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1.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 116: e200528, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1154881

ABSTRACT

Panstrongylus geniculatus (Latreille, 1811) is the triatomine with the largest geographic distribution in Latin America. It has been reported in 18 countries from southern Mexico to northern Argentina, including the Caribbean islands. Although most reports indicate that P. geniculatus has wild habitats, this species has intrusive habits regarding human dwellings mainly located in intermediate deforested areas. It is attracted by artificial light from urban and rural buildings, raising the risk of transmission of Trypanosoma cruzi. Despite the wide body of published information on P. geniculatus, many knowledge gaps exist about its biology and epidemiological potential. For this reason, we analysed the literature for P. geniculatus in Scopus, PubMed, Scielo, Google Scholar and the BibTriv3.0 databases to update existing knowledge and provide better information on its geographic distribution, life cycle, genetic diversity, evidence of intrusion and domiciliation, vector-related circulating discrete taxonomic units, possible role in oral T. cruzi transmission, and the effect of climate change on its biology and epidemiology.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Panstrongylus/genetics , Panstrongylus/parasitology , Triatoma/parasitology , Trypanosoma cruzi/isolation & purification , Chagas Disease/transmission , Insect Vectors/parasitology , Panstrongylus/physiology , Phylogeny , Genetic Variation/genetics , Biology , Genes, Insect , Ecology , Genotype , Geography , Insect Vectors/genetics , Latin America
2.
Mem. Inst. Invest. Cienc. Salud (Impr.) ; 18(1)abr. 2020. tab, ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BDNPAR | ID: biblio-1293121

ABSTRACT

Las técnicas moleculares para la detección de infección natural y fuente de alimentación en vectores secundarios de la enfermedad de Chagas cuando son aplicadas a ejemplares capturados en áreas endémicas, históricamente ocupadas por Triatoma infestans, proporcionan a las investigaciones epidemiológicas respuestas más exactas con relación a la transmisibilidad de la enfermedad. El presente estudio tiene como objetivo emplear biomarcadores moleculares para evaluar el impacto de la infestación intra y peridomicilar de Triatoma sordida en viviendas bajo vigilancia entomológica de departamentos de la Región Oriental del Paraguay en el período 2007 al 2015. Un total de 559 ejemplares de T. sordida capturados en 253, 91 y 52 viviendas de los departamentos Paraguarí, San Pedro y Cordillera, respectivamente fueron analizados. La infestación detectada fue del 24% al 48% así como una elevada colonización intradomiciliar del 5% al 36% en los tres departamentos. La detección molecular de infección natural osciló entre el 14% y 44%; y en 111 ejemplares se determinó la fuente de alimentación. El marcador molecular citocromo b permitió demostrar por vez primera un elevado porcentaje de triatominos con sangre humana como fuente de alimentación, principalmente en Cordillera con un 82% (28/34 T. sordida capturados). Estos hallazgos dejan en evidencia el avance del T. sordida en la ocupación del nicho ecológico de T. cruzi y la capacidad de esta especie secundaria como vector en la transmisión de T. cruzi en comunidades de la Región Oriental


When molecular techniques for the detection of natural infection and blood meal source in secondary vectors of Chagas disease are applied to specimens captured in endemic areas, historically occupied by Triatoma infestans, provide more accurate answers to questions about transmissibility of the illness and further contribute to the epidemiological studies. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of intra and peridomiciliary infestation of Triatoma sordida in households from the departments of the Eastern Region of Paraguay, under entomological surveillance during the period 2007 to 2015, by using the molecular biomarkers technology. A total of 559 specimens of T. sordida captured in 253, 91 and 52 households from Paraguarí, San Pedro and Cordillera departments, respectively, were analyzed. The infestation detected was from 24% to 48% as well as a high intradomicialiary colonization from 5% to 36% in the three departments. The molecular detection of natural infections ranged from 14% to 44% and in 111 specimens the meal source was identified. The molecular marker cytochrome b allowed to demonstrate, for the first time, high frequency of triatomines with human blood as a food source, mainly in Cordillera as it was determined in 82% (28/34) of the T. sordida captured. These findings demonstrate a progress of T. sordida into the ecological niche of T. cruzi and the abillity of this secondary species as a vector of the transmission of T. cruzi in communities from the Eastern Region of Paraguay


Subject(s)
Animals , Chagas Disease/transmission , Cytochromes b , Triatoma , Disease Vectors
3.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 115: e200203, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | SES-SP, LILACS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1135248

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND Deforestation, driven by anthropogenic change in land use, influences the behaviour and abundance of vector-borne diseases. For various species of Chagas disease vectors, there is evidence that change in land use affects population density and abundance. Triatoma dimidiata is the most important Chagas vector in Guatemala, and at least one million people live in T. dimidiata endemic areas; however, infestation dynamics vary among regions, from high infestation with all life stages to low seasonal infestation by sylvatic adults. OBJECTIVES The aim of this study was to evaluate how land-use, combined with domiciliary risk factors, influences the infestation dynamics of T. dimidiata for four villages in a dry forest region with a strong deforestation history. METHODS Land use, measured with drone and satellite images, was classified into four categories (houses, monocultures and pastures, woodland and shrubland, and bare soil). Domiciliary risk factors and infestation were assessed through entomological surveys. Statistical analyses compared infestation indices and the ability of land use and domiciliary risk factors to explain infestation. FINDINGS Two villages had significantly higher infestation (26 and 30% vs. 5 and 6%), yet all villages had high colonisation (71-100% of infested houses had immature insects), with no significant difference among them. Because of the high level of deforestation across the study area, land use was not related to infestation; however, domiciliary risk factors were. A model based on four weighted domiciliary risk factors (adobe or bajareque walls, intradomicile animals, intradomicile clutter, and dirt floors) explains the infestation risk. MAIN CONCLUSIONS Because almost all infested houses have reproducing populations in this deforested dry forest region and statistical analysis identified the domiciliary risk factors for infestation, intermediate and long-term control of Chagas disease vectors in this region requires management of these risk factors.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Adult , Triatoma , Chagas Disease/transmission , Insect Vectors , Forests , Guatemala , Housing
4.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 115: e190364, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1091242

ABSTRACT

Oral transmission of Chagas disease has been increasing in Latin American countries. The present study aimed to investigate changes in hepatic function, coagulation factor levels and parasite load in human acute Chagas disease (ACD) secondary to oral Trypanosoma cruzi transmission. Clinical and epidemiological findings of 102 infected individuals attended in the State of Pará from October 2013 to February 2016 were included. The most common symptoms were fever (98%), asthenia (83.3%), face and limb edema (80.4%), headache (74.5%) and myalgia (72.5%). The hepatic enzymes alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) of 30 ACD patients were higher compared with controls, and this increase was independent of the treatment with benznidazole. Moreover, ACD individuals had higher plasma levels of activated protein C and lower levels of factor VII of the coagulation cascade. Patients with the highest parasite load had also the most increased transaminase levels. Also, ALT and AST were associated moderately (r = 0.429) and strongly (r = 0.595) with parasite load respectively. In conclusion, the present study raises the possibility that a disturbance in coagulation and hepatic function may be linked to human ACD.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Female , Adult , Aspartate Aminotransferases/blood , Protein C/analysis , Factor VIIa/analysis , Chagas Disease/physiopathology , Alanine Transaminase/blood , Liver/physiopathology , Brazil/epidemiology , Biomarkers/blood , Case-Control Studies , Acute Disease , Prospective Studies , Chagas Disease/enzymology , Chagas Disease/blood , Chagas Disease/transmission , Parasite Load , Liver/enzymology , Middle Aged
5.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 53: e20190299, 2020. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1057264

ABSTRACT

Abstract INTRODUCTION: Triatomine bugs are vectors of Trypanosoma cruzi, the etiological agent of Chagas disease. METHODS: Triatomine bugs were collected and identified following established protocols. In addition, infection with T. cruzi was detected by microscopic and molecular analysis. RESULTS: We captured an adult male specimen of the Eratyrus cuspidatus species that has not been reported in the state of Campeche. CONCLUSIONS: This finding provides new information on the distribution of E. cuspidatus in Mexico. However, more studies are needed to determine their epidemiological significance.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Triatominae/anatomy & histology , Triatominae/classification , Insect Vectors/anatomy & histology , Insect Vectors/classification , Chagas Disease/transmission , Mexico
6.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 53: e20190436, 2020. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1092194

ABSTRACT

Abstract INTRODUCTION: Triatomines are hematophagous insects of epidemiological importance because they are vectors of Chagas disease. We present here the first report of Rhodnius montenegrensis in Amazonas, Brazil. METHODS: Triatomines were collected from Attalea butyracea palm trees in the municipality of Guajará. RESULTS: Two adult female R. montenegrensis specimens were identified. CONCLUSIONS: The present study confirms that the number of triatomine species within the Amazon has increased from 10 to 11, and the number of Brazilian states with R. montenegrensis has increased from two to three.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Rhodnius/anatomy & histology , Rhodnius/classification , Insect Vectors/anatomy & histology , Insect Vectors/classification , Brazil , Chagas Disease/transmission
7.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 53: e20190503, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1101448

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction: The genus Rhodnius in the subfamily Triatominae comprises 20 species, which can transmit Trypanosoma cruzi and Trypanosoma rangeli. Due to the development of molecular techniques, Triatominae species can now be characterized by mitochondrial and nuclear markers, making it possible to verify and/or correct the existing data on these species. The results achieved in this study provide a more detailed and accurate differentiation of the Rhodnius species, helping the establishment of a more appropriate classification. Methods: Data collection was performed by DNA analysis, morphological and morphometric studies to distinguish four populations of R. neglectus and four of R. prolixus. Phylogenetic data were compared to morphological and morphometric data. Results: The analysis of Cytb fragments suggests that the four colonies designated to Rhodnius neglectus as well as those of R. prolixus were correctly identified. Conclusions: The morphological characters observed in the specimens of the colonies originally identified as R. prolixus and R. neglectus, such as the presence or absence of collar in the eggs, the patterns of the median process of the pygophore, and anterolateral angle, are consistent with the species. Geometric morphometrics also show an intraspecific variability in R. prolixus.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rhodnius/classification , Insect Vectors/anatomy & histology , Phylogeny , Rhodnius/anatomy & histology , Rhodnius/genetics , Species Specificity , Chagas Disease/transmission , Sequence Analysis, DNA , Insect Vectors/classification , Insect Vectors/genetics
8.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 53: e20190560, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1101445

ABSTRACT

Abstract INTRODUCTION: Congenital transmission (CT) of Trypanosoma cruzi has led to globalization of Chagas disease and its growing relevance as a public health problem. Although the occurrence of CT has been associated with several factors, its mechanisms are still unknown. This study aimed to analyze the geographical and familiar variables of mothers and their association with CT of Chagas disease in a population living in non-endemic areas of Argentina for the last decades. METHODS: We developed a retrospective cohort study in a sample of 2120 mother-child pairs who attended three reference centers in the cities of Buenos Aires, Santa Fe, and Salta between 2002 and 2015. RESULTS: The highest CT rates were observed in children born to Argentinean mothers (10.7%) and in children born to mothers from Buenos Aires (11.7%). Considering the areas of origin of the mothers, those from areas of null-low risk for vector-borne infection had higher CT rates than those from areas of medium-high risk (11.1% vs 8.2%). We also observed a significant intra-familiar "cluster effect," with CT rates of 35.9% in children with an infected sibling, compared to 8.2% in children without infected siblings (RR=4.4 95% CI 2.3-8.4). CONCLUSIONS: The associations observed suggest a higher CT rate in children born to mothers who acquired the infection congenitally, with familiar antecedents, and from areas without the presence of vectors. These observations are considered new epidemiological evidence about Chagas disease in a contemporary urban population, which may contribute to the study of CT and may also be an interesting finding for healthcare professionals.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Male , Female , Pregnancy , Infant, Newborn , Adolescent , Adult , Young Adult , Chagas Disease/transmission , Chagas Disease/epidemiology , Pregnancy Complications, Parasitic/epidemiology , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical/statistics & numerical data , Argentina/epidemiology , Urban Population , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Middle Aged
9.
Buenos Aires; GCBA. Gerencia Operativa de Epidemiología; 15 nov. 2019. a) f: 13 l:18 p. graf.(Boletín Epidemiológico Semanal: Ciudad Autónoma de Buenos Aires, 4, 169).
Monography in Spanish | LILACS, InstitutionalDB, BINACIS, UNISALUD | ID: biblio-1102775

ABSTRACT

Hasta la Semana Epidemiológica 36 de 2018 se notificaron en la Ciudad de Buenos Aires 104 casos de Chagas congénito, de los cuales se confirmaron 6 (5,8%), se descartaron 6 y el 88% restante aún no cuenta con el cierre de caso. Las comunas del sur de la Ciudad acumulan el 56% de los casos. Durante el primer semestre de 2018 se diagnosticaron en la Maternidad Sardá 67 mujeres con Chagas en el embarazo, de un total de 2972 partos realizados en la institución en ese periodo, lo que representa una prevalencia de 22,54 por cada mil embarazadas En este informe se busca describir la situación de la transmisión vertical de la enfermedad de Chagas en el primer semestre de 2018, entre SE 1 y 26; describir la modalidad de notificación de los casos por la Unidad de Promoción y Protección de la Salud (P y P); y reforzar la importancia de la notificación de Enfermedades de Notificación Obligatoria debido a su relevancia en la Salud Pública. Se presentan los casos de Chagas en embarazo por grupo etario, y según provincia de residencia, y se detallan propuestas para la optimización de resultados.


Subject(s)
Chagas Disease/congenital , Chagas Disease/transmission , Chagas Disease/epidemiology , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical/statistics & numerical data , Disease Notification/methods , Disease Notification/statistics & numerical data , Hospitals, Maternity
10.
Rev. méd. Chile ; 147(6): 683-692, jun. 2019. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1020716

ABSTRACT

Background: Reproductive number (R0)-maps estimate risk zones of vector-borne diseases and geographical distribution changes under climate change. Aim: To map R0 aiming to estimate the epidemiological risk of Chagas disease in Chile, its distribution and possible changes due to the global climate change. Material and Methods: We used a relationship between R0 and entomological parameters of vectors as function of environmental variables, to map the risk of Chagas disease in Chile, under current and projected future environmental conditions. Results: We obtained a geographical R0 estimation of Chagas disease in Chile. The highest R0averages correspond to the Central-Northern regions of Chile. T. cruzi transmission area could increase in the future due to climate changes. Independent of the future condition, both for optimistic and pessimistic climate change scenarios, the area of potential risk for Chagas disease transmission would increase. The estimated R0 values suggest that, if a control of T. infestans is not maintained, Chagas disease endemic status will persist or increase, independently of the climate change scenarios. Conclusions: Mapping R0 values is an effective method to assess the risk of Chagas disease. The eventual increase in the transmission area of the disease is worrisome.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Male , Female , Climate Change/statistics & numerical data , Chagas Disease/epidemiology , Risk Assessment/methods , Disease Vectors , Temperature , Triatoma , Trypanosoma cruzi , Carbon Dioxide , Chile/epidemiology , Risk Factors , Chagas Disease/transmission , Statistics, Nonparametric , Geography
11.
Medicina (B.Aires) ; 79(2): 81-89, abr. 2019. graf, map, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1002612

ABSTRACT

En Argentina nacen alrededor de 1500 niños por año con infección por Trypanosoma cruzi. La transmisión vertical es la principal vía de generación de nuevos casos de Chagas, y de su presencia en zonas no endémicas. Nuestro objetivo fue relevar datos disponibles sobre infección congénita por T. cruzi, analizar su evolución y relación con indicadores de prevalencia materna y riesgo vectorial por regiones de Argentina. Se investigaron fuentes oficiales y bibliografía científica. Se obtuvieron datos nacionales y provinciales del período 1997-2014 del subsector público de salud. Se observó un aumento de embarazadas controladas, que alcanzó una cobertura del 60.3% en 2014. La prevalencia de infección materna descendió de 9.0% a 2.6%. El control en hijos de mujeres infectadas fue variable (entre 23.3% y 93.6% de los niños en riesgo) y la calidad del dato fue deficiente según provincia y año. La tasa de transmisión congénita tuvo una evolución irregular y, según un indicador corregido, la tasa media nacional fluctuó entre 1.9 y 8.2%. Se observó asociación entre la prevalencia materna y el riesgo vectorial en las provincias (test Wilcoxon p = 0.017). La tasa de transmisión congénita provincial no mostró relación con la tasa de infección materna (regresión lineal p = 0.686) ni con el nivel de riesgo vectorial (test Kruskal-Wallis p = 0.3154). Los datos disponibles muestran una deficiencia en los controles de hijos de madres infectadas y de su notificación en el período analizado. Deben mejorar ambos aspectos para obtener información epidemiológica fiable y permitir el acceso oportuno de los niños infectados al tratamiento.


In Argentina, around 1500 children are born each year with Trypanosoma cruzi infection. Mother-to-child transmission is the main source of new cases of Chagas disease and of its occurrence in non-endemic areas. Our objective was to survey the information available on congenital T. cruzi infection, to analyze its evolution and its relation with the index of maternal infection and the risk for vector-borne infection by province of Argentina. Data concerning the public health sector for the period 1997-2014 were retrieved from national and local records. An increase in the number and proportion of pregnant women examined for Chagas was observed, reaching 60.3% coverage in 2014. The prevalence of maternal infection dropped from 9.0% to 2.6%. The control of newborns from infected women was highly variable (23.3%-93.6%), and data quality was deficient, varying amply by province and year. The rate of congenital infection had an irregular evolution and its national average fluctuated between 1.9 and 8.2%. An association was observed between the risk for vector-borne infection and the prevalence of maternal infection by province (Wilcoxon test p = 0.017). The rate of congenital transmission by province was neither associated with the rate of maternal infection (linear regression p = 0.686) nor with the risk for vectorial infection (Kruskal-Wallis test p = 0.3154). The available data show insufficient control of children born from infected mothers, as well as deficient recording of these procedures. Both aspects must be improved to achieve better epidemiological information and to enable timely access of infected children to treatment.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Pregnancy , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Chagas Disease/transmission , Chagas Disease/epidemiology , Pregnancy Complications, Parasitic/epidemiology , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical/statistics & numerical data , Argentina/epidemiology , Time Factors , Linear Models , Prevalence , Risk Factors , Chagas Disease/congenital , Statistics, Nonparametric , Risk Assessment
12.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 52: e20190146, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1013302

ABSTRACT

Abstract INTRODUCTION: Chagas disease (CD) affects 5.7-7.0 million individuals worldwide, and its prevalence reached 25.1% in the state of Bahia, Brazil. There is an association between the prevalence of CD, the socioeconomic status of the population, and the risk of re-emergence due to non-vectorial transmission, such as blood transfusion. This study determined the seroprevalence of T. cruzi infection among blood donors in the state of Bahia, located in northeastern Brazil, and their epidemiological profile during a 10-year period. METHODS: We performed a descriptive cross-sectional study involving a database review. Data were collected from patients with non-negative results for T. cruzi infection during a 10-year period. RESULTS: A total of 3,084 (0.62%) samples were non-negative for T. cruzi infection in an initial serological screening, and 810 (0.16%) samples were non-negative in the second screening. The correlation between infection and age (30 years or older) and between infection and lower educational level (12 years or less) in the first and second screening was statistically significant. The seroprevalence of T. cruzi infection was higher in men in the first screening. In addition, 99.52% of the municipalities of Bahia had at least one case of CD. Livramento de Nossa Senhora and Salvador presented the highest disease prevalence and recurrence, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The seroprevalence of T. cruzi infection in these populations was lower than that found in other studies in Brazil but was comparatively higher in densely-populated areas. The demographic characteristics of our population agreed with previous studies.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Trypanosoma cruzi/isolation & purification , Blood Donors/statistics & numerical data , Chagas Disease/epidemiology , Socioeconomic Factors , Brazil/epidemiology , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Antibodies, Protozoan/blood , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Mass Screening/statistics & numerical data , Prevalence , Cross-Sectional Studies , Chagas Disease/blood , Chagas Disease/transmission , Sex Distribution , Age Distribution
13.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 52: e20180357, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-977113

ABSTRACT

Abstract INTRODUCTION: The domestic and peridomestic presence of Triatoma infestans depends on several factors, such as human behavior, vector behavior, ecology, and the environment. METHODS: This work was conducted in 139 domiciliary units, where triatomines were captured and risk factors in domiciles and peridomicilies were recorded. Household dwellers were interviewed to obtain information about practices regarding this disease and entomological indicators were calculated. RESULTS: Infestation indices were 59.7% for house compounds, 4.3% for domestic areas and 58.3% for the peridomestic areas. Intradomicile infestation was significantly associated with housing characteristics. The presence of chicken coops in peridomicilies was associated with an increased risk of infestation. Of the respondents, 80% did not recognize the importance of the peridomiciliary structures for triatomine control and had infested peridomicilies. CONCLUSIONS: The results show the importance of peridomiciles as refuge sites for Triatominae bugs; however, household dwellers do not perceive peridomiciles as areas that favor the presence of vectors. Actions for raising awareness about factors that favor the presence of triatomines are needed to improve the conditions of peridomiciliary environments.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Male , Female , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Triatominae/classification , Housing , Insect Vectors/classification , Argentina , Rural Population , Cross-Sectional Studies , Risk Factors , Chagas Disease/transmission , Middle Aged
14.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 52: e20190020, 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1057255

ABSTRACT

Abstract INTRODUCTION: Different blood meal sources can affect biology of triatomines. METHODS: We studied the influence of two different blood meal sources (rabbits and hens) on five biological parameters in Meccus phyllosomus pallidipennis and collected biological parameters. RESULTS: The cohort fed on rabbits had a shorter median life-cycle and lower mortality rate than that fed on hens. Both cohorts required a similar number of blood meals to reach adulthood. Median longevity and number of blood meals for adults were similar between both cohorts. CONCLUSIONS The studied parameters reflect the high grade of adaptation of M. p. pallidipennis feeding on different hosts.


Subject(s)
Animals , Triatominae/physiology , Feeding Behavior/physiology , Insect Vectors/physiology , Life Cycle Stages , Rabbits , Chickens , Chagas Disease/transmission
15.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 52: e20190278, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1057244

ABSTRACT

Abstract INTRODUCTION: Trypanosoma cruzi is the etiological agent of Chagas disease (CD), a zoonotic infection transmitted by triatomine bug vectors to human beings. Although the story of this parasitic infection was born in Brazil and here this has made major step forward information, the same cannot be said about the actual distribution of the triatomine vector in several areas of this country. The aim of this study was to assess the occurrence of triatomine species in an endemic region for CD in Northeastern Brazil. METHODS: A retrospective study was performed using data obtained from 2008 to 2017. All information was provided by the V Gerência Regional de Saúde of the state of Pernambuco. The spatial distribution of triatomine species was analyzed by drawing a map using the Quantum geographic information system. RESULTS: A total of 4,694 triatomine specimens (469.4 ± 221.2 per year) were collected during the period 2008-2017, with 94.5% (4,434/4,694) at the intradomicile and 5.5% (260/4,694) at peridomicile environment. Of all arthropods collected, 92.5% (4,340/4,694) and 7.5% (354/4,694) were adults and nymphs, respectively. The species most frequently detected were Panstrongylus lutzi (30.36%), Triatoma brasiliensis (26.12%), Triatoma pseudomaculata (22.43%), and Panstrongylus megistus (20.54%). CONCLUSIONS: These data contribute to a better understanding of the distribution of T. cruzi infection in the Northeastern region of Brazil. Preventive measures based on vector control should be implemented in the study area in order to reduce the burden this neglected tropical disease.


Subject(s)
Animals , Triatominae/classification , Animal Distribution , Insect Vectors/classification , Brazil , Retrospective Studies , Population Density , Chagas Disease/transmission , Endemic Diseases
16.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 52: e20180177, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1041597

ABSTRACT

Abstract INTRODUCTION: This study describes the occurrence of triatomines, and their positivity for trypanosomatids, in a residential complex in Rio Branco, Acre, Brazil. METHODS: Triatomines were collected through direct capture in a home environment. Positivity analysis for trypanosomatids was performed by PCR assays. RESULTS Collected insects consisted of 31 Rhodnius robustus, 4 Rhodnius montenegrensis, and 1 Panstrongylus geniculatus specimens. All were adults, with no presence of domiciliation, and with an infection rate of 30.6%. CONCLUSIONS Future studies are recommended in other locations of Rio Branco in order to develop a georeference database of the occurrence of triatomines in urban areas.


Subject(s)
Animals , Panstrongylus/classification , Rhodnius/classification , Trypanosoma/isolation & purification , Insect Vectors/classification , Panstrongylus/parasitology , Rhodnius/parasitology , Trypanosoma/classification , Urban Population , Brazil , Chagas Disease/transmission , Insect Vectors/parasitology
17.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 52: e20180388, 2019. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1041596

ABSTRACT

Abstract: INTRODUCTION This study aimed to confirm the occurrence of Panstrongylus rufotuberculatus in the state of Acre, Brazil. METHODS The four specimens of P. rufotuberculatus were obtained from the entomological collection of the Zoobotanical Park of the Federal University of Acre (UFAC). RESULTS Confirmation of the occurrence of this species in the state of Acre increases the number of species already registered, from nine to ten. CONCLUSIONS The necessity to develop further studies was verified, especially with the domiciliary process of P. rufotuberculatus, resulting in tracing prophylactic measures against the vector transmission of Trypanosoma cruzi.


Subject(s)
Animals , Panstrongylus/classification , Insect Vectors/classification , Panstrongylus/anatomy & histology , Brazil , Chagas Disease/transmission , Insect Vectors/anatomy & histology
18.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 52: e20190063, 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1041569

ABSTRACT

Abstract INTRODUCTION The present study reports the presence of triatomines in natural, peridomestic, and intradomicile environments in Itacoatiara municipality, state of Amazonas, a non-endemic region for Chagas disease. METHODS Active search was performed inside tree trunks, and palm trees, residences, and peridomiciles localized near the forest area. RESULTS: Twenty adults and ten triatomines nymphs were collected, fifteen of which were from natural forests, thirteen from intradomiciles, and two from peridomicile areas. CONCLUSIONS: The new records of adults and nymphs of triatomines in the intra- and peridomiciles suggest the adoption of prophylactic measures for vector surveillance in the study area.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Triatominae/parasitology , Insect Vectors/parasitology , Trypanosoma cruzi/isolation & purification , Brazil , Forests , Triatominae/classification , Population Density , Chagas Disease/transmission , Animal Distribution , Housing , Insect Vectors/classification
20.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 52: e20190061, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1013319

ABSTRACT

Abstract INTRODUCTION The ecoepidemiological situation in the State of Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil is characterized by frequent invasion and colonization of domiciliary units (DUs) by several triatomine species, with high rates of natural infection by Trypanosoma cruzi. METHODS: We evaluated the possibility of vector transmission of T. cruzi based on records of the occurrence of domiciled triatomines collected by the Secretariat of State for Public Health from 2005 to 2015. During this period, 67.7% (113/167) of municipalities conducted at least one active search and 110 recorded the presence of insects in DUs. These activities were more frequent in municipalities considered to have a high and medium-level risk of T. cruzi transmission. RESULTS Of 51,569 captured triatomines, the most common species were Triatoma brasiliensis (47.2%) and T. pseudomaculata (40.2%). Colonies of T. brasiliensis, T. pseudomaculata, T. petrocchiae, Panstrongylus lutzi, and Rhodnius nasutus were also recorded in the intradomicile and peridomicile. Natural infection by trypanosomatids was detected in 1,153 specimens; the highest rate was found in R. nasutus (3.5%), followed by T. brasiliensis (2.5%) and T. pseudomaculata (2.4%). There have been high levels of colonization over the years; however, not all infested DUs have been sprayed. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first report of intradomicile and peridomicile colonization by P. lutzi. These results demonstrate the risk of new cases of infection by T. cruzi and reinforce the need for continuous entomological surveillance in the State of Rio Grande do Norte.


Subject(s)
Animals , Trypanosoma cruzi/isolation & purification , Triatominae/parasitology , Chagas Disease/transmission , Insect Vectors/parasitology , Brazil , Triatominae/classification , Chagas Disease/prevention & control , Entomology , Spatial Analysis , Insect Vectors/classification
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