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1.
Braz. j. oral sci ; 20: e212098, jan.-dez. 2021. ilus
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1281101

ABSTRACT

Aim: This study aimed to evaluate the pH, Ca2+ release, solubility, and antimicrobial activity of calcium hydroxide (Ca(OH)2) pastes in association with different substances. Methods: Sixty acrylic teeth (n=10) were filled with pastes that associated Ca(OH)2 with the following substances: benzalkonium chloride 5% (G1) and 50% (G2) both in propylene glycol, arnica glycolic extract (G3), green tea glycolic extract (G4), Calen/PMCC™ (G5), and Calen™ (G6). In the group G1 to G4 were used 1g of Ca(OH)2 powder with 0,8g of vehicle. pH and Ca2+ release was measured after 7, 15, and 30 days. For solubility, micro-CT was used immediately and at the periods of 7, 15, and 30 days. For the antimicrobial analysis, a biofilm of E. faecalis was induced in vitro on bovine dentin discs. Live/dead viability dye and confocal scanning microscopy were used. Results: The highest pH values occurred on the first 7 days, and the G6, G1, G3, and G5 presented the highest pH values at this period (P <0.05). Ca2+ release was higher in all groups at 7 days, with the highest values observed in G1, G5, and G6. The volume of all pastes showed no significant difference in the intragroup analysis at 7 and 15 days (P <0.05). G1 and G2 showed the highest antimicrobial action (P <0.05). For the biovolume, there was difference between the G6 and the other groups (P >0.05) with G1 presenting the lowest values. Conclusion: Benzalkonium chloride 5% increases the antimicrobial action of the Ca(OH2), without impairs physicochemical properties


Subject(s)
Root Canal Filling Materials , Calcium Hydroxide , Biofilms , Chemical Phenomena , Anti-Infective Agents
2.
Rev. cuba. invest. bioméd ; 40(supl.1): e1450, 2021. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1289473

ABSTRACT

Introducción: La Minthostachys mollises una planta aromática que crece en América Latina y produce aceites esenciales con acción antimicrobiana. Objetivo: Determinar la actividad del aceite esencial de Minthostachys mollis en diferentes concentraciones, comparado con doxiciclina y fluconazol frente a Porphyromonas gingivalis, Staphylococcus aureus y Candida albicans, a las 24, 48 y 72 horas. Métodos: Se realiza estudio experimental in vitro y longitudinal. Se prepararon 15 pocillos por subgrupo para evaluar el efecto inhibitorio de todas las concentraciones, dando un total de 360 pocillos. Por cromatografía de gases acoplada a espectrometría de masas se identificaron los componentes químicos del aceite esencial. Se analizó el efecto inhibitorio por el método de difusión de Kirby-Bauer en Agar Columbia y Agar Muller Hinton. El análisis estadístico se realizó mediante la prueba ANOVA y Tukey. Resultados: En el análisis químico se identificó principalmente pulegona (30,17 por ciento) y mentona (16,55 por ciento). Los halos de inhibición de Minthostachys mollis al 100 por ciento a las 24, 48 y 72 horas frente a la Porphyromonas gingivalis, midieron: 10,2 mm, 9,8 mm y 9,6 mm, respectivamente; frente al Staphylococcus aureus, midieron: 10,4 mm, 9,7 mm y 9,4 mm, respectivamente; y, por último, frente a Candida albicans midieron: 9,8 mm, 8,9 mm y 8,5 mm, respectivamente. Todas las concentraciones de Minthostachys mollis presentaron un efecto antimicrobiano significativamente menor que el fluconazol y la doxiciclina (p < 0,001). Conclusiones: El aceite esencial de Minthostachys mollis al 100 % presentó su mejor actividad inhibitoria frente al Staphylococcus aureus, la Porphyromonas gingivalis y la Candida albicans a las 24 horas. Sin embargo, este efecto antimicrobiano disminuye a medida que pasa el tiempo(AU)


Introduction: Minthostachys mollis is an aromatic plant species growing in Latin America which produces essential oils with antimicrobial activity. Objective: Determine the activity of essential oil from Minthostachys mollis at various concentrations as compared with doxycycline and fluconazole against Porphyromonas gingivalis, Staphylococcus aureus and Candida albicans at 24, 48 and 72 hours. Methods: An in vitro experimental longitudinal study was conducted. Fifteen wells were prepared per subgroup to evaluate the inhibitory effect of all concentrations, for a sum total of 360 wells. Chemical components of the essential oil were identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The inhibitory effect was analyzed with the Kirby-Bauer diffusion method in Mueller-Hinton and Columbia agar. Statistical analysis was based on ANOVA and Tukey's test. Results: Chemical analysis mainly found pulegone (30.17 percent) and menthone (16.55 percent). The inhibition halos of 100 percent Minthostachys mollis at 24, 48 and 72 hours against Porphyromonas gingivalis measured 10.2 mm, 9.8 mm and 9.6 mm, respectively, against Staphylococcus aureus they measured 10.4 mm, 9.7 mm and 9.4 mm, respectively, and against Candida albicans they measured 9.8 mm, 8.9 mm and 8.5 mm, respectively. The antimicrobial effect of Minthostachys mollis at all concentrations was significantly lower than that of fluconazole and doxycycline (p < 0.001). Conclusions: The essential oil from 100% Minthostachys mollis displayed its best inhibitory activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Porphyromonas gingivalis and Candida albicans at 24 hours. However, such antimicrobial effect decreases with the passing of time(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , In Vitro Techniques , Oils, Volatile , Fluconazole , Analysis of Variance , Chromatography, Gas , Porphyromonas gingivalis , Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry , Longitudinal Studies , Chemical Phenomena
3.
Braz. arch. biol. technol ; 64: e21200117, 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1285553

ABSTRACT

Abstract This study evaluated the effects of three chemical pretreatments of biomass sorghum (BS): dilute alkaline (PTA1 and PTA2), dilute acid (PTB1 and PTB2) and alkaline hydrogen peroxide (PTC1 and PTC2) in the enzymatic hydrolysis and ethanol production. Among the six investigated conditions, the pretreatment with 7.36% H2O2 (PTC2) was the most efficient in the lignin removal and preservation of the polysaccharide fraction. After the enzymatic hydrolysis, increases in the glucose and xylose concentrations were observed in the pretreated BS hydrolysates, mainly in PTB1 and PTC1. All the hydrolysates obtained low concentrations of inhibitors. In the alcoholic fermentations with Pichia stiptis, the greatest ethanol yield was obtained in PTB1 hydrolysate (3.84 g L-1), corresponding to 16.15% of yield. The highest ethanol yield in PTB1 hydrolysate can be justified by the maximum concentration of xylose obtained in this hydrolysate, demonstrating the potential of P. stiptis in the fermentation of pentose to ethanol. The results indicated that biomass sorghum is an alternative lignocellulose source with potential for the production of second generation ethanol, opening up prospects for additional studies.


Subject(s)
Biomass , Ethanol , Chemical Phenomena , Hydrogen Peroxide , Metals, Alkali
4.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 72(4): 1424-1432, July-Aug. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | ID: biblio-1131495

ABSTRACT

Objetivou-se, com este estudo, avaliar o efeito de dietas com diferentes níveis de energia no consumo de nutrientes, na produção e na composição do leite, no peso corporal e na relação benefício:custo de uma produção de cabras leiteiras. Foram utilizadas nove cabras, distribuídas em quadrado latino triplo 3 x 3. O ensaio teve duração de 60 dias, divididos em três períodos de 20 dias. Avaliaram-se rações completas contendo três níveis de energia: 65%, 70% e 75% de NDT. Os consumos de matéria seca, proteína bruta e matéria mineral foram superiores (P<0,05) nas dietas com maiores níveis de energia em comparação à dieta com 65% de NDT. A produção de leite foi semelhante (P>0,05) nas cabras recebendo dietas contendo 70% e 75% de NDT, todavia foi superior (P<0,05) à produção de leite das cabras recebendo dieta com 65% de NDT. A dieta com 75% de NDT possibilitou maior (P<0,05) peso corporal final, quando comparada com as dietas contendo 65% e 70% de NDT. Não foi observada diferença (P>0,05) para os parâmetros físico-químicos de gordura, lactose, proteína bruta, extrato seco desengordurado, densidade, sais e condutividade do leite. Portanto, cabras alimentadas com níveis de energia entre 70% e 75% de NDT na dieta total aumentam a produção de leite, porém 75% de NDT na dieta proporciona melhor relação benefício:custo, havendo, para cada R$ 1,00 no custo investido na alimentação, R$ 1,52 de retorno financeiro.(AU)


The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of diets with different energy levels on nutrient intake, milk production and composition, body weight and benefit:cost ratio of a dairy goat production. Nine goats were distributed in a triple 3 x 3 latin square design. The experiment lasted for 60 days, divided into three 20-day periods. Complete rations containing three energy levels were evaluated: 65%, 70% and 75% of TDN. The dry matter intake, crude protein and mineral matter consumption were higher (P <0.05) in the diets with higher levels of energy compared to the diet with 65% of TDN. Milk production was similar (P> 0.05) in goats receiving diets containing 70% and 75% TDN, but these diets produced more milk (P<0.05) than the diet with 65% of TDN. The diet with 75% of TDN allowed a higher (P<0.05) final body weight (P<0.05) when compared to diets containing 65% and 70% TDN. There was no difference (P> 0.05) in the physical-chemical parameters of fat, lactose, crude protein, defatted dry extract, density, salts and conductivity of the milk. Therefore, goats fed with diets of 70% and 75% of TDN in the total diet increased milk production. However, the diet with 75% of TDN provides a better benefit:cost ratio, as for every $ 1.00 in the cost invested, there was $ 1.52 of financial return.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Body Weight , Goats , Milk/chemistry , Animal Feed/analysis , Chemical Phenomena
5.
Rev. Inst. Adolfo Lutz ; 79(Único): 1-10, 31 mar. 2020. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, ColecionaSUS, SES-SP, CONASS, SESSP-ACVSES, SESSP-IALPROD, SES-SP, SESSP-IALACERVO | ID: biblio-1293176

ABSTRACT

Focus Group é uma técnica sensorial qualitativa baseada no comportamento de um grupo de pessoas quanto aos atributos sensoriais. É conduzida por um moderador que garante a interação para discussão diante às percepções. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar carne de sol a partir de análises sensoriais, associando-as com resultados obtidos por análises físico-químicas. Para tanto, quatro amostras foram coletadas de comércio varejista na cidade de João Pessoa, PB, sendo caracterizadas quanto à composição centesimal, atividade de água, pH e capacidade de retenção de água (CRA). Os participantes foram recrutados conforme hábitos de consumo e as amostras foram preparadas a partir do dessalgue e cocção em forno elétrico, sendo mantidas em banho-maria até o momento da avaliação sensorial. Com as respostas obtidas, observou-se que além da aparência, o teor de umidade e a CRA são considerados parâmetros que influenciam diretamente nos atributos sensoriais. O estudo qualitativo exploratório - Focus Group, em associação aos parâmetros físico-químicos, representaram métodos confiáveis para a interpretação do perfil de consumo da carne de sol. Conclui-se que por meio de critérios específicos, os fatores de qualidade foram melhor interpretados, definindo as preferências de um consumidor cada dia mais exigente quanto às características de seu alimento. (AU)


Focus Group is a qualitative sensory technique, based on the behavior of a group of people, regarding the attributes of a product. It is conducted by a moderator who ensures an interaction for discussion in the face of perceptions. The aim of this study was to evaluated dried meat by sensory analysis associating the evaluation with results obtained by physicochemical analysis. Therefore, four samples were collected from the retail trade in the city of João Pessoa, PB, which were then characterized for chemical composition, water activity, pH and water holding capacity (WHC). Participants were recruited according to consumer habits and the samples were prepared by desalting and cooking in an electric oven, and kept in a water bath until the time for sensory analysis. With the answers obtained, in addition to appearance, the moisture content and the WHC are considered parameters that directly influence the sensory attributes. The qualitative exploratory study - Focus Group, in association with physical-chemical methods, represented methods used for the interpretation of the consumption profile of sun dread meat. Thus, conclude what is the use of specific criteria, the quality factors that were evaluated, defining the preferences of consumers who are increasingly demanding as to the characteristics of their food. (AU)


Subject(s)
Focus Groups , Consumer Behavior , Food Composition , Chemical Phenomena , Meat , Meat Products
6.
Biosci. j. (Online) ; 36(2): 606-618, 01-03-2020. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1146428

ABSTRACT

The radish (Raphanus sativus L.) is a vegetable of the Brassicaceae family cultivated worldwide and has several medicinal properties. Its biological activities are related to various secondary metabolites present in the species, especially phenolics. Thus, the objectives of this study were the chemical analysis and evaluation of the antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of the dry extract and fractions of the fodder turnip leaves (R. sativus var. oleiferus Metzg.). Samples were analyzed by mass spectrometry and the antioxidant activity was evaluated using the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical method and the reducing power method. Antimicrobial activity was determined by the agar diffusion and microdilution methods. The total phenols were concentrated in the butanol fraction (121.27 mg GAE/g) and the flavonoids were concentrated in the ethyl acetate fraction (98.02 mg EQ/g). The ethyl acetate fraction showed the best antioxidants results, with 83.45% of free radical scavenging and 11.34% of ferric ions reduction. The analysis of antimicrobial activity showed that the dry extract had the highest average zone of inhibition against Bacillus subtilis (18.67 mm). Smaller values of the minimum inhibitory concentration for Micrococcus luteus were, and the ethyl acetate fraction showed a lower minimum inhibitory concentration (0.1 mg/ml) for that microorganism. There was a strong correlation between the antioxidant activity and the content of phenols and flavonoids. The results showed the potential antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of this extract with the ethyl acetate fraction being most promising for further studies.


O rabanete(Raphanus sativus L.) é um vegetal da família Brassicaceae cultivado em todo o mundo e possui diversas propriedades medicinais. Suas atividades biológicas estão relacionadas aos vários metabólitos secundários presentes na espécie, especialmente os compostos fenólicos. Desta forma, os objetivos deste estudo foram realizar análises químicas e avaliar as atividades antioxidante e antimicrobiana do extrato seco e das frações das folhas de R. sativus var. oleiferus Metzg. As amostras foram analisadas em espectrômetro de massas e o potencial antioxidante foi avaliado pelos métodos do radical DPPH (2,2-difenil-1-picrilhidrazila) e do poder redutor. A atividade antimicrobiana foi determinada pelos métodos de difusão em ágar e da microdiluição. Observou-se que os fenóis totais se concentraram na fração butanólica (121,27 mg EAG/g), enquanto que e os teores de flavonoides concentraram-se na fração acetato de etila (98,02 mg EQ/g). A fração acetato de etila apresentou os melhores resultados antioxidantes, com porcentagem de sequestro dos radicais DPPH de 83,45% e com porcentagem de redução dos íons férrico de 11,34%. A análise da atividade antimicrobiana revelou que o extrato seco teve maior média de halos de inibição frente ao Bacillus subtilis(18,67 mm). Os menores valores da concentração inibitória mínima foram para Micrococcus luteus, sendo que a fração acetato de etila demonstrou menor concentração inibitória mínima (0,1 mg/mL) para esse micro-organismo. Houve uma forte correlação entre a atividade antioxidante e o teor de fenóis e de flavonoides. Os resultados demonstraram potenciais ações antioxidante e antimicrobiana do extrato e das frações avaliados, sendo a fração acetato de etila promissora para estudos posteriores.


Subject(s)
Raphanus , Anti-Infective Agents , Antioxidants , Plants, Medicinal , Bacillus subtilis , Micrococcus luteus , Brassicaceae , Phenolic Compounds , Chemical Phenomena
7.
Braz. J. Vet. Res. Anim. Sci. (Online) ; 57(1): e159837, 2020. ilus, tab, graf
Article in English | ID: biblio-1122150

ABSTRACT

The objectives of this retrospective study were to determine the main acid-base and electrolytes disorders in hospitalized cattle, using both Henderson-Hasselbalch and the physicochemical approach and to compare their diagnostic and therapeutic utility. A total of 31 medical records were reviewed of bovines admitted to the Large Animal Hospital at Universidad Nacional de Colombia, that met the inclusion criteria of the measurement of blood gases, blood electrolytes and plasma protein on admission before providing any treatment. Using the Henderson-Hasselbalch approach, acid base abnormalities were found in 83.3% of the patients, compared to 93.5% using the physicochemical approach. The principal acid-base disorders found were strong ion acidosis (61.29%) and weak acid acidosis (38.7%); strong ion gap (SIG) acidosis was found in 73.68% of cases showing strong ion acidosis. These results highlight the importance of the diagnosis of acid-base disorders in sick cattle for proper recognition of pathophysiological phenomena and its understanding to guide treatment decisions.(AU)


Os objetivos deste estudo retrospectivo foram determinar os principais distúrbios ácido-base e eletrolíticos em bovinos internados, utilizando a abordagem Henderson-Hasselbalch e a abordagem físico-química comparando a utilidade diagnóstica e terapêutica de tais procedimentos. Foram revisados 31 prontuários de bovinos admitidos no Hospital de Animais de Grande Porte da Universidad Nacional de Colombia, que preencheram os critérios de inclusão da medição de gases sanguíneos, eletrólitos sanguíneos e proteínas plasmáticas na admissão antes de fornecer qualquer tratamento. Com o emprego da abordagem de Henderson-Hasselbalch, as anormalidades da base ácida foram encontradas em 83,3% dos pacientes, enquanto com a abordagem físico-química o valor obtido foi de 93,5%. Os principais distúrbios ácido-base encontrados foram forte acidose iônica (61,29%) e acidose ácida fraca (38,7%). A acidose com Ion Gap Forte (SIG) foi encontrada em 73,68% dos casos com forte acidose iônica. Estes resultados destacam a importância do diagnóstico de distúrbios ácido-base em bovinos doentes para o reconhecimento adequado dos fenômenos fisiopatológicos e sua compreensão para orientar as decisões de tratamento.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Cattle , Acidosis/veterinary , Electrolytes/analysis , Chemical Phenomena , Hyponatremia/veterinary , Retrospective Studies , Hospitals, Animal
8.
Braz. arch. biol. technol ; 63: e20190181, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1132240

ABSTRACT

Abstract Shochu is the most widely consumed spirit in Japan. In its manufacture is used koji, a solid fungus culture traditional of the Asian countries, but that makes the production process slow. Shochu can be produced from a variety of starchy sources, including sweet potato. About 7% of the world's sweet potato production is wasted due to imperfections that make it unsuitable for consumption. However, this material can be used in ethanol production. Considering the high productivity of sweet potato in Brazil, an opportunity to add value to this raw material is perceived. An alternative process for the production of sweet potato distillate similar to shochu was proposed. Koji was replaced by a mixture of alpha-amylase and glucoamylase. Process time was reduced from 14 to only 1 day. Composition analyses were performed by HPLC and GC. The experimental yield of alcoholic fermentation using pectinase enzyme reached 67.31-73.65%, but methanol was above the limits of the legislation. Without the addition of pectinase, no methanol was formed. However, there was a decrease in yield (51.65-54.75%), due to the incomplete disintegration of sweet potatoes. The distillate produced and the commercial shochu presented the same absorption bands in FTIR analysis, identifying the similarity between them.


Subject(s)
Distillation/methods , Ipomoea batatas/chemistry , Alcoholic Beverages , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Spectroscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared , Chemical Phenomena , Fermentation
9.
Braz. arch. biol. technol ; 63: e20200178, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1132216

ABSTRACT

Abstract Whey, a by-product of dairy industry, is a feedstock widely employed in the production of biodegradable films. However, these films present some limitations when considering the performance of synthetic polymers, especially biological transformation by decomposition. This work aimed to evaluate the effects of chitosan addition to whey-based films to improve films physical-chemical properties and resistance to microbial degradation. The results showed that there was an interaction effect between the chitosan concentration and the storage time for the physical-chemical properties of elongation at break and opacity. There was statistical difference among the formulations; however, for the moisture content and film thickness, there was no interaction effect between the formulation and the storage time. The films with 1.5 and 3.0 wt.% chitosan presented a yellowish hue, characteristic of the polysaccharide; this could also be detected by SEM analysis. The films presented an excellent biodegradability, being decomposed in about 8 days. Considering all chitosan contents tested had similar performances, the chitosan content of 0.15 wt.% was the one with the better cost-benefit relation.


Subject(s)
Biotransformation/drug effects , Chitosan/pharmacology , Whey/drug effects , Edible Films , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Time Factors , Product Storage , Chemical Phenomena
10.
Braz. arch. biol. technol ; 63: e20190743, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1132233

ABSTRACT

Abstract Monofloral honeys are high-added-value food, a reason for constant cases of fraud. This study investigated Brazilian monofloral honeys from Hovenia dulcis flowering produced by Apis mellifera and Tetragonisca angustula bees. Chemical, physicochemical, rheological, and melissopalynological analysis were assessed. Properties such as moisture, pH, ashes, total acidity, total available carbohydrate, and soluble sugars of all analyzed honey samples agreed with the established by the legislation. All the honey samples were satisfactorily fitted by both Ostwald-de Waele and Casson rheological models revealing homogenous products, mostly presenting pseudoplastic character. The melissopalynology confirmed the presence of H. dulcis pollen in the MH samples; however, some honeys did not show >45% pollen of H. dulcis, thus revealing mislabeling cases. Continuous evaluation of honey is necessary, once this is a valuable food frequently involved in frauds, hence causing problems to consumers.


Subject(s)
Honey/analysis , Rheology , Apis mellifica , Chemical Phenomena
11.
Braz. arch. biol. technol ; 63: e20180413, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1132167

ABSTRACT

Abstract: Freshly prepared apple tea wine (a combination of tea extract and apple juice) is having yeasty and dull flavour, which needs to be improved to increase the acceptability of this product. Therefore, an attempt has been made for artificial ageing of apple tea wine using different wood chips to improve its physico-chemical, sensory and antimicrobial attributes. Different types of wood chips (Quercus spp., Bombax spp. and Acacia spp.) were added respectively (2.5 g/L to the freshly prepared apple tea wine) and allowed for ageing in carboys for the six months at the room temperature. The influence of each wood species on physico-chemical, sensory and antimicrobial attributes was tested upto 6 months of storage. Storage intervals significantly affected all the physico-chemical attributes (except total sugars, volatile acidity, and antioxidant activity), whereas, the addition of wood chips affected titratable acidity, ethanol, higher alcohols, total phenols, and amino acid. Cluster analysis of the physico-chemical attributes data revealed the same and showed that storage intervals exerted more effect on the physico-chemical and antimicrobial properties of the apple tea wine rather than the wood chips. The antimicrobial activity of 6 months aged wine was low as compared to the fresh wine. Among all the wood chips, apple tea wine aged with Quercus spp. possesses a significantly higher score (according to desirability) than the wine aged with other wood chips and control. In nutshell, apple tea wine matured with Quercus spp. wood chips for 6 months were the best with improved physico-chemical and sensory attributes.


Subject(s)
Humans , Tea/chemistry , Wine/analysis , Malus/chemistry , Juices , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Chemical Phenomena
12.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 71(6): 2111-2116, Nov.-Dec. 2019. tab
Article in Portuguese | ID: biblio-1055147

ABSTRACT

Milk and dairy products are potential sources for spoilage and pathogenic microorganisms, and although a huge amount of data is collected by the official inspection services, only a few reports are available to the public. This study aimed to evaluate the data for physicochemical and microbiological quality of pasteurized milk and dairy products, collected for inspection at industrial establishments registered at the Instituto Mineiro de Agropecuária (IMA), which is an official inspection service in Minas Gerasi State, Brazil. A total of 192 analyzes were done in 2011, 1008 in 2012, 1368 in 2013, 1271 in 2014, 1582 in 2015, adding up to 5421 samples analyzed by standard analytical techniques in official government laboratories. The statistical analysis was descriptive. A total of 2010 analytical results were nonconform to the legal requirements. Among the results, 78 (4.3%) samples of mozzarella cheese were positive for alkaline phosphatase, and freezing point results for pasteurized milk were outside the legal requirements in 86 (10%) samples. Staphylococcus coagulase positive was above limits in 80 (4.4%) samples of mozzarella cheese. These results indicate a risk to the consumer's health even in pasteurized products, and the need for effective enforcement of good manufacturing practices in the food industries.(AU)


Subject(s)
Food Quality , Milk/microbiology , Chemical Phenomena , Microbiological Techniques
13.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 71(6): 1985-1992, Nov.-Dec. 2019. tab
Article in Portuguese | ID: biblio-1055127

ABSTRACT

Para avaliar as condições higiênico-sanitárias e tecnológicas (HST) de produção e comercialização da carne de sol no município de Salinas, na região Norte do estado de Minas Gerais, foram coletadas 40 amostras no comércio local para a realização de análises físico-químicas e microbiológicas. A carne de sol é produzida artesanalmente em estabelecimentos comerciais e considerada uma tradição da região. Nas análises físico-químicas de umidade, proteína, gordura, cinzas, cloretos e pH, foram encontrados valores médios de 70,13%, 22,35%, 2,25%, 5,09%, 3,63% e 5,8, respectivamente. Duas amostras (5%) foram positivas para Salmonella spp. e 16 (40%) apresentaram contagens de S. aureus superiores a 103UFC/g. Os valores encontrados nas análises de mesófilos aeróbicos, bolores e leveduras e coliformes totais e termotolerantes foram de 2,50x107 UFC/g, 1,73x104 UFC/g, 9,1NMP/g e 4,3NMP/g, respectivamente. A carne de sol produzida em Salinas é um produto artesanal, portanto heterogêneo quanto às características de produção, comercialização e de qualidade microbiológica e físico-química. A importância socioeconômica da carne de sol na região é considerável, o que justifica a necessidade de se conhecer melhor suas características para auxiliar no desenvolvimento de eventuais políticas públicas regionais visando ao controle sanitário desse produto.(AU)


In order to evaluate the hygienic-sanitary and technological conditions (HST) of production and commercialization of sun-dried meat, in the city of Salinas, in the North of Minas Gerais, 40 samples of the product were collected in the local commerce for carrying out physicochemical and microbiological analyses. The sun-dried meat is produced in the commercial establishments and considered a tradition of the region. In the physicochemical analyzes of moisture, protein, fat, ash content, chlorides and pH were found values of 70.13%, 22.35%, 2.25%, 5.09%, 3.63% and 5.8, respectively. Two samples (5%) were positive for Salmonella spp. and 16 (40%) had Staphylococcus aureus counts higher than 10 3 CFU/g. The values found for the analyses of aerobic mesophilic microorganisms, yeasts and molds and total and thermotolerant coliforms were 2.50 x 10 7 CFU/g, 1.73 x 10 4 CFU/g, 9.1MPN/g and 4.3MPN/g, respectively. The sun-dried meat from Salinas is a handmade product, therefore heterogeneous in terms of production, and physicochemical and microbiological quality. The socioeconomic importance of the sun-dried-meat in the region is considerable, which justifies the need to know its characteristics better to help in the development of regional public policies aiming at sanitary control of the product.(AU)


Subject(s)
Food Quality , Food Hygiene , Chemical Phenomena , Meat Products/microbiology
14.
Rev. chil. nutr ; 46(4): 409-419, ago. 2019. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1013805

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN La "leche humana", constituye el mejor alimento que puede darse en forma exclusiva al recién nacido generando el vínculo físico-biológico más importante entre la madre y la cría tras el parto. En este trabajo se planteó un estudio de tipo observacional, descriptivo y retrospectivo transversal sobre las propiedades fisicoquímicas y calidad microbiológica de la leche humana suministrada por 68 madres lactantes en edades de entre 15 a 39 años, de dos estratos socioeconómicos colombianos asociados al departamento del Tolima, considerando tipos de leche calostro, transición y madura, en relación a los parámetros de calidad establecidos en los programas de bancos de leche humana, además del contenido de cloruros, fenoles, fósforo y el perfil de electroforesis para proteínas. Los resultados de las propiedades fisicoquímicas de las muestras presentan variabilidad según el tipo de leche, difiriendo en algunos casos entre los promedios observados en los parámetros por estrato social. El análisis microbiológico descarta cargas excesivas de enterobacterias lactosa positivas en términos de NMP, mostrando valores aptos para el consumo de los lactantes. La técnica de electroforesis revela la presencia de lactoalbúmina, inmunoglobulina, caseína, albumina y lactoferrina, no siempre reportados en este tipo de trabajos. La investigación realizada se consolida como guía e iniciativa para el desarrollo de trabajos similares en otras zonas del país y con ello el fortalecimiento de programas mundiales de lactancia materna.


ABSTRACT Human milk constitutes the best food that can be given exclusively to the newborn, generating the best and most important physical-biological link between the mother and her newborn. We conducted an observational descriptive and cross-sectional retrospective study on the physicochemical properties and microbiological quality of human milk supplied by 68 lactating mothers between 15 and 39 years of age from two Colombian socioeconomic strata in the Tolima department. We evaluated type of milk colustrum transition and mature, with respect to the quality parameters established in human milk bank programs, in addition to Chloride, phenol, phosphorus content and protein profiles for using electrophoresis. Microbiological analysis discards excessive loads of lactose positive Enterobacter in terms of MPN, showing values suitable for the consumption of infants. The electrophoresis technique reveals the presence of lactalbumin, immunoglobulin, casein, albumin and lactoferrin, not always reported in this type of work. This research can be a guide and initiative for the development of similar work in other areas of the country and with it the strengthening of global breastfeeding programs.


Subject(s)
Humans , Breast Feeding , Food Quality , Colombia , Infant Nutrition , Observational Study , Food Microbiology , Milk, Human , Chemical Phenomena
15.
Biosci. j. (Online) ; 35(4): 1110-1119, july/aug. 2019. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1048839

ABSTRACT

The purpose of this work was to evaluate the extraction and quantification of total phenolic compounds and the antioxidant activity of two peppers processed by four different methods (in natura, dried, preserved in vinegar and preserved in oil). The extraction efficiency of total phenolics using seven solvents (distilled water, ethanol, 50% ethanol, methanol, 50% methanol, ketone p.a and 50% ketone) were checked. Total phenolic analyzes were performed using the Folin-Ciocalteu and gallic acid method to obtain the standard curve with 650 nm absorbance reading. The antioxidant activity was determined using a spectrophotometric method using the reagent 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH). No significant differences were observed in the two extraction times 6 and 24 h. For samples preserved in vinegar, nosignificant differences were observed between the solvents used for the extraction. The Capsicum chinensepepper showed the highest amount of phenolic compounds in all treatments when compared to the chili pepper, except when conserved in oil. For the dry pepper, the lowest total phenolic extraction value was obtained with 99.5% ethanol (p.a.) and acetone p.a ACS 99.5% (p.a.), which differed from the peppers preserved in oil. The analysis of the antioxidant activity of Capsicum chinense and Capsicum spp did not present a significant difference (p>0.05) when compared to the dried or vinegar preserved samples. However, the sample of Capsicum chinense pepper in natura presented higher antioxidant activity than the samples conserved in oil. It can be considered from the experimental results that the peppers in this study, especially in fresh and dried form are good sources of natural antioxidants.


A proposta deste trabalho foi avaliar a extração e quantificação de compostos fenólicos totais e a atividade antioxidante de duas espécies de pimentas processadas por quatro diferentes métodos (in natura, seca, conserva em vinagre e conserva em óleo). Foi verificado a eficiência de extração de fenólicos totais de sete solventes (água destilada, etanol p.a, etanol 50 %, metanol p.a, metanol 50 %, cetona p.a e cetona 50 %). Foram realizadas análises de fenólicos totais, utilizando o método de Folin Ciocalteu e ácido gálico para obtenção da curva padrão com leitura de absorbância 650 nm. A atividade antioxidante foi determinada por meio de método espectrofotométrico, utilizando o reagente 2,2-difenil-1-picril hidrazil (DPPH). Não foram observadas diferenças significativas nos dois tempos de extração 6 e 24 h. Para as amostras preservadas em vinagre, não foram observadas diferenças significativas entre os solventes utilizados para a extração. A pimenta Capsicum chinense apresentou a maior quantidade de compostos fenólicos em todos os tratamentos quando comparada à pimenta de cheiro, exceto quando conservada em óleo. Para a pimenta seca, o menor valor médio de extração de fenólicos totais foi obtido com etanol a 99,5% (p.a) e acetona p.a-ACS 99,5% (p.a), que diferiu das pimentas conservadas em óleo. A análise da atividade antioxidante das pimentas Capsicum chinense e Capsicum spp não apresentou diferença significativa (p>0,05) quando comparadas às amostras secas ou conservadas com vinagre. No entanto, a amostra de pimenta "Capsicum chinense" in natura apresentou maior atividade antioxidante do que as amostras conservadas em óleo. Pode-se considerar, pelos resultados experimentais, que as pimentas em estudo, principalmente na forma in natura e dessecada são boas fontes de antioxidantes naturais.


Subject(s)
Chemical Phenomena , Genus Pimenta , Antioxidants
16.
Arch. latinoam. nutr ; 69(2): 89-98, jun. 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS, LIVECS | ID: biblio-1053035

ABSTRACT

This study was aimed to determine and compare the chemical and microbiological properties of yoghurts made from different types of milk and their mixtures (35%, 65%, and 100%) during their storage at 4 °C for 28 days. For this purpose, chemical and microbiological properties of yoghurts during storage at 4 °C for 28 days were investigated. The total amount of dry matter, fat, pH and protein of yoghurt made from the buffalo and cow milk mixtures was significantly higher than that of pure buffalo milk (P<0.01). Also, storage time has led to significant differences in these components. Considering the results of microbiological analysis, a significant (P<0.01) difference was found between yoghurt samples in terms of total count of mesophilic aerobic bacteria, lactobacilli, lactococcus and yeast and mould. Hence, it is concluded that the addition of buffalo milk to that of cow improves the composition of yoghurt made from cow milk, which indicated the possibilities of processing and marketing of both types of milk especially because the health benefits of cow milk and the fermented products are well documented(AU)


El objetivo de este estudio fue determinar y comparar las propiedades químicas y microbiológicas de los yogures hechos con diferentes tipos de leche y sus mezclas (35%, 65% y 100%) durante su almacenamiento a 4° C por 28 días. La cantidad total de materia seca, grasa, pH y proteínas del yogur hecho con las mezclas de leche de búfala y vaca fue significativamente mayor que la de la leche de búfala pura (P <0.01). Además, el tiempo de almacenamiento generó diferencias significativas en estos componentes. De acuerdo con los resultados del análisis microbiológico, se encontró una diferencia significativa (P<0.01) entre las muestras de yogur en términos de bacterias mesófilas aerobias totales, lactobacilos, lactococcus y recuentos totales de levadura y mohos. Por lo tanto, se concluye que la adición de leche de búfala a la de vaca mejora la composición del yogur hecho de leche de vaca, lo que indica las posibilidades de procesamiento y comercialización de ambos tipos de leche, especialmente porque los beneficios para la salud de la leche de vaca y de los productos fermentados están bien documentados(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Cattle , Yogurt/analysis , Lactic Acid/analysis , Milk/chemistry , Breast-Milk Substitutes , Nutritive Value , Buffaloes , Chemical Phenomena , Food Analysis
17.
Braz. arch. biol. technol ; 62: e19180376, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1039134

ABSTRACT

Abstract: Sugarcane is a major commercial crop grown in India and across the world. Hence, several elite varieties have been developed now-a-days to overcome many obstacles including abiotic stresses and diseases. The present study was undertaken to screen genetic variation among twenty four sugarcane varieties that are commonly cultivated across Northern Karnataka, India with reference to physicochemical characters. Experiment was conducted in triplicate following randomized complete block design (RCBD) at S. Nijalingappa Sugar Institute, Belagavi, Karnataka, India during February 2016-17. Physiological parameters such as internode length, stalk height, plant height, stalk girth, number of internodes, single cane weight, single cane volume of juice, cane yield and recovery were investigated. Further, statistical techniques such as principal component analysis and agglomerative hierarchical clustering were performed to characterize the twenty four varieties. Among twenty four sugarcane varieties studied, Co 86032 and CoC 671 were found to be elite varieties with respect to sugar recovery and cane yield, whereas varieties such as Co 86032 and Com 0265 were found to be best with respect to cane yield only. Based on the results obtained, eight varieties, viz., Co SNK 09232, Com 0265, Co 86032, Co SNK 09293, Co SNK 07680, CoC 671, Co 13006 and Co 2001-15 were found to be good with respect to overall qualities. Further studies need to be involved with molecular marker that would help in identification of elite varieties which could substantially contribute to construction of genetic resources library that may in turn find maximum use in molecular breeding.


Subject(s)
Phylogeny , Saccharum/genetics , Principal Component Analysis/methods , Chemical Phenomena
18.
Braz. arch. biol. technol ; 62: e19180531, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1039123

ABSTRACT

Abstract Natural products, especially phytochemicals, have been extensively studies and have exhibited important antiproliferative effects. The American native species Urera baccifera (L.) Gaudich. ex Wedd. (Urticaceae) is widely distributed in Brazil, where it is known as urtiga-vermelha or urtigão. The leaves are popularly used as anti-inflammatory, antirheumatic and in the treatment of gastric disorders. However, the antiproliferative potential of this plant against human tumor cells remain to be elucidated. In this study, we evaluated the antiproliferative effects of U. baccifera leaves extracts and fractions against a panel of human tumor cell lines in vitro besides a chemical evaluation of the most active sample by mass spectrometry (ESI-IT-MSn). The hydroalcoholic extract was inactive while dichloromethane extract showed moderate cytostatic activity against ovarian carcinoma cell line (OVCAR-3, GI50 = 1.5 μg/mL). More, the ethyl acetate and n-butanol fractions did not show important activity against tumour cell while the dichloromethane and hexane fractions showed moderate cytostatic activity against ovarian tumor cell line (OVCAR-3, GI50 = 12.7 and 9.4 μg/mL, respectively). Finally, the chemical profile evaluated by mass spectrometry (ESI-IT-MSn) allowed the detection of flavonoids in the HEU and hydroxylated fatty acid in DEU that can explain partially the biological effects observed. This is the first report of the antiproliferative effects of U. baccifera, and DEU has shown potential as a promising source of bioactive compounds.


Subject(s)
Ovarian Neoplasms/drug therapy , Plants, Medicinal/drug effects , Chemical Phenomena/drug effects , Antineoplastic Agents/pharmacology , Mass Spectrometry/instrumentation
19.
São Paulo; s.n; 20190000. 99 p.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1049432

ABSTRACT

O cimento de ionômero de vidro (CIV) é um material restaurador amplamente utilizado na odontologia. Possui vantagens que beneficiam seu uso e algumas desvantagens, sendo uma delas a lenta reação de presa inicial do material. Objetivo: Avaliar a influência de aceleração da reação de presa de cimentos de ionômero de vidro encapsulado nas propriedades biomecânicas, além de caracterizar a microestrutura do CIV. Métodos: Para os testes de resistência à flexão (RF) e dureza Knoop (KHN), 8 grupos experimentais foram divididos de acordo com o CIV encapsulado utilizado (Equia Forte ou Riva Self Cure), o tipo de aceleração de presa inicial (aquecimento da cápsula, aplicação de ultrassom ou técnica dupla), além do grupo controle preparado sem influência de qualquer interferência externa. O ensaio de RF de três pontos (n=10) foi realizado com velocidade de 0,5mm/min. Para KHN (n=10) foram realizadas indentações na superfície do corpo de prova utilizando a pirâmide de Knoop com carga de 25 g por 30 s. Os dados foram analisados com ANOVA e teste de Tukey com nível de significância de 5%. A caracterização do CIV foi realizada com 3 grupos, Fuji 9 Gold Label, Equia Forte e Riva Self Cure. A análise química elementar foi realizada com a técnica de fluorescência de raios X (FRX). A análise de distribuição de partículas foi realizada com a técnica de difração a laser. O peso do pó dos CIV foi medido em balança analítica. A análise de imagens da microestrutura e microanálise química foi realizada de duas formas para os 3 grupos de CIV, apenas do pó de cada um dos grupos e da superfície de corpos de prova de cada um dos 3 grupos experimentais (n=3). Todas as amostras foram analisadas em Microscópio Eletrônico de Varredura (MEV) nos aumentos de 100X, 1000X, 1200X e 4000X. A microanálise química foi realizada com o aumento de 1200X com sistema de espectrômetro de raios X por dispersão de energia (EDS). Resultados: Resultados: Não foram observadas diferença estatisticamente significantes entre os grupos experimentais de CIV encapsulados Equia Forte e Riva Self Cure nos testes de RF e KHN. A análise química elementar revelou que os elementos presentes em maior porcentagem nos três CIV estudados são Al2O3, SiO2 e F. Equia Forte apresenta predomínio de partículas de maior tamanho, 40% das partículas apresentam tamanho entre 13,06 ?m e 66,61 ?m na composição do pó, Fuji 9 Gold Label possui 40% das partículas que apresentam tamanho entre 7,57 ?m e 26,06 ?m e Riva Self Cure possui partículas de menor tamanho, sendo 40% das partículas apresentam tamanho entre 4,90 ?m e 23,64 ?m. Conclusões: A aceleração da reação de presa inicial nos cimentos de ionômero de vidro encapsulados, não influencia as propriedades biomecânicas avaliadas. A composição química e microestrutural de partículas do CIV atuam na performance dos cimentos de ionômero de vidro, sendo possível até acelerar da reação de presa do CIV.


Subject(s)
Microscopy, Electron, Scanning , Chemical Phenomena , Glass Ionomer Cements , Hardness
20.
Rev. biol. trop ; 66(4): 1536-1546, oct.-dic. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1003344

ABSTRACT

Abstract Stingless bees are located in the tropic areas, and produced a sweet natural substance called pot honey, with different properties and uses. Recently, most studies are focused on characterizing them, in order to contribute to their knowledge and the establishment of quality laws. Thus physicochemical, acceptance and palynological studies were performed in stingless bee honeys from Soconusco, Chiapas, in order to learn and contribute to their knowledge in the Tropics. Nine honey samples were collected from Melipona solani (Ms), M. beecheii (Mb) and Scaptotrigona mexicana (Sm) in different meliponaries. Our results registered physicochemical values that ranged as follow; pH 2.8-4.8, electrical conductivity (EC) 114-1211 μS/cm, free acidity 24-100 meq/kg, aw 59-71 g/100g, moisture 35-38 %, color 0.13-0.75 Pfund scale, reducing sugars 47-71 %, hidroxymethylfurfural (HMF) not determined - 2.72 mg/100g, and diastase activity 1.92-11.22 DN. On the other hand, the principal component analysis (PCA) of physicochemical values showed that 86.9 % of the total variability between species was explained by the following parameters aw, moisture, free acidity, color, pH, sugars and EC. Sm honeys were associated (PCA) with a higher water content, free acidity and darker colors, while Melipona honeys with a sweeter taste and a lower diastase activity; thus honeys could be grouped by genera. The acceptance test showed that 78 % of honeys were preferred, being the SmCa sample in the category "I likely dislike" due to the bitter taste (disapproved by consumers). The melisopalynological results showed that M. beecheii honeys are monofloral with a 45 % of Fabaceae pollen, while Melipona solani and Scaptotrigona mexicana honeys are multi or polyfloral with diferent pollen types; Fabaceae, Melastomataceae, Malvaceae and Asteraceae. From this complementary study we can asume that it is necessary to implicate researchers with producers, so they could have accesss to stingless bee honey analysis and to help them to improve meliponaries management by identifying and introducing stingless bee flora.(AU)


Resumen En las regiones tropicales se ubican las abejas sin aguijón, las cuales producen una sustancia dulce denominada miel de cántaro con propiedades y usos diferentes a los de las abejas melíferas (Apis mellifera). Actualmente, se han desarrollado diversos trabajos enfocados a su caracterización, con la finalidad de contribuir con su conocimiento y el establecimiento de estándares de calidad. En este estudio se realizaron estudios fisicoquímicos, de aceptación y palinológicos en mieles de abejas sin aguijón de Soconusco, Chiapas. Se recolectaron nueve muestras de miel de las siguientes especies: Melipona solani (Ms), M. beecheii (Mb) y Scaptotrigona mexicana (Sm) en diferentes meliponarios. Nuestros resultados registraron valores fisicoquímicos que variaron de la siguiente manera: pH 2.8-4.8, conductividad eléctrica (CE) 114-1 211 μS/cm, acidez libre 24-100 meq/kg, aw 59-71 g/100 g, humedad 35-38 %, color 0.13-0.75 escala Pfund, azúcares reductores 47-71 %, hidroximetilfurfural (HMF) no determinado - 2.72 mg/100 g, y actividad de la días-tasa 1.92-11.22 ND. Por otro lado, el análisis del componente principal (PCA) de los valores fisicoquímicos mostró que el 86.9 % de la variabilidad total entre las especies se explica por los siguientes parámetros: aw, humedad, acidez libre, color, pH, azúcares y CE. Las mieles de Sm (PCA) se asociaron con un mayor contenido de agua, acidez libre y colores más oscuros, mientras que las mieles de Melipona con un sabor más dulce y una actividad de días-tasa más baja; por lo tanto, las mieles podrían agruparse por géneros. La prueba de aceptación mostró que el 78 % de las mieles eran preferidas, siendo la muestra de SmCa en la categoría "Probablemente no me gusta" debido al sabor amargo (desaprobado por los consumidores). Los resultados melisopalinológicos mostraron que las mieles de M. beecheii son monoflorales con un 45 % de polen de Fabaceae, mientras que las mieles de M. solani y S. mexicana son multi o poliflorales con diferentes tipos de polen: Fabaceae, Melastomataceae, Malvaceae y Asteraceae. De este estudio complementario observamos que se requiere poner en contacto a investigadores y productores, para que el acceso a los análisis de las mieles de abejas sin aguijón sea posible, y así mismo se pueda ayudar con el mejoramiento del manejo de los melionarios al momento de identificar e introducir la flora preferida por las abejas sin aguijón.(AU)


Subject(s)
Pollen , Bees , Chemical Phenomena , Honey , Tropical Zone
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