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1.
Cienc. tecnol. salud ; 8(1): 118-125, 2021. il 27 c
Article in Spanish | LILACS, LIGCSA, DIGIUSAC | ID: biblio-1353017

ABSTRACT

En Guatemala en el 2015, el Ministerio de Salud Pública y Asistencia Social (MSPAS) reportó nuevos casos de la enfermedad de Chagas en la región suroriental del país, siendo Santa Rosa uno de los departamentos endémicos en donde Triatoma dimidiata es el principal transmisor. Se estimó la infestación de T. dimidiata en la aldea Chuchuapa, municipio de Santa María Ixhuatán, de abril a junio de 2019, se calcularon los índices en-tomológicos y se caracterizaron intra y peridomiciliar 149 viviendas (79.67% de las viviendas habitadas). Los datos se obtuvieron mediante un cuestionario mixto, en entrevista cara a cara y evaluación de las viviendas, por un equipo profesional experimentado, mediante el método y protocolo estándar hombre-hora. Se capturaron 20 triatominos en 10 viviendas, con un índice de infestación de 6.71% (10/149), un índice de densidad de 13.42% (20/149), 19 triatominos intradomiciliares y uno peridomiciliar, con un índice de infección natural por Tr y pano-soma cruzi intradomiciliar de 26.3% (5/19), índice de infección natural por T. cr u z i peridomiciliar de 100.0% (1/1) e índice de infección natural por T. c r u z i en los triatominos capturados de 30.0 % (6/20). Las viviendas infestadas presentaron techo de lámina, pared de bajareque con grietas y sin repello, piso de tierra y afiches en la pared, acumulación de leña u otros materiales tanto intra como peridomiciliar, convivencia con animales domésticos y tenencia de animales de corral. Los resultados representan un alto riesgo para la transmisión de la enfermedad de Chagas entre los habitantes de la aldea.


In Guatemala in 2015, the Ministry of Public Health and Social Assistance reported new cases of Chagas disease in the southeastern region of the country, with Santa Rosa being one of the endemic departments where Tr ia-toma dimidiata is the main transmitter. The infestation of T. dimidiata was estimated in the Chuchuapa village, municipality of Santa María Ixhuatán, from April to June 2019, the entomological indices were calculated and 149 dwellings were characterized intradomiciliary and peridomiciliary (79.67% of the inhabited dwellings). The data were obtained through a mixed questionnaire, in a face-to-face interview and evaluation of the dwellings, by an experienced professional team, using the standard man-hour method and protocol. 20 triatomines were captured in 10 homes, with an infestation index of 6.71% (10/149), a density index of 13.42% (20/149), 19 intradomiciliary triatomines and one peridomiciliary, with a natural infection index by intradomiciliary Trypanosomacruzi of 26.3% (5/19), natural infection index by peridomiciliary T. c r u z i of 100.0% (1/1) and natural infection index by T. c r u z i in captured triatomines of 30.0% (6/20). The infested dwellings have a sheet roof, awattle and daub wall with cracks and no wall plaster, dirt and posters on the wall, accumulation of firewood and other materials in both intradomiciliary and peridomiciliary, living with domestic animals and keeping poultry animals. The results represent a high risk for the transmission of Chagas disease among the villager.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Male , Chagas Disease/prevention & control , Vector Control , Entomology , Housing , Poultry , Rural Population , Triatoma/parasitology , Trypanosoma cruzi/parasitology , Lamins , Guatemala/epidemiology , Animals, Domestic
2.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 116: e210015, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1250359

ABSTRACT

Chagas disease persists as one of the most important, and yet most neglected, diseases in the world, and several changes in its epidemiological aspects have been recorded since its discovery. Currently, some of the most relevant changes are related to: (i) the reduction in the incidence of the endemic due to the control of the most important vectors, Triatoma infestans and Rhodnius prolixus, in many countries; (ii) the migration of human populations spreading cases of the disease throughout the world, from endemic to non-endemic areas, transforming Chagas disease into a global threat; and (iii) new acute cases and deaths caused by oral transmission, especially in the north of Brazil. Despite the reduction in the number of cases, new challenges need to be responded to, including monitoring and control activities aiming to prevent house infestation by the secondary vectors from occurring. In 1979, Lent & Wygodzinsky(1) published the most complete review of the subfamily Triatominae, encompassing 111 recognised species in the taxon. Forty-two years later, 46 new species and one subspecies have been described or revalidated. Here we summarise the new species and contextualise them regarding their ecology, epidemiologic importance, and the obstacles they pose to the control of Chagas disease around the world.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Triatoma , Trypanosoma cruzi , Triatominae , Chagas Disease/prevention & control , Chagas Disease/epidemiology , Brazil/epidemiology , Insect Vectors
3.
Rev. cuba. med. trop ; 71(3): e380, sept.-dic. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1093576

ABSTRACT

Introduction: The Mesoamerican endemic specieTriatoma dimidiata is the main vector of Chagas disease in Central America, after the elimination of an introduced vector Rhodnius prolixus. The traditional method of vector control using insecticides results in reinfestation. An integrated Ecohealth approach, including education, house improvements and domestic animal management was shown effective for long-term control ofT. dimidiata, and it was applied in several villages in Guatemala. Objective: To evaluate the changes in community practices after an Ecohealth intervention in La Prensa, Olopa Chiquimula. Methods: Through three surveys, we measured risk factors associated withT. dimidiatainfestation, the infestation index, blood sources of T. dimidiata, the presence of Trypanosoma cruzi were analyzed using PCR. Statistics analysis included Wilcoxon signed-rank tests, Mc-Nemar test, Chi-square test and Fisher exact test to compare the surveys. Results: Over the years, risk factors associated with the presence of T. dimidiata and population density of the vector were observed. We found a decrease in consumption of human blood and the parasite in the vector population. However, we found the consumption of bird blood meal increased Conclusions: Our results provide evidence that an ecohealth approach for an endemic Chagas vector has impact on reducing vector-human contact, possibly by influencing people's behavior. Increasing the community knowledge about these risk factors can be an effective strategy to further reduce the risk of house reinfestation and Chagas transmission(AU)


Introducción: La especie endémica mesoamericana Triatoma dimidiata es el vector principal de la enfermedad de Chagas en América Central, después de la eliminación de un vector introducido Rhodnius prolixus. El método tradicional de control de vectores que utiliza insecticidas resulta en reinfestación. Se demostró que un enfoque integrado de ecosalud, que incluye la educación, mejorías en el hogar y manejo de animales domésticos, es efectivo para el control a largo plazo del T. dimidiata, y se aplicó en varias aldeas de Guatemala. Objetivo: evaluar los cambios en las prácticas comunitarias después de una intervención de ecosalud en La Prensa, Olopa Chiquimula. Métodos: a través de tres encuestas, se midieron los factores de riesgo asociados con la infestación de T. dimidiata, el índice de infestación, las fuentes sanguíneas de T. dimidiata y la presencia de Trypanosoma cruzi. Estas encuestas se analizaron mediante PCR. El análisis estadístico incluyó pruebas de Wilcoxon de rango con signo, la prueba de Mc-Nemar, la prueba de Chi-cuadrado y la prueba exacta de Fisher para comparar las encuestas. Resultados: A lo largo de los años, se observaron factores de riesgo asociados con la presencia de T. dimidiata y la densidad de población del vector. Encontramos una disminución del parásito en la población de vectores y en el consumo de sangre humana. Sin embargo, encontramos que aumentó el consumo de harina de sangre de aves. Conclusiones: Nuestros resultados proporcionan evidencia de que un enfoque de ecosalud para un vector de Chagas endémico impacta en la reducción del contacto vector-humano, posiblemente al influir en el comportamiento de las personas. Aumentar el conocimiento de la comunidad sobre estos factores de riesgo puede ser una estrategia efectiva para reducir aun más el riesgo de reinfestación en la casa y la transmisión de Chagas(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Triatominae , Chagas Disease/prevention & control , Communication , Community Participation
4.
Rev. bras. anal. clin ; 51(2): 103-106, 20191011.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1024821

ABSTRACT

É uma doença infecciosa causada por um protozoário parasita chamado Trypanosoma cruzi,nome dado por seu descobridor, o cientista brasileiro Carlos Chagas, em homenagem a outro cientista, também brasileiro, Oswaldo Cruz. Essa doença é conhecida popularmente como doença do coração crescido, além disso, os locais com mais índices dessa doença são as regiões do Norte e Sudeste e tem como formas de diagnósticos exames de sorologiaparasitários e xenodiagnóstico. E uma das principais formas de prevenção da doença vem sendo o uso de telas e repelentes.


It is an infectious disease caused by a protozoan parasite calledTrypanosoma cruzi, named after its discoverer, the Brazilian scientistCarlos Chagas, in honor of another scientist, also, Brazilian, Oswaldo Cruz. This disease is popularly known as a disease of the heart grown, in addition, the sites with the most indexes of this disease are the regions of the North and southeast and have as diagnostic methods serologica tests parasitic and xenodiagnosis. And one of the main forms of prevention of the disease has been the use of screens and repellents.


Subject(s)
Trypanosoma cruzi , Chagas Disease/etiology , Chagas Disease/physiopathology , Chagas Disease/prevention & control , Chagas Disease/therapy , Chagas Disease/epidemiology , Clinical Enzyme Tests
5.
Ciênc. Saúde Colet ; 24(4): 1483-1493, abr. 2019. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1001766

ABSTRACT

Resumo Objetivou-se descrever os principais indicadores entomológicos relacionados aos triatomíneos na mesorregião Oeste do Rio Grande do Norte. Trata-se de estudo descritivo, transversal e retrospectivo, desenvolvido com base em análise histórica de informações sobre a captura de triatomíneos realizada pelo Programa de Controle de doença de Chagas, no período de 2008 a 2013. Foram capturadas cinco espécies, das quais se destacaram a Triatoma brasiliensis e a Triatoma pseudomaculata, pela ocupação do ambiente domiciliar e peridomiciliar, sequencialmente, e a Panstrongylus lutzi, pelo maior índice de infecção natural. Observou-se prevalência de ninfas dentre os exemplares capturados, maior densidade triatomínica no peridomicílio, índices de infestação, colonização e infecção natural de 5,6%, 49,6% e 0,8%, respectivamente, diferença significativa na distribuição de espécimes entre os municípios investigados e ausência de declínio dos índices de infestação e colonização entre os anos de 2009 e 2012. Os achados sugerem a necessidade de vigilância contínua, possibilitada pela associação entre as equipes de campo e as comunidades, com ênfase na proposta de educação em saúde para o reconhecimento e notificação dos triatomíneos pela população.


Abstract This study aimed to describe the main entomological triatomine-related indicators in the western mesoregion of Rio Grande do Norte. This is a descriptive cross-sectional retrospective study developed on a historical analysis of information on the triatomine capture carried out by the Chagas Disease Control Program, from 2008 to 2013. Five species were captured, of which the Triatoma brasiliensis and Triatoma pseudomaculata, by occupying the domestic and peridomestic environment, sequentially, and Panstrongylus lutzi by the highest rate of natural infection. A prevalence of nymphs among the captured specimens, a higher triatominal density in the peridomicile, infestation, colonization and natural infection rates of 5.6%, 49.6% and 0.8%, respectively, a significant difference in the distribution of specimens between the municipalities investigated and lack of declining infestation and colonization rates between 2009 and 2012 was observed. Findings suggest the need for continuous surveillance, facilitated by the association between field teams and communities, with emphasis on the proposal of health education for the recognition and notification of triatomines by the population.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Male , Female , Panstrongylus/classification , Triatoma/classification , Chagas Disease/prevention & control , Insect Vectors/classification , Brazil , Prevalence , Cross-Sectional Studies , Retrospective Studies
7.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 52: e20190061, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1013319

ABSTRACT

Abstract INTRODUCTION The ecoepidemiological situation in the State of Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil is characterized by frequent invasion and colonization of domiciliary units (DUs) by several triatomine species, with high rates of natural infection by Trypanosoma cruzi. METHODS: We evaluated the possibility of vector transmission of T. cruzi based on records of the occurrence of domiciled triatomines collected by the Secretariat of State for Public Health from 2005 to 2015. During this period, 67.7% (113/167) of municipalities conducted at least one active search and 110 recorded the presence of insects in DUs. These activities were more frequent in municipalities considered to have a high and medium-level risk of T. cruzi transmission. RESULTS Of 51,569 captured triatomines, the most common species were Triatoma brasiliensis (47.2%) and T. pseudomaculata (40.2%). Colonies of T. brasiliensis, T. pseudomaculata, T. petrocchiae, Panstrongylus lutzi, and Rhodnius nasutus were also recorded in the intradomicile and peridomicile. Natural infection by trypanosomatids was detected in 1,153 specimens; the highest rate was found in R. nasutus (3.5%), followed by T. brasiliensis (2.5%) and T. pseudomaculata (2.4%). There have been high levels of colonization over the years; however, not all infested DUs have been sprayed. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first report of intradomicile and peridomicile colonization by P. lutzi. These results demonstrate the risk of new cases of infection by T. cruzi and reinforce the need for continuous entomological surveillance in the State of Rio Grande do Norte.


Subject(s)
Animals , Trypanosoma cruzi/isolation & purification , Triatominae/parasitology , Chagas Disease/transmission , Insect Vectors/parasitology , Brazil , Triatominae/classification , Chagas Disease/prevention & control , Entomology , Spatial Analysis , Insect Vectors/classification
8.
Rev. APS ; 21(3): 345-354, 01/07/2018.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-981796

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: conhecer o manejo de pacientes com Doença de Chagas (DC) por médicos da Atenção Primária à Saúde (APS) de regiões endêmicas. Método: estudo transversal realizado com 104 médicos da APS de 39 municípios das regiões norte de Minas Gerais e Vale do Jequitinhonha. Foram abordados perfil sociodemográfico, formação acadêmica e prática clínica, por meio de questionário autoaplicado. Resultados: os médicos apresentaram idade média de 33(±9,88) anos, 4(±7,26) anos de atuação na APS, 49% relataram que a graduação não ofereceu formação suficiente em DC. Embora quase 90% tivessem experiência com atendimento de pacientes com DC crônica e 57% com DC aguda, apenas 9% relataram sentir-se totalmente seguros para esses atendimentos e 33% relataram não conhecer o Benzonidazol, único antitripanossômico disponível. Contribuindo para esse quadro, após a graduação, somente 13,3% receberam alguma informação ou treinamento relativo à DC e quase metade recebeu esse treinamento há mais de 4 anos. Há insegurança, desconhecimento e carência de capacitações sobre DC entre profissionais médicos da APS de localidades endêmicas.


Objective: to understand the management of patients with Chagas Disease (CD) by Primary Health Care (PHC) doctors in endemic regions. Methods: cross-sectional study with 104 PHC doctors in 39 municipalities in the northern regions of Minas Gerais and Jequitinhonha Valley. Socio-demographic profile, academic training, and clinical practice were covered through a self-administered questionnaire. Results: the physicians had a mean age of 33 (± 9.88) years, 4 (± 7.26) years experience in the PHC system, and 49% reported that their undergraduate studies did not offer enough training on CD. Although almost 90% had experience with the care of patients with chronic CD and 57% with acute CD, only 9% reported feeling completely secure about these services and 33% reported not knowing about benznidazole, the only antitrypanosomal available. Contributing to this situation, after graduation, only 13.3% received any information or training on CD and almost half received this training more than four years ago. There is insecurity, ignorance, and lack of training on CD among PHC medical professionals in endemic locations.


Subject(s)
Chagas Disease , Professional Training , Primary Health Care , Chagas Disease/prevention & control , Education, Continuing
9.
Mem. Inst. Invest. Cienc. Salud (Impr.) ; 16(1): 14-18, abr. 2018. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BDNPAR | ID: biblio-997239

ABSTRACT

Se presentan los cambios en conocimientos y prácticas sobre el vector y la enfermedad de Chagas con escolares de México posterior a una intervención educativa. La identificación del vector aumentó posterior a las sesiones educativas (pre=36,15% vs post=79,30%). Aumentaron los conocimientos acerca de la enfermedad de Chagas (30,90% vs 64,72%, valor de p< 0,0001) y de las acciones preventivas para evitar que el vector habite dentro de sus entornos (14,29% vs 61,81%, valor de p< 0,0001). Los escolares pueden jugar un papel fundamental en la prevención de esta problemática(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Trypanosoma cruzi , Health Education , Chagas Disease/transmission , Insect Vectors , Health Behavior , Chagas Disease/prevention & control
11.
Salud pública Méx ; 60(1): 86-96, Jan.-Feb. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-903847

ABSTRACT

Abstract: Objective: To design and analyze the efficacy of an Ecohealth competency-based course on the prevention and control of vector-borne-diseases for specific stakeholders. Materials and methods: Multiple stakeholders and sectors of the region were consulted to identify Ecohealth group-specific competencies using an adjusted analysis matrix. Eight courses based on the competencies were implemented to train EA tutors. The effectiveness of the course was evaluated through the use of paired- t-tests by intervention group. Results: Strategic, tactical, academia and community stakeholder groups and their competencies were identified. An overall gain of 43 percentage points (p<0.001) was observed in terms of competencies score in trained tutors, which further trained 1 033 people. Conclusion: The identification of the stakeholders and their competencies proved to be useful to guide training courses to significantly improve the initial competencies and create a critical mass to further advance the EA in the region.


Resumen: Objetivo: Diseñar y analizar la eficacia de un curso basado en competencias de Eco-Salud para la prevención y control de enfermedades transmitidas por vectores, para actores específicos. Material y métodos: Se consultaron múltiples actores y sectores de la región para identificar las competencias específicas del enfoque de Ecosalud, que deberían de tener los grupos clave utilizando un análisis de matriz ajustado. Se implementaron cursos de capacitación utilizando las competencias para capacitar a tutores en el enfoque. La efectividad del curso se evaluó mediante el uso de pruebas t pareadas por grupo de intervención. Resultados: Se identificaron los grupos clave para la prevención y control de las ETVs: estratégico, táctico, académico y comunitario, así como sus competencias. Se capacitaron tutores y se obtuvo un incremento en relación con las competencias iniciales de 43 puntos porcentuales (p <0.001). Conclusión: La identificación de los grupos clave y sus competencias demostró ser útil en el diseño de un curso para incrementar el nivel inicial de competencias y crear una masa crítica para Ecosalud en la región.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Infection Control/methods , Chagas Disease/prevention & control , Dengue/prevention & control , Ecology/education , Infectious Disease Medicine/education , Malaria/prevention & control , Program Evaluation , Chagas Disease/transmission , Chagas Disease/epidemiology , Curriculum , Teacher Training , Stakeholder Participation , Insect Vectors , Latin America/epidemiology
12.
Salud pública Méx ; 60(1): 77-85, Jan.-Feb. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-903841

ABSTRACT

Abstract: Objective: To analyze the current knowledge of pathogen-insect interactions amenable for the design of molecular-based control strategies of vector-borne diseases. Materials and methods: We examined malaria, dengue, and Chagas disease pathogens and insect molecules that participate in interactions during their vectors infection. Results: Pathogen molecules that participate in the insect intestine invasion and induced vector immune molecules are presented, and their inclusion in transmission blocking vaccines (TBV) and in genetically modify insect (GMI) vectors or symbiotic bacteria are discussed. Conclusion: Disruption of processes by blocking vector-pathogen interactions provides several candidates for molecular control strategies, but TBV and GMI efficacies are still limited and other secondary effects of GMI (improving transmission of other pathogens, affectation of other organisms) should be discarded.


Resumen: Objetivo: Analizar el conocimiento actual de las interacciones patógeno-insecto susceptibles a incluirse en el diseño de estrategias moleculares para el control de enfermedades transmitidas por vectores. Material y métodos: Se examinaron los agentes causales de la malaria, el dengue y la enfermedad de Chagas, y las moléculas de insectos que participan en interacciones durante la infección de sus vectores. Resultados: Se presentan moléculas de patógenos que participan en la invasión del intestino del insecto y moléculas inmunes inducidas en los vectores. Se discute su inclusión en vacunas bloqueadoras de transmisión (VBT) y en la modificación genética de vectores (MGI) o de sus bacterias simbióticas. Conclusión: La interrupción de procesos mediante el bloqueo de las interacciones patógeno-vector proporciona varios candidatos para las estrategias de control molecular, pero la eficacia de VBT y MGI es aún limitada y los efectos secundarios de MGI (aumento de la transmisión de otros patógenos y afectación de otros organismos) deben descartase.


Subject(s)
Animals , Insect Control/methods , Chagas Disease/prevention & control , Dengue/prevention & control , Dengue Virus/physiology , Host-Pathogen Interactions/genetics , Malaria/prevention & control , Plasmodium/physiology , Trypanosoma cruzi/physiology , Aedes/genetics , Reduviidae/genetics , Reduviidae/virology , Mosquito Vectors/genetics , Anopheles/genetics
13.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 113(1): 17-23, Jan. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-894883

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND Chagas disease in the Brazilian Amazon Region was previously regarded as an enzootic disease of wild animals. More recently, in situations where humans have penetrated the wild ecotope or where triatomines and/or wild animals (marsupials) have invaded human homes resulting in disease transmission, Chagas disease has come to be regarded as an anthropozoonosis. We found that the highest incidence of infection due to Trypanosoma cruzi and Chagas disease occurred among piassaba fibre gatherers and their families. OBJECTIVES Considering the results of previous surveys, we conducted a new survey of piassaba gatherers and their families in the creeks of the Aracá, Curuduri, Demini, Ererê and Padauiri rivers, which are tributaries on the left bank of the Negro River, in the municipality of Barcelos; Barcelos-Caurés highway; Negro River in Santa Isabel of the Negro River; and Marié River, on the right bank of the Negro River. METHODS A questionnaire was applied to 482 piassaba gatherers and their families who accompanied them. We collected 5-mL blood samples (with permission from each subject), separated the serum, and performed serological tests using indirect immunofluorescence and conventional and recombinant enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA). We performed brief clinical examination and electrocardiograms. Only 273 subjects attended our field base for detailed clinical examination and electrocardiogram. FINDINGS AND MAIN CONCLUSIONS The questionnaire revealed that 100% of the 482 patients recognised the triatomine Rhodnius brethesi, which they had seen in the piassaba plantation and 81% in their field huts. A total of 79% of subjects had previously been bitten by this vector and 21% did not know. The 25 subjects seropositive for T. cruzi infection (5.2%) stated that they had been bitten more than 10 times by this insect. Of the 273 subjects who underwent electrocardiogram, 22% showed conditions that were possibly attributable to Chagas disease or other cardiovascular disease.


Subject(s)
Humans , Chagas Disease/diagnosis , Chagas Disease/prevention & control , Chagas Disease/transmission , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Amazonian Ecosystem
14.
Rev. panam. salud pública ; 42: e69, 2018. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-961748

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT This study evaluated and compared follow-up and adverse drug reaction (ADR) reporting for Chagas disease (CD) patients treated with benznidazole (BZN) by two health teams with different levels of experience, using medical records for 204 patients participating in the first year of a scaled-up public health program for CD case detection and treatment conducted at all 46 primary health care centers in La Plata district, Buenos Aires, Argentina, in 2014. Both teams were experienced in CD patient management and trained in BZN administration, and included senior physicians, but one team had no experience in administering BZN while the other team had three years of experience due to their participation in the program's pilot project. Patients with positive serology for CD were treated with 5 mg/kg/day of BZN for 60 days. Patients' median age was 35 years and 84.3% were female. There was a statistically significant difference in the number of ADRs reported by the experienced versus the inexperienced health teams (18 versus 44 respectively; P < 0.001). Health team experience in administering BZN to CD patients, and treatment duration, were significantly associated with reporting of ADRs (adjusted odds ratios (aORs) 0.340 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.177-0.652) and 0.967 (CI: 0.942-0.993) respectively). ADR reporting increased with patient age, occurring at the highest frequency (42.9%) in people 50+ years old. All treatment discontinuations (nine) occurred in patients followed up by the inexperienced health team. Level of experience in BZN administration to CD patients was significantly and inversely associated with frequency of ADR reports: inexperienced health team members tended to report more.


RESUMEN El presente estudio evaluó y comparó el seguimiento y la notificación de reacciones adversas medicamentosas (RAM) en pacientes con enfermedad de Chagas tratados con benznidazol por dos equipos de salud con diferentes niveles de experiencia, mediante el uso de los expedientes médicos de 204 pacientes que participaron en el primer año de un programa de salud pública ampliado para la detección de casos de enfermedad de Chagas y su tratamiento, realizado en los 46 centros de atención primaria de salud del distrito de La Plata (Buenos Aires) en el 2014. Ambos equipos tenían experiencia en la atención de pacientes con enfermedad de Chagas, estaban capacitados en la administración de benznidazol e incluían médicos experimentados, pero uno de los equipos nunca había usado benznidazol, mientras que el otro tenía tres años de experiencia por su participación en el proyecto piloto del programa. Los pacientes con pruebas serológicas positivas para la enfermedad de Chagas recibieron 5 mg/kg/día de benznidazol durante 60 días. La mediana de edad de los pacientes era de 35 años y 84,3% eran mujeres. Hubo una diferencia estadísticamente significativa entre el número de reacciones adversas medicamentosas notificadas por el equipo de salud experimentado y el equipo sin experiencia (18 y 44, respectivamente; P<0.001). Tanto la experiencia de los equipos de salud en la administración de benznidazol a los pacientes con enfermedad de Chagas como la duración del tratamiento se asociaron significativamente con la notificación de reacciones adversas medicamentosas (razones de posibilidades ajustadas, 0,340; intervalo de confianza de 95% [IC]: 0,177-0,652; y 0,967, IC: 0,942-0,993, respectivamente). La notificación de reacciones adversas medicamentosas aumentó a mayor edad de los pacientes; la frecuencia máxima (42,9%) se observó en las personas mayores de 50 años. Todas las interrupciones del tratamiento (nueve) fueron en pacientes atendidos por el equipo de salud sin experiencia. El nivel de experiencia en la administración de benznidazol a los pacientes con enfermedad de Chagas mostró una asociación significativa e inversa con la frecuencia de notificación de reacciones adversas medicamentosas: los miembros del equipo de salud sin experiencia tendieron a notificar más reacciones.


RESUMO Neste estudo foram analisados e comparados dados notificados de reação adversa medicamentosa e de acompanhamento de pacientes com doença de Chagas tratados com benznidazol (BZN) por dois grupos de profissionais da saúde com níveis de experiência distintos. Os dados foram obtidos dos prontuários médicos de 204 pacientes que participaram do primeiro ano de um programa expandido de saúde pública para detecção de casos e tratamento da doença de Chagas implantado nas 46 unidades básicas de saúde do distrito de La Plata em Buenos Aires, Argentina, em 2014. Ambos os grupos eram formados por médicos mais graduados e profissionais com experiência na conduta de pacientes com doença de Chagas e capacitados em administrar BZN, porém um dos grupos era inexperiente em administrar BZN enquanto o outro contava com experiência de três anos por ter participado do projeto-piloto do programa. Os pacientes com sorologia positiva para doença de Chagas foram tratados com 5 mg/kg/dia de BZN por 60 dias. A mediana de idade foi 35 anos e 84,3% dos pacientes eram do sexo feminino. Verificou-se uma diferença estatisticamente significativa no número de reações adversas medicamentosas notificadas pelo grupo experiente em relação ao grupo inexperiente (18 vs. 44, respectivamente; P < 0.001). Ter experiência em administrar BZN aos pacientes com doença de Chagas e a duração do tratamento foram fatores significativamente associados à notificação de reação adversa medicamentosa (razão de chances ajustada [aOR] 0,340, intervalo de confiança de 95% [IC 95%] 0,177-0,652 e aOR 0,967, IC 95% 0,942-0,993, respectivamente). A notificação de reação adversa medicamentosa aumentou de acordo com a idade do paciente, ocorrendo com maior frequência (42,9%) nos pacientes acima de 50 anos. Os 9 casos de interrupção do tratamento ocorreram em pacientes acompanhados pelo grupo inexperiente. O nível da experiência em administrar BZN aos pacientes com doença de Chagas teve uma associação significativa e inversa com a frequência de notificação de reação adversa medicamentosa: os integrantes do grupo inexperiente tenderam a notificar mais.


Subject(s)
Humans , Primary Health Care/organization & administration , Chagas Disease/prevention & control , Drug-Related Side Effects and Adverse Reactions/drug therapy , Argentina , Public Health
16.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 112(5): 348-353, May 2017. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-841799

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND Since the early 1990s, programs to control Chagas disease in South America have focused on eradicating domiciliary Triatoma infestans, the main vector. Seroprevalence studies of the chagasic infection are included as part of the vector control programs; they are essential to assess the impact of vector control measures and to monitor the prevention of vector transmission. OBJECTIVE To assess the interruption of domiciliary vector transmission of Chagas disease by T. infestans in Paraguay by evaluating the current state of transmission in rural areas. METHODS A survey of seroprevalence of Chagas disease was carried out in a representative sample group of Paraguayans aged one to five years living in rural areas of Paraguay in 2008. Blood samples collected on filter paper from 12,776 children were tested using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Children whose serology was positive or undetermined (n = 41) were recalled to donate a whole blood sample for retesting. Their homes were inspected for current triatomine infestation. Blood samples from their respective mothers were also collected and tested to check possible transmission of the disease by a congenital route. FINDINGS A seroprevalence rate of 0.24% for Trypanosoma cruzi infection was detected in children under five years of age among the country’s rural population. Our findings indicate that T. cruzi was transmitted to these children vertically. The total number of infected children, aged one to five years living in these departments, was estimated at 1,691 cases with an annual incidence of congenital transmission of 338 cases per year. MAIN CONCLUSION We determined the impact of vector control in the transmission of T. cruzi, following uninterrupted vector control measures employed since 1999 in contiguous T. infestans-endemic areas of Paraguay, and this allowed us to estimate the degree of risk of congenital transmission in the country.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Child , Triatominae/parasitology , Chagas Disease/prevention & control , Chagas Disease/transmission , Chagas Disease/epidemiology , Insect Vectors/classification , Paraguay/epidemiology , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Health Surveys
17.
São Paulo; s.n; s.n; 2017. 117 p. graf, tab, ilus.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-883615

ABSTRACT

A doença de Chagas, causada pelo parasita protozoário Trypanosoma cruzi, afeta milhões de pessoas, a maioria delas vivendo na América latina. Apesar dos avanços da medicina e da biotecnologia, ainda existem poucas opções de tratamento para indivíduos com a doença. Assim, é importante compreendermos os detalhes moleculares da infecção parasitária, para que novas alternativas terapêuticas e de diagnóstico possam ser desenvolvidas para esses pacientes. Neste trabalho estudamos esta doença em duas frentes, uma do ponto de vista do parasita, e a outra, da resposta do hospedeiro. Utilizando bioinformática, identifcamos um peptídeo conservado (denominado TS9) presente nas proteínas de superfície gp85/transsialidases do parasita. Este peptídeo é capaz de promover adesão celular e, na sua forma sintética, inibe a entrada do T. cruzi na célula hospedeira. Análise da estrutura proteica revelou que o peptídeo TS9 encontra-se num domínio do tipo laminina-G, lado-a-lado com o peptídeo FLY, outro peptídeo conservado desta grande família, previamente descrito pelo nosso grupo. Juntos, eles formam um sítio de adesão a citoqueratinas e proteínas de flamento intermediário. Na segunda parte, investigamos os antígenos e epítopos reconhecidos pelas imunoglobulinas de pacientes portadores da doença nas suas diferentes formas clínicas: assintomática e cardiomiopatias, leve ou grave. Criamos uma biblioteca de phage display contendo, virtualmente, todos os fragmentos proteicos existentes no T. cruzi, que foi varrida contra imunoglobulinas para a construção de um mapa da resposta humoral dos pacientes com a doença de Chagas. Nossos resultados mostram que a resposta dos pacientes é complexa, e mais de dois mil epítopos foram mapeados. Muitos deles, como os antígenos B13, SAPA e FRA já foram previamente descritos, validando nosso método. Porém, um grande número de novos epítopos, inclusive contra proteína descritas como hipotéticas ou sem função conhecida, também foram encontrados. Seus papéis na infecção e resposta imune da doença merecem, portanto, atenção. Em resumo, as abordagens e técnicas utilizadas nesta tese são inovadoras, e permitiram a identificação de peptídeos e moléculas que poderão ser úteis para o desenvolvimento de novos métodos diagnósticos e terapêuticos para a doença de Chagas


Chagas disease, caused by the protozoan parasite Trypanosoma cruzi, afects millions of people, most of them living in Latin America. Despite advances in medicine and biotechnology, there are still few treatment options for individuals with the disease. Thus, it is important to understand the molecular details of the parasitic infection, so that new therapeutic and diagnostic alternatives can be developed for these patients. In this work, we study this disease in two fronts, one from the point of view of the parasite, and the other, of the response of the host. Using bioinformatics, we identifed a conserved peptide (called TS9) present in the surface proteins gp85 / trans-sialidases of the parasite. This peptide is capable of promoting cell adhesion and, in its synthetic form, inhibits the entry of T. cruzi into the host cell. Analysis of the protein structure revealed that the TS9 peptide is in a laminin-G-like domain, side-by-side with the peptide FLY, another conserved peptide of this large family, previously described by our group. Together, they form an adhesion site to cytokeratins and intermediate flament proteins. In the second part, we investigated the antigens and epitopes recognized by the immunoglobulins of patients with the disease in their diferent clinical forms: asymptomatic and cardiomyopathies, mild or severe. We created a phage display library containing virtually all existing protein fragments in T. cruzi. This library was screened against immunoglobulins for the construction of a humoral response map of patients with Chagas disease. Our results show that the response of the patients is complex, and more than 2,000 epitopes have been mapped. Many of them, such as the B13, SAPA and FRA antigens have been previously described, validating our method. However, a large number of new epitopes, including many against proteins described as hypothetical or with no known function, were also found. Their roles in infection and immune response of the disease deserve, therefore, attention. In summary, the approaches and techniques used in this thesis are innovative and have allowed the identifcation of new peptides and molecules that may be useful for the development of new diagnostic and therapeutic methods for Chagas disease


Subject(s)
Chagas Disease/diagnosis , Chagas Disease/prevention & control , Bacteriophages , Blotting, Western/methods , Epitope Mapping/methods , Methodology , Peptide Library , Protein Structural Elements/physiology , Trypanosoma cruzi/metabolism
18.
Cad. Saúde Pública (Online) ; 33(1): e00099115, 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-839638

ABSTRACT

Abstract: Residual insecticide spraying still is the main tool used to suppress house infestations with Chagas disease vectors. While manual compression sprayers (MCS) have traditionally been used in Latin America, Mendoza's vector control program from Argentina introduced the use of a modified motorized vehicle-mounted sprayer (VMS) with apparent advantages over MCS. We conducted a randomized intervention trial to evaluate the effectiveness and selected components of the performance of MCS and VMS. We assessed house infestation by Triatoma infestans in 76 previously-infested houses at 0, 1, 4 and 12 months postintervention. Infestations were reduced substantially, with no significant differences between treatments. End-point infestations were restricted to peridomiciles. Although VMS required less time to complete the house spraying than MCS, both treatments had similar performance and did not suppress infestations completely. The main relative advantages of VMS were a reduced physical effort, especially under harsh field conditions, and potential gains in spray coverage per unit of time.


Resumen: El empleo de insecticida residual es todavía la principal herramienta para suprimir la infestación domiciliaria por triatominos, vectores de la enfermedad de Chagas. Mientras los aspersores manuales activados por compresión han sido utilizados tradicionalmente en América Latina, el programa de control vectorial de la provincia de Mendoza, Argentina, introdujo el uso de un equipamiento aspersor montado en un vehículo, aparentemente con ventajas respecto al aspersor manual. Realizamos un ensayo de intervención aleatorizado para evaluar la efectividad y los componentes seleccionados del desempeño de los dos equipamientos. Evaluamos la infestación por Triatoma infestans en 76 vivendas, previamente infestados a 0, 1, 4 y 12 meses tras la intervención. Las infestaciones se redujeron substancialmente, sin diferencia significativa entre las dos técnicas. Las infestaciones finales se limitaban al peridomicilio. El equipamiento montado en el vehículo llevaba menos tiempo para completar la aplicación, comparado con el equipamiento manual, pero los dos tratamientos tuvieron un desempeño semejante y dejaron de suprimir completamente las infestaciones. Las principales ventajas del equipamiento montado en vehículo fueron: la reducción del esfuerzo físico, principalmente en condiciones adversas en el campo, y potenciales beneficios en términos de cobertura de pulverización por unidad de tiempo.


Resumo: A aplicação de inseticida residual ainda é a principal medida para suprimir a infestação domiciliar por triatomíneos, vetores da doença de Chagas. Enquanto os aspersores manuais acionados por compressão têm sido utilizados tradicionalmente na América Latina, o programa de controle vetorial da Província de Mendoza, Argentina, introduziu o uso de um equipamento aspersor montado em veículo, aparentemente com vantagem em relação ao aspersor manual. Realizamos um estudo randomizado de intervenção para avaliar a efetividade e os componentes selecionados do desempenho dos dois equipamentos. Avaliamos a infestação por Triatoma infestans em 76 domicílios previamente infestados a 0, 1, 4 e 12 meses pós-intervenção. As infestações foram reduzidas substancialmente, sem diferença significativa entre as duas técnicas. As infestações finais eram limitadas ao peridomicílio. O equipamento montado em veículo levava menos tempo para completar a aplicação, comparado com o equipamento manual, mas os dois tratamentos tiveram desempenho semelhante e deixaram de suprimir completamente as infestações. As principais vantagens do equipamento montado em veículo foram redução do esforço físico, principalmente em condições adversas em campo, e potenciais ganhos em termos de cobertura de borrifação por unidade de tempo.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Triatoma , Insect Control/methods , Chagas Disease/prevention & control , Motor Vehicles , Insect Vectors , Insecticides , Argentina , Rural Population , Chagas Disease/transmission , Housing
19.
Ciênc. saúde coletiva ; 21(11): 3621-3629, Nov. 2016. graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-828507

ABSTRACT

Resumo O objetivo deste artigo é analisar a atuação de Emmanuel Dias (1908-1962), pesquisador do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz (IOC) e diretor do Centro de Estudos e Profilaxia da Moléstia de Chagas (posto do IOC criado em 1943 na cidade de Bambuí, Minas Gerais), como ator decisivo no processo de reconhecimento da doença de Chagas como problema de saúde pública no Brasil e no continente americano. Busca-se evidenciar que a conquista deste reconhecimento, que teve como marco fundamental a realização da primeira campanha de combate à enfermidade no Brasil em 1950, foi viabilizada pela intensa mobilização política de Dias junto a diversos grupos sociais, como médicos, políticos e moradores das áreas rurais, profissionais dos serviços públicos de saúde, governos e associações internacionais. Tal mobilização, ao longo das décadas de 1940 e 1950, num contexto histórico marcado por intensos debates sobre as relações entre saúde e desenvolvimento, levou à construção de uma rede de apoios decisiva para que a doença, caracterizada como cardiopatia crônica a ameaçar a produtividade do trabalhador rural, fosse considerada um problema médico-social a merecer ações e programas de saúde pública voltados para seu controle.


Abstract The scope of this article is to analyze the trajectory of Emmanuel Dias (1908-1962), a researcher at the Oswaldo Cruz Institute (OCI) and director of the Center for Studies and Prophylaxis of Chagas Disease (OCI outpost established in 1943 in the city of Bambuí, Minas Gerais), as a key actor in the acknowledgement of Chagas disease as a public health problem in Brazil and the Americas. It seeks to show that the conquest of this acknowledgement, the cornerstone of which was the staging of the first campaign to combat the disease in Brazil in 1950, was made possible by the intense political mobilization of Dias together with the various social groups, such as physicians, politicians and residents of rural areas, public health officials, governments and international organizations. This mobilization occurred during the 1940s and 1950s in a historical context marked by intense debate about the relationship between health and development and helped to construct a network of alliances that was critical for the recognition of Chagas disease as a chronic cardiopathy, which threatened the productivity of rural workers and represented a medical and social problem that merited public health actions and programs geared to get it under control.


Subject(s)
Humans , Chagas Disease/prevention & control , Endemic Diseases/prevention & control , Public Health/history , Brazil/epidemiology , Chagas Disease/epidemiology , Chagas Disease/history , Endemic Diseases/history , History, 20th Century , Rural Population
20.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 49(5): 572-578, Sept.-Oct. 2016. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-798120

ABSTRACT

Abstract INTRODUCTION: The Housing Improvement Program for Chagas Disease Control (HIPCDC) was established in 2001 in Northwestern Rio Grande do Sul State, aiming to improve the conditions of the domiciliary and peridomiciliary environments to make them resistant to triatomine colonization. This study aimed to assess the impact of the HIPCDC on triatomine control by developing local population and authority awareness on the issue. METHODS: The study was conducted by means of questionnaires applied to local authorities and the program beneficiaries. Three municipalities - Ajuricaba, Coronel Barros, and Crissiumal - were visited. RESULTS: A program coordinator from each municipality and 62 individuals from selected households were interviewed. The authorities reported difficulties in the implementation of the program due to differences between the project development period and financial resource availability, in addition to a lack of understanding by the community not included in the program. As for the houses, most improvements were made in the peridomiciliary environments; moreover, construction of 4 new residences, as well as the renovation of others, was also reported. Regarding suggestions to the program, requests for better planning (44.9%) and renovation quality (36.7%) were highlighted. With reference to the presence of triatomine bugs, prior to the HIPCDC adaptations, 12.9% of the respondents reported coming across at least one specimen at home, as compared to 22.6% who found these insects in peridomiciliary areas. CONCLUSIONS: Despite reports of difficulties in carrying out the HIPCDC, there was an improvement in the housing conditions, with no triatomine occurrence reports after the program implementation.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Insect Control/standards , Chagas Disease/prevention & control , Housing , Insect Vectors , Brazil , Program Evaluation , Interviews as Topic , Triatominae , Population Density , Chagas Disease/transmission
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