagas, publicada por la Organización Panamericana de la Salud en 2018, con el fin de presentar el adecuado diagnóstico y tratamiento de la enfermedad de Chagas y abordar aspectos sobre su implementación. Métodos. Se llevó a cabo una síntesis de la guía y sus recomendaciones. Adicionalmente, se realizó una búsqueda sistemática en PubMed, Lilacs, Health Systems Evidence, Epistemonikos y literatura gris de estudios desarrollados en las Américas con el fin de identificar barreras, facilitadores y estrategias de implementación. Resultados. Se presentan 10 recomendaciones aplicables a pacientes adultos y pediátricos con sospecha de enfermedad de Chagas, exposición a T. cruzi y diagnóstico confirmado de enfermedad de Chagas aguda, crónica y congénita. Se identificaron reportes que abordaron aspectos de implementación. Conclusiones. Las recomendaciones buscan proveer estrategias para el diagnóstico y tratamiento oportunos de la enfermedad de Chagas, así como consideraciones para su implementación.(AU)


ABSTRACT Introduction. Chagas disease or American trypanosomiasis is caused by the flagellate protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi, transmitted mainly by insect vectors (popularly known in the different areas of the Region of the Americas as "kissing bugs", "pitos", "chinches", or "chirimachas" or "vinchuchas"). The parasite is transmitted via the placenta and in transfusions, and less frequently, orally or during organ transplantation. Because it was necessary to strengthen the implementation of public policies and the management of clinical conditions, given the diagnostic and therapeutic difficulties that this systemic parasitosis presents, the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) developed guidance for the management of American trypanosomiasis. Objectives. Synthesize the recommendations included in the Guide for Diagnosis and Treatment of Chagas Disease, published (in Spanish only) by the Pan American Health Organization in 2018, in order to present the proper diagnostic methods and treatment for Chagas disease and to address aspects of its implementation. Methods. A summary was made of the guide and its recommendations. In addition, a systematic search was conducted in PubMed, Lilacs, Health Systems Evidence, Epistemonikos, and the gray literature for studies carried out in the Americas, in order to identify barriers, facilitators, and implementation strategies. Results. Ten recommendations are made. These are applicable to adult and pediatric patients with suspected Chagas disease, exposure to T. cruzi, or a confirmed diagnosis of acute, chronic, or congenital Chagas disease. Reports that addressed aspects of implementation were identified. Conclusions. The recommendations seek to provide strategies for the timely diagnosis and treatment of Chagas disease, as well as considerations for the implementation of such strategies.(AU)


RESUMO Introdução. A doença de Chagas (ou tripanossomíase americana) é uma infecção causada pelo protozoário flagelado Trypanosoma cruzi, comumente transmitido por insetos vetores (popularmente conhecidos na Região das Américas como "barbeiro", "chupão", "vinchuca", "pito", "chinche", "chirimacha" ou "kissing bug"). O parasita é transmitido por via transplacentária, transfusão de sangue e, menos comumente, por via oral ou transplante de órgãos de doadores infectados. A implementação de políticas públicas e o manejo clínico devem ser reforçados diante das dificuldades de diagnóstico e terapêutica para esta doença parasitária sistêmica. Em apoio a este propósito, a Organização Pan-Americana da Saúde (OPAS) elaborou um guia para o manejo da doença de Chagas. Objetivos. Sintetizar as recomendações contidas no Guía para el diagnóstico y el tratamiento de la enfermedad de Chagas (guia de diagnóstico e tratamento da doença de Chagas, disponível apenas em espanhol), publicado pela Organização Pan-Americana da Saúde em 2018, com o propósito de apresentar o diagnóstico e o tratamento adequados da doença de Chagas e abordar aspectos relativos à implementação. Métodos. Foi realizada uma síntese do guia e das recomendações apresentadas. Foi também conduzida uma busca sistemática nas bases de dados PubMed, LILACS, Health Systems Evidence e Epistemonikos e na literatura cinzenta de estudos realizados na Região das Américas visando identificar barreiras, facilitadores e estratégias de implementação. Resultados. O guia oferece 10 recomendações para pacientes adultos e pediátricos com suspeita de doença de Chagas, exposição ao T. cruzi e diagnóstico confirmado de doença de Chagas aguda, crônica e congênita e discute aspectos relativos à implementação. Conclusões. As recomendações visam fornecer estratégias para o diagnóstico e o tratamento de forma oportuna da doença de Chagas e são feitas considerações para a implementação destas estratégias.(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Trypanosoma cruzi/isolation & purification , Chagas Disease/diagnosis , Chagas Disease/therapy , Evidence-Based Medicine , Americas/epidemiology
18.
Acta pediátr. hondu ; 10(1): 1006-1010, abr.-sept. 2019.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1050909

ABSTRACT

El agente etiológico de la enfermedad de Chagas es un protozoario parásito (Tripano-soma Cruzi) que causa una infección aguda y crónica, en humanos. La extensión del daño varía de acuerdo a las cepas parasita-rias y características individuales del hués-ped; puede causar incapacidad y muerte. Han sido descritas diferentes vías de infec-ción: vectorial, transfusional, accidental, digestiva y congénita. Esta última vía de la infección depende de dos indicadores bási-cos, la prevalencia de gestantes chagásicas e incidencia de la transmisión vertical. El diagnóstico presenta un desafío en aquellos lugares del país en donde, si bien la enfer-medad es considerada endémica, no se realiza actualmente el screening obligatorio en la embarazada. Es importante saber que el tratamiento antes del primer año de vida tiene una excelente respuesta y evita secue-las crónicas que pueden ser invalidantes en etapa adulta...(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Infant, Newborn , Trypanosoma cruzi/parasitology , Chagas Disease/diagnosis , Clinical Laboratory Techniques/methods , Nifurtimox/therapeutic use
19.
Hematol., Transfus. Cell Ther. (Impr.) ; 41(3): 262-267, July-Sept. 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1039932

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Introduction: Infection by Trypanosoma cruzi is challenging to blood bank supplies in terms of accurate diagnosis, mostly due to its clinical complexity. Infected individuals may remain asymptomatic for years, albeit they may have circulating parasites potentially transferable to eventual receptors of a transfusion. Objective: Although risk donors are systematically excluded through a survey, an important residual risk for transmission remains, evidencing the need to implement additional actions for the detection of T. cruzi in blood banks. Method: A review of the scientific literature is presented with the objective of identifying relevant publications on this subject. Results: We discuss the diagnostic considerations of this chronic infection on transfusion medicine and some recent advances in the processing of blood and derivatives units. Conclusion: Finally, recommendations are made on how the transmission of T. cruzi can be avoided through the implementation of better diagnostic and pathogen control measures at blood banks.


Subject(s)
Trypanosoma cruzi , Blood Banks , Epidemiologic Factors , Chagas Disease/diagnosis , Blood Safety
20.
Acta bioquím. clín. latinoam ; 53(2): 209-215, jun. 2019. ilus, graf, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1019255

ABSTRACT

La enfermedad de Chagas afecta aproximadamente a 10 millones de personas en Sudamérica y 1,5 millones en la Argentina. La transmisión congénita es la más importante en áreas urbanas. Existen dos drogas aprobadas para el tratamiento: nifurtimox (Laboratorios Bayer) y benznidazol (BNZ) (Laboratorios Roche, LAFEPE y Elea) que fueron desarrolladas hace más de 40 años y cuya farmacología y metabolismo en humanos han sido poco estudiados. La información disponible es virtualmente inexistente en niños y mujeres embarazadas. Se busca aportar estudios sistemáticos hacia una farmacoterapéutica racional en niños ya que empíricamente ha demostrado gran efectividad. Se desarrollaron métodos bioanalíticos aplicables a matrices biológicas como plasma, orina y leche materna para las drogas madres y la identificación de metabolitos en muestras de pacientes bajo terapéutica. La farmacocinética poblacional pediátrica descripta aquí para BNZ es concluyente respecto de sus diferencias con la farmacocinética en adultos. Se identificaron tres compuestos presentados como metabolitos del BNZ. La transferencia de dicho fármaco a la leche materna no supone riesgo para el lactante. Estos resultados brindan información para mejorar los protocolos de tratamiento existentes buscando una farmacoterapéutica adaptada a la edad y un uso más seguro de los fármacos en niños y eventualmente en adultos.


Chagas disease affects approximately 10 million people in South America and 1.5 million in Argentina. Congenital transmission is most important in urban areas. There are two drugs approved for treatment: nifurtimox (Bayer) and benznidazole (BNZ) (Roche, LAFEPE, Elea),developed more than 40 years ago. Their pharmacology and metabolism in humans have been seldom studied. The information available on children and pregnant women is virtually non-existent. The aim of this study is to provide systematic studies towards a rational pharmacotherapeutic sin children, which has been empirically proven to be highly effective. Bioanalytical methods were developed for plasma, urine and breast milk for parent drugs and for the identification of their metabolites in samples of patients under treatment. The pediatric population pharmacokinetics described here for BNZ is conclusive about their differences from adult pharmacokinetics. Three compounds presented as BNZ metabolites were identified. The transfer of this drug to the breast milk does not present a risk to the infant. These evidences offer information to improve the existing treatment protocols, seeking a pharmacotherapy adapted to the age and a safer use of the drugs in children and eventually in adults.


A doença de Chagas afeta aproximadamente 10 milhões de pessoas na América do Sul e 1,5 milhão na Argentina. A transmissão congênita é a mais importante em áreas urbanas. Existem dois medicamentos aprovados para o tratamento: nifurtimox (Laboratórios Bayer) e benznidazol (BNZ) (Laboratórios Roche, LAFEPE e Elea), desenvolvidas há mais de 40 anos, e sua farmacologia e seu metabolismo em humanos têm sido pouco estudados. A informação disponível é praticamente inexistente em crianças e mulheres grávidas. O objetivo é fornecer estudos sistemáticos para uma farmacoterapêutica racional em crianças visto que foram comprovadas empiricamente como sendo altamente eficazes. Métodos bioanalíticos aplicáveis a matrizes biológicas como plasma, urina e leite materno para fármacos-mãe e para a identificação de metabólitos em amostras de pacientes em tratamento terapêutico foram desenvolvidos. A farmacocinética da população pediátrica aqui descrita para BNZ é conclusiva em relação às suas diferenças com a farmacocinética de adultos. Três compostos apresentados como metabólitos do BNZ foram identificados. A transferência do referido medicamento para o leite materno não representa risco para o lactente. Essas evidências oferecem informações para melhorar os protocolos de tratamento existentes, buscando uma farmacoterapia adaptada à idade e um uso mais seguro dos medicamentos em crianças e eventualmente em adultos.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Toxicology , Chagas Disease/diagnosis , Chagas Disease/drug therapy , Lactation/drug effects , Chagas Disease/etiology , Chagas Disease/ethnology , Pharmacologic Actions , Metabolic Side Effects of Drugs and Substances
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