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1.
Braz. j. pharm. sci ; 51(4): 861-867, Oct.-Dec. 2015. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-778407

ABSTRACT

abstract Sidastrum micranthum (A. St.-Hil.) Fryxell, a member of the Malvaceae family, is called malva preta in Brazil. As this species is commonly used to treat bronchitis, cough, and asthma, better knowledge of its chemical compounds is important. The phytochemical study of its hexane extract, using chromatographic techniques, led to isolation of six compounds: the triterpene isoarborinol, a mixture of sitosterol and stigmasterol, sitosterol-3-O-β-D-glucopyranoside, pheophytin a, and 132-hydroxy-(132-S)-pheophytin a. Structural identification of these compounds was carried out using spectroscopic methods such as IR and 1D and 2D NMR (HOMOCOSY, HMQC, HMBC, and NOESY). Compounds isolated from S. micranthum were screened for their in vitro antifungal and antibacterial activity against twenty fungal and bacterial standard strains. Pheophytin a exhibited antimicrobial action against all microorganisms tested.


resumo Sidastrum micranthum (A. St.-Hil.) Fryxell, pertencente à família Malvaceae, é conhecida no Brasil como "malva preta". A espécie é popularmente usada contra bronquite, tosse e asma, mostrando a relevância de conhecer melhor sua composição química. O estudo fitoquímico do extrato hexânico da espécie, utilizando técnicas cromatográficas, conduziu ao isolamento de seis compostos: o triterpeno isoarborinol, mistura de sitosterol e estigmasterol, sitosterol-3-O-β-D-glicopiranosídeo, feofitina a e de 132-hidroxi-(132-S)-feofitina a. A identificação estrutural destes compostos foi realizada com base em métodos espectroscópicos, tais como IV, RMN 1D e 2D (HOMOCOSY, HMQC, HMBC e NOESY). As substâncias isoladas de Sidastrum micranthum foram avaliadas quanto às suas atividades antimicrobianas in vitro, contra vinte cepas fúngicas e bacterianas. A feofitina a mostrou ação antimicrobiana contra todos os microrganismos testados.


Subject(s)
Malvaceae/classification , Pheophytins/analysis , Anti-Infective Agents/pharmacokinetics , Chemical Compounds/analysis , Phytochemicals/analysis
2.
Rev. biol. trop ; 63(supl.1): 9-28, abr. 2015. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, SaludCR | ID: biblio-958125

ABSTRACT

Resumen Se determinó la productividad primaria (PP) del fitoplancton en un amplio sector del Humedal Nacional Térraba Sierpe (HNTS) de Costa Rica, durante la estación lluviosa del año 2008 y en la estación seca del año 2009. Seis sitios se ubicaron en las áreas norte y central del humedal, donde por lo general ocurre la mayor influencia del aporte de caudal del Río Grande de Térraba. Se realizaron adicionalmente determinaciones de otros parámetros ambientales, asociados con la productividad primaria, como profundidad de penetración del disco de Secchi, la concentración de sólidos en suspensión, la concentración de clorofila a, la salinidad, la temperatura, la concentración del oxígeno disuelto en el agua, la concentración de nutrimentos inorgánicos disueltos (amonio, nitrito, fósforo disuelto, silicato), la conductividad eléctrica específica y se llevó a cabo un estudio basado en el análisis de componentes principales. La PP en el HNTS fue en general baja, con un valor máximo de 8.16gC/m2·d de PPN, el cual se registró en la estación seca, en marzo del 2009, en Isla Loros. Los sitios de mayor influencia del río (Samu y El Caite en la estación lluviosa), fueron los que tuvieron valores más bajos, mientras que los sitios con mayor influencia marina fueron los que presentaron los valores más altos de este estudio, cuyo promedio y desviación estándar fue de 0.79±0.50gC/m2.d (n=12), y la mediana fue 0.80gC/m2.d. Esta diferencia se debe principalmente al elevado aporte de agua dulce y de sólidos en suspensión del Río Grande de Térraba que limita el desarrollo del fitoplancton marino en el humedal. Es importante que se establezca y mantenga un programa de monitoreo de los parámetros medidos en este estudio, con al menos dos muestreos por año, uno en la época seca y otro en la época lluviosa, siguiendo el gradiente de salinidad desde el río hasta el mar al menos en dos direcciones.


Abstract Phytoplankton primary production (PP) was determined in a broad sector of the Térraba-Sierpe National Wetland, Costa Rica, from September to November 2008 in the rainy season and from January to March 2009 in the dry season. Six sampling stations were located at the Northern and Central zone of the wetland, according to the main expected flux of Río Grande de Térraba. Additionally other environmental parameters such as Secchi disk depth, suspended solid matter concentration, chlorophyll-a concentration, salinity, temperature, dissolved oxygen concentration, dissolved inorganic nutrients concentrations (phosphate, nitrate, ammonium and silicate), specific conductivity were also measured and a principal components analysis was performed. The PP in the Terraba-Sierpe National Wetland (HNTS by its Spanish name) was generally low, with a maximum value of 8.16gC/m2·d of Net Primary Productivity (NPP), which was recorded in the dry season, in March 2009, at Loros island. Sites that had a greater riverine influence showed lower PP values, while sites with greater marine influence presented higher PP values. These latter had an average and standard deviation of 0.79±0.50gC/m2·d (n=12). This difference is the result of the high input of freshwater and suspended solids from the Río Grande de Térraba which limits the development of marine phytoplankton in the wetland. Rev. Biol. Trop. 63 (Suppl. 1): 9-28. Epub 2015 April 01.


Subject(s)
Phytoplankton/classification , Carbon Dioxide/analysis , Estuaries/classification , Chemical Compounds/analysis , Wetlands , Organic Matter/analysis , Nutrients/analysis , Costa Rica , Electric Conductivity
3.
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 35(3): 270-273, 03/2015. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-751986

ABSTRACT

O objetivo do trabalho foi avaliar através de teste in vivo, a eficácia e o período residual de proteção do fipronil 10% "top spot" em cães infestados com diferentes cargas parasitárias de Ctenocephalides felis felis. Foram utilizados 24 cães da raça Beagle, compondo seis animais por grupo. Os cães foram divididos em quatro grupos. Os cães dos grupos controles I e II não receberam tratamento, enquanto que os cães dos grupos tratados I e II receberam tratamento com formulação de fipronil 10% "top spot". Os cães dos grupos controle I e tratado I foram infestados com 100 pulgas adultas não alimentadas, e os cães dos grupos controle II e tratado II foram infestados com 300 pulgas adultas não alimentadas. As infestações foram realizadas nos dias, -2, +5, +12, +19, +26, +33 e +40 e nos dias +2, +7, +14, +21, +28, +35 e +42 foi realizada retirada mecânica e contagem de pulgas para avaliação. As eficácias pulguicidas, para o grupo tratado I, nos dias +2, +7, +14, +21, +28, +35 e +42, foram respectivamente 99,36%; 99,73%; 99,48%; 99,74%; 99,75%; 95,06% e 67,62%...


The objective of the study was to evaluate through in vivo test, the efficacy and residual period of protection of 10% fipronil "top spot" for dogs with different Ctenocephalides felis felis burdens of infestations. For this, 24 Beagles were used, divided into four groups of six dogs each. The dogs of the control groups I and II were not treated, while the dogs of the treated groups I e II were treated with the formulation of 10% fipronil "top spot". The dogs of the control group I and treated group I were infested with 100 unfed C. felis felis and dogs of group control II and treated II one were infested with 300 unfed C. felis felis each. Infestations were performed on days -2, +5, +12, +19, +26, +33 and +40, and on days +2, +7, +14, +21, +28, +35 and +42 fleas were mechanical removed and counted for evaluation. Efficacy for treated group I on days +2, +7, +14, +21, +28, +35 and +42 was respectively 99.36%, 99.73%, 99.48%, 99.00%, 74.00%, 99.75%, 95.06% and 67.62%...


Subject(s)
Animals , Dogs , Dogs/parasitology , Ctenocephalides , Insecticides/administration & dosage , Chemical Compounds/analysis
4.
Rev. bras. plantas med ; 17(4,supl.2): 1000-1006, 2015. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-771160

ABSTRACT

RESUMO Byrsonima verbascifolia Rich ex. A. Juss é uma espécie do cerrado brasileiro com uso etnobotânico vasto. O objetivo desse trabalho foi realizar um levantamento bibliográfico de artigos originais e revisões, indexados até agosto de 2014 nas bases de dados Periódicos CAPES, Scielo, Scopus, Web of Science e Medline, nos idiomas português e inglês, utilizando a palavra-chave Byrsonima verbascifolia. Foram contemplados a composição química e os aspectos botânicos, etnobotânicos e farmacológicos. Os estudos presentes na literatura avaliaram as atividades antioxidante, antifúngica, antiviral, antimicrobiana, moluscicida, antimutagênica, mutagênica, teratogênica, imunomodulatória, tóxica e citotóxica de extratos dessa espécie. Apenas um estudo avaliou a atividade da Byrsonima verbascifoliaRich ex. A. Juss in vivo, sendo comprovado que o extrato hidrometanólico das folhas não induz teratogênese, mutagênese ou efeito estimulante ou depressor da resposta imune. Metodologias in vitro predominaram o que demonstra a necessidade de investigação científica empregando testes in vivo para a melhor avaliação das outras atividades biológicas mencionadas.


ABSTRACT Byrsonima verbascifolia is a species of Brazilian cerrado with extensive ethnobotanical application. The aim of this study was to perform a bibliographic description of original papers and reviews indexed until August 2014 in the databases of the CAPES Digital Library, Scielo, Scopus, Web of Science and Medline, written in Portuguese and English, using the keyword Byrsonima verbascifolia. The chemical and botanical compositions and the ethnobotanical and pharmacological aspects were contemplated. The researches in the reports evaluated the antioxidant, antifungal, antiviral, antimicrobial, molluscicide, antimutagenic, mutagenic, teratogenic, immunomodulatory, toxic and cytotoxic activities of the extracts of this specie. Only one study evaluated the in vivo activity of the Byrsonima verbascifolia Rich ex. A. Juss and proved that the hydromethanolic extract from the leaves does not induce teratogenesis, mutagenesis, stimulant or depressant effect of the immune response. The In vitro methodologies represented the higher number of researches demonstrating the need of scientific investigation using in vivo tests for better assessment of other biological activities mentioned.


Subject(s)
Botany/classification , Chemical Compounds/analysis , Ethnobotany/classification , Malpighiaceae/chemistry , Pharmacology/classification , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/chemical synthesis , In Vitro Techniques/instrumentation
5.
Rev. bras. plantas med ; 17(4,supl.2): 865-874, 2015. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-771170

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT The extracts and fractions of leaves and branches of Protium hebetatum D. C. Daly (Burseraceae) were investigated for their antibacterial activity and chemical composition. The methanol extract of branches (EMG) was considered active against the Escherichia coli and the Proteus vulgaris, showing an inhibition zone of 13 mm, and was selected for bioassay-guided phytochemical fractionation. From the technique of broth microdilution, the extract was considered a moderate inhibitor against Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Enterococcus faecalis, with a minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 1 mg/mL. The dichloromethane fraction was considered a moderate inhibitor against S. aureus (MIC of 1 mg/mL) and a potent inhibitor against E. faecalis (MIC of 0.5 mg/mL). F1, F2, F5 and F6 from chromatographic column of dichloromethane fraction were considered moderate inhibitors against S. aureus (MIC of 1 mg/mL). Through analysis by a gas chromatography mass spectrometry, eighteen compounds were identified, from which thirteen (isoeugenol, p-vinylguaiacol, metoxyeugenol, coumarin, 5-hydroxy-scopoletin, 4,7-dihydroxy-6-metoxicromam-2-one, 4[(1E]-3-hydroxy-1-propenyl)-2-methoxyphenol, piperonal, scoparon, o-guaiacol, spathulenol, seringol and antiarol) are unprecedented in these species. We also identified the triterpenes α-amyrin and β-amyrin, the steroids stigmasterol and sitosterol and the coumarin scopoletin, which was closely linked to the antibacterial activity of the samples.


RESUMO Atividade antibacteriana e compostos químicos de folhas e galhos de Protium hebetatum. Extratos e frações de folhas e galhos de Protium hebetatum D. C. Daly (Burseraceae) foram investigados quanto sua atividade antibacteriana e composição química. O extrato metanólico dos galhos (EMG) foi considerado ativo contra Escherichia coli e Proteus vulgaris, apresentando um halo de inibição de 13 mm, sendo selecionado para um fracionamento fitoquímico biomonitorado. A partir da técnica de microdiluição em caldo o EMG foi considerado um inibidor moderado contra Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa e Enterococcus faecalis, apresentando uma concentração inibitória mínima (CIM) de 1mg/mL. A fração diclorometânica foi considerada inibidora moderada contra S. aureus (CIM de 1 mg/mL) e inibidora potente contra E. faecalis (CIM de 0,5 mg/mL). F1, F2, F5 e F6 provenientes da fração diclorometânica foram consideradas inibidoras moderadas contra S. aureus (CIM de 1 mg/mL). Através da análise por cromatografia gasosa acoplada a espectrometria de massa, foram identificados dezoitos compostos, dos quais treze (isoeugenol, p-vinilguaiacol, metoxieugenol, cumarina, 5-hidroxi-escopoletina, 4,7-dihidroxi-6-metoxicromam-2-ona, 4[(1E]-3-hidroxi-1-propenil)-2-methoxifenol, piperonal, escoparona, o-guaiacol, espatulenol, seringol e antiarol) foram identificados pela primeira vez nesta espécie. Foram também identificados os triterpenos α-amirina e β-amirina, os esteroides estigmasterol e sitosterol e a cumarina escopoletina, que estão intimamente ligados à atividade antibacteriana da espécie.


Subject(s)
Anti-Infective Agents/classification , Burseraceae/classification , Chemical Compounds/analysis , Coumarins/pharmacology , Enterococcus faecalis/classification , Staphylococcus aureus/classification
6.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 43(1): 78-88, Jan.-Mar. 2012. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-622792

ABSTRACT

The purpose of the current study was intended to obtain the enhanced production of bacitracin by Bacillus licheniformis through random mutagenesis and optimization of various parameters. Several isolates of Bacillus licheniformis were isolated from local habitat and isolate designated as GP-35 produced maximum bacitracin production (14±0.72 IU ml-1). Bacitracin production of Bacillus licheniformis GP-35 was increased to 23±0.69 IU ml-1 after treatment with ultraviolet (UV) radiations. Similarly, treatment of vegetative cells of GP-35 with chemicals like N-methyl N'-nitro N-nitroso guanidine (MNNG) and Nitrous acid (HNO2) increased the bacitracin production to a level of 31±1.35 IU ml-1 and 27±0.89 IU ml-1 respectively. Treatment of isolate GP-35 with combined effect of UV and chemical treatment yield significantly higher titers of bacitracin with maximum bacitracin production of 41.6±0.92 IU ml-1. Production of bacitracin was further enhanced (59.1±1.35 IU ml-1) by optimization of different parameters like phosphate sources, organic acids as well as temperature and pH. An increase of 4.22 fold in the production of bacitracin after mutagenesis and optimization of various parameters was achieved in comparison to wild type. Mutant strain was highly stable and produced consistent yield of bacitracin even after 15 generations. On the basis of kinetic variables, notably Yp/s (IU/g substrate), Yp/x (IU/g cells), Yx/s (g/g), Yp/s, mutant strain B. licheniformis UV-MN-HN-6 was found to be a hyperproducer of bacitracin.


Subject(s)
Bacillus/isolation & purification , Bacitracin/isolation & purification , Chemical Compounds/analysis , Mutagenesis , Mutagens/analysis , Mutagens/isolation & purification , Kinetics , Methods , Process Optimization , Reference Standards , Radiation
7.
Rev. bras. cir. plást ; 26(4): 566-572, out.-dez. 2011. ilus, tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-618232

ABSTRACT

INTRODUÇÃO: As vantagens dos cianoacrilatos em síntese cutânea têm sido sobejamente demonstradas na literatura. Entretanto, esses produtos têm sido subutilizados no Brasil, em decorrência dos elevados custos do octilcianoacrilato. Ademais, a forma mais economicamente acessível, etilcianoacrilato, tem sido pouco estudada como adesivo cutâneo. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a eficiência do etilcianoacrilato na síntese de excisões cutâneas. MÉTODO: Estudo retrospectivo realizado em pacientes portadores de lesões cutâneas superficiais submetidos a excisão elíptica e reparo por fechamento primário. As excisões foram fechadas por meio de suturas profundas relaxadoras e, na superfície da pele, foi utilizado etilcianoacrilato (grupo caso - GCa) ou sutura intradérmica (grupo gontrole - GCo). RESULTADOS: Foram encontrados 33 pacientes portadores de 43 lesões cutâneas (GCa = 20 excisões; GCo = 23 excisões). Cicatrizes inestéticas (GCa = 20 por cento; GCo = 48 por cento), irritação ocular (GCa = 15 por cento; GCo = 0), deiscência (GCa = 5 por cento; GCo = 0), infecção (GCa = 0; GCo = 4,3 por cento) e dermatite de contato (GCa = 0; GCo = 4,3 por cento) foram os problemas encontrados. Os resultados cosméticos foram considerados satisfatórios na maioria das excisões (GCa = 100 por cento, GCO = 95,7 por cento). CONCLUSÕES: O etilcianoacrilato foi adequadamente tolerado neste grupo de estudo, sem induzir necrose, reações alérgicas ou infecções, apresentando diversas vantagens de uso em relação à sutura, incluindo reduzido índice de complicações e grande satisfação dos pacientes.


BACKGROUND: The advantages of cyanoacrylates in cutaneous wound closure have been widely demonstrated in the literature. However, these products have not been widely used in Brazil due to the high costs of octyl cyanoacrylates. Moreover, there have been only a few studies on the most affordable product, ethyl cyanoacrylate, as a cutaneous adhesive. The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of ethyl cyanoacrylate in cutaneous excision repair. METHODS: A retrospective study conducted in patients with superficial skin lesions who underwent elliptical excision and repair by primary closure. The excisions were closed using deep relaxing sutures and either ethyl cyanoacrylate (case group; CaG) or intradermal suture (control group; CoG) on the skin surface. RESULTS: Thirty-three patients were identified with 43 cutaneous lesions (CaG, n = 20; CoG, n = 23). Unsightly scars (CaG = 20 percent; CoG = 48 percent), eye irritation (CaG = 15 percent; CoG = 0), dehiscence (CaG = 5 percent; CoG = 0), infection (CaG = 0; CoG = 4.3 percent), and contact dermatitis (CaG = 0; CoG = 4.3 percent) were the problems observed. The cosmetic results were satisfactory in almost all excisions (CaG = 100 percent; CoG = 95.7 percent). CONCLUSIONS: Ethyl cyanoacrylate was adequately tolerated in this study group, with no necrosis, allergic reactions, or infections. Ethyl cyanoacrylate presented several advantages over suture use, including low complication rates and high patient satisfaction.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Tissue Adhesives/analysis , Cyanoacrylates/analysis , Wounds and Injuries/surgery , Retrospective Studies , Suture Techniques , Chemical Compounds/analysis , Methodology as a Subject , Necrosis , Patients
8.
Braz. j. pharm. sci ; 45(4): 677-685, Oct.-Dec. 2009. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-543663

ABSTRACT

A total of 22 endophytic fungi isolated from coffee (Coffea arabica L.) were cultivated in vitro and their crude extracts tested. The screening was carried out using the agar diffusion method against Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Candida albicans. The most effective isolate was Alternaria alternata, and subsequently, its extract was assayed. The total phenolic content was 3.44 μg GAE/mg of the crude extract. For the antibacterial and antifungal activity assays, minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) and minimum bactericidal and fungicidal concentrations (MBC and MFC) were determined. The ranges of MIC values were 50-100 μg/mL for S. aureus and 400-800 μg/mL for E. coli. The extract did not show activity in the tested concentrations for C. albicans. The fungal crude extract was assayed for antioxidant activities. Its ability to scavenge DPPH radicals and antioxidant activity by β-carotene/linoleic acid system oxidation was not significant. In addition, antitumor activity was studied using the MTT assay. At a dilution of 400 μg/mL, the extract displayed a cytotoxic activity of approximately 50 percent towards HeLa cells in vitro. The results indicate that endophytic fungi could be a promising source of bioactive compounds and warrant further study.


Total de 22 fungos endofíticos isolados de café (Coffea arabica L.) foi cultivado in vitro e seus extratos testados. A triagem foi conduzida pelo método de difusão em agar contra bactérias Gram-positiva, Gram-negativa e uma levedura. O isolado mais efetivo foi Alternaria alternata e, subsequentemente, seu extrato foi analisado. O conteúdo de fenólicos totais do extrato bruto foi de 3,44 μg EAG/mg de extrato. Para os testes de atividade antimicrobiana, a concentração inibitória mínima (CIM) e concentração bactericida e fungicida mínima (CBM e CFM) contra Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli e Candida albicans foram determinadas. Resultados da CIM variaram entre 50-100 μg/mL para S. aureus e 400-800 μg/mL para E. coli. O extrato bruto não apresentou atividade nas concentrações testadas para C. albicans. Foram analisadas as atividades antioxidantes do extrato bruto. Sua habilidade para seqüestrar radicais DPPH e a atividade antioxidante pela oxidação do sistema β-caroteno/ácido linoléico não foram significativas. Além disso, a atividade antitumoral foi estudada pelo teste do MTT. À diluição de 400 μg/mL, o extrato apresentou atividade de aproximadamente 50 por cento sobre as células HeLa in vitro. Os resultados indicam que fungos endófitos poderiam ser uma fonte promissora de compostos bioativos necessitando de estudos futuros.


Subject(s)
Alternaria/growth & development , Alternaria/chemistry , Coffea Cruda/analysis , Fermentation , Antioxidants/metabolism , Chemical Compounds/analysis , Drug Synergism
9.
Arch. latinoam. nutr ; 59(1): 88-94, mar. 2009. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-588675

ABSTRACT

Naranjilla (Solanum quitoense Lam.) is a native fruit of the Andes, cultivated and consumed mainly in Ecuador, Colombia, and Central America. Because of its pleasant aroma and attractive color, it has high potential as an ingredient of products such as juices, nectars, and jams. The main characteristics of mature naranjilla fruits cultivated in Costa Rica were assessed, including sugar content, total titratable acidity, total soluble solids, oxygen radical absorbance capacity (H-ORAC), and total polyphenolic and ascorbic acid content. Carotenoid and volatile compound identification was also done. The samples showed sucrose, glucose, and fructose content of 1.6 ± 0.3, 0.68 ± 0.05, and 0.7 ± 0.1 g/100 g, respectively. Total titratable acidity was 2.63 ± 0.07 g citric acid equivalent / 100 g and total soluble solids amounted to 9.1 ± 0.5 ºBrix. H-ORAC value was 17 ± 1 µmol Trolox equivalent / g, total polyphenolic content was 48 ± 3 mg gallic acid equivalent / 100 g and ascorbic acid content was 12.5 ± 0.0 mg/100 g. Carotenoid content of the whole fruit and pulp was 33.3 ± 0.6 and 7.2 ± 0.3 µg/g, respectively. The predominant carotenoid among the compounds identified in the whole fruit was β-carotene. Ten volatile compounds were identified in naranjilla pulp, the predominant being methyl butanoate. The chemical composition of naranjilla cultivated in Costa Rica does not seem to differ from that previously reported in studies at different locations.


La naranjilla (Solanum quitoense Lam.) es una fruta nativa de los Andes, cultivada y consumida principalmente en Ecuador, Colombia y América Central. Las principales características de frutas de naranjilla maduras cultivadas en Costa Rica fueron evaluadas, incluyendo contenido de azúcares, acidez titulable total, sólidos solubles totales, capacidad de absorbancia de radicales de oxígeno (H-ORAC) y contenido de polifenoles totales y ácido ascórbico. La identificación de carotenoides y compuestos volátiles fue también realizada. Las muestras presentaron contenidos de sacarosa, glucosa y fructosa de 1.6 ± 0.3, 0.68 ± 0.05 y 0.7 ± 0.1 g/100 g, respectivamente. La acidez titulable total fue 2.63 ± 0.07 g equivalentes de ácido cítrico / 100 g y los sólidos solubles totales fueron 9.1 ± 0.5 ºBrix. El valor de H-ORAC fue 17 ± 1 µmol equivalentes de Trolox / g, el contenido de polifenoles totales fue 48 ± 3 mg equivalentes de ácido gálico / 100 g y el contenido de ácido ascórbico fue 12.5 ± 0.0 mg/100 g. El contenido de carotenoides de la fruta completa y la pulpa fue 33.3 ± 0.6 y 7.2 ± 0.3 µg/g, respectivamente. El carotenoide predominante en los compuestos identificados en las frutas completas fue β-caroteno. Diez compuestos volátiles fueron identificados en la pulpa de naranjilla, siendo el predominante el butanoato de metilo. La composición química de naranjilla cultivada en Costa Rica aparenta no diferir de aquella reportada previamente en estudios realizados en lugares diferentes.


Subject(s)
Antioxidants/analysis , Volatile Organic Compounds/analysis , Chemical Compounds/analysis , Solanum/chemistry
10.
Col. med. estado Táchira ; 17(4): 31-33, oct.-dic. 2008.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-531305

ABSTRACT

Conocer el panorama de las muertes intencionales por intoxicación, ingresados en el Hospital Central San Cristóbal (HCSC) entre 2000 a 2004. La recolección de información realizada para el presente análisis comprendió los datos de notificación del material constituido por historias médicas del HCSC siendo el método utilizado para la recolección de datos a través de fichas individuales. La letalidad por intoxicaciones voluntarias se calculó como el número de muertes en relación con el total de muertes por intoxicaciones. Estadísticamente se utilizó revisión y análisis retrospectivo de los expedientes, así como investigación bibliográfica actualizada sobre el tema. Las variables analizadas fueron: edad, sexo, año, sustancia, vía de exposición. Fueron estudiados 110 casos de adultos muertos por intoxicación de los cuales 77 (70 por ciento) fueron de manera intencional, de esta últimas cifras(total), 70 por ciento fueron mujeres en comparación al sexo masculino, la edad predominante fue de 18 a 38 años con una media de 28. El análisis temporal indica tendencia al incremento en el número de casos en los últimos años, siendo para el año 2004 67 por ciento en comparación a los años 2001-2003, resultando consistentemente mayor por el plaguicida Organofosforados, ocupando el primer lugar con un 78 por ciento, seguido de otros plaguicidas 10 por ciento, medicamentos 7 por ciento y otras sustancias 5 por ciento la vía de exposición fue la oral en el 85 por ciento. Este estudio nos permite observar las tendencias de las muertes intencionales por intoxicación y mejorar el conocimiento de las mismas, adecuar normas de atención y establecer pautas de prevención. Las intoxicaciones en ciudades de alta densidad poblacional por exposición intencional son permanentes. Las sustancias tóxicas que causan el mayor número de muertes por intoxicación son los plaguicidas del grupo de los Organofosforados. La población desconoce la magnitud de los efectos qque puede generar.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adolescent , Adult , Female , Poisoning/diagnosis , Poisoning/mortality , Poisoning/pathology , Organophosphorus Compounds , Pesticides/toxicity , Risk Factors , Self-Injurious Behavior , Suicide/statistics & numerical data , Chemical Compounds/analysis , Public Health , Socioeconomic Factors
11.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 39(4): 780-786, Dec. 2008. graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-504322

ABSTRACT

The application of a bacterial extracellular polymeric substance (EPS) in the bioremediation of heavy metals (Cd, Zn and Cu) by a microbial consortium in a hydrocarbon co-contaminated aqueous system was studied. At the low concentrations used in this work (1.00 ppm of each metal), it was not observed an inhibitory effect on the cellular growing. In the other hand, the application of the EPS lead to a lower concentration of the free heavy metals in solution, once a great part of them is adsorbed in the polymeric matrix (87.12 percent of Cd; 19.82 percent of Zn; and 37.64 percent of Cu), when compared to what is adsorbed or internalized by biomass (5.35 percent of Cd; 47.35 percent of Zn; and 24.93 percent of Cu). It was noted an increase of 24 percent in the consumption of ethylbenzene, among the gasoline components that were quantified, in the small interval of time evaluated (30 hours). Our results suggest that, if the experiments were conducted in a larger interval of time, it would possibly be noted a higher effect in the degradation of gasoline compounds. Still, considering the low concentrations that were evaluated, it is possible that a real system could be bioremediated by natural attenuation process, demonstrated by the low effect of those levels of contaminants and co-contaminants over the naturally present microbial consortium.


A aplicação de uma substância polimérica extracelular (EPS) bacteriana na biorremediação de metais pesados (Cd, Zn e Cu) por um consórcio microbiano em um sistema aquoso co-contaminado com hidrocarbonetos foi estudada. Nas baixas concentrações usadas neste trabalho (1,00 ppm de cada metal), não foi observado um efeito inibitório no crescimento celular. Por outro lado, a aplicação da EPS bacteriana levou a uma menor concentração de metais livres em solução, uma vez que grande parte destes fica adsorvido na matriz polimérica (87,12 por cento de Cd; 19,82 por cento de Zn; e 37,64 por cento de Cu) quando comparado ao que é adsorvido ou interiorizado pela biomassa (5,35 por cento de Cd; 47,35 por cento de Zn; e 24,93 por cento de Cu). No pequeno intervalo de tempo avaliado (30 horas) e na baixa concentração de gasolina utilizada (0,1 por cento (v/v)), foi percebido um aumento de 24 por cento no consumo de etilbenzeno, entre os componentes da gasolina que foram quantificados. Nossos resultados sugerem que, se os experimentos fossem conduzidos em um intervalo de tempo maior, possivelmente poderia ter sido observado um maior efeito na degradação dos componentes da gasolina. Ainda, considerando as baixas concentrações avaliadas, é provável que um sistema real pudesse ser biorremediado pelo processo de atenuação natural, tendo em vista o baixo efeito desses níveis de contaminantes e co-contaminantes sobre o consórcio microbiano naturalmente presente.


Subject(s)
Biomass , Bacillus/isolation & purification , Cell Enlargement , Chemical Compounds/analysis , Hydrocarbons , Metals, Heavy , Biodegradation, Environmental , Methods , Methods
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