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Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-927996


In this study, the toxicological/pharmacological research method of "quantity-weight-evidence" network was first proposed and practiced to supplement the existing methodology of network toxicology. We transformed the traditional qualitative network into a quantitative network in this study by attributing weights to toxic component content and target frequency, which improved the reliability of data and provided a research idea for the systematic safety evaluation and toxicological research of Chinese medicinal herbs. Firstly, 50% ethanol extract of Dysosma versipellis(DV) was administrated to rats via gavage and the potential hepatotoxic components were identified by serum pharmacochemistry. Then, the component targets were obtained from SwissTargetPrediction, PharmMapper and other online databases, and the target weights were given according to the relative content of components and target fishing frequency. Meanwhile, the targets of hepatotoxicity were predicted from online databases such as Comparative Toxicology Database(CTD) and GeneCards. Subsequently, protein-protein interaction analysis and KEGG pathway enrichment were performed with the STRING database. Finally, the quantitative network of "toxic components-weighted targets-pathways" was constructed. Eleven potential toxic compounds were predicted, including podophyllotoxin, podophyllotoxone, deoxypodophyllotoxin, and 6-methoxypodophyllotoxin. A total of 106 hepatotoxic targets and 65 weighted targets(e.g., Cdk2, Egfr, and Cyp2 c9) were identified. The results of Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes(KEGG) pathway enrichment showed that these targets could act on PI3 K-AKT, MAPK, and Ras signaling pathways to play a role in inflammatory response and oxidative stress. However, traditional network toxicology showed that 51 targets such as AKT1, Alb, and Stat3 may lead to hepatotoxicity by mediating inflammation and cell proliferation. In conclusion, we proposed "quantity-weight-evidence" network toxicology in this study and used it to study the mechanism of DV-induced hepatotoxicity in rats. This study confirms the feasibility of this new methodology in toxicological evaluation and further improves the systematic evaluation of the safety of Chinese medicinal herbs.

Animals , Chemical and Drug Induced Liver Injury/etiology , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/toxicity , Ethanol , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Molecular Docking Simulation , Rats , Reproducibility of Results
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-922110


OBJECTIVE@#To analyze clinical feature and information of medication to explore the risk signals of preparations containing Psoraleae Fructus (BGZP) related with hepatobiliary adverse drug reactions (ADR), in order to reinforce pharmacovigilance.@*METHODS@#A retrospective study was conducted based on hepatobiliary ADR related with BGZP from the China Adverse Drug Reaction Monitoring System in years from January 2012 to December 2016. Serious and general ADRs were analyzed and assessed.@*RESULTS@#There were 355 cases of hepatobiliary ADR related to BGZP. Both the amount of cases and the proportion of serious ADR showed an increasing growth by years (P<0.05). It was found that 10.43% of 355 cases may be involved with irrational drug use, including overdose, repeated medication, and combination of multiple drugs. There were 190 cases which used BGZP (non-combination), and they were mainly for common in diseases caused by abnormal immune activation (accounting for 40.53% of the total cases). Especially at the age group with the most cases with age of 41-50 years, the cases associated with immunological diseases of female were obviously more than that of male (P<0.05). The latency of hepatobiliary ADR related to BGZP ranged from 1 to 386 days, and the median latency was 27.5 days, along with the range of cumulative dose (0.45-520.02 g) as well as the daily dose (0.09-2.64 g/d) after the conversion.@*CONCLUSIONS@#Cases of hepatobiliary ADR related to BGZP showed significant individual differences, and there was no correlation between drug usage duration and dosage and the occurrence of hepatobiliary ADR. It may be similar with idiosyncratic drug-induced liver injury, and recommended that BGZP should be used with more caution under monitoring liver function, especially in female patients with immunological diseases.

Adult , Adverse Drug Reaction Reporting Systems , Chemical and Drug Induced Liver Injury/etiology , Drug-Related Side Effects and Adverse Reactions , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pharmacovigilance , Retrospective Studies
Frontiers of Medicine ; (4): 594-607, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-888746


Psoraleae Fructus (PF) is a well-known traditional herbal medicine in China, and it is widely used for osteoporosis, vitiligo, and other diseases in clinical settings. However, liver injury caused by PF and its preparations has been frequently reported in recent years. Our previous studies have demonstrated that PF could cause idiosyncratic drug-induced liver injury (IDILI), but the mechanism underlying its hepatotoxicity remains unclear. This paper reports that bavachin isolated from PF enhances the specific stimuli-induced activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome and leads to hepatotoxicity. Bavachin boosts the secretion of IL-1β and caspase-1 caused by ATP or nigericin but not those induced by poly(I:C), monosodium urate crystal, or intracellular lipopolysaccharide. Bavachin does not affect AIM2 or NLRC4 inflammasome activation. Mechanistically, bavachin specifically increases the production of nigericin-induced mitochondrial reactive oxygen species among the most important upstream events in the activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome. Bavachin increases the levels of aspartate transaminase and alanine aminotransferase in serum and hepatocyte injury accompanied by the secretion of IL-1β via a mouse model of lipopolysaccharide-mediated susceptibility to IDILI. These results suggest that bavachin specifically enhances the ATP- or nigericin-induced activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome. Bavachin also potentially contributes to PF-induced idiosyncratic hepatotoxicity. Moreover, bavachin and PF should be evaded among patients with diseases linked to the ATP- or nigericin-mediated activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome, which may be a dangerous factor for liver injury.

Adenosine Triphosphate , Animals , Chemical and Drug Induced Liver Injury/etiology , Flavonoids , Humans , Inflammasomes , Mice , NLR Family, Pyrin Domain-Containing 3 Protein , Nigericin
Rev. Assoc. Med. Bras. (1992) ; 66(1): 12-17, Jan. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1091907


SUMMARY Drug-induced liver injury (DILI) to flucloxacillin is rare and is classified as idiosyncratic, as it is dependent on individual susceptibility, unpredictable, and dose-independent. The authors present the case of a 74 - year - old man with a history of monoclonal gammopathy under investigation and alcoholic habits of 24 g/day, with asthenia, anorexia, nausea, abdominal discomfort, and fever with three days of evolution. He was treated with two courses of antibiotic therapy with flucloxacillin to erysipelas previously (3 months and 2 weeks before admission). Lab tests showed serum AST levels of 349 U/L, ALT 646 U/L, alkaline phosphatase 302 U/L, GGT 652 U/L, total bilirubin 3.3 mg/dL and direct bilirubin 2.72 mg/dL. Infectious, autoimmune, and metabolic causes were ruled out. Magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography showed normal results. Liver biopsy showed mild multifocal (predominantly microvesicular) steatosis; marked changes in the centrilobular areas (sinusoidal dilatation, marked congestion, hemorrhage, and multifocal hepatocyte collapse); expansion of the portal areas with the formation of bridges; proliferated bile ducts and inflammatory infiltrate of variable density, predominantly mononuclear type. The HLA-B*5701 screening test was positive. Hepatic biochemical tests remain abnormal with a significative increase in total bilirubin, which reached levels of 24.1 mg/dL, with the development of jaundice, pruritus, and choluria. DILI was assumed, and the patient was treated with ursodeoxycholic acid. There was favorable evolution, without evidence of blood coagulation dysfunction or encephalopathy. The analytic normalization was, however, slow, with evolution to chronicity. The authors present this case to remind the possibility of moderate/severe drug-induced liver injury to flucloxacillin, an antibiotic commonly used in clinical practice and association with the HLA-B * 5701 allele reported in the literature.

RESUMO A hepatotoxicidade à flucloxacilina é rara e classifica-se como idiossincrática, uma vez que é dependente da suscetibilidade individual, não expectável e independente da dose. Apresentamos o caso de um homem, 74 anos, antecedentes de gamapatia monoclonal e hábitos alcoólicos de 24 g/dia, com quadro de astenia, anorexia, náuseas, desconforto abdominal e febrícula com três dias de evolução. Referência a dois ciclos de antibioterapia com flucloxacilina por erisipela (três meses e duas semanas antes da admissão). Analiticamente com AST 349 U/L, ALT 646 U/L, FA 302 U/L, GGT 652 U/L, bilirrubina total 3,3 mg/dL, bilirrubina direta 2,72 mg/dL. Excluídas etiologias infecciosa, autoimune, metabólica, bem como patologia das vias biliares por colangio-RM. Biópsia hepática mostrou esteatose multifocal ligeira (predominantemente microvesicular); alterações acentuadas nas áreas centrolobulares (dilatação sinusoidal, congestão acentuada, hemorragia e colapso multifocal de hepatócitos); expansão das áreas portais com constituição de pontes; ductos biliares proliferados e infiltrado inflamatório de densidade variável, predominantemente de tipo mononucleado. Tipagem de HLA-B*5701 positiva. Agravamento analítico atingindo bilirrubina total 24,1 mg/dL, com desenvolvimento de icterícia, prurido e colúria. Admitida a hepatotoxicidade, iniciou terapêutica com ácido ursodesoxicólico. Verificou-se evolução favorável, sem evidência de coagulopatia ou encefalopatia. A normalização analítica foi, no entanto, lenta, com evolução para cronicidade. Os autores apresentam este caso para alertar para a possibilidade de hepatotoxicidade moderada a grave à flucloxacilina, antibiótico de uso comum na prática clínica e associação com o alelo HLA-B*5701 relatada na literatura.

Humans , Aged , HLA-B Antigens/drug effects , Chemical and Drug Induced Liver Injury/etiology , Chemical and Drug Induced Liver Injury/pathology , Floxacillin/adverse effects , Immunoelectrophoresis/methods , Risk Factors , Chemical and Drug Induced Liver Injury/enzymology , Liver/drug effects , Liver/pathology
Gastroenterol. latinoam ; 31(2): 90-93, 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1292375


We report the case of a 19-year-old patient, with a history of traumatic liver damage, but with a normal liver profile at her first discharge; 1 month after the event, with post-traumatic stress disorder, treatment with 25 mg of sertraline was started every day; one month later, she develops severe hepatotoxicity without a specific etiology. According to the Naranjo algorithm, it is attributed as a probable case of sertraline hepatotoxicity. Management is carried out with support measures and suspension of the medication, and the patient recovers until she is asymptomatic, currently has normal liver tests

Reportamos el caso de una paciente de 19 años, con antecedentes de daño hepático traumático, pero con un perfil hepático normal en su primer alta; después de 1 mes del evento, con trastorno de estrés postraumático se inició tratamiento con 25 mg diarios de sertralina; un mes después, desarrolla una hepatotoxicidad severa sin etiología determinada. De acuerdo con el algoritmo de Naranjo, se atribuye como caso probable de hepatotoxicidad por sertralina. El manejo se realiza con medidas de apoyo y suspensión del medicamento, y la paciente se recupera hasta que se encuentra asintomática, actualmente tiene pruebas hepáticas normales

Humans , Female , Young Adult , Serotonin Uptake Inhibitors/adverse effects , Sertraline/adverse effects , Chemical and Drug Induced Liver Injury/etiology , Algorithms , Chemical and Drug Induced Liver Injury/therapy
Arq. gastroenterol ; 56(4): 333-338, Oct.-Dec. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1055177


ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Indigofera suffruticosa Mill (Fabaceae) is abundant in northeastern Brazil and popularly used in the treatment of infectious and inflammatory processes. Several biological properties, such as anti-inflammatory, anticancer, antitumor, hepatoprotective and low toxicity, are reported for this plant. OBJECTIVE: This study investigated hepatoprotective activity and the antioxidant effect of methanolic extract of I. suffruticosa leaves (MEIS) on Swiss albino mice submitted to experimental models of acetaminophen-induced liver injury. METHODS: MEIS (50 mg/kg; p.o.) was standardized according to the LD50 and its hepatoprotective property on Swiss albino mice evaluated during a 7-day period. On the eighth day, the acetaminophen-induced hepatic injury was performed. Histomorphometric analysis of liver tissue, antioxidant activity and serum levels of alanine aminotransferase (AST), aspartate aminotransferase (ALT) and bilirubin were measured. RESULTS: MEIS (50 mg/kg; p.o.) restored serum enzyme levels and results were close to those of positive control (silymarin) when compared to the negative control. Histopathological and histomorphometric analyzes confirmed MEIS hepatoprotective activity, showing reorganization of structural units of cells, nuclei and sinusoidal capillaries of hepatocytes, reducing the damage on liver tissue and increasing organ regeneration rate. MEIS showed high antioxidant potential at concentrations of 1000 and 500 µg/mL. CONCLUSION: This study suggests that MEIS has hepatoprotective activity and high antioxidant potential.

RESUMO CONTEXTO: Indigofera suffruticosa Mill (Fabaceae) é abundante no nordeste do Brasil e popularmente utilizada no tratamento de processos infecciosos e inflamatórios. Várias propriedades biológicas, como anti-inflamatório, anticâncer, antitumoral, hepatoprotetor e baixa toxicidade, são relatadas para esta planta. OBJETIVO: Este estudo investigou a atividade hepatoprotetora e o efeito antioxidante do extrato metanólico de folhas de I. suffruticosa (MEIS) em camundongos albinos suíços submetidos a modelos experimentais de lesão hepática induzida por paracetamol. MÉTODOS: O MEIS na dose de 50 mg/kg (via oral) foi padronizado de acordo com a LD50 e sua propriedade hepatoprotetora em camundongos albinos Swiss avaliados durante um período de sete dias. No oitavo dia, a lesão hepática foi induzida por paracetamol em todos grupos pre-tratados. Foram medidos os níveis sericos enzimaticos, alanina aminotransferase, aspartato aminotransferase e bilirrubina, análise histomorfométrica do tecido hepático e atividade antioxidante. RESULTADOS: O MEIS restaurou os níveis séricos de enzimas e os resultados foram próximos aos do controle positivo (silimarina) quando comparados ao controle negativo. As análises histopatológicas e histomorfométricas confirmaram a atividade hepatoprotetora do MEIS, mostrando reorganização das unidades estruturais das células, núcleos e capilares sinusoidais dos hepatócitos, reduzindo os danos no tecido hepático e aumentando a taxa de regeneração de órgãos. O MEIS apresentou alto potencial antioxidante nas concentrações de 1000 e 500 µg/mL. CONCLUSÃO: Este estudo sugere que I. suffruticosa tem atividade hepatoprotetora e alto potencial antioxidante.

Animals , Male , Plant Extracts/administration & dosage , Analgesics, Non-Narcotic/toxicity , Protective Agents/administration & dosage , Indigofera/chemistry , Chemical and Drug Induced Liver Injury/prevention & control , Acetaminophen/toxicity , Aspartate Aminotransferases/blood , Bilirubin/blood , Alanine Transaminase/blood , Chemical and Drug Induced Liver Injury/etiology
J. bras. pneumol ; 45(5): e20180414, 2019. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1040274


RESUMO Objetivo Ensaios clínicos mostraram que 150 mg de Nintedanibe duas vezes ao dia reduzem a progressão da doença em pacientes com Fibrose Pulmonar Idiopática (FPI), com um perfil de efeitos adversos que é controlável para a maioria dos pacientes. Antes da aprovação do Nintedanibe como tratamento para a FPI no Brasil, um Programa de Acesso Expandido (PEA) foi iniciado para fornecer acesso precoce ao tratamento e avaliar a segurança e a tolerância do Nintedanibe para este grupo de pacientes. Métodos Foram elegíveis para participar da PEA pacientes com diagnóstico de FPI nos últimos 5 anos, com capacidade vital forçada (CVF) ≥ 50% do previsto e capacidade de difusão dos pulmões para monóxido de carbono (DLco) 30%-79% do previsto. Os pacientes receberam Nintedanibe 150 mg, 2 vezes ao dia (bid). As avaliações de segurança incluíram eventos adversos que levaram à suspensão permanente do Nintedanibe e eventos adversos graves. Resultados O PEA envolveu 57 pacientes em 8 centros. A maioria dos pacientes era do sexo masculino (77,2%) e brancos (87,7%). No início do estudo, a média de idade foi de 70,7 (7,5) anos e a CVF foi de 70,7 (12,5%) do previsto. A média de exposição ao Nintedanibe foi de 14,4 (6,2) meses; a exposição máxima foi de 22,0 meses. Os eventos adversos frequentemente relatados pelo pesquisador como relacionados ao tratamento com Nintedanibe foram diarreia (45 pacientes, 78,9%) e náusea (25 pacientes, 43,9%). Os eventos adversos levaram à suspensão permanente do Nintedanibe em 16 pacientes (28,1%) que passaram por um evento adverso grave. Conclusões No PEA brasileiro, o Nintedanibe apresentou um perfil aceitável de segurança e tolerância em pacientes com FPI, condizendo com dados de ensaios clínicos.

ABSTRACT Objective Clinical trials have shown that nintedanib 150 mg twice daily (bid) reduces disease progression in patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF), with an adverse event profile that is manageable for most patients. Prior to the approval of nintedanib as a treatment for IPF in Brazil, an expanded access program (EAP) was initiated to provide early access to treatment and to evaluate the safety and tolerability of nintedanib in this patient population. Methods Patients with a diagnosis of IPF within the previous five years, forced vital capacity (FVC) ≥ 50% predicted and diffusing capacity of the lungs for carbon monoxide (DLco) 30% to 79% predicted were eligible to participate in the EAP. Patients received nintedanib 150 mg bid open-label. Safety assessments included adverse events leading to permanent discontinuation of nintedanib and serious adverse events. Results The EAP involved 57 patients at eight centers. Most patients were male (77.2%) and white (87.7%). At baseline, mean (SD) age was 70.7 (7.5) years and FVC was 70.7 (12.5) % predicted. Mean (SD) exposure to nintedanib was 14.4 (6.2) months; maximum exposure was 22.0 months. The most frequently reported adverse events considered by the investigator to be related to nintedanib treatment were diarrhea (45 patients, 78.9%) and nausea (25 patients, 43.9%). Adverse events led to permanent discontinuation of nintedanib in 16 patients (28.1%). Sixteen patients (28.1%) had a serious adverse event. Conclusion In the Brazilian EAP, nintedanib had an acceptable safety and tolerability profile in patients with IPF, consistent with data from clinical trials.

Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis/drug therapy , Indoles/administration & dosage , Aspartate Aminotransferases/analysis , Time Factors , Vomiting/chemically induced , Algorithms , Brazil , Vital Capacity/drug effects , Reproducibility of Results , Treatment Outcome , Protein Kinase Inhibitors/administration & dosage , Protein Kinase Inhibitors/adverse effects , Diarrhea/chemically induced , Drug Tolerance , Chemical and Drug Induced Liver Injury/etiology , Transaminases/analysis , Indoles/adverse effects , Nausea/chemically induced
Gastroenterol. latinoam ; 29(3): 147-154, 2018. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1117304


Drug-induced liver injury (DILI) is a rare entity associated with high morbidity and mortality. It includes a broad spectrum of clinical patterns, from acute hepatitis to cirrhosis. Among the common associated drugs are antimicrobial like anti-TBC, antineoplastic, CNS agents and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. Establishing causality between DILI and a certain drug is a challenge. Some scoring systems have been evaluated, considering RUCAM score as the gold standard. We present the case of a 35-year-old woman with a history of a high-grade glioma treated with surgery and chemotherapy with lomustine, procarbazine and vincristine. She evolved with altered liver tests, predominantly cholestatic pattern, but asymptomatic. Etiologic study negative and abdominal imaging were normal. The liver biopsy was compatible with 40% ductopenia, without inflammatory elements. We consider DILI associated with the use of lomustine, with RUCAM score suggesting. After discontinuing chemotherapy and using ursodeoxycholic acid for the treatment of cholestasis there was an improvement in liver tests. There is limited evidence in the literature regarding hepatotoxicity associated with lomustine, mainly in experimental animal models. Cases of cholestatic hepatotoxicity have been described with the use of other similar nitrosureas. In relation to procarbazine and vincristine, DILI is reported mainly reversible and predominantly with hepatocellular pattern, not consistent with our case. We find it interesting to communicate with review of the literature about it.

El daño hepático inducido por drogas (DILI) es una entidad poco frecuente, con alta morbimortalidad asociada. Incluye un amplio espectro de patrones clínicos, desde hepatitis aguda a cirrosis. Dentro de los fármacos frecuentemente asociados se encuentran antibióticos como anti-TBC, agentes antineoplásicos, de acción en el SNC y anti-inflamatorios no esteroidales. Establecer una causalidad entre DILI y una determinada droga constituye un desafío. Para ello, se han evaluado diversos sistemas de puntuación, considerándose gold estándar el RUCAM score. Se presenta el caso de una mujer de 35 años de edad con antecedentes de glioma de alto grado operado y en quimioterapia con lomustina, procarbazina y vincristina. En su evolución presenta alteración de pruebas hepáticas de predominio colestásico de manera asintomática, con estudio etiológico causal negativo e imagenológico normal. La biopsia hepática fue compatible con ductopenia de 40% sin elementos inflamatorios. Se plantea DILI asociado al uso de lomustina con un score de RUCAM sugerente, decidiéndose interrumpir sus ciclos de quimioterapia e inicia tratamiento con ácido ursodesoxicólico, presentando mejoría progresiva de pruebas hepáticas. Existe evidencia limitada en la literatura en relación a hepatotoxicidad asociada a este fármaco, principalmente en modelos experimentales, y con el uso de otras nitrosureas similares se han descrito casos de hepatotoxicidad de predominio colestásico. En relación con procarbazina y vincristina existen reportes de DILI principalmente reversible y con patrón de predominio hepatocelular, lo que no es concordante con nuestro caso, por lo cual nos parece de interés comunicarlo con revisión de la literatura al respecto.

Humans , Female , Adult , Cholestasis/chemically induced , Antineoplastic Agents, Alkylating/adverse effects , Chemical and Drug Induced Liver Injury/etiology , Lomustine/adverse effects , Cholestasis/diagnosis , Chemical and Drug Induced Liver Injury/diagnosis
Ann. hepatol ; 16(3): 442-450, May.-Jun. 2017. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-887257


ABSTRACT Introduction and aims. Drug-induced liver injury (DILI) is rare; however, it is one of the important causes of acute liver failure which results in significant morbidity or mortality. Material and methods. Patients with suspected DILI were enrolled based on predefined criteria and followed up for at least 6 months or until normalization of liver tests. Causality assessment was done by applying the Roussel Uclaf Causality Assessment Method model. Results. We collected data from 82 individuals diagnosed with DILI at our hospital from 2014 through 2015 (41 men; median age, 38 years). The most commonly implicated drugs were antitubercular therapy (ATT) (49%), antiepileptic drugs (12%), complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) in 10%, antiretroviral drugs (9%) and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (6%). 8 out of 13 deaths were liver related. Also, liver related mortality was significantly higher for ATT DILI (17.5%) vs. those without (2.4%) (P = 0.02). There was no significant difference in overall as well as liver related mortality in hepatocellular, cholestatic or mixed pattern of injury. Laboratory parameters at one week after discontinuation of drug predicted mortality better than those at the time of DILI recognition. On multivariate logistic regression analysis, jaundice, encephalopathy, MELD (Model for end stage liver disease) score and alkaline phosphatase at one week, independently predicted mortality. Conclusion. DILI results in significant overall mortality (15.85%). ATT, anti-epileptic drugs, CAM and antiretroviral drugs are leading causes of DILI in India. Presence of jaundice, encephalopathy, MELD score and alkaline phosphatase at one week are independent predictors of mortality.(AU)

Humans , Chemical and Drug Induced Liver Injury/diagnosis , Chemical and Drug Induced Liver Injury/etiology , Antitubercular Agents/adverse effects , Evaluation Studies as Topic , India
Ann. hepatol ; 16(2): 308-311, Mar.-Apr. 2017. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-887237


ABSTRACT A 75-year old male patient had been regularly visiting our hospital for the management of his type 2 diabetes mellitus since he was diagnosed at age 64 years. When he developed hypoglycemic episodes with sulfonylurea, ipragliflozin (50 mg/day) was started to replace the sulfonylurea therapy. However, 49 days after starting ipragliflozin, his AST increased from 13 to 622 U/L, ALT increased from 9 to 266 U/L, ALP increased from 239 to 752 U/L, and γ-GTP increased from 19 to 176 U/L. ZTT was 3.5 U, TTT was 0.4 U, and total bilirubin was 0.7 mg/dL. IgM hepatitis A antibody, hepatitis B antigen, hepatitis C virus antibody, IgM CMV antibody, and IgM EB VCA antibody were negative, whereas a lymphocyte transformation test for ipragliflozin was positive. Abdominal CT scan showed mild fatty liver but no sign of nodular lesions. Following admission to our hospital, he received liver supportive therapy with the discontinuation of ipragliflozin therapy. He was discharged from the hospital 18 days later with AST and ALT levels reduced to 20 U/L and 13 U/L, respectively. Based on the clinical presentation of this patient, it is highly important to monitor liver function along with other possible clinical complications (e.g., dehydration, ketosis, and urinary tract infection) associated with SGLT2 inhibitor therapy.

Humans , Male , Aged , Lymphocyte Activation/drug effects , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/drug therapy , Chemical and Drug Induced Liver Injury/diagnosis , Chemical and Drug Induced Liver Injury/etiology , Chemical and Drug Induced Liver Injury/immunology , Glucosides/adverse effects , Hypoglycemic Agents/adverse effects , Thiophenes/adverse effects , Predictive Value of Tests , Risk Factors , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/diagnosis , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/blood , Chemical and Drug Induced Liver Injury/therapy , Liver Function Tests
Braz. j. infect. dis ; 20(5): 502-504, Sept.-Oct. 2016.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-828150


Abstract Abacavir-induced liver toxicity is a rare event almost exclusively occurring in HLA B*5701-positive patients. Herein, we report one case of abnormal liver function tests occurring in a young HLA B*5701-negative woman on a stable nevirapine-based regimen with no history of liver problems or alcohol abuse after switching to abacavir from tenofovir. We also investigated the reasons for abacavir discontinuation in a cohort of patients treated with abacavir-lamivudine-nevirapine.

Humans , Female , Adult , Dideoxynucleosides/adverse effects , Anti-HIV Agents/adverse effects , Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active/adverse effects , Chemical and Drug Induced Liver Injury/etiology , HLA-B Antigens/immunology , HIV Infections/drug therapy , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Treatment Outcome
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 49(12): e5647, 2016. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-828176


The current study aimed to investigate the effects of perinatal exposure to nonylphenol (NP) on delivery outcome of pregnant rats and subsequent inflammatory hepatic injury in newborn rats. The pregnant rats were divided into 2 groups: control group (corn oil) and NP exposure group. Thirty-four pregnant rats were administered NP or corn oil by gavage from the sixth day of pregnancy to 21 days postpartum, with blood samples collected at 12 and 21 days of pregnancy and 60 days after delivery. The NP concentration was measured by HPLC, with chemiluminescence used for detection of estrogen and progesterone levels. Maternal delivery parameters were also observed. Liver and blood of the newborn rats were collected and subjected to automatic biochemical detection of liver function and blood lipid analyzer (immunoturbidimetry), and ultrastructural observation of the hepatic microstructure, with the TNF-α and IL-1β hepatic tissue levels evaluated by immunohistochemistry. Compared with the control group, the pregnant and postpartum serum NP and estradiol levels of the mother rats in the NP group were significantly increased, together with lowered progesterone level, increased number of threatened abortion and dystocia, and fewer newborn rats and lower litter weight. Serum and hepatic NP levels of the newborn rats measured 60 days after birth were significantly higher than those of the control group, as well as lower testosterone levels and increased estradiol levels. When observed under electron microscope, the hepatocyte nuclei of the control group were large and round, with evenly distributed chromatin. The chromatin of hepatocytes in the NP group presented deep staining of the nuclei, significant lipid decrease in the cytoplasm, and the majority of cells bonded with lysate. The results of immunohistochemistry showed that there was almost no TNF-α or IL-1β expression in the hepatocytes of the control group, while the number of TNF-α-, PCNA-, and IL-1β-positive cells in the NP group was increased, with higher integral optical density than the control group. Compared to the control group, the serum levels of alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, triglyceride and low-density lipoprotein in the newborn rats of the NP group were significantly increased. There was no significant difference in the serum level of high-density lipoprotein or cholesterol between the groups. Perinatal exposure to NP can interfere with the in vivo estrogen and progesterone levels of pregnant rats, resulting in threatened abortion, dystocia and other adverse delivery outcomes. High liver and serum NP levels of the newborn rats led to alteration of liver tissue structure and function. The NP-induced hepatotoxicity is probably mediated by inflammatory cytokines TNF-α and IL-1α.

Animals , Female , Rats , Chemical and Drug Induced Liver Injury/etiology , Phenols/toxicity , Animals, Newborn , Chemical and Drug Induced Liver Injury/pathology , Disease Models, Animal , Interleukin-1/analysis , Prenatal Exposure Delayed Effects/chemically induced , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/analysis
An. bras. dermatol ; 90(3,supl.1): 51-54, May-June 2015. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-755788



Pemphigus vulgaris is an autoimmune disease characterized by suprabasal blisters with acantholysis, which has a fatal course in a large number of untreated patients. Systemic corticosteroid therapy is considered first-line therapy. Adjuvant treatment with the goal of sparing corticosteroids include, among others, dapsone. This drug is not without side effects and its use requires clinical and laboratory control. We present a patient with PV initially managed with suboptimal dose of prednisone, evolving into drug-induced hepatitis after introduction of dapsone.


Female , Humans , Middle Aged , Dapsone/adverse effects , Folic Acid Antagonists/adverse effects , Glucocorticoids/administration & dosage , Pemphigus/drug therapy , Prednisone/administration & dosage , Chemotherapy, Adjuvant , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Dapsone/administration & dosage , Chemical and Drug Induced Liver Injury/etiology , Folic Acid Antagonists/administration & dosage , Liver/drug effects , Pemphigus/pathology , Time Factors , Treatment Outcome
Rev. panam. salud pública ; 36(6): 396-401, dic. 2014. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-742269


This study describes the adverse drug reactions (ADRs) and their incidence in patients with rheumatoid arthritis who were treated in the Colombian health system. A retrospective cohort study was conducted using information from all patients who were diagnosed with rheumatoid arthritis and attended specialized health care centers in the cities of Bogotá, Cali, Manizales, Medellin, and Pereira between 1 December 2009 and 30 August 2013. The ADRs were obtained from medical records and the pharmacovigilance system registry and sorted by frequency and affected tissue according to World Health Organization Adverse Reaction Terminology (WHO-ART). A total of 949 reports of ADRs were obtained from 419 patients (32.8 ADRs per 100 patient-years); these patients were from a cohort of 1 364 patients being treated for rheumatoid arthritis and followed up for an average of 23.8 months (± 12.9). The cohort was mostly female (366, 87.4%) and had a mean age of 52.7 years (± 13.1). The highest numbers of ADRs were reported following the use of tocilizumab, rituximab, and infliximab (28.8, 23.1, and 13.3 reports per 100 patient-years respectively). The most frequently reported ADRs were elevated transaminase levels and dyspepsia. Overall, 87.7% of ADRs were classified as type A, 36.6% as mild, 40.7% as moderate, and 22.7% as severe. As a result, 73.2% of patients who experienced an ADR stopped taking their drugs. The occurrence of ADRs in patients treated for rheumatoid arthritis is common, especially in those associated with the use of biotechnologically produced anti-rheumatic drugs. This outcome should be studied in future research and monitoring is needed to reduce the risks in these patients.

Este estudio describe las reacciones adversas a medicamentos (RAM) y su incidencia en pacientes con artritis reumatoide y tratados en el sistema de salud colombiano. Se llevó a cabo un estudio retrospectivo de cohortes utilizando la información correspondiente a todos los pacientes con diagnóstico de artritis reumatoide que acudieron a centros especializados de atención de salud de las ciudades de Bogotá, Cali, Manizales, Medellín y Pereira entre el 1 de diciembre del 2009 y el 30 de agosto del 2013. Los casos de RAM se obtuvieron de las historias clínicas y del registro del sistema de farmacovigilancia, y se clasificaron por su frecuencia y el tejido afectado, según la Terminología de Reacciones Adversas de la Organización Mundial de la Salud ­ (WHO-ART). Se obtuvo un total de 949 informes de RAM en 419 pacientes (32,8 RAM por 100 pacientes-año); estos pacientes correspondían a una cohorte de 1 364 pacientes tratados por artritis reumatoide y seguidos durante un promedio de 23,8 meses (± 12,9). La cohorte estaba compuesta principalmente por mujeres (366, 87,4%) y la media de edad era de 52,7 años (± 13,1). El mayor número de casos de RAM se notificó tras el uso de tocilizumab, rituximab e infliximab (28,8, 23,1 y 13,3 notificaciones por 100 pacientes-año, respectivamente). Las RAM notificadas con mayor frecuencia fueron la elevación de los niveles de transaminasas y la dispepsia. En términos generales, 87,7% de las RAM se clasificaron como de tipo A, 36,6% como leves, 40,7% como moderadas y 22,7% como graves. Como consecuencia, 73,2% de los pacientes que presentaron una RAM dejaron de tomar sus medicamentos. La aparición de RAM en pacientes tratados por artritis reumatoide es frecuente, especialmente cuando se utilizan fármacos antirreumáticos de producción biotecnológica. Estos resultados deben ser objeto de estudio en futuras investigaciones y señalan la necesidad de actividades de vigilancia para reducir los riesgos en estos pacientes.

Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Antirheumatic Agents/adverse effects , Arthritis, Rheumatoid/drug therapy , Antirheumatic Agents/therapeutic use , Biological Products/adverse effects , Biological Products/therapeutic use , Biosimilar Pharmaceuticals/adverse effects , Biosimilar Pharmaceuticals/therapeutic use , Colombia/epidemiology , Drug Eruptions/epidemiology , Drug Eruptions/etiology , Chemical and Drug Induced Liver Injury/epidemiology , Chemical and Drug Induced Liver Injury/etiology , Follow-Up Studies , Gastrointestinal Diseases/chemically induced , Gastrointestinal Diseases/epidemiology , Hematologic Diseases/chemically induced , Hematologic Diseases/epidemiology , Pharmacovigilance , Retrospective Studies , Retinal Diseases/chemically induced , Retinal Diseases/epidemiology
Indian J Biochem Biophys ; 2014 Oct; 51(5): 372-377
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-154266


The phytochemicals present in the grapes are responsible for nutraceutical and health benfits due to their antioxidant properties. These phytochemicals, however, vary greatly among different cultivars. In this study, we evaluated the antioxidant potential and protective role of four different Indian grape (Vitis vinifera) cultivars extracts, namely Flame seedless (Black grapes), Kishmish chorni (Black with reddish brown), Red globe (Red) and Thompson seedless mutant (Sonaka, Green) against the Fenton-like reagent (200 mmole H2O2, 2 mmole ascorbate, 25 mmole FeSO4)-induced liver damage. Non-enzymatic antioxidants, such as glutathione (GSH) levels and activities of antioxidant enzymes, such as glutathione S-transferase (GST) and superoxide dismutase (SOD), as well as total antioxidant capacity (TAC) were highest in the grape seed, followed by skin and pulp. Among edible parts of different cultivars, skin of Flame seedless (Black) cultivar showed highest antioxidant potential, while the Thompson seedless the least potential. These antioxidants were found to be significantly (P<0.01) correlated with the levels of total phenol, flavonoids and ascorbic acid. Fenton-like reagent treatment significantly (P<0.001) decreased GSH content by 39.1% and activities of catalase (CAT) by 43.2% and glutathione reductase (GR) by 60%, while increasing thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and nitric oxide levels by 2.13-fold and 0.64-fold, respectively and GST activity by 0.81-fold. Pre-treatment with grape seed extracts showed the best hepatoprotective action against Fenton-like reagent-induced damage, followed by the extracts of skin and pulp of any cultivar. Thus, our study showed the significant amounts of antioxidants were in grape seed, followed by its skin and pulp, which varied among the cultivars and was associated with the protective action of grape extracts against Fenton-like reagent-induced liver damage ex-vivo.

Animals , Antioxidants/administration & dosage , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Chemical and Drug Induced Liver Injury/drug therapy , Chemical and Drug Induced Liver Injury/etiology , Chemical and Drug Induced Liver Injury/metabolism , Fruit/chemistry , Goats , Hydrogen Peroxide , Iron , Phytotherapy/methods , Plant Extracts/administration & dosage , Plant Structures/chemistry , Reactive Oxygen Species/metabolism , Treatment Outcome , Vitis/chemistry
Indian J Biochem Biophys ; 2014 Oct; 51(5): 358-364
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-154264


Anticancer potential of Piper longum fruit against human cancer cell lines (DU-145 prostate, A549 lung, THP-1 leukemia, IGR-OVI-1 ovary and MCF-7 breast) as well as its in vitro and in vivo biochemical efficacy in AlCl3-induced hepatotoxicity were evaluated in the rats. Dried samples were extracted with several solvents using soxhlet apparatus. Flavonoid content in chloroform, benzene, ethyl alcohol and aqueous extracts of fruit was 19, 14, 12 and 11 μg quercetin equivalent/mg of sample, respectively. Hexane extracts exhibited 90-92% cytotoxicity against most of the test cell lines (A549, THP-1, IGR-OVI-1 and MCF-7), while benzene extract displayed 84-87% cytotoxicity against MCF-7, IGR-OV-1 and THP-1 cell lines. Among extracts, hexane, benzene and acetone extracts demonstrated considerable cytotoxicity (91-95%) against A549 (lung cancer) cell line in Sulforhodamine B dye (SRB) assay. Cell cycle analysis revealed that hexane, benzene and acetone extracts produced 41, 63 and 43% sub-G1 DNA fraction, demonstrating cell cycle inhibitory potential of these extracts against A549 cell line. Chloroform, ethyl alcohol and aqueous extracts displayed 71, 64 and 65% membrane protective activity, respectively in lipid peroxidation inhibition assay. P. longum fruit extracts also ameliorated AlCl3-induced hepatotoxicity, as indicated by alterations observed in serum enzymes ALP, SGOT and SGPT activity, as well as creatinine and bilirubin contents. In conclusion, study established the cytotoxic and hepatoprotective activity in P. longum extracts.

Animals , Antineoplastic Agents/administration & dosage , Apoptosis/drug effects , Cell Cycle Checkpoints/drug effects , Cell Line, Tumor , Chlorides , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Chemical and Drug Induced Liver Injury/etiology , Chemical and Drug Induced Liver Injury/physiopathology , Chemical and Drug Induced Liver Injury/prevention & control , Fruit/chemistry , Humans , Male , Metals , Neoplasms, Experimental/drug therapy , Neoplasms, Experimental/pathology , Piper/chemistry , Plant Extracts/administration & dosage , Rats , Rats, Wistar , Treatment Outcome
Einstein (Säo Paulo) ; 12(3): 355-357, Jul-Sep/2014.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-723919


Relatamos um caso de dano hepático em paciente idosa após uso de produtos naturais à base de Hypericum perforatum e copaíba (Copaifera langsdorffii Desf). A hepatotoxicidade do Hypericum perforatum é conhecida por relatos, mas a respeito da copaíba, largamente usada como anti-inflamatório, há apenas dados experimentais na literatura nacional. Essa apresentação visou chamar a atenção para possível efeito tóxico dessa associação, bem como para a recuperação clínica da paciente após interrupção de seu uso. Há uma tendência de suspeitar sobre a ação de medicamentos para justificar a lesão hepática aguda não viral, em razão do grande número de fármacos responsáveis por hepatotoxicidade. A literatura tem publicado experimentos e relatos clínicos em que produtos fitoterápicos, inclusive Hypericum perforatum, são o agente causador dessa agressão, considerados inócuos e utilizados livremente. É preciso lembrar que reações adversas ocorrem também com essas substâncias, merecendo sua investigação na obtenção da anamnese, pela possibilidade de promoverem quadros graves de falência hepática.

We report a case of liver damage in an elderly patient after the use of herbal products of Hypericum perforatum and copaiba (Copaifera langsdorffii Desf). Hepatotoxicity related to Hypericum perforatum is anecdotally known, but for copaiba, widely used as anti-inflammatory, there is just experimental data in the national literature. This report aimed to draw attention to the possible toxic effects of this association as well as to the clinical recovery of the patient after discontinuing their use. There is a tendency to suspect of the action of drugs to justify a non-viral acute liver injury, because of the large number of drugs responsible for hepatotoxicity. There are experiments and clinical reports in the literature describing some herbal products, including Hypericum perforatum, as the causative agents of this aggression, and are considered innocuous and used with no restrictions. We must remember that adverse reactions also occur with these substances; hence, they should be investigated when collecting the patient´s history, for leading to severe liver failure.

Aged , Female , Humans , Chemical and Drug Induced Liver Injury/etiology , Fabaceae/adverse effects , Fabaceae/toxicity , Hypericum/adverse effects , Phytotherapy/adverse effects , Plant Extracts/adverse effects
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-157613


Drug-related hepatotoxicity is a serious health problem, with broad implications for patients, healthcare providers, the pharmaceutical industry and governmental regulatory agencies. Herein we report a rare case of amoxycillinclavulanic acid combination induced liver injury of cholestatic pattern in 40 years old, well educated male patient. Patient gave history that though other drugs were given to him by his physician for fever with chills & rigors, malaise, bodyache, except amoxycillin-clavulanic acid combination all other drugs were well tolerated previously by the patient, without appearance of jaundice. So jaundice in this patient was most probably due to amoxycillinclavulanic acid combination. Though severe liver injury is rare, proper history should be taken while prescribing amoxycillin-clavulanic acid combination. Attention must be paid to potential side-effects of the drugs and close follow-up with patients is a medical necessity to evaluate adverse reactions, especially in case of amoxycillinclavulanic acid combination.

Adult , Amoxicillin-Potassium Clavulanate Combination/administration & dosage , Amoxicillin-Potassium Clavulanate Combination/adverse effects , Amoxicillin-Potassium Clavulanate Combination/toxicity , Chemical and Drug Induced Liver Injury/chemically induced , Chemical and Drug Induced Liver Injury/epidemiology , Chemical and Drug Induced Liver Injury/etiology , Chemical and Drug Induced Liver Injury/therapy , Humans , Jaundice/chemically induced , Jaundice/epidemiology , Jaundice/etiology , Jaundice/therapy , Liver/drug effects , Liver/pathology , Liver/toxicity , Male