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Int. j. morphol ; 41(2): 362-367, abr. 2023. ilus
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1440327


SUMMARY: Liver transplantation is the only available method to treat liver failure induced by chronic liver injury. We sought to determine whether the angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor, captopril, can inhibit the development of chronic liver injury induced by the hepatotoxic agent thioacetamide (TAA) in association with the suppression of inflammation (hsCRP, TNF-α, and IL-6) / hypoxia- inducible factor 1-alpha (HIF-1α) / profibrosis (TIMP-1, MMP-9, and α-SMA) axis that mediates liver injury. Therefore, the model group of rats was injected for eight weeks with 200 mg/kg TAA starting at week two. The protective group was pretreated with 150 mg/ kg captopril daily for two weeks prior to TAA injections and continued receiving both capropril and TAA agents until being humanely scrificed at week 10. We observed a substantial damage to liver tissue in the model group as demonstrated by a significant (p<0.0001) increase in blood and hepatic tissue levels of high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP), tumor necrosis factor-a (TNF-α), interleukin- 6 (L-6), HIF-1α, tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases-1 (TIMP-1), matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9), alpha-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), and aspartate aminotransferase (AST). All these parameters were significantly (p<0.0244) protected by captopril. Also, a significant (p<0.0001) positive correlation was observed between a-SMA (profibrosis) and the serum and tissue levels of hsCRP, TNF-α, HIF-1α, TIMP-1, MMP-9, and ALT. Thus, these findings suggest that the induction of chronic liver injury by the hepatotoxic compound, TAA is associated with the upregulation of inflammation/HIF-1α/profibrosis, with captopril exhibiting beneficial hepatic pleotropic effects.

El trasplante de hígado es el único método disponible para tratar la insuficiencia hepática inducida por una lesión hepática crónica. Buscamos determinar si el inhibidor de la enzima convertidora de angiotensina, captopril, puede inhibir el desarrollo de lesión hepática crónica inducida por el agente hepatotóxico tioacetamida (TAA) en asociación con la supresión de la inflamación (hsCRP, TNF-α e IL-6) / factor inducible por hipoxia 1-alfa (HIF-1α) / profibrosis (TIMP-1, MMP-9 y α- SMA) eje que media la lesión hepática. Por lo tanto, al grupo modelo de ratas se le inyectó durante ocho semanas 200 mg/kg de TAA a partir de la semana dos. El grupo protector fue pretratado con 150 mg/kg de captopril al día durante dos semanas antes de las inyecciones de TAA y continuó recibiendo capropril y agentes TAA hasta que fue sacrificado en la semana 10. Observamos un daño sustancial en el tejido hepático en el grupo modelo, como lo demuestra un aumento significativo (p<0,0001) de los niveles en sangre y tejido hepático de proteína C reactiva de alta sensibilidad (hsCRP), factor de necrosis tumoral-α (TNF-a), interleucina-6 (L-6), HIF-1α, inhibidor tisular de metaloproteinasas-1 (TIMP-1), metaloproteinasa de matriz-9 (MMP-9), actina de músculo liso alfa (α-SMA), alanina aminotransferasa (ALT) y aspartato aminotransferasa (AST). Todos estos parámetros estaban significativamente (p<0,0244) protegidos por captopril. Además, se observó una correlación positiva significativa (p<0,0001) entre α-SMA (profibrosis) y los niveles séricos y tisulares de hsCRP, TNF-α, HIF-1α, TIMP- 1, MMP-9 y ALT. Por lo tanto, estos hallazgos sugieren que la inducción de daño hepático crónico por el compuesto hepatotóxico, TAA, está asociada con la regulación al alza de la inflamación/HIF-1α/profibrosis, con captopril exhibiendo efectos pleotrópicos hepáticos beneficiosos.

Animals , Male , Rats , Thioacetamide/toxicity , Captopril/administration & dosage , Chemical and Drug Induced Liver Injury/drug therapy , Fibrosis , Immunohistochemistry , Blotting, Western , Actins , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha , Tissue Inhibitor of Metalloproteinase-1 , Matrix Metalloproteinase 9 , Disease Models, Animal , Hepatocyte Nuclear Factor 1-alpha , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Matrix Metalloproteinase Inhibitors , Inflammation , Liver/drug effects
Int. j. morphol ; 41(2): 368-373, abr. 2023. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1440329


SUMMARY: To investigate if the administration of boric acid (BA) would exert any protective effect against possible nephrotoxicity and hepatotoxicity induced by the exposure to acrylamide (ACR) in rats. In our study, we used a total of 28 rats that were divided into four equal groups. Group 1: the control group which was not treated with any procedure. Group 2: the ACR group that was administered ACR 50 mg/kg/day via intraperitoneal (i.p) route for 14 days. Group 3: the BA group that was administered BA 200 mg/kg/ day via gavage via peroral (p.o) route for 14 days. Group 4: the ACR+BA group that was administered BA simultaneously with ACR. Total antioxidant and oxidant (TAS/TOS) capacities were measured in all groups at the end of the experiment. In addition, the specimens obtained were evaluated with histopathological examination. Studies showed that the ACR and ACr+BA groups were not significantly different in terms of hepatic TAS level while the TOS level was higher in the ACR group than the ACR+BA group. The groups did not show any significant difference regarding renal TAS and TOS levels. In the histopathological examination of the hepatic tissue, the histopathological injury score of the ACR group was significantly higher than those of the other groups whereas it was significantly lower in the ACR+BA group than the ACR group. Our study concluded that Boric acid had a protective effect against acrylamide- induced hepatotoxicity, but not against nephrotoxicity.

El objetivo de este estudio fue investigar si la administración de ácido bórico (BA) ejercería algún efecto protector frente a la posible nefrotoxicidad y hepatotoxicidad inducida por la exposición a acrilamida (ACR) en ratas. En nuestro estudio, utilizamos un total de 28 ratas que se dividieron en cuatro grupos iguales. Grupo 1: grupo control que no fue tratado. Grupo 2: grupo ACR al que se le administró ACR 50 mg/kg/día por vía intraperitoneal (i.p) durante 14 días. Grupo 3: grupo BA al que se le administró BA 200 mg/kg/día por sonda por vía peroral (p.o) durante 14 días. Grupo 4: grupo ACR+BA al que se administró BA simultáneamente con ACR. Las capacidades antioxidantes y oxidantes totales (TAS/TOS) se midieron en todos los grupos al final del experimento. Además, los especímenes obtenidos fueron evaluados con examen histopatológico. Los estudios demostraron que los grupos ACR y ACr+BA no fueron significativamente diferentes en términos del nivel hepático de TAS, mientras que el nivel de TOS fue mayor en el grupo ACR que en el grupo ACR+BA. Los grupos no mostraron ninguna diferencia significativa con respecto a los niveles renales de TAS y TOS. En el examen histopatológico del tejido hepático, la puntuación de lesión histopatológica del grupo ACR fue significativamente mayor que la de los otros grupos, mientras que fue significativamente menor en el grupo ACR+BA que en el grupo ACR. Nuestro estudio concluyó que el ácido bórico tiene un efecto protector contra la hepatotoxicidad inducida por acrilamida, pero no contra la nefrotoxicidad.

Animals , Rats , Boric Acids/administration & dosage , Acrylamide/toxicity , Chemical and Drug Induced Liver Injury/prevention & control , Acute Kidney Injury/prevention & control , Biochemistry , Protective Agents/administration & dosage , Chemical and Drug Induced Liver Injury/pathology , Acute Kidney Injury/chemically induced , Acute Kidney Injury/pathology , Kidney/drug effects , Kidney/physiopathology , Liver/drug effects , Liver/physiopathology
Int. j. morphol ; 41(1): 237-245, feb. 2023. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1430520


SUMMARY: We aimed to investigate the protective effect of linoleic acid on liver toxicity induced by methotrexate. The study was carried out in partnership with the Department of Anatomy and Department of Medical Pharmacology of Çukurova University Faculty of Medicine, using the laboratory facilities of the Department of Medical Pharmacology. Human hepatocyte cell line (CRL- 11233) cells obtained from the American Type Culture Collection Organization (ATCC) were used. Expressions of apoptotic pathway markers, apoptosis inducing factor (AIF), BAX, BCL 2, GADD 153, 78-kDa glucose-regulated protein (GRP78), and CASPASE-3 were evaluated. All analyzes were examined in four groups (Group 1; control, Group 2; linoleic acid given, Group 3; methotrexate given and Group 4; linoleic acid and methotrexate given). The mean ± standard error values of the obtained results as nanogram / milliliter (ng / ml) are in Group I, Group II, Group III and Group IV, respectively; AIF values, 0.4150 ± 0.1208, 0.3633 ± 0.2389, 1.792 ± 0.3611 and 1.077 ± 0.1646, BAX values, 0.900 ± 0.1864, 1.002 ± 0.2098, 8.352 ± 1.467 and 4.295 ± 1.522, BCL 2 values, 13.93 ± 1.198, 13.92 ± 1.739, 2.938 ± 1.059 and 9.250 ± 1.492, GADD 153, 0.7333 ± 0.1751, 0.7067 ± 0.2115, 1.650 ± 0.2950 and 1.237 ± 0.1805, GRP78, 0.4767 ± 0.1804, 0.5233 ± 0.1590, 2.183 ± 0.2639 and 1.112 ± 0.2693, CASPASE-3 values , 1.127 ± 0.2033, 0.8317 ± 0.3392, 13.50 ± 1.871 and 8.183 ± 1.030. It was determined that linoleic acid has a protective effect on methotrexate-induced liver toxicity.

Nuestro objetivo fue investigar el efecto protector del ácido linoleico sobre la toxicidad hepática inducida por metotrexato. El estudio se llevó a cabo en colaboración con el Departamento de Anatomía y el Departamento de Farmacología Médica de la Facultad de Medicina de la Universidad de Çukurova, utilizando las instalaciones del laboratorio del Departamento de Farmacología Médica. Se usaron células de la línea celular de hepatocitos humanos (CRL-11233) obtenidas de la American Type Culture Collection Organisation (ATCC). Se evaluaron las expresiones de marcadores de vías apoptóticas, factor inductor de apoptosis (AIF), BAX, BCL 2, GADD 153, proteína regulada por glucosa de 78 kDa (GRP78) y CASPASE-3. Todos los análisis se examinaron en cuatro grupos (Grupo 1; control, Grupo 2; se administró ácido linoleico, Grupo 3; se administró metotrexato y Grupo 4; se administró ácido linoleico y metotrexato). Los valores medios ± error estándar de los resultados obtenidos como nanogramo/mililitro (ng/ml) se encuentran en el Grupo I, Grupo II, Grupo III y Grupo IV, respectivamente; Valores de AIF, 0,4150 ± 0,1208, 0,3633 ± 0,2389, 1,792 ± 0,3611 y 1,077 ± 0,1646, valores de Bax, 0,900 ± 0,1864, 1,002 ± 0,2098, 8,352 ± 1,467 y 4,295 ± 1,522, BCL 2 valores, 13,93 ± 1,199. 2,938 ± 1,059 y 9,250 ± 1,492, GADD 153, 0,7333 ± 0,1751, 0,7067 ± 0,2115, 1,650 ± 0,2950 y 1,237 ± 0,1805, Grp78, 0,4767 ± 0,1804, 0,5233 ± 0,1590, 2,183, ± 1,263. 1,127 ± 0,2033, 0,8317 ± 0,3392, 13,50 ± 1,871 y 8,183 ± 1,030. Se determinó que el ácido linoleico tiene un efecto protector sobre la toxicidad hepática inducida por metotrexato.

Humans , Methotrexate/toxicity , Linoleic Acid/administration & dosage , Chemical and Drug Induced Liver Injury/prevention & control , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Cells, Cultured , Protective Agents , Hepatocytes/drug effects , Apoptosis Inducing Factor , Caspase 3 , Chemical and Drug Induced Liver Injury/drug therapy , Endoplasmic Reticulum Chaperone BiP , Liver/cytology , Liver/drug effects , Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic/toxicity
Rev. Hosp. Ital. B. Aires (2004) ; 42(3): 129-134, sept. 2022. graf, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, UNISALUD, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1396276


Introducción: la hepatotoxicidad por paracetamol está relacionada con la formación del metabolito N-acetil-parabenzoquinoneimina (NAPQI) y su falta de detoxificación a través del glutatión, cuyas reservas se deplecionan en el contexto de una sobredosis. La administración de N-acetilcisteína (NAC) como sustancia dadora de grupos tioles (-SH) contribuye a la prevención del daño hepático que puede desarrollarse con dosis terapéuticas o tóxicas. Métodos: se comentan 5 casos de exposición a paracetamol en los cuales se administró NAC por alteración de la función hepática. La gravedad de los cuadros varió en función de las dosis y del tiempo de latencia hasta la consulta. Resultados: cuatro pacientes ingirieron una única dosis tóxica y una paciente recibió la dosis diaria máxima de paracetamol de 4000 mg/día durante 5 días. La paciente que consultó dentro de las 4 horas posteriores a la ingesta no presentó elevación de transaminasas. Todas las pacientes recibieron NAC y sus valores de enzimas hepáticas se normalizaron al momento del alta. Conclusión: la administración temprana de NAC puede ser útil para prevenir daño hepático tanto en ingestas de dosis tóxicas, como en casos de utilización de dosis terapéuticas máximas durante varios días. (AU)

Introduction: paracetamol hepatotoxicity is related to the formation of the metabolite N-acetyl-parabenzoquinoneimine (NAPQI) and its lack of detoxification through glutathione, whose reserves are depleted in paracetamol overdose. The administration of N-acetylcysteine (NAC) as a donor of sulfhydryl groups (-SH) can prevent liver damage that could even occur with therapeutic or toxic doses. Methods: 5 cases of exposure to paracetamol are discussed, in which NAC was administered due to impaired liver function. These manifestations presented different severity depending on the drug doses and the time until medical consultation. Results: four patients ingested single toxic doses and one patient received the maximum daily dose of paracetamol of 4000 mg/day for 5 days. The patient who consulted within 4 hours after ingestion did not present elevation of transaminases. All patients received NAC, with normal liver enzymes at discharge. Conclusion: the early administration of NAC may be useful to prevent liver damage both in toxic dose intakes and in cases of use of maximum therapeutic doses for several days. (AU)

Humans , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Acetylcysteine/administration & dosage , Chemical and Drug Induced Liver Injury/prevention & control , Chemical and Drug Induced Liver Injury/drug therapy , Acetaminophen/toxicity , Reaction Time/drug effects , Chromatography, Liquid , Chemical and Drug Induced Liver Injury/enzymology , Transaminases/blood , Acetaminophen/administration & dosage
Rev. méd. Urug ; 38(2)jun. 2022.
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS, UY-BNMED, BNUY | ID: biblio-1389685


Resumen: Introducción: la hepatotoxicidad inducida por fármacos y otros agentes es una forma frecuente de injuria hepática, superando en algunos países a las hepatitis virales. La presentación es variable, desde una alteración aislada del funcional hepático hasta formas graves con fallo hepático agudo fulminante. Se presenta un caso de lesión hepática aguda luego de un ciclo corto con altas dosis de metilprednisolona intravenosa. Caso clínico: sexo femenino, 45 años. Antecedentes personales de esclerosis múltiple, con último empuje 40 días previo a la consulta, tratada con bolos de metilprednisolona intravenosa. Consulta por ictericia de una semana de evolución, dolor abdominal, vómitos, anorexia, astenia y adinamia en el último mes. De la paraclínica se destaca: hiperbilirrubinemia mixta, elevación de las transaminasas, tiempo de protrombina descendido. Se descarta etiología viral, autoinmune y metabólica. Se plantea hepatotoxicidad por metilprednisolona que se confirma con la evolución favorable, y normalización a los 3 meses del enzimograma hepático y tiempo de protrombina tras la suspensión del tratamiento con metilprdnisolona. Discusión: el primer paso para el diagnóstico de hepatotoxicidad es descartar otras causas de injuria hepática. En segundo lugar, se debe demostrar la relación temporal entre la exposición al fármaco y el daño hepático. Por último, la suspensión del medicamento suele acompañarse de mejoría del cuadro clínico y analítico. Para diagnosticar esta entidad es necesario tener un alto índice de sospecha. El tratamiento con dosis altas de metilprednisolona puede inducir hepatitis severa que recurre con la re-exposición a la droga. Los pacientes con enfermedades autoinmunes tienen mayor riesgo de desarrollar hepatotoxicidad, lo que plantea un desafío terapéutico.

Summary: Introduction: drug induced hepatotoxicity and toxicity induced by other agents is a frequent form of liver injury, accounting for larger number of cases than viral hepatitis in some countries. Presentation may be variable, from an isolated alteration in the liver function test to severe forms of acute fulminant liver failure. The study presents a case of severe liver injury following a short cycle with high doses of intravenous methylprednisolone. Clinical case: 45 year-old female patient. Personal history of multiple sclerosis, with relapse 40 days prior to the consultation, treated with intravenous methylprednisolone. The patient consulted for jaundice with one week of evolution, abdominal pain, vomiting, anorexia, asthenia, and adynamia in the last month. Paraclinical tests find mixed hyperbilirubinemia, increased transaminases and decreased prothrombin time (PT). Viral, autoimmune and metabolic etiology are ruled out and a hypothesis is made for methylprednisolone-induced hepatotoxicity. The latter is confirmed and evolution is favorable, liver enzymogram being normal after three months, the same as the prothrombin time upon the interruption of methylprednisolone therapy. Discussion: the first step to diagnose hepatotoxicity is excluding other causes of liver injury. Next, the temporal relationship between drug exposure and liver injury needs to be demonstrated. Last, withdrawing the drug is usually accompanied by clinical and tests improvement. A high degree of suspicion is necessary to diagnose this condition. Therapies with high doses of methylprednisolone may cause severe hepatitis, and it is recurrent upon re-exposure to the drug. Patients with autoimmune diseases have greater risks of developing hepatotoxicity, what results in a therapeutic challenge.

Resumo: Introdução: a hepatotoxicidade induzida por drogas e outros agentes é uma forma frequente de lesão hepática, superando as hepatites virais em alguns países. A apresentação é variável, desde uma alteração isolada da função hepática até formas graves com insuficiência hepática aguda fulminante. Um caso de lesão hepática aguda após um curto curso de metilprednisolona intravenosa em altas doses é apresentado. Caso clínico: sexo feminino, 45 anos. Antecedentes pessoais de esclerose múltipla, com último impulso 40 dias antes da consulta, tratados com bolus de metilprednisolona endovenosa. Consulta por icterícia de uma semana de evolução, dor abdominal, vômitos, anorexia, astenia e adinamia no último mês. Dos exames paraclínicos, destacam-se: hiperbilirrubinemia mista, transaminases elevadas, tempo de protrombina diminuído. A etiologia viral, autoimune e metabólica é descartada. Foi sugerida hepatotoxicidade por metilprednisolona, confirmada pela evolução favorável, e normalização aos 3 meses da enzima hepática e do tempo de protrombina após a interrupção do tratamento com metilprednisolona. Discussão: o primeiro passo no diagnóstico de hepatotoxicidade é descartar outras causas de lesão hepática. Em segundo lugar, a relação temporal entre a exposição à droga e o dano hepático deve ser demonstrada. Por fim, a suspensão do medicamento costuma ser acompanhada de melhora do quadro clínico e analítico. Para diagnosticar esta entidade é necessário ter um alto índice de suspeição. O tratamento com altas doses de metilprednisolona pode induzir hepatite grave que se repete na reexposição ao medicamento. Pacientes com doenças autoimunes apresentam risco aumentado de desenvolver hepatotoxicidade, o que representa um desafio terapêutico.

Methylprednisolone/adverse effects , Chemical and Drug Induced Liver Injury
Int. j. morphol ; 40(1): 157-167, feb. 2022. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1385584


SUMMARY: Carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) is a manufactured chemical and does not occur naturally in the environment. CCl4 is a clear liquid that evaporates very easily. It has a sweet odor. CCl4 is toxic to the mammalian liver and is hepatocarcinogenic in both rats and mice. Rosemary (Rosmarinus Officinalis) is commonly used as a spice and flavoring agent in food processing. It is known for its antioxidant properties. The present study aims to investigate the antioxidant activity of rosmarinic acid (RA) on CCl4-induced liver toxicity in adult male albino rats. Forty adult male albino rats were divided into 4 groups with 10 rats in each group. Group I (control group). Group II animals received RA at a dose of 50 mg/kg/day by oral gavage for 4 weeks. Group III animals received CCl4 intraperitoneally at a dose of 3ml/kg twice weekly for 4 weeks. Group IV animals received CCl4 Plus RA. At the end of the experiment, liver specimens are processed for histological, immunohistochemical, EM and biochemical studies. Administration of RA deceased the elevated serum liver enzymes (AST, ALT, and ALP), elevated MDA level and immunoexpression of the proapoptotic protein (Bax) induced by CCl4. It increased reduced glutathione (GSH), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and immunoexpression of the antiapoptotic protein (Bcl2). It also improved the histological and ultrastructural changes induced by CCl4. It appears that Rosmarinic acid has protective effects against CCl4-induced hepatotoxicity as indicated by biochemical, histological, immunohistochemical and ultrastructural results.

RESUMEN: El tetracloruro de carbono (CCl4) es un producto químico fabricado y no se encuentra de forma natural en el medio ambiente. CCl4 es un líquido transparente que se evapora fácilmente; tiene un olor dulce. CCl4 es tóxico para el hígado de los mamíferos y es hepatocarcinogénico tanto en ratas como en ratones. El romero (Rosmarinus officinalis) se usa comúnmente como condimento y agente aromatizante en el procesamiento de alimentos. Es conocido por sus propiedades antioxidantes. El presente estudio tuvo como objetivo investigar la actividad antioxidante del ácido rosmarínico (RA) sobre la toxicidad hepática inducida por CCl4 en ratas albinas macho adultas. Se dividieron cuarenta ratas albinas macho adultas en 4 grupos con 10 ratas en cada grupo. Grupo I (grupo control). Los animales del grupo II recibieron AR a una dosis de 50 mg / kg / día por sonda oral durante 4 semanas. Los animales del grupo III recibieron CCl4 por vía intraperitoneal a una dosis de 3 ml / kg dos veces por semana durante 4 semanas. Los animales del grupo IV recibieron CCl4 Plus RA. Al final del experimento, las muestras de hígado se procesaron para estudios histológicos, inmunohistoquímicos, EM y bioquímicos. La administración de AR eliminó las enzimas hepáticas séricas elevadas (AST, ALT y ALP), el nivel elevado de MDA y la inmunoexpresión de la proteína proapoptótica (Bax) inducida por CCl4. Aumentó el glutatión reducido (GSH), glutatión peroxidasa (GSH-Px), la superóxido dismutasa (SOD) y la inmunoexpresión de la proteína antiapoptótica (Bcl2). También mejoró los cambios histológicos y ultraestructurales inducidos por CCl4. El ácido rosmarínico puede tener efectos protectores contra la hepatotoxicidad inducida por CCl4, tal como lo indican los resultados bioquímicos, histológicos, inmunohistoquímicos y ultraestructurales.

Animals , Male , Mice , Carbon Tetrachloride/toxicity , Cinnamates/administration & dosage , Depsides/administration & dosage , Chemical and Drug Induced Liver Injury/drug therapy , Antioxidants/administration & dosage , Superoxide Dismutase/analysis , Immunohistochemistry , Cinnamates/pharmacology , Oxidative Stress/drug effects , Microscopy, Electron, Transmission , Depsides/pharmacology , Glutathione Peroxidase/analysis , Malondialdehyde/analysis , Antioxidants/pharmacology
Int. j. morphol ; 40(5): 1174-1180, 2022. ilus, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1405293


SUMMARY: Ingestion of an overdose of paracetamol (also called acetaminophen, or APAP) induces hepatotoxicity that can lead to liver failure. The link between the pro-inflammatory microRNA-155 (miR-155) and leukocyte infiltration (CD45) in APAP- antioxidant depletion and liver toxicity with and without the natural polyphenolic compounds, quercetin (QUR) plus resveratrol (RES) has not been previously studied. Therefore, acute hepatic injury was induced in rats by 2 g/kg APAP (single dose, orally) and another group started QUR (50 mg/kg) plus RES (30 mg/kg) treatment one week prior to APAP ingestion. Animals were culled 24 hours post the paracetamol treatment. APAP overdose induced hepatic and blood levels of miR-155 expression, CD45 (leukocyte common antigen) immunostaining, degenerated hepatocytes, and hepatic injury enzymes; alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST), which were markedly decreased by QUR+RES. Whereas, APAP intoxication ameliorated liver tissue levels of the antioxidants, glutathione peroxidase and superoxide dismutase that were augmented by QUR+RES. Moreover, a significant (p<0.05) correlation between miR-155/CD45 axis and liver tissue injury was observed. These findings show that paracetamol intoxication augments miR- 155/CD45 axis-mediated modulation of antioxidants and liver injury in rats, and is protected by QUR+RES.

RESUMEN: La ingestión de una sobredosis de paracetamol (también llamado acetaminofeno o APAP) induce hepatotoxicidad que puede provocar insuficiencia hepática. El vínculo entre el microARN-155 proinflamatorio (miR-155) y la infiltración de leucocitos (CD45) en el agotamiento de APAP- antioxidante y la toxicidad hepática con y sin los compuestos polifenólicos naturales, quercetina (QUR) más resveratrol (RES) no ha sido previamente investigado. En este estudio, se indujo daño hepático agudo en ratas con 2 g/kg de APAP (dosis única, por vía oral) y otro grupo comenzó el tratamiento con QUR (50 mg/ kg) más RES (30 mg/kg) una semana antes de la ingestión de APAP. Los animales se sacrificaron 24 horas después del tratamiento con paracetamol. La sobredosis de APAP indujo niveles hepáticos y sanguíneos de expresión de miR-155, inmunotinción de CD45 (antígeno leucocitario común), degeneración de los hepatocitos y daño hepático enzimático; alanina aminotransferasa (ALT) y aspartato aminotransferasa (AST), disminuyeron notablemente con QUR+RES. Mientras que la intoxicación con APAP mejoró los niveles de antioxidantes, glutatión peroxidasa y superóxido dismutasa en el tejido hepático los que aumentaron con QUR+RES. Además, se observó una correlación significativa (p<0,05) entre el eje miR-155/CD45 y la lesión del tejido hepático. Estos hallazgos muestran que la intoxicación por paracetamol aumenta la modulación mediada por el eje miR-155/CD45 de los antioxidantes y la lesión hepática en ratas, y está protegida por QUR+RES.

Animals , Rats , Quercetin/pharmacology , Chemical and Drug Induced Liver Injury , Resveratrol/pharmacology , Acetaminophen/toxicity , Antioxidants/pharmacology , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Leukocyte Common Antigens/drug effects , MicroRNAs/drug effects
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-929058


Acetaminophen, also known as N-acetyl-p-aminophenol (APAP), is commonly used as an antipyretic and analgesic agent. APAP overdose can induce hepatic toxicity, known as acetaminophen-induced liver injury (AILI). However, therapeutic doses of APAP can also induce AILI in patients with excessive alcohol intake or who are fasting. Hence, there is a need to understand the potential pathological mechanisms underlying AILI. In this review, we summarize three main mechanisms involved in the pathogenesis of AILI: hepatocyte necrosis, sterile inflammation, and hepatocyte regeneration. The relevant factors are elucidated and discussed. For instance, N-acetyl-p-benzoquinone imine (NAPQI) protein adducts trigger mitochondrial oxidative/nitrosative stress during hepatocyte necrosis, danger-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) are released to elicit sterile inflammation, and certain growth factors contribute to liver regeneration. Finally, we describe the current potential treatment options for AILI patients and promising novel strategies available to researchers and pharmacists. This review provides a clearer understanding of AILI-related mechanisms to guide drug screening and selection for the clinical treatment of AILI patients in the future.

Animals , Humans , Mice , Acetaminophen/toxicity , Analgesics, Non-Narcotic/toxicity , Chemical and Drug Induced Liver Injury/pathology , Chemical and Drug Induced Liver Injury, Chronic/pathology , Inflammation/metabolism , Liver/pathology , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Necrosis/pathology
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928190


This study aims to explore the toxicity mechanism of Rhododendri Mollis Flos(RMF) based on serum metabolomics and network toxicology. The toxic effect of RMF on normal rats was evaluated according to the symptoms, serum biochemical indexes, and histopathology. Serum metabolomics was combined with multivariate statistical analysis to search endogenous differential metabolites and related metabolic pathways. The toxic components, targets, and signaling pathways of RMF were screened by network toxicology technique, and the component-target-metabolite-metabolic pathway network was established with the help of serum metabolomics. The result suggested the neurotoxicity, hepatotoxicity, and cardiotoxicity of RMF. A total of 31 differential metabolites and 10 main metabolic pathways were identified by serum metabolomics, and 11 toxic components, 332 related target genes and 141 main signaling pathways were screened out by network toxicology. Further analysis yielded 7 key toxic components: grayanotoxin Ⅲ,grayanotoxinⅠ, rhodojaponin Ⅱ, rhodojaponin Ⅴ, rhodojaponin Ⅵ, rhodojaponin Ⅶ, and kalmanol, which acted on the following 12 key targets: androgen receptor(AR), albumin(ALB), estrogen receptor β(ESR2), sex-hormone binding globulin(SHBG), type 11 hydroxysteroid(17-beta) dehydrogenase(HSD17 B11), estrogen receptor α(ESR1), retinoic X receptor-gamma(RXRG), lactate dehydrogenase type C(LDHC), Aldo-keto reductase(AKR) 1 C family member 3(AKR1 C3), ATP binding cassette subfamily B member 1(ABCB1), UDP-glucuronosyltransferase 2 B7(UGT2 B7), and glutamate-ammonia ligase(GLUL). These targets interfered with the metabolism of gamma-aminobutyric acid, estriol, testosterone, retinoic acid, 2-oxobutyric acid, and affected 4 key metabolic pathways of alanine, aspartate and glutamate metabolism, cysteine and methionine metabolism, steroid hormone biosynthesis, and retinol metabolism. RMF exerts toxic effect on multiple systems through multiple components, targets, and pathways. Through the analysis of key toxic components, target genes, metabolites, and metabolic pathways, this study unveiled the mechanism of potential neurotoxicity, cardiotoxicity, and hepatotoxicity of RMF, which is expected to provide a clue for the basic research on toxic Chinese medicinals.

Animals , Rats , Cardiotoxicity , Chemical and Drug Induced Liver Injury , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/toxicity , Hormones , Metabolomics
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928021


This study explored the protective effect of atractylenolide Ⅰ(AO-Ⅰ) against acetaminophen(APAP)-induced acute liver injury(ALI) in mice and its underlying mechanism. C57 BL/6 J mice were randomly divided into a control group, an APAP group(500 mg·kg~(-1)), a low-dose combination group(500 mg·kg~(-1) APAP + 60 mg·kg~(-1) AO-Ⅰ), and a high-dose combination group(500 mg·kg~(-1) APAP + 120 mg·kg~(-1) AO-Ⅰ). ALI was induced by intraperitoneal injection of APAP(500 mg·kg~(-1)). AO-Ⅰ by intragastric administration was performed 2 hours before APAP treatment, and the control group received the same dose of solvent by intragastric administration or intraperitoneal injection. The protective effect of AO-Ⅰ against APAP-induced ALI was evaluated by detecting alanine aminotransferase(ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase(AST) levels in the plasma and H&E staining in liver tissues of mice. The malondialdehyde(MDA) and glutathione(GSH) content and catalase(CAT) activity in mouse liver tissues were detected to evaluate the effect of AO-Ⅰ on APAP-induced oxidative stress in the liver. The proteins in the liver p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase(p38 MAPK), c-jun N-terminal kinase(JNK), and nuclear factor kappa-B p65(NF-κB p65) signaling pathways were measured by Western blot, and the liver inflammatory cytokines interleukin-1β(IL-1β) and interleukin-6(IL-6) were detected by real-time PCR. Compared with the APAP group, the combination groups showed reduced APAP-induced ALT level and liver MDA content, potentiated liver CAT activity, and elevated GSH content. Mechanistically, AO-Ⅰ treatment significantly inhibited APAP-up-regulated MAPK phosphorylation and NF-κB p65, and significantly reduced the transcriptional activities of IL-1β and IL-6, downstream targets of NF-κB p65. AO-Ⅰ can improve APAP-induced ALI and the underlying mechanism is related to the inhibition of the MAPK/NF-κB p65 signaling pathway in APAP-challenged mice.

Animals , Mice , Acetaminophen/adverse effects , Chemical and Drug Induced Liver Injury/drug therapy , Lactones , NF-kappa B/metabolism , Sesquiterpenes , Signal Transduction
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-927996


In this study, the toxicological/pharmacological research method of "quantity-weight-evidence" network was first proposed and practiced to supplement the existing methodology of network toxicology. We transformed the traditional qualitative network into a quantitative network in this study by attributing weights to toxic component content and target frequency, which improved the reliability of data and provided a research idea for the systematic safety evaluation and toxicological research of Chinese medicinal herbs. Firstly, 50% ethanol extract of Dysosma versipellis(DV) was administrated to rats via gavage and the potential hepatotoxic components were identified by serum pharmacochemistry. Then, the component targets were obtained from SwissTargetPrediction, PharmMapper and other online databases, and the target weights were given according to the relative content of components and target fishing frequency. Meanwhile, the targets of hepatotoxicity were predicted from online databases such as Comparative Toxicology Database(CTD) and GeneCards. Subsequently, protein-protein interaction analysis and KEGG pathway enrichment were performed with the STRING database. Finally, the quantitative network of "toxic components-weighted targets-pathways" was constructed. Eleven potential toxic compounds were predicted, including podophyllotoxin, podophyllotoxone, deoxypodophyllotoxin, and 6-methoxypodophyllotoxin. A total of 106 hepatotoxic targets and 65 weighted targets(e.g., Cdk2, Egfr, and Cyp2 c9) were identified. The results of Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes(KEGG) pathway enrichment showed that these targets could act on PI3 K-AKT, MAPK, and Ras signaling pathways to play a role in inflammatory response and oxidative stress. However, traditional network toxicology showed that 51 targets such as AKT1, Alb, and Stat3 may lead to hepatotoxicity by mediating inflammation and cell proliferation. In conclusion, we proposed "quantity-weight-evidence" network toxicology in this study and used it to study the mechanism of DV-induced hepatotoxicity in rats. This study confirms the feasibility of this new methodology in toxicological evaluation and further improves the systematic evaluation of the safety of Chinese medicinal herbs.

Animals , Rats , Chemical and Drug Induced Liver Injury/etiology , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/toxicity , Ethanol , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Molecular Docking Simulation , Reproducibility of Results
Chinese Journal of Hepatology ; (12): 413-418, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-935960


Objective: To explore the new mechanism of liver fibrosis through D-galactosamine/lipopolysaccharide (D-GalN/LPS)-induced necroptosis as an entry point to inhibit lethal injury. Methods: The carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced mouse model of liver fibrosis was established. At 6 weeks of fibrosis, the mice were challenged with a lethal dose of D-GalN/LPS, and the normal mice treated with the same treatment were used as the control. The experiment was divided into four groups: control group (Control), acute injury group (D-GalN/LPS), liver fibrosis group (Fib), and liver fibrosis + acute challenge group (Fib + D-GalN/LPS). Quantitative PCR and immunofluorescence were used to analyze the expression of necroptosis key signal molecules RIPK1, RIPK3, MLKL and/or P-MLKL in each group. Normal mice were treated with inhibitors targeting key signaling molecules of necroptosis, and then given an acute challenge. The inhibitory effect of D-GalN/LPS-induced-necroptosis on acute liver injury was evaluated according to the changes in transaminase levels and liver histology. Liver fibrosis spontaneous ablation model was established, and then acute challenge was given. Necroptosis key signal molecules expression was analyzed in liver tissue of mice in each group and compared by immunohistochemistry. The differences between groups were compared with t-test or analysis of variance. Results: Quantitative PCR and immunofluorescence assays result showed that D-GalN/LPS-induced significant upregulation of RIPK1, RIPK3, MLKL and/or P-MLKL. Necroptosis key signal molecules inhibition had significantly reduced D-GalN/LPS-induced liver injury, as manifested by markedly reduced serum ALT and AST levels with improvement in liver histology. Necroptosis signaling molecules expression was significantly inhibited in fibrotic livers even under acute challenge conditions. Additionally, liver fibrosis with gradual attenuation of fibrotic ablation had inhibited D-GalN/LPS-induced necroptosis. Conclusion: Liver fibrosis may protect mice from acute lethal challenge injury by inhibiting D-GalN/LPS-induced necroptosis.

Animals , Mice , Chemical and Drug Induced Liver Injury/pathology , Galactosamine/adverse effects , Lipopolysaccharides/adverse effects , Liver/pathology , Liver Cirrhosis/pathology , Liver Failure, Acute/chemically induced , Necroptosis
Chinese Journal of Hepatology ; (12): 113-116, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-935920


Clinically, patients with tuberculosis (TB) combined with hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection often require simultaneous treatment. Consequently, when anti-HCV and TB drugs are used in combination drug-drug interactions (DDIs), anti-TB drug-induced hepatotoxicity, and liver disease states need to be considered. This paper focuses on discussing the metabolic mechanisms of commonly used anti-TB and HCV drugs and the selection options of combined drugs, so as to provide rational drug use for TB patients combined with HCV infection.

Humans , Chemical and Drug Induced Liver Injury , Coinfection/drug therapy , Hepacivirus , Hepatitis C/drug therapy , Pharmaceutical Preparations , Tuberculosis/drug therapy
Rev. cuba. hematol. inmunol. hemoter ; 37(3): e1505, 2021. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1341404


Introducción: Con el protocolo LPM-TOA para el tratamiento de la leucemia promielocítica se obtienen excelentes resultados, se prolonga la sobrevida global y es posible la curación de los enfermos. En la de inducción a la remisión se utilizan dos drogas, una antraciclina y trióxido de arsénico, y en la consolidación los enfermos reciben de nuevo una dosis elevada de arsénico. Objetivo: Evaluar la toxicidad hepática tardía en pacientes con leucemia promielocítica tratados según el protocolo LPM-TOA. Métodos: Se realizó estudio longitudinal prospectivo que incluyó20 pacientes tratados con dicho protocolo, todos con más de dos años de haberlo suspendido. Se revisaron las historias clínicas para evaluar mediante los valores iniciales y evolutivos de las enzimas hepáticas, la función hepática inicial y evolutiva. Se determinó el índice de Ritis para predecir evolución a la cronicidad de existir daño hepático. Resultados: Hombres y mujeres se presentaron con la misma frecuencia y la media para la edad del sexo masculino fue 36,39 y para el femenino 39, con desviación estándar de ±14,02 y ±9,43, respectivamente. La variedad morfológica más frecuente fue la hipergranular, el promedio del índice de Ritis fue de solo 1,006 con desviación estándar de 0,745. Conclusiones: No hubo evidencias clínica ni enzimática de toxicidad hepática tardía en los pacientes estudiados(AU)

Introduction: With the LPM-TOA protocol for the treatment of acute promyelocytic leukemia, excellent results are obtained, overall survival is prolonged and the patients are cured, in the induction to remission two drugs are used, an anthracycline and arsenic trioxide, and in consolidation the patients again receive a high dose of arsenic. Objective: To assess late liver toxicity in patients with promyelocytic leukemia treated according to the PML-TOA protocol. Methods: A prospective longitudinal study was carried out that included 20 patients treated with this protocol, all with more than two years of having suspended treatment. The clinical histories were reviewed and by means of the initial and evolutionary values of liver enzymes, the initial and evolutionary liver function was evaluated and the Ritis index was determined to predict evolution to chronicity if there is liver damage. Results: Men and women presented with the same frequency and the mean age for males was 36.39 and for females it was 39, with a standard deviation of ± 14.02 and ± 9.43 respectively. The most frequent morphological variety was hypergranular, the average Ritis index was only 1.006 with a standard deviation of 0.745. Conclusions: There was no clinical or enzymatic evidence of late liver toxicity in the patients studied(AU)

Humans , Leukemia, Promyelocytic, Acute/drug therapy , Chemical and Drug Induced Liver Injury/prevention & control , Arsenic Trioxide/toxicity , Survival Analysis , Prospective Studies , Longitudinal Studies
Int. j. morphol ; 39(2): 407-415, abr. 2021. ilus, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1385337


SUMMARY: Amiodarone (AMD), an orally powerful antidysrhythmic medication that has caused hepatotoxicity on long-term administration, is commonly used across the world. Silymarin ameliorative effects (SLM); this research elucidated the magnitude of the damage to the liver tissue in AMD. We divided 24 albino rats evenly into four groups given daily doses by gastric tube for eight weeks as follows; the 1st group acted as a control group; the 2nd group received SLM; the 3rd group received AMD; and the 4th group received AMD parallel to SLM. Liver tissues prepared for light, electron microscopic and serum samples screened for biomarkers (I)liver injury enzymes, alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST); (II) oxidative and antioxidant stress, malondialdehyde (MDA) and superoxide dismutase (SOD); and (III) inflammatory markers, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-a) and interleukin-6 (IL-6). The findings showed that AMD caused hepatic histological changes that included congestion of the blood vessels, leucocytic infiltration and cytoplasmic vacuolation. Ultrastructural degeneration of the mitochondria, endoplasmic reticulum swelling, nuclear pyknosis and increased fat droplets and lysosomes were observed. The biochemical findings showed an increase in the AMD group's ALT and AST activities. The group of rats treated with AMD and SLM, increased the improvements in histology and ultrastructure, while the ALT and AST levels were reduced. Our findings collectively agreed that SLM has a protective impact on AMD hepatotoxicity which can be due to its antioxidant properties.

RESUMEN: La amiodarona (AMD) es un fuerte medicamento antiarrítmico administrado por vía oral que ha causado hepatotoxicidad en la administración a largo plazo utilizado con frecuencia en todo el mundo. Efectos de mejora de la silimarina (SLM); esta investigación analizó la magnitud del daño al tejido hepático en la DMAE. Dividimos 24 ratas albinas de manera uniforme en cuatro grupos que recibieron dosis diarias por sonda gástrica durante ocho semanas de la siguiente manera; el primer grupo fue designado como grupo control; el segundo grupo recibió SLM; el tercer grupo recibió AMD; y el cuarto grupo recibió AMD en paralelo a SLM. Se prepararon tejidos hepáticos para muestras de suero, microscopía de luz y electrónica y se analizaron para biomarcadores (I) enzimas de daño hepático, alanina aminotransferasa (ALT) y aspartato aminotransferasa (AST); (II) estrés oxidativo y antioxidante, malondialdehído (MDA) y superóxido dismutasa (SOD); y (III) marcadores inflamatorios, factor de necrosis tumoral alfa (TNF-a) e interleucina-6 (IL-6). Los hallazgos mostraron que la DMAE genera cambios histológicos hepáticos que incluyen congestión de los vasos sanguíneos, infiltración leucocítica y vacuolación citoplásmica. Se observó una degeneración ultraestructural de las mitocondrias, aumento del retículo endoplásmico, picnosis nuclear y aumento de gotitas de grasa y lisosomas. Los hallazgos bioquímicos mostraron un aumento en las actividades de ALT y AST del grupo AMD. El grupo de ratas tratadas con AMD y SLM, aumentó las mejoras en histología y ultraestructura, mientras que se redujeron los niveles de ALT y AST. Nuestros hallazgos coincidieron colectivamente en que SLM tiene un impacto protector sobre la hepatotoxicidad de AMD debido a sus propiedades antioxidantes.

Animals , Female , Rats , Silymarin/administration & dosage , Protective Agents/administration & dosage , Chemical and Drug Induced Liver Injury/drug therapy , Amiodarone/toxicity , Liver/drug effects , Aspartate Aminotransferases/analysis , Rats, Inbred Strains , Silymarin/pharmacology , Superoxide Dismutase , Microscopy, Electron , Interleukin-6 , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha , Oxidative Stress , Protective Agents/pharmacology , Alanine Transaminase/analysis , Liver/enzymology , Liver/ultrastructure , Malondialdehyde , Anti-Arrhythmia Agents/toxicity
Rev. chil. neuro-psiquiatr ; 59(1): 66-71, mar. 2021. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1388379


Resumen La mirtazapina es un antidepresivo atípico con características complejas, que incluye actividad agonista/antagonista en una amplia variedad de receptores que produce efectos terapéuticos en la ansiedad, depresión y el sueño. Sin embargo, se han reportado casos de lesión hepática inducida por antidepresivos con ausencia de sintomatología, bajo la forma de variantes hepatocelular, colestásica y mixta. Este es el caso de una paciente que de carácter incidental presenta cambios en la analítica hepática tras el uso de mirtazapina a partir del cual se hace una breve revisión de la evidencia encontrada hasta el momento.

Mirtazapine is an atypical antidepressant with complex characteristics, including agonist/antagonist activity at a wide variety of receptors that produces therapeutic effects on anxiety, depression and sleep disorder. However, cases of antidepressant-induced liver injury with no symptoms have been reported, in the form of hepatocellular, cholestatic, and mixed variants. This is the case of a patient who incidentally presents changes in liver analysis after the use of mirtazapine, from which a brief review of the evidence found so far is made.

Humans , Female , Middle Aged , Chemical and Drug Induced Liver Injury , Mirtazapine/adverse effects , Antidepressive Agents/adverse effects , Anxiety/drug therapy , Depression/drug therapy , Asymptomatic Diseases
Acta sci., Health sci ; 43: e52826, Feb.11, 2021.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1368744


The liver as an organ is important for the metabolism of drugs and toxins. However, it is not immune from environmental insults. Exposure of liver cells to carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) results in the generation of tricholoromethyl radicals, which induce liver toxicity. This study aims at investigating the ameliorative effect of the cinnamon aqueous extract (CAE) against CCl4-induced hepatotoxicity in male albino rats. Hepatotoxicity was induced in rats through the intraperitoneal administration of 0.5 mL kg-1body weight of CCl4. The analyses of the results obtained showed significant reduction in the levels of serum biochemical markers for 400 and 600 mg kg-1bw of CAE protected rats as compared with CCl4group. In addition, CAE administration reversed liver tissue damaged via increased antioxidants markers. Histopathological examination of CAE treatment on rats showed improved changes to the liver damage caused by CCl4 with no evidence of steatosis and inflammation. This result hence suggests that CAE has marked hepatoprotective and healing activities against CCl4-induced liver damage and could serve as a suitable candidate in drug discovery for the treatment of liver toxicity.

Animals , Rats , Carbon Tetrachloride/toxicity , Cinnamomum zeylanicum/drug effects , Liver/pathology , Rats, Inbred Strains , Pharmaceutical Preparations/analysis , Biomarkers/analysis , Oxidative Stress/drug effects , Toxicity , Chemical and Drug Induced Liver Injury/drug therapy , Antioxidants/toxicity
Rev. Soc. Bras. Clín. Méd ; 19(3): 176-180, set 2021.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1391950


A busca pelo corpo perfeito pode gerar graves consequências para a população que faz uso indiscriminado de substâncias visando a resultados rápidos. O caso relatado se refere a um pa- ciente de 21 anos, do sexo masculino, na cidade de São Paulo (SP), que apresentou quadro de síndrome colestática 15 dias após uso do anabolizante estanazolol para fins estéticos na ativi- dade física, evoluindo com hepatite medicamentosa grave, com aumento de transaminases, hiperrubilinemia às custas de bilirrubina direta e fatores de coagulação, sem resposta satis- fatória ao tratamento de suporte convencional, com melhora significativa após introdução de corticoterapia.

Searching for the perfect body image can cause severe conse- quences to the population using substances indiscriminately to reach results fast. The case reported refers to a male patient, 21 years old, from the city of São Paulo (SP), who developed choles- tatic syndrome 15 days after the use of the steroid Stanazol for aesthetic purposes during physical activity, progressing with se- vere drug-induced hepatitis, transaminases, bilirubin, and coagu- lation factors increase with no satisfactory response to the con- ventional support treatment, and significant improvement after the introduction of corticotherapy.

Humans , Male , Adult , Young Adult , Stanozolol/toxicity , Chemical and Drug Induced Liver Injury/drug therapy , Glucocorticoids/therapeutic use , Anabolic Agents/toxicity , Ursodeoxycholic Acid/administration & dosage , Bilirubin/blood , Biopsy , Cholagogues and Choleretics/therapeutic use , Prednisone/administration & dosage , Cholestasis/diagnosis , Cholestasis/pathology , Cholesterol/blood , Cholestyramine Resin/administration & dosage , Catastrophic Illness , Chemical and Drug Induced Liver Injury/diagnosis , Chemical and Drug Induced Liver Injury/pathology , Transaminases/blood , Hydroxyzine/administration & dosage , Liver/pathology , Anticholesteremic Agents/therapeutic use , Antipruritics/therapeutic use
Hepatología ; 2(1): 273-281, 2021. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1396580


La función metabólica y de excreción está determinada principalmente por la actividad hepática, esto predispone al hígado a lesión inducida por toxicidad, en donde la disfunción es mediada directa o indirectamente por xenobióticos y/o sus metabolitos. La enfermedad hepática inducida por fármacos (DILI) es una condición poco frecuente, que se relaciona hasta con el 50% de las insuficiencias hepáticas agudas, y de ahí su importancia. La lesión directa puede estar dirigida a hepatocitos, conductos biliares y estructuras vasculares; no obstante, diferentes xenobióticos pueden interferir con el flujo de bilis mediante el bloqueo directo de proteínas de trasporte en los canalículos. Actualmente no existen marcadores absolutos para el diagnóstico de esta entidad y las manifestaciones clínicas pueden ser variables, desde el espectro de alteraciones bioquímicas en ausencia de síntomas, hasta insuficiencia hepática aguda y daño hepático crónico, por lo cual es principalmente un diagnóstico de exclusión basado en evidencia circunstancial. A partir de esta inferencia, se han desarrollado escalas y algoritmos para evaluar la probabilidad de lesión hepática inducida por medicamentos, tóxicos, herbales o suplementos. En la mayoría de los casos, es característico que la condición del paciente mejore cuando se elimina el fármaco responsable del daño. Aunque el patrón colestásico generalmente tiene mejores tasas de supervivencia en comparación con otros patrones, también se asocia con un alto riesgo de desarrollar enfermedad hepática crónica o ser el desencadenante de manifestaciones inmunológicas en el hígado. Se presenta el caso clínico de un paciente con patrón colestásico de DILI por uso de esteroides anabólicos.

Metabolic and excretory function is determined mainly by liver activity which can make this organ susceptible to toxic injury, where dysfunction is directly or indirectly mediated by xenobiotics and/ or their metabolites. Drug-induced liver disease (DILI) is a rare condition, which is associated with up to 50% of acute liver failure, and hence its importance. Direct injury can be directed to hepatocytes, bile ducts, and vascular structures, however, different xenobiotics can interfere with bile flow by directly blocking transport proteins in the canaliculi. Currently there are no definite markers for the diagnosis of this condition, and clinical manifestations can be variable, including biochemical changes in the absence of symptoms to acute liver failure and chronic liver damage, which makes it mainly an exclusion diagnosis based on clinical evidence. Scales and algorithms have been developed to assess the probability of drug, toxic, herbal, or supplement-induced liver injury. In most cases, the patient's condition typically improves when the drug responsible for the injury is removed. Although the cholestatic pattern generally has better survival rates compared to other patterns, it is also associated with a high risk of developing chronic liver disease or acting as a trigger for immune disorders in the liver. The clinical case of a patient with a cholestatic pattern of DILI due to the use of anabolic steroids is presented.

Humans , Cholestasis , Testosterone Congeners , Chemical and Drug Induced Liver Injury , Liver Diseases
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-888115


As a common disease worldwide, alcoholic liver injury is caused by long-term or excessive intake of alcohol and triggers cell death due to alcohol metabolism and reactive oxygen species(ROS)-mediated cytotoxicity. Wangshi Baochi(WSBC) Pills have been widely adopted in clinical practice for evacuating stasis, resolving turbidity, clearing heat, tranquilizing mind, invigorating sto-mach, promoting digestion, purging fire and removing toxin. This study aimed to investigate the efficacy of WSBC Pills in dispelling the effect of alcohol and protecting against acute alcoholic liver/stomach injury in mice, and preliminarily investigate its possible mole-cular mechanism. The results found that the preventive treatment with WSBC Pills contributed to elevating the activity of alcohol dehydrogenase(ADH) and its expression in liver and shortening the time required for sobering up of mice with acute alcoholic liver injury. The staining of liver pathological sections as well as the detection of serum aspartate aminotransferase(AST) and alanine aminotransferase(ALT) and liver ROS levels revealed that WSBC Pills protected the liver by reducing serum AST and ALT. It suppressed oxidative stress-induced liver injury by lowering liver ROS and elevating superoxide dismutase(SOD), and the liver-protecting effect was superior to that of silibinin. Western blot assay confirmed that WSBC Pills inhibited the oxidative stress by up-regulating SOD1 and NAD(P)H: quinone oxidoreductase 1(NQO-1). In addition, WSBC Pills lowered the ROS level to protect against the acute alcoholic stomach injury in mice. The findings have suggested that WSBC Pills alleviated the acute alcoholic liver/stomach injury in mice by increasing ADH and resisting oxidative stress.

Animals , Mice , Chemical and Drug Induced Liver Injury , Ethanol , Liver/metabolism , Liver Diseases, Alcoholic , Oxidative Stress , Stomach