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Rev. bras. enferm ; 72(supl.1): 32-40, Jan.-Feb. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-990720


ABSTRACT Objective: to describe case of occupational exposure to chemical products. Method: descriptive retrospective study using record data of 382 workers assisted in the Outpatient Care for Occupational Toxicology of the Reference Center of Workers' Health of the Federal District, between 2009 and 2013. Results: From the total, 66.7% were men, 55.2% had up to 9 years of activity and 81% did not use personal protective equipment (PPE). Nearly 60% were farmers and environmental surveillance agents, exposed to pesticides (63%), of which 40% were organophosphorus insecticides. The majority (68%) presented butyrylcholinesterase activity decreased, mostly farmers (85.9%); 57.3% of workers were considered poisoned - 61.6% by pesticides and 37.9% by industrial chemicals -, and away from work for at least 10 days. Conclusion: The profile was male workers, from 30 to 39 years, which not used PPE, indicating the need for prevention together with them to prevent poisonings.

RESUMEN Objetivo: describir casos de exposición ocupacional a productos químicos. Método: estudio retrospectivo descriptivo utilizando datos del prontuario de 382 trabajadores atendidos en el Ambulatorio de Toxicología Ocupacional del Centro de Referencia en Salud del Trabajador del Distrito Federal entre 2009 y 2013. Resultados: El 66,7% eran hombres, el 55,2% tenía hasta 9 años de actividad y el 81% no usaba el equipo de protección individual (EPI). Casi el 60% eran agricultores y agentes de vigilancia ambiental, expuestos a agrotóxicos (63%), de los cuales 40% insecticidas organofosforados. La mayoría (68%) presentó actividad de butirilcolinesterasa disminuida, principalmente agricultores (85,9%); el 57,3% de los trabajadores fueron considerados intoxicados, 61,6% por agrotóxicos y 37,9% por productos químicos industriales, y alejados del trabajo por lo menos 10 días. Conclusión: El perfil de los trabajadores atendidos fue de hombres, predominantemente de 30 a 39 años, que no utilizaban el EPI, indicando la necesidad de acciones de prevención junto a esa población para evitar la ocurrencia de intoxicaciones.

RESUMO Objetivo: descrever casos de exposição ocupacional a produtos químicos. Método: estudo retrospectivo descritivo utilizando dados do prontuário de 382 trabalhadores atendidos no Ambulatório de Toxicologia Ocupacional do Centro de Referência em Saúde do Trabalhador do Distrito Federal, entre 2009 e 2013. Resultados: 66,7% eram homens, 55,2% tinham até 9 anos de atividade e 81% não usavam equipamento de proteção individual (EPI). Quase 60% eram agricultores e agentes de vigilância ambiental, expostos a agrotóxicos (63%), dos quais 40% inseticidas organofosforados. A maioria (68%) apresentou atividade de butirilcolinesterase diminuída, principalmente agricultores (85,9%); 57,3% dos trabalhadores foram considerados intoxicados, 61,6% por agrotóxicos e 37,9% por produtos químicos industriais, e afastados do trabalho por pelo menos 10 dias. Conclusão: O perfil dos trabalhadores atendidos foi de homens, predominantemente de 30 a 39 anos, que não utilizavam EPI, indicando a necessidade de ações de prevenção junto a essa população para evitar a ocorrência de intoxicações.

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Poisoning/etiology , Occupational Exposure/adverse effects , Pesticides/adverse effects , Poisoning/complications , Registries/statistics & numerical data , Surveys and Questionnaires , Retrospective Studies , Occupational Exposure/statistics & numerical data , Chemical Hazard Release/statistics & numerical data , Personal Protective Equipment , Farmers/statistics & numerical data , Middle Aged
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-764315


Based on epidemiological studies, an International Agency for Research on Cancer Working Group determined that strong inorganic acid mists containing sulfuric acid are carcinogenic to human even though, sulfuric acid, per se, is not. Accumulative studies indicate that there is a link between chronic occupational exposure to sulfuric acid mists and an increased risk of laryngeal cancer. Unintended, acute exposure to sulfuric acid mists can cause corrosive damage to target tissues depending on the route of exposure. This review compares the toxicity and carcinogenicity of sulfuric acid mists compared to other strong inorganic acid mists. It also examines the routes and duration of exposure (short-term, prolonged, and long-term). In vivo evidence does not support or refute the carcinogenicity of sulfuric inorganic mists even though its co-carcinogenic or promoting potential has been considered. On the basis of existing evidence on sulfuric acid mist toxicity, we suggested a putative adverse outcome pathway (AOP) relevant to carcinogenicity caused by mists containing sulfuric acid. A possible key factor involved in sulfuric acid mist carcinogenesis is the genotoxic effects of low pH since it can increase instability in chromosomes and DNA. A putative AOP for sulfuric acid mist carcinogenicity would help generate better risk assessments and more accurate predictions regarding the risk of developing cancer due to prolonged exposure. Establishing an AOP would also be useful for future studies examining the carcinogenicity of other strong inorganic mists.

Carcinogenesis , Chemical Hazard Release , DNA , Epidemiologic Studies , Humans , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration , International Agencies , Laryngeal Neoplasms , Occupational Exposure , Risk Assessment , Sulfur , Sulfuric Acids
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-714042


OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the characteristics of the emergency medical services (EMS) response and clinical information on mass casualty chemical incidents in Korea. METHODS: This retrospective observational study analyzed the integrated data of the EMS rescue records and EMS-treated severe trauma registry from January 2012 to December 2013. Two databases were integrated using the unique accident identification number. Chemical incidents were defined by an in-depth review of the EMS rescue records according to a previous study. Mass casualty incidents were defined as more than 6 injured individuals. The rescue, EMS, and hospital variables of mass casualty chemical incidents were analyzed. RESULTS: A total of 8 mass casualty chemical incidents and 73 patients were included. The mean responded rescue vehicles and EMS vehicles were 2.4 and 3.5, respectively. The 4 incidents were an oil spill due to traffic accidents and most patients suffered minor trauma. A carbon monoxide leak caused the largest number of patients (23 people). The explosion caused by flammable polyethylene leaks showed the highest severity. In that explosion, the mortality rate was 40% and 8 patients had a disability at discharge. CONCLUSION: This study evaluated the characteristics of the EMS response and clinical information on mass casualty chemical incidents in Korea.

Accidents, Traffic , Carbon Monoxide , Chemical Hazard Release , Emergency Medical Services , Explosions , Humans , Korea , Mass Casualty Incidents , Mortality , Observational Study , Petroleum Pollution , Polyethylene , Retrospective Studies
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-196842


BACKGROUND: As one of the most frequently occurring accidents in a chemical plant, a fire accident may occur at any place where transfer or handling of combustible materials is routinely performed. METHODS: In particular, a jet fire incident in a chemical plant operated under high pressure may bring severe damage. To review this event numerically, Computational Fluid Dynamics methodology was used to simulate a jet fire at a pipe of a compressor under high pressure. RESULTS: For jet fire simulation, the Kemeleon FireEx Code was used, and results of this simulation showed that a structure and installations located within the shelter of a compressor received serious damage. CONCLUSION: The results confirmed that a jet fire may create a domino effect that could cause an accident aside from the secondary chemical accident.

Chemical Hazard Release , Fires , Hydrodynamics , Plants
Asia Oceania Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Biology. 2016; 4 (1): 51-54
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-176192


To the best of our knowledge, imaging of accidental exposure to radioactive fluorine-18 [F-18] due to liquid spill has not been described earlier in the scientific literature. The short half-life of F-18 [t[1/2]=110 min], current radiation safety requirements, and Good Manufacturing Practice [GMP] regulations on radiopharmaceuticals have restrained the occurrence of these incidents. The possibility of investigating this type of incidents by gamma and positron imaging is also quite limited. Additionally, a quick and precise analysis of radiochemical contamination is cumbersome and sometimes challenging if the spills of radioactive materials are low in activity. Herein, we report a case of accidental F-18 contamination in a service person during a routine cyclotron maintenance procedure. During target replacement, liquid F-18 was spilled on the person responsible for the maintenance. The activities of spills were immediately measured using contamination detectors, and the photon spectrum of contaminated clothes was assessed through gamma spectroscopy. Despite protective clothing, some skin areas were contaminated, which were then thoroughly washed. Later on, these areas were imaged, using positron emission tomography [PET], and a gamma camera [including spectroscopy]. Two contaminated skin areas were located on the hand [9.7 and 14.7 cm[2], respectively], which showed very low activities [19.0 and 22.8 kBq respectively at the time of incident]. Based on the photon spectra, F-18 was confirmed as the main present radionuclide. PET imaging demonstrated the shape of these contaminated hot spots. However, the measured activities were very low due to the use of protective clothing. With prompt action and use of proper equipments at the time of incident, minimal radionuclide activities and their locations could be thoroughly analyzed. The cumulative skin doses of the contaminated regions were calculated at 1.52 and 2.00 mSv, respectively. In the follow-up, no skin changes were observed in the contaminated areas

Humans , Male , Adult , Chemical Hazard Release , Radiation Exposure , Positron-Emission Tomography , Radiopharmaceuticals , Skin , Radionuclide Imaging
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-168304


PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the characteristics of Emergency Medical Service (EMS) provider responded chemical, biological, radiological, and nuclear (CBRN) incidents in Korea. METHODS: Nationwide EMS rescue records from Jan 2012 to Dec 2014 were analyzed. All EMS rescue records were integrated according to the unique accident ID. Cases related to animal rescue, hive removal, and suicide-related were excluded. CBRN-associated keywords were extracted by literature review and pilot survey. In-depth review of cases containing CBRN-associated keywords in the activity summary were conducted by trained emergency medical technicians, and predefined information was abstracted. Descriptive analyses were performed to characterize the EMS provider responded CBRN incidents. RESULTS: A total of 1,571,293 cases were included, and 1,335,205 cases had a unique accident ID; 515,417 cases were excluded because of their association with animal rescue, hive removal, and suicide attempts; 19,663 cases contained CBRN-associated keywords in the activity summary, and in-depth review identified 1,862 cases as CBRN incidents. Among them 1,856 cases were chemical incidents, and 6 cases were radiological incidents; 144 cases were resulted to victims. In chemical incidents, ammonia, hydrogen chloride, sulfuric acid, hydrogen fluoride, and nitric acid were the top 5 toxic substances. In chemical incidents with victims, the proportion of explosion/implosion, and suffocation in sealed space was more prevalent than chemical incidents without victims. Median scene time of all CBRN incidents was 41 minutes (interquartile range 18.0-57.0). CONCLUSION: We evaluated the characteristics of CBRN incidents responded by EMS in Korea.

Ammonia , Animals , Asphyxia , Biohazard Release , Chemical Hazard Release , Emergencies , Emergency Medical Services , Emergency Medical Technicians , Humans , Hydrochloric Acid , Hydrofluoric Acid , Korea , Nitric Acid , Radioactive Hazard Release , Suicide , Sulfur
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-85714


To effectively mitigate and reduce the burden of mass casualty incidents (MCIs), preparedness measures should be based on MCIs' epidemiological characteristics. This study aimed to describe the epidemiological characteristics and outcomes of emergency medical services (EMS)-assessed MCIs from multiple areas according to cause. Therefore, we extracted the records of all MCIs that involved > or = 6 patients from an EMS database. All patients involved in EMS-assessed MCIs from six areas were eligible for this study, and their prehospital and hospital records were reviewed for a 1-year period. The EMS-assessed MCIs were categorized as being caused by fire accidents (FAs), road traffic accidents (RTAs), chemical and biological agents (CBs), and other mechanical causes (MECHs). A total of 362 EMS-assessed MCIs were identified, with a crude incidence rate of 0.6-5.0/100,000 population. Among these MCIs, 322 were caused by RTAs. The MCIs involved 2,578 patients, and 54.3% of these patients were women. We observed that the most common mechanism of injury varied according to MCI cause, and that a higher number of patients per incident was associated with a longer prehospital time. The highest hospital admission rate was observed for CBs (16 patients, 55.2%), and most patients in RTAs and MECHs experienced non-severe injuries. The total number of deaths was 32 (1.2%). An EMS-assessed MCI database was established using the EMS database and medical records review. Our findings indicate that RTA MCIs create a burden on EMS and emergency department resources, although CB MCIs create a burden on hospitals' resources.

Accidents, Traffic/statistics & numerical data , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Biohazard Release/statistics & numerical data , Chemical Hazard Release/statistics & numerical data , Child , Child, Preschool , Cross-Sectional Studies , Databases, Factual , Emergency Medical Services , Female , Hospitals , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Male , Mass Casualty Incidents/statistics & numerical data , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , Young Adult
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-217699


PURPOSE: The purpose of this study is to understand what kinds of chemical substances have been used annually and to investigate incidents that occurred due to chemical hazard release and to analyze statistically clinically chemical injury patients who visited one regional emergency medical center in Gumi city with documented references review. METHODS: Annual chemical waste emission quantity (Kg/Year) (Cwep) was reproduced using national web site data governed by the Ministry of Environment and 5 years (from 1 .Jan. 2010 to 31. Dec. 2014) of medical records of chemical injury patients who visited our emergency department were reviewed retrospectively. By applying exclusion criteria, 446 patients of 460 patients were selected. RESULTS: Dichloromethane, Toluene, Trichloroethylene, and Xylene were always included within Top 5 of Cweq. Six cases of chemical incidents were reported and in 3 of 6 cases involving Hydrogen fluoride were included during the study period. Male gender and twenties were the most prevalent group. Injury evoking chemicals were Hydrogen fluoride, unknown, complex chemicals (over 2 substances) in sequence. The most frequent site of wounds and injuries was the respiratory tract. Gas among status, intoxication among diagnosis, and discharge among disposition was most numerous in each group. CONCLUSION: There have been no uniform clinical protocols for chemical wounds and injuries due to various kinds of chemicophysical properties and ignorance of antidotes. Therefore conduct of a multicenter cohort study and experiments for ruling out chemicals according to chemicophysical priority as well as development of antidotes and clinical protocols for chemical injury patients is needed.

Antidotes , Chemical Hazard Release , Clinical Protocols , Cohort Studies , Diagnosis , Emergencies , Emergency Service, Hospital , Humans , Hydrofluoric Acid , Male , Medical Records , Methylene Chloride , Respiratory System , Retrospective Studies , Toluene , Trichloroethylene , Wounds and Injuries , Xylenes
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-147029


OBJECTIVES: This study was conducted to report the course of an accidental release of chlorine gas that occurred in a factory in Gumi-si, South Korea, on March 5, 2013. We describe the analysis results of 2 patients hospitalized because of chlorine-induced acute health problems, as well as the clinical features of 209 non-hospitalized patients. METHODS: We analyzed the medical records of the 2 hospitalized patients admitted to the hospital, as well as the medical records and self-report questionnaires of 209 non-hospitalized patients completed during outpatient treatment. RESULTS: Immediately after the exposure, the 2 hospitalized patients developed acute asthma-like symptoms such as cough and dyspnea, and showed restrictive and combined pattern ventilatory defects on the pulmonary function test. The case 1 showed asthma-like symptoms over six months and diurnal variability in peak expiratory flow rate was 56.7%. In case 2, his FEV1 after treatment (93%) increased by 25% compared to initial FEV1 (68%). Both cases were diagnosed as chlorine-induced reactive airways dysfunction syndrome (RADS) on the basis of these clinical features. The most frequent chief complaints of the 209 non-hospitalized patients were headache (22.7%), followed by eye irritation (18.2%), nausea (11.2%), and sore throat (10.8%), with asymptomatic patients accounting for 36.5%. The multiple-response analysis of individual symptom revealed headache (42.4%) to be the most frequent symptom, followed by eye irritation (30.5%), sore throat (30.0%), cough (29.6%), nausea (27.6%), and dizziness (27.3%). CONCLUSIONS: The 2 patients hospitalized after exposure to chlorine gas at the leakage site showed a clinical course corresponding to RADS. All of the 209 non-hospitalized patients only complained of symptoms of the upper airways and mucous membrane irritation.

Chemical Hazard Release , Chlorine , Cough , Dizziness , Dyspnea , Headache , Humans , Korea , Medical Records , Mucous Membrane , Nausea , Outpatients , Peak Expiratory Flow Rate , Pharyngitis , Respiratory Function Tests
Rev. saúde pública ; 47(2): 335-344, jun. 2013. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-685576


OBJECTIVE: To assess the health risk of exposure to benzene for a community affected by a fuel leak. METHODS: Data regarding the fuel leak accident with, which occurred in the Brasilia, Federal District, were obtained from the Fuel Distributor reports provided to the environmental authority. Information about the affected population (22 individuals) was obtained from focal groups of eight individuals. Length of exposure and water benzene concentration were estimated through a groundwater flow model associated with a benzene propagation model. The risk assessment was conducted according to the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry methodology. RESULTS: A high risk perception related to the health consequences of the accident was evident in the affected community (22 individuals), probably due to the lack of assistance and a poor risk communication from government authorities and the polluting agent. The community had been exposed to unsafe levels of benzene (> 5 µg/L) since December 2001, five months before they reported the leak. The mean benzene level in drinking water (72.2 µg/L) was higher than that obtained by the Fuel Distributer using the Risk Based Corrective Action methodology (17.2 µg/L).The estimated benzene intake from the consumption of water and food reached a maximum of 0.0091 µg/kg bw/day (5 x 10-7 cancer risk per 106 individuals). The level of benzene in water vapor while showering reached 7.5 µg/m3 for children (1 per 104 cancer risk). Total cancer risk ranged from 110 to 200 per 106 individuals. CONCLUSIONS: The population affected by the fuel leak was exposed to benzene levels that might have represented a health risk. Local government authorities need to develop better strategies to respond rapidly to these ...

OBJETIVO: Avaliar os riscos à saúde da exposição ao benzeno de comunidade afetada por acidente de vazamento de combustível. MÉTODOS: Dados de acidente de vazamento de combustível ocorrido em Brasília, DF, em 2002, foram obtidos dos relatórios produzidos pelo distribuidor de combustível e submetidos a autoridade ambiental. Informação sobre a população afetada foi obtida em grupos focais com oito participantes. Foram estimados o tempo de exposição e concentração de benzeno na água usando modelo de fluxo subterrâneo acoplado a outro de transporte. A avaliação de risco foi conduzida de acordo com a metodologia da Agência de Registro de Substâncias Tóxicas e Doenças ( Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry ). RESULTADOS: Alta percepção de risco à saúde relacionada ao acidente foi observada na população afetada (22 indivíduos), provavelmente devido à falta de assistência e à comunicação de risco deficiente do governo e agente poluidor. A comunidade esteve exposta a níveis inseguros de benzeno na água (> 5 µg/L) a partir de dezembro de 2001, cinco meses antes de ser reportado o vazamento. A concentração média de benzeno na água consumida (72,2 µg/L) foi maior que aquela estimada pelo distribuidor usando a metodologia Ação Corretiva Baseada em Risco ( Risk Based Corrective Action ) (17,2 µg/L). A ingestão estimada de benzeno pelo consumo de água e frutas alcançou 0,0091 µg/kg pc/dia (risco de 5 x 10-7 câncer per 106 indivíduos). O nível de benzeno no vapor d´água durante o banho atingiu 7,5 µg/m3 para ...

OBJETIVO: Evaluar los riesgos para la salud de la exposición al benceno en comunidad afectada por accidente de derrame de combustible. MÉTODOS: Datos del accidente ocurrido en el Distrito Federal (Brasil), fueron obtenidos de los informes realizados por el distribuidor de combustible y sometidos a la autoridad ambienta. Información sobre la población afectada fue obtenida en grupos focales con 8 participantes. Se hicieron estimaciones del tiempo de exposición y concentración de benceno en el agua usando modelo de flujo subterráneo acoplado a otro de transporte. La evaluación de riesgo fue conducida de acuerdo con la metodología de la "Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry". RESULTADOS: Alta percepción de riesgo para la salud relacionada con el accidente fue observada en la población afectada (22 individuos), probablemente debido a la falta de asistencia y a la comunicación de riesgo deficiente del gobierno y agente contaminante. La comunidad estuvo expuesta a niveles inseguros de benceno en el agua (>5 µg/L) a partir de diciembre de 2001, cinco meses antes de ser reportado el derrame. La concentración promedio de benceno en el agua consumida (72,2 µg/L) fue mayor que la estimada por el distribuidor usando la metodología "Risk Based Corrective Action" (17,2 µg/L). La ingestión estimada de benceno por el consumo de agua y frutas alcanzó 0,0091 µg/kg pc/día (riesgo de 5 x 10-7 de cáncer per 106 individuos). El nivel de benceno en el vapor de agua durante el baño alcanzó 7,5 µg/m3 en niños (riesgo de cáncer de hasta 1 per 104). El Riesgo carcinogénico total fue de 110 a 200 per 106 individuos. CONCLUSIONES: La población afectada por el derrame de combustible estuvo expuesta ...

Adolescent , Adult , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Infant , Male , Benzene/analysis , Chemical Hazard Release , Environmental Exposure/analysis , Water Pollutants, Chemical/analysis , Water Pollution/analysis , Water Supply/analysis , Brazil , Carcinogens, Environmental/analysis , Risk Assessment
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-163455


This study is to prepare promotional strategies of establishment of the Korea Poison Center based on the chemicals and chemical products and the database (DB) construction status of Chemical Accident Emergency Respond Information System (CEIS) and the DB needs survey of the lay person. The methods of CEIS DB construction and hazard classification are; first, the researchers required material safety data sheet from the manufacturer/distributor and verified its composition/information on ingredients. Second, the researchers conducted the hazard classification of the chemical products by the mixtures classification according to the United Nations Globally Harmonized System of Classification and Labelling of Chemicals (GHS, 3rd edition) guidelines based on the verified composition/information on ingredients. The emergency measures information was established by the Emergency Department healthcare professionals. Health hazards are classified by using 13 reference databases, which include European Chemical Substances Information System (IUCLID) and IARC, and 4 reference books like Emergency Management Guides(ERG). As the result of analyzing the DB construction status of chemical products, it showed in the order of, 180 for vehicle products (15.0%), 162 for printing products (14.0%), 129 for paint (11.0%) and 120 for adhesives (10.0%). Currently in 2013, emergency respond information was established for a total of 2,400 chemicals (includes 1200 chemical products). As the result for conducting a needs survey for the establishment of emergency respond information targeting on the general public and professionals, it showed the highest level of demand for the establishment of emergency respond information on 'household products (2.87 points)' for both lay person and experts. As the result of analyzing the Q&A of the lay person until March 2013, through CEIS, it showed the highest inquiry on disinfectant and germicide products with 11 issues (27.5%). World Health Organization recommends to provide emergency consultation and information on poisoning accidents and operate a 24 hour national poison center able to perform the research functions for every nation. However, there is no such national poison center in Korea, and it can be said fundamental reform of the national poison management system and establishment of national poison center is urgent, considering the fact social demand and citizens from recent consecutive chemical poisoning accidents are increasing.

Adhesives , Chemical Hazard Release , Delivery of Health Care , Emergencies , Hazardous Substances , Household Products , Humans , Information Systems , Korea , Paint , Reference Books , United Nations , World Health Organization
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-84417


OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to analyze the relationship between clinical status and work characteristics of firefighters and other public officers who engaged on collection duties in the site of the hydrogen fluoride spill that occurred on September 27, 2012, in Gumi City, South Korea. METHODS: We investigated the clinical status, personal history, and work characteristics of the study subjects and performed physical examination and several clinical examinations, including chest radiography, echocardiography, pulmonary function test, and blood testing in 348 firefighters, police officers, volunteer firefighters, and special warfare reserved force who worked at the hydrogen fluoride spill area. RESULTS: The subjects who worked near the accident site more frequently experienced eye symptoms (p = 0.026), cough (p = 0.017), and headache (p = 0.003) than the subjects who worked farther from the accident site. The longer the working hours at the accident area, the more frequently the subjects experienced pulmonary (p = 0.027), sputum (p = 0.043), and vomiting symptoms (p = 0.003). The subjects who did not wear respiratory protective devices more frequently experienced dyspnea than those who wore respiratory protective devices (p = 0.013). In the pulmonary function test, the subjects who worked near the accident site had a higher decease in forced vital capacity than the subjects who worked farther from the site (p = 0.019); however, no statistical association was found between serum calcium/phosphate level, echocardiography result, chest radiographic result, and probation work characteristics. CONCLUSIONS: The subjects who worked near the site of the hydrogen fluoride spill, worked for an extended period, or worked without wearing respiratory protective devices more frequently experienced upper/lower respiratory, gastrointestinal, and neurological symptoms. Further follow-up examination is needed for the workers who were exposed to hydrogen fluoride during their collection duties in the chemical plant in Gumi City.

Chemical Hazard Release , Cough , Dyspnea , Echocardiography , Firefighters , Headache , Hematologic Tests , Humans , Hydrofluoric Acid , Hydrogen , Physical Examination , Plants , Police , Radiography , Radiography, Thoracic , Republic of Korea , Respiratory Function Tests , Respiratory Protective Devices , Sputum , Thorax , Vital Capacity , Vomiting
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-100585


OBJECTIVES: This study was conducted to describe the demographic characteristics, and clinical signs and symptoms of patients who visited a general hospital because of the release of chemically hazardous hydrogen fluoride that occurred on September 27, 2012 in Gumi City, Korea. METHODS: The medical records at 1 general hospital 9 km from the accident site were reviewed using a standardized survey format. There were 1,890 non-hospitalized and 12 hospitalized patients exposed to hydrogen fluoride between September 27 and October 13 2012. RESULTS: Among the 12 hospitalized patients, 11 were discharged within 1 week and the other was hospitalized for 10 days. The chief complaints were respiratory symptoms such as hemoptysis and shortness of breath, gastrointestinal symptoms, neurologic symptoms, sore throat, and lip burn. The number of non-hospitalized patients exhibited a bimodal distribution, peaking on the first and twelfth days after the accident. Their chief complaints were sore throat (24.1%), headache (19.1%), cough (13.1%), and eye irritation (9.2%); some patients were asymptomatic (6.2%). Patients who visited the hospital within 3 days (early patients) of the spill more often had shortness of breath (27.0%) and nausea (6.3%) as the chief complaints than patients who visited after 3 days (late patients) (3.5% and 2.6%, respectively). However, cough and rhinorrhea were more common in the late patients (14.0% and 3.3%, respectively) than in the early patients (5.0% and 0.0%, respectively). Patients who were closer to the accident site more often had shortness of breath and sputum as the chief complaints than patients who were farther away. The mean serum calcium concentration was 9.37 mg/dL (range: 8.4-11.0 mg/dL); none of the patients had a decreased serum calcium level. Among 48 pulmonary function test results, 4 showed decreased lung function. None of the patients had abnormal urine fluoride levels on the eighth day after exposure. CONCLUSIONS: Patients hospitalized due to chemical hazard release of hydrogen fluoride had acute respiratory, gastrointestinal, and neurologic health problems. Non-hospitalized patients have acute symptoms mainly related to upper respiratory irritation.

Burns , Calcium , Chemical Hazard Release , Cough , Dyspnea , Fluorides , Headache , Hemoptysis , Hospitals, General , Humans , Hydrofluoric Acid , Hydrogen , Korea , Lip , Lung , Medical Records , Nausea , Neurologic Manifestations , Pharyngitis , Respiratory Function Tests , Sputum
In. Galvão, Luiz Augusto C; Finkelman, Jacobo; Henao, Samuel. Determinantes ambientais e sociais da saúde. Rio de Janeiro, Opas; Editora Fiocruz, 2011. p.547-572, tab.
Monography in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-756806
Payesh-Health Monitor. 2011; 10 (2): 265-271
in Persian | IMEMR | ID: emr-110391


Decrease of quality of life and undesirable sleep in individual with bronchiolitis due to chemical exposure reported in previous studies. This study was applied to assess relationship between sleep quality and quality of life in chemical warfare victims with bronchiolitis obliterans. In this descriptive correlative study, 93 chemical warfare victims with bronchiolitis obliterans referred to respiratory clinic of Baqyatallah hospital were selected by convenience sampling method. Quality of life and sleep quality was measuring the St George's Respiratory Questionnaire and Pittsburgh sleep Quality Index [PSQI]. Pearson correlation coefficient was showed a positive and significant correlation between sleep quality and quality of life. Also it was revealed significant relationship between psychological disorders and undesirable sleep quality [P<0.05]. The findings suggest there is need to improve sleep quality in this population in order to enhance their heathed-related quality of life

Humans , Sleep , Quality of Life , Chemical Hazard Release , Environmental Exposure , Chemical Warfare Agents
Journal of Qazvin University of Medical Sciences and Health Services [The]. 2011; 14 (4): 50-56
in English, Persian | IMEMR | ID: emr-112831


Fire and explosion hazards are considered as the first and second major hazards in process industries. The aim of this study was to quantitatively assess the fire and explosion hazards as well as relative classification of such hazards in a petrochemical industry. This was a quantitative study in which the process units were selected based on parameters affecting the risk of fire and explosion. Later, these parameters were analyzed using DOW's fire and explosion index [F and EI]. Technical data to determine the index were obtained through process documents and reports as well as the fire and explosion guideline. Following calculating the DOW's index, the high and low risk process units were determined. The stripper column with a rank of 226 and the naphtha tank with a rank of 64 were determined as the most and least disastrous process units. The level of hazard was determined as severe for columns [F and EI>158], heavy for magna-former reactor and gasoline furnace [127< F and EI

Explosions , Hazardous Waste/classification , Hazardous Waste/prevention & control , Industrial Waste , Disasters , Chemical Hazard Release , Environmental Pollution/prevention & control
Rio de Janeiro; s.n; 2009. 46 p. mapas, tab, graf.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-560362


Os acidentes com produtos perigosos podem causar danos à saúde e ao ambiente e as dificuldades em se avaliar os impactos e estimar os custos refletem diretamente na capacidade de formulação de políticas públicas de controle e prevenção amplas e efetivas. Este trabalho objetiva a análise dos dados oficiais sobre os acidentes com produtos perigosos notificados no Brasil entre 2006-2007 enquanto potenciais modificadores da situação ambiental e geradores de exposição bem como os dados de morbidade e mortalidade de forma a subsidiar as ações de vigilância em saúde ambiental. Metodologicamente a análise dos eventos notificados (n=2046) demonstra uma média mensal de 85 eventos, com elevada freqüência de acidentes envolvendo líquidos inflamáveis, significativamente ocorridos no modal rodoviário e concentrados na região sudeste. Esses dados não permitem caracterizar a exposição humana nesses eventos. Quanto aos efeitos, foram registradas 12.955 intoxicações, 373 internações e 2.513 óbitos relacionados a exposição a produtos químicos. Quanto à capacidade de resposta do setor saúde, onze estados desenvolvem ações de vigilância em saúde ambiental relacionadas a acidentes com produtos perigosos. Os dados apontam para a necessária estruturação de um sistema integrado de informações para a gestão dos acidentes com produtos perigosos e monitoramento de populações expostas.

Hazardous materials accidents can cause damage to health and the environment and the difficulties faced in the impact assessment and cost estimating reflect directly on thecapacity to formulate public policies of control and prevention wide, and effective. The present work intend to present the information system analysis of the hazardous materials accidents notified in Brazil between 2006 and 2007 while exposition producer event and also morbidity and mortality data to support environmental healthsurveillance actions. Methodologically, notified data analysis (n=2046) present a month average of 85 events and point to a high frequency of accidents involving flammable liquids, significantly occurred on highway transportation mode and mostly in thesoutheast region. Due to effects, there were 12.955 intoxications, 373 hospitalizations and 2.513 deaths attributed to exposure to chemical substances. In terms of health sectorresponse capacity, eleven states develop hazardous materials accidents environmental health surveillance actions. These data point to a necessary information integrated systems to manage hazardous materials, and monitoring exposed populations.

Humans , Accidents and Events with Hazardous Materials , Chemical Hazard Release/adverse effects , Chemical Compound Exposure , Environmental Health , Information Systems , Dangers of Substances, Products and Materials , Dangers on the Environment , Policy Making
Rev. cuba. med. mil ; 35(1)ene.-mar. 2006.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-446802


Se realizó una investigación cualitativa aplicada con el objetivo de elaborar un programa de preparación para el personal médico y paramédico dirigido a la prevención, planificación y respuesta ante una emergencia química. Este programa, en cuya confección se emplearon métodos teóricos y empíricos de investigación, proporciona los elementos teóricos y prácticos y la metodología para implementar las acciones de prevención, planificación y respuesta ante las emergencias químicas. Se concibió para 120 h clases, aplicable en forma de cursos posgrado, donde se integran temas de toxicología, y se brinda el contenido contextualizado, combinando la teoría con la práctica

Chemical Hazard Release , Disaster Emergencies , Emergency Plans
Rev. peru. med. exp. salud publica ; 22(4): 267-273, oct--dic. 2005. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, INS-PERU | ID: lil-477942


Objetivos: Describir las características clínico-epidemiológicas de los casos de intoxicación aguda por inhalación de acrilato de etilo, ocasionado por el manejo clandestino de un envase con restos de ésta sustancia, en una urbanización del distrito Comas, en Lima, Perú en noviembre del año 2002. Materiales y métodos: Estudio transversal analítico realizado en residentes y población del centro educativo aledaño a la zona del accidente. Se realizó una encuesta a todas las personas expuestas, se consideró como caso la presencia de cefalea, irritación ocular, nauseas, dolor abdominal y prurito intenso en el cuerpo. Se caracterizó el accidente en tiempo, espacio y persona.En el centro educativo se exploraron factores de exposición que favorecieron la presencia de intoxicados. Los datos fueron ingresados en Epi Info v 6.0 y analizados en STATA v.8.0 Resultados: Se encuestó 456 residentes y 326 personas en la escuela. La tasa de ataque general fue 21,9 por ciento, 46,9 por ciento en la escuela y 4,2 por ciento en viviendas. Los síntomas predominantes fueron cefalea 56 por ciento, irritación ocular 47 por ciento, dolor abdominal 42 por ciento. El 23 por ciento requirió hospitalización. El permanecer en pisos superiores de la escuela fue un factor de riesgo OR 4,54 (IC95 por ciento 2,66-7,84) y en el pabellón A OR 3,82 (IC95 por ciento 2,33-6,25). Conclusiones: Los síntomas predominantes fueron cefalea, irritación oculary dolor abdominal. La cercanía a la zona de exposición del cilindro y la dispersión de los vapores tóxicos influyeron para afectar mayormente a la escuela y a aquellos que ocupaban aulas en pisos superiores y el pabellón A. La legislación peruana debe contemplar el problema del manejo clandestino de residuos peligrosos.

Objectives: To describe clinical and epidemiological features of cases of acute intoxication caused by ethyl acrylate due to clandestine management of a container with this substance in an urban area in Comas District, Lima, Peru, in November 2002. Materials and methods: Analytical cross sectional study performed in residents and school population near the affected area. A survey was performed in every exposed person. Cases were defined as those people presenting with headache, eye irritation, nausea, abdominal pain, and intense pruritus. Accidents were characterized according to time of occurrence, space, and affected person(s). Exposure factors favoring the presence of affected persons were explored in a nearby school. Data was input in Epi Info v 6.0, and it was analyzed using STATA v 8.0 software. Results: 456 residents and 326 school students were interviewed. General attack rate was 21,9%, 46,6% at the nearby school, and 4,2% in surrounding households. Predominating symptoms were headache, 56%, eye irritation, 47%, abdominal pain, 42%. 23% of all affected persons required hospitalization. Staying in the upper floors in the nearby school was a risk factor for being affected, with an odds ratio (OR) reported as 4,54 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 2,66–7,84), and particularly in the «A¼ wing the OR was 3,82 (95% IC: 2,33 – 6,25). Conclusions: Predominant symptoms for acute intoxication caused by ethyl acrylate exposure were headache, eye irritation, and abdominal pain. Being near to the exposure area and dispersion of toxic fumes influenced the attack rate, mostly affecting the nearby school and those students in the upper floors and the «A¼ wing. Peruvian law should be stricter with respect to management of dangerous waste.

Chemical Hazard Release , Inhalation Exposure , Hazardous Substances , Peru
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-449530


En la madrugada del 2-3 de diciembre de 1984, en una fábrica de pesticidas que Unión Caribe operaba en Bhopal (India), se produjo una fuga de unas 401 toneladas de methilisocianato que, junto con otras sustancias químicas, causó de gorma directa la muerte a 8.000 personas y produjo daños multisistémicos a otras 500.000. Este se conoce como el peor desastre industrial reportado y, hoy día, continúan falleciendo víctimas. Los daños ambientales son manifiesto y las aguas subterráneas que tradicionalmente se usaban para riego han quedado contaminadas. Muchas víctimas han quedado inútil para el trabajo, estériles o sus hijos han heredado las secuelas. Mientras, los responsables de Unión Caribe están libres porque huyeron de la justicia y el Gobierno Hindú nunca solicitó extradición

Bhopal Accident , Chemical Hazard Release , Chemistry , Venezuela