Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 973
Filter
1.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: 1-15, 2023. ilus, graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1468914

ABSTRACT

In the current report, we studied the possible inhibitors of COVID-19 from bioactive constituents of Centaurea jacea using a threefold approach consisting of quantum chemical, molecular docking and molecular dynamic techniques. Centaurea jacea is a perennial herb often used in folk medicines of dermatological complaints and fever. Moreover, anticancer, antioxidant, antibacterial and antiviral properties of its bioactive compounds are also reported. The Mpro (Main proteases) was docked with different compounds of Centaurea jacea through molecular docking. All the studied compounds including apigenin, axillarin, Centaureidin, Cirsiliol, Eupatorin and Isokaempferide, show suitable binding affinities to the binding site of SARS-CoV-2 main protease with their binding energies -6.7 kcal/mol, -7.4 kcal/mol, -7.0 kcal/mol, -5.8 kcal/mol, -6.2 kcal/mol and -6.8 kcal/mol, respectively. Among all studied compounds, axillarin was found to have maximum inhibitor efficiency followed by Centaureidin, Isokaempferide, Apigenin, Eupatorin and Cirsiliol. Our results suggested that axillarin binds with the most crucial catalytic residues CYS145 and HIS41 of the Mpro, moreover axillarin shows 5 hydrogen bond interactions and 5 hydrophobic interactions with various residues of Mpro. Furthermore, the molecular dynamic calculations over 60 ns (6×106 femtosecond) time scale also shown significant insights into the binding effects of axillarin with Mpro of SARS-CoV-2 by imitating protein like aqueous environment. From molecular dynamic calculations, the RMSD and RMSF computations indicate the stability and dynamics of the best docked complex in aqueous environment. The ADME properties and toxicity prediction analysis of axillarin also recommended it as safe drug candidate. Further, in vivo and in [...].


No presente relatório, estudamos os possíveis inibidores de Covid-19 de constituintes bioativos de Centaurea jacea usando uma abordagem tripla que consiste em técnicas de química quântica, docking molecular e dinâmica molecular. Centaurea jacea é uma erva perene frequentemente usada em remédios populares de doenças dermatológicas e febre. Além disso, as propriedades anticâncer, antioxidante, antibacteriana e antiviral de seus compostos bioativos também são relatadas. A Mpro (proteases principais) foi acoplada a diferentes compostos de Centaurea jacea por meio de docking molecular. Todos os compostos estudados, incluindo apigenina, axilarina, Centaureidina, Cirsiliol, Eupatorina e Isokaempferide, mostram afinidades de ligação adequadas ao sítio de ligação da protease principal SARS-CoV-2 com suas energias de ligação -6,7 kcal / mol, -7,4 kcal / mol, - 7,0 kcal / mol, -5,8 kcal / mol, -6,2 kcal / mol e -6,8 kcal / mol, respectivamente. Dentre todos os compostos estudados, a axilarina apresentou eficiência máxima de inibidor, seguida pela Centaureidina, Isokaempferida, Apigenina, Eupatorina e Cirsiliol. Nossos resultados sugeriram que a axilarina se liga aos resíduos catalíticos mais cruciais CYS145 e HIS41 do Mpro, além disso a axilarina mostra 5 interações de ligações de hidrogênio e 5 interações hidrofóbicas com vários resíduos de Mpro. Além disso, os cálculos de dinâmica molecular em uma escala de tempo de 60 ns (6 × 106 femtossegundos) também mostraram percepções significativas sobre os efeitos de ligação da axilarina com Mpro de SARS-CoV-2 por imitação de proteínas como o ambiente aquoso. A partir de cálculos de dinâmica molecular, os cálculos RMSD e RMSF indicam a estabilidade e dinâmica do melhor complexo ancorado em ambiente [...].


Subject(s)
Apigenin/analysis , Apigenin/therapeutic use , Centaurea/chemistry , Chemical Phenomena , Severe acute respiratory syndrome-related coronavirus/drug effects
2.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: 1-18, 2023. map, ilus, tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1468988

ABSTRACT

This study was conducted to estimate the diversity and the occurrence of commercially important finfish species collected by twenty fish sampling site of Sindh and Baluchistan coasts of the Arabian Sea in Pakistan from January to December 2019. Additionally, physicochemical characteristics of seawater were analyzed from these selected sites and found to be within suitable ranges required for fish growth and survive. A total of 81287 fish individuals were collected and identified as 49 species belonging to 26 families in our study. The most diversified family was Sparidae (13 species) followed by Carangidae and Lutjanidae (4 species), Mullidae, Serranidae, Ariidae (3 species), and Sciaenidae (2 species). The remaining 20 families were represented by only one species. The values of Shannon diversity index calculated for the four selected habitats revealed that high fish diversity was reported at Sonmiani Coast (H’=1.81), while less at Ormara Coast (H’=0.23). Likewise, Evenness index (E) was high at Sonmiani Coast (E=0.50) and less fish diversity was reported at Ormara Coast (E=0.06). Reducing risks to threatened marine species in coastal habitats also requires conservation actions at multiple scales. Thus, it was concluded that our study could be valuable in providing the more information’s regarding to the diversity of finfish species and their occurrence along the Pakistan Coast. Further, to better understand the effects, regular monitoring and conservation measures should be taken to mitigate the influence of anthropogenic activities and protect finfish diversity from further decline.


Este estudo foi conduzido para estimar a diversidade e a ocorrência de espécies de peixes comercialmente importantes coletadas por vinte locais de amostragem de peixes nas costas de Sindh e Baluchistão do mar da Arábia, no Paquistão, de janeiro a dezembro de 2019. Além disso, as características físico-químicas da água do mar foram analisadas a partir desses peixes locais selecionados e considerados dentro dos intervalos adequados necessários para o crescimento e sobrevivência dos peixes. Um total de 8.1287 indivíduos de peixes foi coletado e identificado como 49 espécies pertencentes a 26 famílias em nosso estudo. A família mais diversificada foi Sparidae (13 espécies), seguida por Carangidae e Lutjanidae (4 espécies), Mullidae, Serranidae, Ariidae (3 espécies) e Sciaenidae (2 espécies). As 20 famílias restantes foram representadas por apenas uma espécie. Os valores do índice de diversidade de Shannon calculados para os quatro habitats selecionados revelaram que uma alta diversidade de peixes foi relatada na costa Sonmiani (H’ = 1,81), enquanto menos na costa Ormara (H’ = 0,23). Da mesma forma, o índice de regularidade (E) foi alto na costa de Sonmiani (E = 0,50) e menos diversidade de peixes foi relatada na costa de Ormara (E = 0,06). A redução dos riscos para as espécies marinhas ameaçadas em habitats costeiros também requer ações de conservação em várias escalas. Assim, concluiu-se que nosso estudo pode ser valioso para fornecer mais informações sobre a diversidade de espécies de peixes finos e sua ocorrência ao longo da costa do Paquistão. Além disso, para compreender melhor os efeitos, medidas regulares de monitoramento e conservação devem ser tomadas para mitigar a influência das atividades antropogênicas e proteger a diversidade de peixes finos de um declínio maior.


Subject(s)
Animals , Biodiversity , Chemical Phenomena , Fishes/classification , Fishes/growth & development , Seawater/chemistry
3.
Rev. ADM ; 79(6): 325-331, nov.-dic. 2022. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1435463

ABSTRACT

Los logros de los avances obtenidos en el manejo actual de la caries han dado la oportunidad a los odontólogos de detectar lesiones de caries en sus estadios incipientes. A pesar de la existencia de una gran variedad de materiales restauradores directos disponibles en el mercado actual y que pueden utilizarse para restaurar lesiones pequeñas de caries, el material que tiene más posibilidades de éxito para este tipo de lesiones es sin duda alguna el oro cohesivo, también conocido como oro directo (AU)


The goals obtained with the current management of dental caries has given the dentists the opportunity to detect incipient caries lesions in early stages. Although, the current existence of a great variety of direct restorative materials available in the market to restore small caries lesions, the material that may show better success for these type of lesions, is without any doubt: the gold foil or direct gold (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Dental Caries , Dental Restoration, Permanent/instrumentation , Conservative Treatment , Gold Alloys/therapeutic use , Chemical Phenomena
4.
Int. j. high dilution res ; 21(2): 15-16, May 6, 2022.
Article in English | LILACS, HomeoIndex | ID: biblio-1396738

ABSTRACT

Conventional science regards the study of UHD (highly homeopathically potentized) solutions as pseudo-science. However, an increasing number of rigorous scientific investigations demonstrate differences in physicochemical and physical characteristics of such solutions. Strictly chemically regarded, they correspond to highly distilled water. Our research team developed a system of physicochemical and UV spectrographic measurements, whereby the differences may be consistently confirmed with high statistical significance.Methods:For measurement of the physicochemical parameters,we usedpH,electrical conductivity,and oxidation-reduction potential (ORP)sensors.For UV/VIS spectroscopymeasurements,we useda Macherey-Nagelspectrophotometer.For UHD research, we used two batches of substances: Russian (R) and Brazilian (B). In R, distilled water (W) was used for dilutions and potencies as follows: potentized water (W cH9), potentized dilution of antibodies to interferon-gamma (Abs IFNγ cH9), the same original substance in the form of a mixture of potencies (Abs IFNγ cH12, cH30, cH50, shortly Abs IFNγ mix). Furthermore, we prepared higher potencies of the substances (supplementary potentiation) in a specially prepared solution and measured their characteristics. In B, the solution was used for further dilutions and potencies as follows: potentized water (W cH1) and Glyphosate potencies (Gly cH6 => cH8, cH30 => cH 32, and cH200 => cH 202).For direct or post-hoc analysis, we used Wilcoxon signed-rank test, two-tailed.Results:UV-VIS spectroscopy (R): measurements of received liquids potentized for further cH1 show statistically significant differences between all substances, except between water W and W cH9 at 260 nm. Significant differences (p-values) were as follows: Abs IFNγ mixvs. W= 0.007; Abs IFNγ mixvs.W cH9=0.008; Abs IFNγ cH9vs. W=0.044; Abs IFNγ cH9vs.W cH9= 0.026; Abs IFNγ mixvs.W cH9= 0.007; W vs.W cH9= 0.506.Physicochemical measurements:R: measurementsdemonstrated statistical difference only in pH (Abs IFNγ mix towards all others). Significant differences (p-values) were as follows: Abs IFNγ mixvs. W=0.022; Abs IFNγ mixvs.W cH9=0.005; Abs IFNγ mixvs.Abs IFNγ cH9=0.025. After supplementarypotentiation, we obtained a more conspicuous picture with many statistical differences in conductivity and ORP, ranging from p= 0.001 to 0.046.A difference between water and potentized water has also been demonstrated.B: the measurements demonstrated statistical differences mainly in pH between Gly cH8 and the rest and between Gly cH202 and W cH1.Significant differences (p-values) were as follows:Gly cH8vs. Gly cH32 =0.027; Gly cH8vs. Gly cH202 = 0.011; Gly cH8vs. W cH1= 0.014; Gly cH202vs. W cH1= 0.034.Conclusion:UV/VIS at wavelength 260 nm Abs IFNγ mix discloses a pattern similar to exclusion zone (EZ)water at 270 nm.By additional potentiation and with physicochemical measurements, we obtained higher statistical differences than in the original dilutions.In contrast, UV/VIS spectroscopy showed more conspicuous results without additional potentiation. However, the very act of succussion becomes very distinct


Subject(s)
Water/analysis , Potency , Chemical Phenomena , Photoelectron Spectroscopy
5.
Prensa méd. argent ; 108(3): 157-164, 20220000.
Article in English | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1373258

ABSTRACT

Este artículo cubre los conceptos básicos de un nuevo modelo de homeopatía que se basa en la termodinámica química. La equivalencia entre el compuesto que causa la enfermedad en una persona saludable y el compuesto que causa la enfermedad en una persona enferma, lo que llevó a esta interpretación del nuevo modelo de homeopatía, está bien considerado. Se han considerado el mecanismo de curación, la Ley de los Similares y la Ley de los Infinitesimales. Este artículo también analiza los conceptos básicos del mecanismo de dilución y su influencia en la concentración final de moléculas de remedio en soluciones homeopáticas. El número máximo de pasos sucesivos que impliquen una molienda vigorosa y se consideró la dilución donde todavía es posible la existencia de una concentración terapéutica.


Tis article covers the basics of a new model of homeopathy that is grounded in chemical thermodynamics. Te equivalence between the disease-causing compound in a heathy person and the disease-causing compound in an ill person, which led to this interpretation of the new model of homeopathy, is well considered. Te mechanism of curing, the Law of Similars, and the Law of Infinitesimals were considered. Tis article also discusses the basics of the dilution mechanism and its influence on the final concentration of remedy molecules in homeopathic solutions. Te maximum number of succession steps involving vigorous grinding and dilution where the existence of a therapeutic concentration is still possible was considered


Subject(s)
Humans , Thermodynamics , Cure in Homeopathy/methods , Small Doses , Law of Similars/methods , Potency , Dilution/methods , Chemical Phenomena , Homeopathy/methods
6.
Biosci. j. (Online) ; 38: e38067, Jan.-Dec. 2022. graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1396896

ABSTRACT

Nitrogen, which is the primary nutrient peach trees need, may affect their fruit quality. Thus, this study aimed at evaluating the effect of nitrogen fertilization on two genotypes of peach trees, regarding their fruit quality, in three consecutive crops. The experiment was carried out in the experimental area that belongs to the Embrapa Clima Temperado, located in Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul (RS), Brazil, from 2016, 2016, 2017 and 2018. Four doses of nitrogen (0, 60, 120 and 180 Kg ha-1) and two peach tree genotypes ('Cascata 1513' and 'Cascata 1067') were used. For the fruit, we evaluated epidermis color, pulp firmness, epidermis firmness, soluble solids concentration, titratable acidity, concentration of total phenolic compounds, anthocyanins and antioxidant activity. Fruit underwent physical, chemical and bioactive compound analyses. Results showed that the highest dose of nitrogen (180 Kg ha-1) applied to the soil retards fruit ripening, while no application of nitrogen fertilization brings fruit maturation forward. Nitrogen fertilization via soil does not favor anthocyanins in fruit. Doses of 60 and 120 Kg ha-1 of nitrogen are recommended because they lead to improvement in peach color, epidermis firmness and acidity. Peach tree genotypes influence soluble solids, juice pH, phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity of their fruit.


Subject(s)
Chemical Phenomena , Phytochemicals , Prunus persica
7.
J. res. dent ; 10(1): 9-13, jan.-mar2022.
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1378178

ABSTRACT

Aim To evaluate physicochemical properties and semi-quantitative elemental analysis of AH Plus Jet with samples from the beginning, middle and final portions of the automix syringe system. Methodology Three experimental groups based on the source of the material used (beginning, middle and final portion) were established for each of the evaluated properties. Setting time, flow and radiopacity were evaluate following ANSI/ADA n. 57 specification. Set specimens was used in the semi-quantitative elemental analysis in an energy-dispersive X ray spectroscopy and scanning-electron microscopy (EDS/SEM). Statistical analysis was performed using one-way ANOVA followed by Tukey test (P<0.05). Results Flow, setting time, solubility and EDS/SEM tests showed no significant differences among the three portions of the automix syringe (P>0.05). Radiopacity test showed significant differences in the beginning of the syringe comparing to the middle and final portions (P<0.05). EDS/SEM analysis identified the presence of C, O, Al, Ca, Zr and W. The element Al, however, was found only in the final portion of the syringe. Conclusions The results of AH Plus Jet suggested an adequate ratio of the components, without segregation between organic and inorganic components, since the results of setting time, flow, solubility and EDS/SEM analysis presented similar values regardless of the portion of the syringe from where the sealer was taken.


Subject(s)
Humans , Root Canal Filling Materials , Solubility , Chemical Phenomena
8.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-988265

ABSTRACT

Aims@#The marine actinomycetes are a rich source of novel bioactive molecules. Especially the exotic tropical marine habitat of the Kerala coastal region favours the actinomycete diversity. The present study focuses on the isolation, purification and morphological characterization of marine actinomycetes for the discovery of new bioactive compounds.@*Methodology and results@#A total of 280 morphologically distinct actinomycetes were isolated from marine soil and sediments of 10 different isolation sites located along the coastal region of Thiruvananthapuram district, Kerala, India using standard microbiological techniques. The physicochemical analysis of the soil samples collected from different stations was also done.@*Conclusion, significance and impact of study@#Even though the soil/sediment samples were collected from geographically nearby places, the physicochemical parameters showed a significant variation. This may be one of the factors which may trigger the actinomycete diversity in these regions. The diversity of actinomycetes prevalent in this region could serve as a potential source for the discovery of novel biomolecules.


Subject(s)
Actinobacteria , Soil , Chemical Phenomena
9.
Braz. j. biol ; 82: 1-16, 2022. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1468601

ABSTRACT

Vegetable oils have their specific physicochemical properties due to which they are playing vital role in human nutritional diet for health benefits. Cottonseed oil is obtained from various species of cotton seeds that are famous to be grown mainly for their fiber quality. The most prominently used specie is Gossypium hirsutum. It is obvious that the seeds of different variety of cotton vary as grown in diverse agroclimatic conditions with respect to oil, fats and protein contents. Cottonseed oil is routinely used for cooking and food manufacturing products. Cottonseed oil obtained after proper extraction/processing steps from crude state to refined oil in a variety of ways. Cotton crop is considered for their dual-use purpose, for fiber quality and oil production to promote health benefits in the world. Keeping in view the above facts, this review clearly demonstrated an overview about physicochemical and functional properties of cottonseed oil to promote health benefits associated with the use of this oil. The overall characteristics and all concerned health benefits of CSO will further improve their usefulness is a compact way. We have summarized a brief multi-dimensional features of CSO in all aspects up to the best of our knowledge fort he end researchers who can further research in the respective aspect.


Os óleos vegetais têm propriedades físico-químicas específicas que desempenham um papel vital na dieta nutricional humana em benefício à saúde. O óleo de semente de algodão, utilizado rotineiramente no preparo e na fabricação de alimentos, é obtido através de várias espécies de sementes de algodão, famosas pela alta qualidade de sua fibra, cuja espécie mais utilizada é Gossypium hirsutum. As sementes variam, em relação ao teor do óleo, da gordura e das proteínas, de acordo com o cultivo e as diversas condições agroclimáticas. O óleo de algodão é obtido após etapas adequadas de extração das sementes e processamento do estado bruto ao refinado. Assim, a presente revisão demonstra, de maneira geral, as propriedades físico-químicas e funcionais do óleo de semente de algodão e seus benefícios à saúde humana, resumindo suas características multidimensionais. As características gerais e todos os benefícios do composto podem melhorar ainda mais se utilizadas de forma compacta, auxiliando futuros pesquisadores.


Subject(s)
Humans , Antioxidants/analysis , Chemical Phenomena , Gossypium/chemistry , Fatty Acids/analysis , Plant Oils/therapeutic use
10.
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 58: e19517, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1383995

ABSTRACT

Nordihydroguaiaretic acid (NDGA) is a natural product obtained by the alkaline extraction of dried plants of Larrea tridentata species. Due to the biological properties presented, such as antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antiviral and cytotoxic capacity, this compound is being increasingly studied. In this review, it was evaluated the benefits of NDGA against different animal models. Besides that, it was found that this compound has antitumor activity similar to its synthetic derivative terameprocol in prostate tumors. The hypoglycemic effect may be evidenced by the inhibition of sugar uptake by NDGA; in obesity, studies have observed that NDGA presented a positive regulatory effect for Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPAR-α) involved in the oxidation of hepatic fatty acids and reduced the expression of lipogenic genes. Regarding its antioxidant potential, its mechanism is related to the ability to in vitro scavenging reactive substances. Although there are several studies demonstrating the benefits of using NDGA, there are also reports of its toxicity, mainly of liver damage and nephrotoxicity


Subject(s)
Masoprocol/analysis , Chemical Phenomena , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Plants/classification , Biological Products/analysis , In Vitro Techniques/methods , Models, Animal , Toxicity , Hypoglycemic Agents/pharmacology , Neoplasms , Antioxidants/pharmacology
11.
Acta Paul. Enferm. (Online) ; 35: eAPE00771, 2022. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1364239

ABSTRACT

Resumo Objetivo Avaliar a qualidade microbiológica do leite humano pasteurizado proveniente de um Banco de Leite Humano do Estado de São Paulo. Métodos Estudo descritivo conduzido com 29 amostras de leite humano ordenhado pasteurizado (LHOP) obtidas entre julho de 2015 a março de 2016 por meio da avaliação dos registros da acidez titulável bem como da quantificação da microbiota heterotrófica (mesófilos, psicrófilos, termófilos), coliformes totais e termotolerantes, fungos filamentosos e leveduriformes e Staphylococcus spp. Realizou-se a avaliação dos parâmetros físico-químicos por meio do potencial hidrogeniônico-pH, teor energético-K e acidez Dornic-ºD. Análises estatísticas descritivas e bivariadas foram conduzidas. Resultados Evidenciou-se nas amostras a presença de psicrófilos (17,24%), termófilos (27,59%), mesófilos (55,17%), fungos filamentosos e leveduriformes (41,38%) e ausência de Staphylococcus spp. Detectou-se a presença de 82,76% de coliformes no teste presuntivo. Já no teste confirmativo VB constatou-se a presença de 54,16% de coliformes totais e no teste EC 33,33% de coliformes termotolerantes. Os valores de pH e de K não apresentaram oscilações, enquanto que, na expressão da acidez entre 3º a 15°D detectou-se crescimento microbiano. O microrganismo mesófilo, apresentou correlação positiva com variável da acidez Dornic (r=0.44;p=0.01). Conclusão A partir da avaliação da qualidade microbiológica das amostras de LHOP descartado e consideradas impróprias para consumo no referido BLH, especificamente com relação aos indicadores microbiológicos das condições de higiene, sugere que a inviabilidade das amostras possam estar associadas às boas práticas de manipulação do alimento.


Resumen Objetivo Evaluar la calidad microbiológica de la leche humana pasteurizada proveniente de un banco de leche humana del estado de São Paulo. Métodos Estudio descriptivo realizado con 29 muestras de leche humana ordeñada pasteurizada (LHOP) obtenidas entre julio de 2015 y marzo de 2016 por medio de la evaluación de los registros de acidez titulable, así como de la cuantificación de la microbiota heterótrofa (mesófilos, psicrófilos, termófilos), coliformes totales y termotolerantes, hongos filamentosos y levaduriformes y Staphylococcus spp. Se realizó la evaluación de los parámetros físico-químicos mediante el potencial de hidrógeno (pH), valor energético (K) y acidez Dornic-ºD. Se llevaron a cabo análisis descriptivos y bivariados. Resultados Se observó en las muestras la presencia de psicrófilos (17,24 %), termófilos (27,59 %), mesófilos (55,17 %), hongos filamentosos y levaduriformes (41,38 %) y ausencia de Staphylococcus spp. Se detectó la presencia del 82,76 % de coliformes en la prueba presuntiva. Por otro lado, en la prueba confirmativa VB se confirmó la presencia del 54,16 % de coliformes totales, y en la prueba EC se verificó el 33,33 % de coliformes termotolerantes. Los valores de pH y de K no presentaron oscilaciones, mientras que se detectó crecimiento microbiano en la expresión de la acidez entre 3 y 15°D. El microrganismo mesófilo presentó correlación positiva con variable de la acidez Dornic (r=0.44; p=0.01). Conclusión A partir de la evaluación de calidad microbiológica de las muestras de LHOP descartadas y consideradas inapropiadas para consumo en el BLH mencionado, especialmente respecto a los indicadores microbiológicos de las condiciones de higiene, se sugiere que la inviabilidad de las muestras pueda estar asociada con las buenas prácticas de manipulación del alimento.


Abstract Objective To assess the microbiological quality of pasteurized human milk from a Human Milk Bank in the State of São Paulo. Methods This is a descriptive study conducted with 29 pasteurized expressed human milk (PEHM) samples obtained between July 2015 and March 2016 by assessing titratable acidity records as well as quantifying heterotrophic microbiota (mesophiles, psychrophiles, thermophiles), total and thermotolerant coliforms, filamentous and yeast-like fungi and Staphylococcus spp. The physical-chemical parameters were assessed via hydrogen-pH potential, K-energy content and Dornic-ºD acidity. Descriptive and bivariate statistical analyzes were conducted. Results The presence of psychrophiles (17.24%), thermophiles (27.59%), mesophiles (55.17%), filamentous and yeast-like fungi (41.38%) and absence of Staphylococcus spp were evidenced in the sample. The presence of 82.76% of coliforms was detected in the presumptive test. In the confirmatory VB test, the presence of 54.16% of total coliforms was found and, in the EC test, we verified 33.33% of thermotolerant coliforms. The pH and K values did not show oscillations, whereas, in the expression of acidity between 3º and 15°D, microbial growth was detected. The mesophilic microorganism showed a positive correlation with the Dornic acidity variable (r=0.44; p=0.01). Conclusion Based on the microbiological quality assessment of the HMB samples discarded and considered unfit for consumption in the HMB, specifically regarding the microbiological indicators of hygiene conditions, it suggests that the infeasibility of the samples may be associated with good food handling practices.


Subject(s)
Chemical Phenomena , Pasteurization , Food Handling , Milk, Human/microbiology , Brazil , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Microbiological Techniques , Milk Banks
12.
Braz. j. oral sci ; 20: e212098, jan.-dez. 2021. ilus
Article in English | BBO, LILACS | ID: biblio-1281101

ABSTRACT

Aim: This study aimed to evaluate the pH, Ca2+ release, solubility, and antimicrobial activity of calcium hydroxide (Ca(OH)2) pastes in association with different substances. Methods: Sixty acrylic teeth (n=10) were filled with pastes that associated Ca(OH)2 with the following substances: benzalkonium chloride 5% (G1) and 50% (G2) both in propylene glycol, arnica glycolic extract (G3), green tea glycolic extract (G4), Calen/PMCC™ (G5), and Calen™ (G6). In the group G1 to G4 were used 1g of Ca(OH)2 powder with 0,8g of vehicle. pH and Ca2+ release was measured after 7, 15, and 30 days. For solubility, micro-CT was used immediately and at the periods of 7, 15, and 30 days. For the antimicrobial analysis, a biofilm of E. faecalis was induced in vitro on bovine dentin discs. Live/dead viability dye and confocal scanning microscopy were used. Results: The highest pH values occurred on the first 7 days, and the G6, G1, G3, and G5 presented the highest pH values at this period (P <0.05). Ca2+ release was higher in all groups at 7 days, with the highest values observed in G1, G5, and G6. The volume of all pastes showed no significant difference in the intragroup analysis at 7 and 15 days (P <0.05). G1 and G2 showed the highest antimicrobial action (P <0.05). For the biovolume, there was difference between the G6 and the other groups (P >0.05) with G1 presenting the lowest values. Conclusion: Benzalkonium chloride 5% increases the antimicrobial action of the Ca(OH2), without impairs physicochemical properties


Subject(s)
Root Canal Filling Materials , Calcium Hydroxide , Biofilms , Chemical Phenomena , Anti-Infective Agents
13.
Rev. cuba. invest. bioméd ; 40(4)dic. 2021. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1408585

ABSTRACT

Introducción: Las propiedades antibacterianas de Plantago major frente a microorganismos orales no se ha estudiado ampliamente. Objetivo: Identificar los metabolitos secundarios presentes en el extracto etanólico de Plantago major y determinar su actividad antibacteriana frente a Streptococcus mutans. Métodos: Se prepararon concentraciones del 25 por ciento, 50 por ciento, 75 por ciento y 100 por ciento de extracto etanólico (EE) de Plantago major. Se cargaron seis discos de papel con 10 µL, 15 µL, 20 µL y 25 µL de cada concentración, haciendo un total de 96 discos. Los discos fueron colocados en placas Petri con agar cerebro-corazón inoculadas con Streptococcus mutans, se empleó clorhexidina al 0,12 por ciento como control positivo. Se calcularon seis repeticiones para cada concentración. Las placas fueron incubadas a 37 °C por 48 horas. La medición de los halos de inhibición se realizó con un compás digital. El análisis estadístico se realizó mediante la prueba ANOVA de un factor seguido por la prueba post hoc de Tukey. Resultados: El análisis químico del extracto etanólico de Plantago major identificó la presencia de terpenos, diterpenos, saponinas, terpenoidales y aceites esenciales. Las concentraciones del 25 por ciento y 50 por ciento no mostraron efecto antibacteriano, los volúmenes mayores de 20 µL de la concentración del 75 por ciento y todas los del 100 por ciento fueron efectivos para inhibir el crecimiento de Streptococcus mutans con halos de inhibición de 8,36 mm a 14,64 mm. La clorhexidina al 0,12 por ciento inhibió el crecimiento de Streptococcus mutans con halos de inhibición de 17,77 mm en promedio, presentando diferencias significativas con todas las concentraciones del extracto etanólico de Plantago major (P < 0,05). Conclusiones: El extracto etanólico de Plantago major presentó derivados de los terpenos y saponinas, y mostró actividad antibacteriana frente a Streptococcus mutans en volúmenes y concentraciones mayores a 20 µL/75 por ciento(AU)


Introduction: The antibacterial properties of Plantago major against oral microorganisms have not been widely studied. Objective: Identify the secondary metabolites present in an ethanolic extract of Plantago major and determine their antibacterial activity against Streptococcus mutans. Methods: The Plantago major ethanolic extract (EE) was prepared at concentrations of 25 percent, 50 percent, 75 percent and 100 percent. Six paper discs were loaded with 10 µl, 15 µl, 20 µl and 25 µl of each concentration, for a total 96 discs, which were then placed on Petri plates with brain heart agar inoculated with Streptococcus mutans. The positive control was 0.12 percent chlorhexidine. Six replicates were estimated for each concentration. The plates were incubated at 37ºC for 48 hours. Inhibition haloes were measured with a digital caliper. Statistical analysis was based on one-factor ANOVA testing followed by Tukey's post hoc test. Results: Chemical analysis of the Plantago major ethanolic extract identified the presence of terpenes, diterpenes, saponins, terpenoids and essential oils. The 25 percent and 50 percent concentrations did not display an antibacterial effect, whereas volumes above 20 µl of the 75 percent concentration and all 100 percent volumes were effective to inhibit Streptococcus mutans growth with inhibition haloes of 8.36 mm to 14.64 mm. 0.12 percent chlorhexidine inhibited Streptococcus mutans with inhibition haloes of 17.77 mm on average, presenting significant differences with all the concentrations of the Plantago major ethanolic extract (p < 0.05). Conclusions: The Plantago major ethanolic extract was found to contain terpene and saponin derivatives, and displayed antibacterial activity against Streptococcus mutans at volumes and concentrations above 20 µl / 75 percent(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Streptococcus mutans , Plantago major/analysis , Chemical Phenomena , Anti-Bacterial Agents , Saponins/metabolism , Terpenes/metabolism , Oils, Volatile/metabolism , Intervention Studies , Cross-Sectional Studies , Prospective Studies , Analysis of Variance , Diterpenes/metabolism
14.
Biomédica (Bogotá) ; 41(3): 555-589, jul.-set. 2021. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1345403

ABSTRACT

Resumen En la última década se ha incrementado el número de estudios y publicaciones sobre las vesículas extracelulares y los exosomas. En Colombia, ha habido interés y avances en su estudio, lo que se evidencia en el aumento de publicaciones y proyectos de investigación. Sin embargo, este es un campo de investigación aún en desarrollo, con desafíos analíticos y limitaciones técnicas, por lo cual, en el planteamiento de los proyectos de investigación y desarrollo, es necesario considerar cuál es el estado del campo científico a nivel mundial en cuanto a la nomenclatura y la clasificación de las vesículas extracelulares, las técnicas, recursos, requisitos y especificaciones de calidad y las instituciones que regulan el campo. La respuesta a esta pregunta permitirá desarrollar estudios que cumplan con los estándares internacionales, y las exigencias y recomendaciones institucionales. Sin embargo, la información científica disponible se encuentra dispersa y no todos los aspectos son tratados a cabalidad. En este actualización se condensa la información disponible y se presentan los términos oficiales para denominar las vesículas extracelulares y la nomenclatura aceptada actualmente, así como la evolución del campo, la homogenización de los parámetros experimentales, el establecimiento de autoridades científicas, instituciones y recursos, y las recomendaciones que se han generado a nivel mundial para el desarrollo de investigaciones en vesículas extracelulares, incluidos su aislamiento, caracterización y estudio funcional. Por último, se analiza el contexto nacional de una forma crítica, teniendo en cuenta las fortalezas institucionales, los errores usualmente cometidos, y las técnicas y tecnologías analíticas disponibles.


Abstract In the last decade, the number of studies and publications on extracellular vesicles (EV) and exosomes has boomed. Colombia has displayed interest and progress in their study as shown in the increase of research project publications and products. However, this research field is still developing and has its own analytical challenges and technical limitations. For planning research projects and developing EV studies it is necessary to consider what is the state of the scientific field worldwide concerning EV nomenclature and classification, available techniques, resources, requirements and quality specifications, and the institutions that regulate the field. Answering this question will elicit EV studies that comply with international standards and respond to institutional demands and recommendations. However, the scientific information available is scattered and not all the aspects are considered in full. In this update, the available information is condensed and the official terms and currently defined nomenclature is presented, as well as the evolution of the field, the homogenization of the experimental parameters, the establishment of scientific authorities, institutions, and resources, and the recommendations generated worldwide for their development and research including their isolation, characterization, and functional studies. Finally, I analyzed the national context in a critical way, considering institutional strengths, common mistakes, and available analytical techniques and technologies.


Subject(s)
Extracellular Vesicles , Chemistry Techniques, Analytical , Resource Guide , Cell-Derived Microparticles , Exosomes , Chemical Phenomena , Terminology as Topic
15.
Acta amaz ; 51(2): 171-180, jun. 2021.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1353481

ABSTRACT

Os sistemas agroflorestais (SAFs) integram, com práticas sustentáveis, culturas agrícolas e florestais para produção de madeira e alimentos, conservando os serviços ambientais e a biodiversidade. O freijó, Cordia goeldiana, tem potencial para cultivo na Amazônia para fins madeireiros, porém dados sobre as características de sua madeira em SAFs são escassas. Objetivou-se determinar as propriedades físico-mecânicas e aplicações tecnológicas da madeira de freijó produzida em um SAF multiestratificado estabelecido no estado de Rondônia, Brasil em 1996. No SAF, as espécies agrícolas e madeireiras foram estabelecidas em renques duplos no espaçamento 5,0 m x 2,5 m. Abateram-se três árvores de freijó com 19 anos de idade, para caracterização química, física (densidade e estabilidade dimensional) e mecânica (compressão, flexão estática, dureza Janka e cisalhamento) da madeira. A madeira de freijó apresentou composição química similar à de madeiras nobres tropicais, peso moderado (582,63 kg m-3) e estabilidade dimensional elevada em comparação com outras madeiras consagradas no mercado (retração longitudinal, radial e tangencial = 0,25, 4,27 e 6,83%, respectivamente). Os valores de resistência à compressão paralela (32,32 MPa) e perpendicular (8.02 MPa), resistência específica (55,32 MPa kg-1 m-3), dureza Janka paralela (2373,33 N) e perpendicular (2326,67 N), resistência à flexão estática (63,5 MPa) e ao cisalhamento (5,94 MPa) foram semelhantes aos valores observados em outras madeiras tropicais de alta densidade, produzidas em monocultivo e florestas naturais. A madeira em estudo é adequada para fabricação de produtos de alto valor agregado, como móveis finos, pisos residenciais, instrumentos musicais e peças estruturais. (AU)


Subject(s)
Wood , Ecosystem , Chemical Phenomena , Mechanical Tests
16.
Rev. bras. ciênc. vet ; 28(1): 57-60, jan./mar. 2021. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1491702

ABSTRACT

Objetivou-se verificar a compatibilidade entre diferentes marcas de tiras reagentes para urinálise, tanto de uso veterinário, como de uso humano, e confrontar os parâmetros semiquantitativos desse instrumento com métodos quantitativos. Para isso, foram analisadas 77 amostras frescas de urina de cães e gatos e testados 04 modelos de tiras reagentes. Quanto à densidade urinária, houve correlação razoável entre os métodos quantitativo e semiquantitativo naquelas amostras com pH ácido, mas não naquelas com pH neutro ou alcalino. Quanto à concentração proteica, houve similaridade de 53,3% a 83,3% entre as marcas testadas e quando comparadas com a análise fotométrica houve uma correlação razoável (rs = 0,69752 a 0,75074). Em ponto de corte de 15mg/dL de proteína, a sensibilidade da tira reagente foi 82,5% e 100% para urina canina e felina, respectivamente. No tocante à hematúria, houve divergência razoável entre a sedimentoscopia e as diferentes marcas de tiras reativas. Quanto à piúria, há uma baixa sensibilidade das tiras em relação às amostras caninas com muitos resultados falso-negativos (33% a 75%), enquanto em amostras felinas a sensibilidade foi de 100%. Assim, independente da marca, as tiras reagentes devem servir apenas como teste rápido de triagem, sendo mais apropriado o uso de métodos quantitativos na avaliação clínica do paciente a partir da urinálise.


The aim was to verify the compatibility between different brands of urinary dipsticks, for both human and veterinary use, and to compare the semiquantitative parameters of this instrument with quantitative methods. For this, 77 fresh samples of urine from dogs and cats were analyzed e and 04 models of reagent strips were tested. Regarding urinary density, a reasonable correlation was observed between the quantitative and semiquantitative methods in those samples with acidic pH, which did not occur in those with neutral or alkaline pH. Regarding the protein concentration, there was similarity from 53.3% to 83.3% between the brands and in the comparative analysis between the control strip and the photometric analysis, there was a reasonable correlation (rs = 0.69752 to 0.75074). In cut-off point of 15mg/dL protein, the sensitivity of the reagent strip was 82.5% and 100% for canine and feline urine, respectively. Regarding hematuria, there was a reasonable divergence of results between sedimentation and tested dipsticks. As for pyuria, there is a low sensitivity of the strips in relation to canine samples with many false negative results (33% to 75%), while in feline samples the sensitivity was 100%. Thus, regardless of the brands, the reagent strips should serve only as a rapid screening test, while the use of quantitative methods in the clinical evaluation of the patient from urinalysis is more appropriate.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cats , Dogs , Pets , Dogs/physiology , Chemical Phenomena , Cats/physiology , Indicators and Reagents , Urine/chemistry , Urinalysis/veterinary , Hematuria , Pyuria
17.
Biosci. j. (Online) ; 37: e37064, Jan.-Dec. 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1359149

ABSTRACT

Despite the importance of passion fruit for the Brazilian fruit market, there are still many agronomic and fruit quality problems to be solved, in order to increase this crop performance. The objective of this study was to evaluate the quality of twelve genotypes of wild, sweet and yellow passion fruit, aiming to identify promising materials considering fruit quality, in Federal District, Brazil. An experiment was carried out at the Água Limpa Farm of the Universidade de Brasília (UnB) from 2016 to 2018, in a randomized block design, with 12 treatments, 4 replicates and 6 plants/plot. At the harvesting time, six fruits per plot were randomly collected for the following physicochemical analysis: fruit mass, pulp mass with and without seeds, length/longitudinal diameter, width/transverse diameter, length/width ratio, husk thickness, predominant color of the pulp (L*, C*, h*), number of seeds, seed size, total soluble solids content, total titratable acidity, total soluble solids/total titratable acidity ratio and pH. High heritability values ​​and relation of genetic/environment variation coefficients ratio were observed for most of the characteristics evaluated. The genotypes of yellow passion fruit MAR20#21 P2 x FB 200 P1 R2 and MAR20#19 ROXO R4 x ECRAM P3 R3 showed the best characteristics of fruit mass and pulp mass with seed. All the genotypes studied showed values ​​of total soluble solids above 11ºBrix. Positive and significant correlation was observed between fruit mass and length/width ratio, indicating that oblong fruits have higher fruit mass.


Subject(s)
Colorimetry , Passiflora , Chemical Phenomena , Plant Breeding
18.
Braz. arch. biol. technol ; 64: e21200117, 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1285553

ABSTRACT

Abstract This study evaluated the effects of three chemical pretreatments of biomass sorghum (BS): dilute alkaline (PTA1 and PTA2), dilute acid (PTB1 and PTB2) and alkaline hydrogen peroxide (PTC1 and PTC2) in the enzymatic hydrolysis and ethanol production. Among the six investigated conditions, the pretreatment with 7.36% H2O2 (PTC2) was the most efficient in the lignin removal and preservation of the polysaccharide fraction. After the enzymatic hydrolysis, increases in the glucose and xylose concentrations were observed in the pretreated BS hydrolysates, mainly in PTB1 and PTC1. All the hydrolysates obtained low concentrations of inhibitors. In the alcoholic fermentations with Pichia stiptis, the greatest ethanol yield was obtained in PTB1 hydrolysate (3.84 g L-1), corresponding to 16.15% of yield. The highest ethanol yield in PTB1 hydrolysate can be justified by the maximum concentration of xylose obtained in this hydrolysate, demonstrating the potential of P. stiptis in the fermentation of pentose to ethanol. The results indicated that biomass sorghum is an alternative lignocellulose source with potential for the production of second generation ethanol, opening up prospects for additional studies.


Subject(s)
Biomass , Ethanol , Chemical Phenomena , Hydrogen Peroxide , Metals, Alkali
19.
Rev. cuba. invest. bioméd ; 40(supl.1): e1450, 2021. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1289473

ABSTRACT

Introducción: La Minthostachys mollises una planta aromática que crece en América Latina y produce aceites esenciales con acción antimicrobiana. Objetivo: Determinar la actividad del aceite esencial de Minthostachys mollis en diferentes concentraciones, comparado con doxiciclina y fluconazol frente a Porphyromonas gingivalis, Staphylococcus aureus y Candida albicans, a las 24, 48 y 72 horas. Métodos: Se realiza estudio experimental in vitro y longitudinal. Se prepararon 15 pocillos por subgrupo para evaluar el efecto inhibitorio de todas las concentraciones, dando un total de 360 pocillos. Por cromatografía de gases acoplada a espectrometría de masas se identificaron los componentes químicos del aceite esencial. Se analizó el efecto inhibitorio por el método de difusión de Kirby-Bauer en Agar Columbia y Agar Muller Hinton. El análisis estadístico se realizó mediante la prueba ANOVA y Tukey. Resultados: En el análisis químico se identificó principalmente pulegona (30,17 por ciento) y mentona (16,55 por ciento). Los halos de inhibición de Minthostachys mollis al 100 por ciento a las 24, 48 y 72 horas frente a la Porphyromonas gingivalis, midieron: 10,2 mm, 9,8 mm y 9,6 mm, respectivamente; frente al Staphylococcus aureus, midieron: 10,4 mm, 9,7 mm y 9,4 mm, respectivamente; y, por último, frente a Candida albicans midieron: 9,8 mm, 8,9 mm y 8,5 mm, respectivamente. Todas las concentraciones de Minthostachys mollis presentaron un efecto antimicrobiano significativamente menor que el fluconazol y la doxiciclina (p < 0,001). Conclusiones: El aceite esencial de Minthostachys mollis al 100 % presentó su mejor actividad inhibitoria frente al Staphylococcus aureus, la Porphyromonas gingivalis y la Candida albicans a las 24 horas. Sin embargo, este efecto antimicrobiano disminuye a medida que pasa el tiempo(AU)


Introduction: Minthostachys mollis is an aromatic plant species growing in Latin America which produces essential oils with antimicrobial activity. Objective: Determine the activity of essential oil from Minthostachys mollis at various concentrations as compared with doxycycline and fluconazole against Porphyromonas gingivalis, Staphylococcus aureus and Candida albicans at 24, 48 and 72 hours. Methods: An in vitro experimental longitudinal study was conducted. Fifteen wells were prepared per subgroup to evaluate the inhibitory effect of all concentrations, for a sum total of 360 wells. Chemical components of the essential oil were identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The inhibitory effect was analyzed with the Kirby-Bauer diffusion method in Mueller-Hinton and Columbia agar. Statistical analysis was based on ANOVA and Tukey's test. Results: Chemical analysis mainly found pulegone (30.17 percent) and menthone (16.55 percent). The inhibition halos of 100 percent Minthostachys mollis at 24, 48 and 72 hours against Porphyromonas gingivalis measured 10.2 mm, 9.8 mm and 9.6 mm, respectively, against Staphylococcus aureus they measured 10.4 mm, 9.7 mm and 9.4 mm, respectively, and against Candida albicans they measured 9.8 mm, 8.9 mm and 8.5 mm, respectively. The antimicrobial effect of Minthostachys mollis at all concentrations was significantly lower than that of fluconazole and doxycycline (p < 0.001). Conclusions: The essential oil from 100% Minthostachys mollis displayed its best inhibitory activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Porphyromonas gingivalis and Candida albicans at 24 hours. However, such antimicrobial effect decreases with the passing of time(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , In Vitro Techniques , Oils, Volatile , Fluconazole , Analysis of Variance , Chromatography, Gas , Porphyromonas gingivalis , Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry , Longitudinal Studies , Chemical Phenomena
20.
Rev. Asoc. Colomb. Cien. Biol. (En línea) ; 2(33): 46-59, 2021. graf, mapas, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1379275

ABSTRACT

Introducción: Los ríos andinos en Colombia están fuertemente influenciados por diferentes actividades antrópicas. Los macroinvertebrados han sido utilizados para evaluar la calidad del agua en estos ecosistemas. Objetivo: Este estudio analizó el comportamiento de diferentes índices basados en macroinvertebrados para evaluar la calidad del agua del tramo medio-bajo del río Jordán en Jamundí (Colombia). Materiales y métodos: Se ubicaron tres estaciones de muestreo: E1 (1173 m.s.n.m.), E2 (1069 m.s.n.m.) y E3 (1019 m.s.n.m.). Se colectaron individuos en grava, bolos y macrófitas (n=15) y se midieron las concentraciones de variables fisicoquímicas y microbiológicas (n=15). Se evaluaron los índices de calidad de agua ICA-NSF y bióticos (BMWP/Univalle, ASPT y EPT) y los índices de Shannon-Weaver, Margalef y Simpson. Se realizó una correlación de Spearman entre las matrices de similitud biótica y ambiental. Resultados: El ICA-NSF presentó variaciones espacio temporales no significativas entre las estaciones de muestreo, con calidades de agua entre "regular" y "excelente". Los índices de diversidad mostraron que la equidad y riqueza son mayores en la estación E1. El BMWP/Univalle evidenció la influencia de las diferentes actividades sobre la subcuenca del río Jordán, clasificando la estación E1 como "Buena", E2 "Aceptable" y E3 "Dudosa". Las variables que mejor explicaron el patrón de diversidad fueron las asociadas a la contaminación orgánica (DBO5 y Coliformes totales). Conclusiones: Integralmente, los índices muestran que la mejor calidad del agua se presenta en la estación E1 donde la influencia de las actividades antrópicas es menor.


Introduction: Andean rivers in Colombia are heavily influenced along the drainage basin by various human activities. Aquatic macroinvertebrates have been used in different water environments to assess water quality in rivers. Objective: This study analyzed the behavior of different biotic indices to assess water quality of the lower middle section of the Jordan River in the department of Valle del Cauca, Colombia. Materials and methods: Sampling sites were situated at different altitudes as well with different anthropogenic influences. Physicochemical and microbiological parameters (n = 15) were measured, simultaneously with biological variables. Individuals were collected in gravel, pebbles and macrophytes (n = 15) using Surber nets (0.36 m2, 500 µm) a screen net (1.6 m2, 350 µm) and a D-net (0.9 m2, 500 µm). The water quality index (NSF ICA), biotic indices BMWP/Univalle, ASPT, EPT, and the Shannon-Weaver Equity index, Margalef Diversity index and Simpson's dominance index were evaluated to determine the macroinvertebrate assemblage through sampling sites. Spearman correlation between matrices of biotic and environmental similarity, using PRIMER® software was used to determine relationship between physicochemical variables and biodiversity. Results: The water quality index ICA-NSF showed spatio-temporal variations with water qualities between "regular" and "excellent". Diversity indices showed that equity and wealth are greater at site E1, where the influence of pollution is low. Biotic indices behaved variably, BMWP/Univalle index reflected more adequately the influence of human activities of the Jordan River sub-basin. Conclusions: The variables that best explained the pattern of diversity were those associated with organic pollution (BOD5 and total coliforms).


Subject(s)
Water Quality , Statistics, Nonparametric , Chemical Phenomena
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL