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1.
Rev. cuba. hematol. inmunol. hemoter ; 37(3): e1505, 2021. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1341404

ABSTRACT

Introducción: Con el protocolo LPM-TOA para el tratamiento de la leucemia promielocítica se obtienen excelentes resultados, se prolonga la sobrevida global y es posible la curación de los enfermos. En la de inducción a la remisión se utilizan dos drogas, una antraciclina y trióxido de arsénico, y en la consolidación los enfermos reciben de nuevo una dosis elevada de arsénico. Objetivo: Evaluar la toxicidad hepática tardía en pacientes con leucemia promielocítica tratados según el protocolo LPM-TOA. Métodos: Se realizó estudio longitudinal prospectivo que incluyó20 pacientes tratados con dicho protocolo, todos con más de dos años de haberlo suspendido. Se revisaron las historias clínicas para evaluar mediante los valores iniciales y evolutivos de las enzimas hepáticas, la función hepática inicial y evolutiva. Se determinó el índice de Ritis para predecir evolución a la cronicidad de existir daño hepático. Resultados: Hombres y mujeres se presentaron con la misma frecuencia y la media para la edad del sexo masculino fue 36,39 y para el femenino 39, con desviación estándar de ±14,02 y ±9,43, respectivamente. La variedad morfológica más frecuente fue la hipergranular, el promedio del índice de Ritis fue de solo 1,006 con desviación estándar de 0,745. Conclusiones: No hubo evidencias clínica ni enzimática de toxicidad hepática tardía en los pacientes estudiados(AU)


Introduction: With the LPM-TOA protocol for the treatment of acute promyelocytic leukemia, excellent results are obtained, overall survival is prolonged and the patients are cured, in the induction to remission two drugs are used, an anthracycline and arsenic trioxide, and in consolidation the patients again receive a high dose of arsenic. Objective: To assess late liver toxicity in patients with promyelocytic leukemia treated according to the PML-TOA protocol. Methods: A prospective longitudinal study was carried out that included 20 patients treated with this protocol, all with more than two years of having suspended treatment. The clinical histories were reviewed and by means of the initial and evolutionary values of liver enzymes, the initial and evolutionary liver function was evaluated and the Ritis index was determined to predict evolution to chronicity if there is liver damage. Results: Men and women presented with the same frequency and the mean age for males was 36.39 and for females it was 39, with a standard deviation of ± 14.02 and ± 9.43 respectively. The most frequent morphological variety was hypergranular, the average Ritis index was only 1.006 with a standard deviation of 0.745. Conclusions: There was no clinical or enzymatic evidence of late liver toxicity in the patients studied(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Leukemia, Promyelocytic, Acute/drug therapy , Chemical and Drug Induced Liver Injury/prevention & control , Arsenic Trioxide/toxicity , Survival Analysis , Prospective Studies , Longitudinal Studies
2.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879086

ABSTRACT

Methotrexate(MTX) is a commonly used antimetabolite, which can be used in the treatment of a variety of diseases. However, hepatotoxicity in the use of MTX severely limits its clinical use. Therefore, how to prevent and treat hepatotoxicity of MTX has become an urgent clinical problem. This paper summarizes and analyzes relevant literatures on the prevention and treatment of hepa-totoxicity caused by MTX with traditional Chinese medicines and natural medicines in recent years. MTX-induced hepatotoxicity mechanisms include folate pathway, oxidative stress damage and adenosine pathway, of which oxidative stress theory is the main research direction. A total of 14 kinds of traditional Chinese medicine and natural medicine extracts including white peony root, and 21 kinds of natural monomer compounds, including berberine, play an anti-MTX-induced hepatotoxic effect by resisting oxidative stress, inhibiting inflammation and regulating signal pathways. According to current studies on the prevention and treatment of hepatotoxicity induced by MTX with traditional Chinese medicines and natural medicines, there are insufficiencies, such as partial and superficial mechanism studies, inadequate combination of experimental research and clinical practice, non-standard experimental design and lack of application of advanced technologies and methods. This paper systematically reviewed the effects and mechanisms of traditional Chinese medicines and natural medicines against hepatotoxicity induced by MTX and defined current studies and deficiencies, in the expectation of proposing new study strategies and directions and providing scientific basis for rational clinical use of MTX and development of new drugs against MTX hepatotoxicity.


Subject(s)
Chemical and Drug Induced Liver Injury/prevention & control , Drug-Related Side Effects and Adverse Reactions , Humans , Liver/metabolism , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Methotrexate/toxicity , Oxidative Stress
4.
Biosci. j. (Online) ; 36(1): 245-255, jan./feb. 2020. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1049246

ABSTRACT

Paracetamol (PCM) overdose can cause hepatotoxicity with oxidative stress; the present study was carried out to establish the possible protective effect of olive leaves extract (OLE) on toxicity induced by paracetamol in adult male rats. Twenty four adult male rats were divided into four equal groups; control, olive leaves extract group, paracetamol group and olive leaves extract plus paracetamol group. Some biochemical parameters and liver histopathology were evaluated. PCM treatment significantly increased serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), total bilirubin, gamma-glutamyltransferase (GGT), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), urea, creatinine and alpha-fetoprotein. Paracetamol was found to significantly increase malonaldehyde (MDA) and decrease glutathione reductase (GR) activity in tissue and significantly decrease total antioxidant capacity (TAC) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) in serum. Administration of OLE caused a significant decrease serum AST, ALT enzyme, total bilirubin, GGT, LDH, creatinine, urea, alpha-fetoprotein. Also, amelioration of oxidant ­ antioxidant status with olive leaves extract was observed in addition to a significant decrease in MDA and a significant increase in TAC in liver tissue with a significant increase in glutathione reductase (GR) and SOD in serum compared to paracetamol treated group The chemical pathological changes were in step with histopathological observation suggesting marked hepatoprotective result of olive leaves extract. It could be concluded that olive leaves extract (OLE) treatment may be effective in decreasing hepatic injury and oxidative stress induced by paracetamol overdose in male albino rats


A sobredosagem de paracetamol (PCM) pode causar hepatotoxicidade com estresse oxidativo; o presente estudo foi realizado para estabelecer o possível efeito protetor do extrato de folhas de oliveira (OLE) na toxicidade induzida pelo paracetamol em ratos machos adultos. Vinte e quatro ratos machos adultos foram divididos em quatro grupos iguais: controle, grupo extrato de folhas de oliveira, grupo paracetamol e extrato de folhas de oliveira mais grupo paracetamol. Alguns parâmetros bioquímicos e histopatologia hepática foram avaliados. O tratamento com PCM aumentou significativamente aspartato aminotransferase sérica (AST), alanina aminotransferase (ALT), bilirrubina total, gama-glutamiltransferase (GGT), lactato desidrogenase (LDH), uréia, creatinina e alfa-fetoproteína. Verificou-se que o paracetamol aumenta significativamente o malonaldeído (MDA) e diminui a atividade da glutationa redutase (GR) no tecido e diminui significativamente a capacidade antioxidante total (TAC) e a superóxido dismutase (SOD) no soro. A administração de OLE causou uma diminuição significativa de AST, enzima ALT, bilirrubina total, GGT, LDH, creatinina, uréia, alfa-fetoproteína. Também foi observada melhora do status oxidante - antioxidante com extrato de folhas de oliveira, além de uma diminuição significativa no MDA e um aumento significativo no TAC no tecido hepático, com um aumento significativo na glutationa redutase (GR) e SOD no soro em comparação ao grupo tratado com paracetamol. As alterações patológicas químicas acompanharam a observação histopatológica, sugerindo resultado hepatoprotetor acentuado do extrato de folhas de oliveira. Pode-se concluir que o tratamento com extrato de folhas de oliveira (OLE) pode ser eficaz na diminuição da lesão hepática e do estresse oxidativo induzido pela overdose de paracetamol em ratos albinos machos


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Olea , Hepatoprotector Drugs , Chemical and Drug Induced Liver Injury/prevention & control , Acetaminophen/toxicity , Rats, Inbred Strains , Plant Extracts/chemistry , Random Allocation , Oxidants , Rats, Wistar , Plant Leaves , Oxidative Stress/drug effects , Hepatocytes/drug effects , Liver/pathology , Antioxidants/pharmacology
5.
Arq. gastroenterol ; 56(4): 333-338, Oct.-Dec. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1055177

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Indigofera suffruticosa Mill (Fabaceae) is abundant in northeastern Brazil and popularly used in the treatment of infectious and inflammatory processes. Several biological properties, such as anti-inflammatory, anticancer, antitumor, hepatoprotective and low toxicity, are reported for this plant. OBJECTIVE: This study investigated hepatoprotective activity and the antioxidant effect of methanolic extract of I. suffruticosa leaves (MEIS) on Swiss albino mice submitted to experimental models of acetaminophen-induced liver injury. METHODS: MEIS (50 mg/kg; p.o.) was standardized according to the LD50 and its hepatoprotective property on Swiss albino mice evaluated during a 7-day period. On the eighth day, the acetaminophen-induced hepatic injury was performed. Histomorphometric analysis of liver tissue, antioxidant activity and serum levels of alanine aminotransferase (AST), aspartate aminotransferase (ALT) and bilirubin were measured. RESULTS: MEIS (50 mg/kg; p.o.) restored serum enzyme levels and results were close to those of positive control (silymarin) when compared to the negative control. Histopathological and histomorphometric analyzes confirmed MEIS hepatoprotective activity, showing reorganization of structural units of cells, nuclei and sinusoidal capillaries of hepatocytes, reducing the damage on liver tissue and increasing organ regeneration rate. MEIS showed high antioxidant potential at concentrations of 1000 and 500 µg/mL. CONCLUSION: This study suggests that MEIS has hepatoprotective activity and high antioxidant potential.


RESUMO CONTEXTO: Indigofera suffruticosa Mill (Fabaceae) é abundante no nordeste do Brasil e popularmente utilizada no tratamento de processos infecciosos e inflamatórios. Várias propriedades biológicas, como anti-inflamatório, anticâncer, antitumoral, hepatoprotetor e baixa toxicidade, são relatadas para esta planta. OBJETIVO: Este estudo investigou a atividade hepatoprotetora e o efeito antioxidante do extrato metanólico de folhas de I. suffruticosa (MEIS) em camundongos albinos suíços submetidos a modelos experimentais de lesão hepática induzida por paracetamol. MÉTODOS: O MEIS na dose de 50 mg/kg (via oral) foi padronizado de acordo com a LD50 e sua propriedade hepatoprotetora em camundongos albinos Swiss avaliados durante um período de sete dias. No oitavo dia, a lesão hepática foi induzida por paracetamol em todos grupos pre-tratados. Foram medidos os níveis sericos enzimaticos, alanina aminotransferase, aspartato aminotransferase e bilirrubina, análise histomorfométrica do tecido hepático e atividade antioxidante. RESULTADOS: O MEIS restaurou os níveis séricos de enzimas e os resultados foram próximos aos do controle positivo (silimarina) quando comparados ao controle negativo. As análises histopatológicas e histomorfométricas confirmaram a atividade hepatoprotetora do MEIS, mostrando reorganização das unidades estruturais das células, núcleos e capilares sinusoidais dos hepatócitos, reduzindo os danos no tecido hepático e aumentando a taxa de regeneração de órgãos. O MEIS apresentou alto potencial antioxidante nas concentrações de 1000 e 500 µg/mL. CONCLUSÃO: Este estudo sugere que I. suffruticosa tem atividade hepatoprotetora e alto potencial antioxidante.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Plant Extracts/administration & dosage , Analgesics, Non-Narcotic/toxicity , Protective Agents/administration & dosage , Indigofera/chemistry , Chemical and Drug Induced Liver Injury/prevention & control , Acetaminophen/toxicity , Aspartate Aminotransferases/blood , Bilirubin/blood , Alanine Transaminase/blood , Chemical and Drug Induced Liver Injury/etiology
6.
Acta cir. bras ; 34(7): e201900706, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1038113

ABSTRACT

Abstract Purpose: To investigate the protective roles of pyracantha fortune fruit extract (PFE) on acute renal toxicity induced by cadmium chloride (CdCl2) in rats. Methods: Rats were pretreated with PFE and consecutively injected with CdCl2 (6.5 mg/kg) for 5 days. Results: The concentration of Cd, kidney weight, malondialdehyde (MDA), and nitric oxide (NO) production were remarkably increased in CdCl2 group as well as the levels of plasma uric acid, urea, and creatinine (P < 0.001). However, the body weight and glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and glutathione peroxidase (GR) levels were markedly reduced by CdCl2 treatment (P < 0.001). Histological manifestations of renal tissue showed severely adverse changes. Moreover, CdCl2 treatment significantly decreased the B-cell lymphoma-2 (Bcl-2) expression while increased the Bcl-2-Associated X Protein (Bax), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) expression (P < 0.001). Additionally, the expression of Nrf2/Keap 1 related proteins Keap-1 gained a significant increase (P < 0.001), whereas the Nrf2, HO-1, γ-GCS, GSH-Px and NQO1 expression decreased by CdCl2 treatment (P < 0.05). These rats were pretreated with PFE to improve the changes caused by CdCl2 treatment. Conclusion: PFE could protect the kidney against acute renal toxicity induced by CdCl2.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Cadmium Chloride/toxicity , Pyracantha/chemistry , Chemical and Drug Induced Liver Injury/prevention & control , Kidney/drug effects , Antioxidants/pharmacology , Superoxide Dismutase/metabolism , Catalase/metabolism , Oxidative Stress/drug effects , Disease Models, Animal , Fruit/chemistry , Glutathione/metabolism , Glutathione Peroxidase/metabolism , Kidney/pathology
7.
West Indian med. j ; 67(3): 254-261, July-Sept. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1045838

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: Aflatoxicosis is a mycotoxicosis infection with an acute or chronic course that forms due to aflatoxins (AFs) in humans and animals. Aflatoxins primarily affect the liver and can lead to histopathological necrosis, fibrosis and hepatocarcinogenesis of the organ. This paper studied the preventive effects of dead nettle leaf (Urtica dioica leaf; UDL) extract on liver lesions that were induced by experimental aflatoxicosis in rats. Methods: A total of 30 rats were separated into three groups of 10 rats each. Experimental group A (control) received normal rat food, experimental group B (AFB1) received 2 mg/kg of AF, and experimental group C (AFB1 + UDL extract) received 2 mg/kg of AF + 2 ml/rat/day of UDL extract. After three months of experimentation, blood and tissue samples were taken from the rats by necropsy to perform chemical and histopathological analyses. Results: According to the biochemical and histopathological findings, antioxidant system activity increased and lipid peroxidation and liver enzyme levels decreased in the group that received UDL extract. Conclusion: The extract of UDL had hepatoprotective effects against aflatoxicosis.


RESUMEN Objetivo: La aflatoxicosis es una infección por micotoxicosis con un curso agudo o crónico producido por aflatoxinas (AF) en seres humanos y animales. Las aflatoxinas afectan principalmente el hígado y pueden conducir a necrosis histopatológica, fibrosis o hepatocarcinogénesis del órgano. En este trabajo se estudiaron los efectos preventivos del extracto de la hoja de ortiga mayor (Urtica dioica l; UDL) sobre las lesiones hepáticas inducidas por aflatoxicosis experimental en ratas. Métodos: Un total de 30 ratas se separaron en tres grupos de 10 ratas cada una. EL grupo experimental A (control) recibió comida normal de ratas; el grupo experimental B (AFB1) recibió 2 mg/kg de AF; y el grupo experimental C (AFB1 + extracto de UDL) recibió 2 mg/kg de AF + 2 ml/rata/día de extracto de UDL. Después de tres meses de experimentación, se tomaron muestras de sangre y tejidos de las ratas en una necropsia encaminada a realizar análisis químicos e histopatológicos. Resultados: Según los hallazgos bioquímicos e histopatológicos, la actividad del sistema antioxidante aumentó, y la peroxidación del lípido y los niveles de la enzima del hígado disminuyeron en el grupo que recibió el extracto de UDL. Conclusión: El extracto de UDL tuvo efectos hepatoprotectores contra la aflatoxicosis.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Plant Extracts/administration & dosage , Aflatoxins/toxicity , Urtica dioica/chemistry , Hepatoprotector Drugs , Chemical and Drug Induced Liver Injury/prevention & control , Immunohistochemistry , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Disease Models, Animal , Chemical and Drug Induced Liver Injury, Chronic/pathology
8.
Int. j. morphol ; 36(3): 984-990, Sept. 2018. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-954219

ABSTRACT

Potent heptatotoxic chemicals such as carbon tetrachloride and thioacetamide (TAA) are used to evaluate hepatoprotective agents. Here we sought to investigate the potential protective effect of the antidiabetic and antioxidant drug, metformin against liver injury induced by TAA. Model group rats received several injections of TAA (200 mg/kg) before being sacrificed after 10 weeks and the protective group started the treatment two weeks prior to TAA injections and continued receiving both agents, metformin and TAA until the end of the experiment, week 10. Harvested liver tissues were examined using light microscopy and liver homogenates were assayed for oxidative and anti-oxidative stress markers that are known to be modulated in liver injury. Profound damage in the hepatic tissue of the model group such as liver fibrosis and destruction of hepatic architectures were revealed, which were protected by metformin comparable to the control group. TAA augmented the oxidative stress biomarker, malondialdehyde (MDA) and ameliorated the antioxidant superoxide dismutase (SOD), which were significantly (p<0.05) protected by metformin treatment. These results indicate that metformin effectively protects against TAA-induced hepatotoxicity in a rat model.


Para evaluar los agentes hepatoprotectores se usan químicos heptatotóxicos potentes como el tetracloruro de carbono y la tioacetamida (TAA). En este estudio tratamos de investigar el efecto protector potencial de la droga antidiabética y antioxidante, la metformina contra la lesión hepática inducida por TAA. Las ratas del grupo modelo recibieron varias inyecciones de TAA (200 mg/kg) durante 10 semanas antes de ser sacrificadas, y el grupo protector comenzó el tratamiento dos semanas antes de las inyecciones TAA y continuó recibiendo ambos agentes, metformina y TAA, hasta el final del experimento. Los tejidos hepáticos se examinaron usando microscopía óptica y se analizaron los homogeneizados hepáticos en busca de marcadores de estrés oxidativo y antioxidante los que están modulados en la lesión hepática. Se observaron daños significativos en el tejido hepático del grupo modelo como la fibrosis hepática y destrucción de la arquitectura hepática, que estaban protegidas por la metformina comparable al grupo control. TAA aumentó el biomarcador de estrés oxidativo, malondialdehído (MDA) y mejoró la enzima antioxidante superóxido dismutasa (SOD), que fueron protegidas significativamente (p <0,05) por el tratamiento con metformina. Estos resultados indican que la metformina protege eficazmente contra la hepatotoxicidad inducida por TAA en un modelo de rata.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Thioacetamide/toxicity , Chemical and Drug Induced Liver Injury/prevention & control , Hypoglycemic Agents/administration & dosage , Metformin/administration & dosage , Oxidative Stress/drug effects , Disease Models, Animal , Liver/drug effects
9.
Acta cir. bras ; 32(8): 633-640, Aug. 2017. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-886223

ABSTRACT

Abstract Purpose: To evaluate the effect of hyperin in cisplatin-induced liver injury in mice. Methods: Mice were pretreated with hyperin at doses of 25 mg/kg and 50 mg/kg, respectively, for six days, and intraperitoneal injection of cisplatin (40 mg/kg) was administrated one hour after the final intragastrication of hyperin. Twenty-four hours later, blood and liver were collected for further research. Results: A single injection of cisplatin (40 mg/kg) for 24 h significantly increased serum alanine and aspartate aminotransferases (ALT/AST) and gamma glutamyl transferase (GGT) activities, whileas hyperin reversed cisplatin-induced such increases. Liver histopathological examination further demonstrated the protection of hyperin against cisplatin-induced liver injury. Further results showed hyperin reversed cisplatin-induced the increase in content of malondialdehyde (MDA) and the decrease in level of total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC) in liver. Moreover, hyperin increased the levels of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione (GSH), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione-s transferase (GST) in cisplatin-induced liver. Conclusion: Hyperin inhibits cisplatin-induced hepatic oxidative stress, which contributes greatly to the amelioration of cisplatin-induced liver injury in mice.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Quercetin/analogs & derivatives , Aspartate Aminotransferases/metabolism , Cisplatin/adverse effects , Chemical and Drug Induced Liver Injury/prevention & control , Antineoplastic Agents/adverse effects , Antioxidants/pharmacology , Quercetin/therapeutic use , Quercetin/pharmacology , Reference Values , Lipid Peroxidation , Catalase/analysis , Random Allocation , Reproducibility of Results , Cisplatin/antagonists & inhibitors , Oxidative Stress/drug effects , Alanine Transaminase/metabolism , Chemical and Drug Induced Liver Injury/pathology , Glutathione/analysis , Glutathione Peroxidase/analysis , Glutathione Transferase/analysis , Liver/drug effects , Liver/enzymology , Liver/pathology , Malondialdehyde/analysis , Mice, Inbred ICR , Antioxidants/therapeutic use
10.
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 53(1): e16136, 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-839443

ABSTRACT

Abstract Curcuma longa, which contains curcumin as a major constituent, has been shown many pharmacological effects, but it is limited using in clinical due to low bioavailability. In this study, we developed a phytosome curcumin formulation and evaluated the hepatoprotective effect of phytosome curcumin on paracetamol induced liver damage in mice. Phytosome curcumin (equivalent to curcumin 100 and 200 mg/kg body weight) and curcumin (200 mg/kg body weight) were given by gastrically and toxicity was induced by paracetamol (500 mg/kg) during 7 days. On the final day animals were sacrificed and liver function markers (ALT, AST), hepatic antioxidants (SOD, CAT and GPx) and lipid peroxidation in liver homogenate were estimated. Our data showed that phytosome has stronger hepatoprotective effect compared to curcumin-free. Administration of phytosome curcumin effectively suppressed paracetamol-induced liver injury evidenced by a reduction of lipid peroxidation level, and elevated enzymatic antioxidant activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase in mice liver tissue. Our study suggests that phytosome curcumin has strong antioxidant activity and potential hepatoprotective effects.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Female , Rats , Rats/classification , Curcumin/pharmacology , Curcuma/adverse effects , Chemical and Drug Induced Liver Injury/prevention & control , Hepatoprotector Drugs , Acetaminophen/adverse effects
11.
Acta cir. bras ; 31(3): 168-175, Mar. 2016. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-777089

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT PURPOSE : To investigate the effects of thiamine pyrophosphate (TPP) against desflurane induced hepatotoxicity. METHODS : Thirty experimental animals were divided into groups as healthy (HG), desflurane control (DCG) , TPP and desflurane group (TDG). 20 mg/kg TPP was injected to intraperitoneally TDG. After one hour of TPP administration, desflurane was applied for two hours. After 24 hours, liver tissues of the animals killed with decapitation were removed. The oxidant/antioxidant levels and ALT, AST and LDH activities were measured. The histopathological examinations were performed in the liver tissues for all rats. RESULTS : Notwithstanding the levels of oxidants and liver enzymes were significantly increased (p<0.0001), antioxidant levels were significantly decreased in DCG (p<0.0001). On contrary to the antioxidant parameters were increased (p<0.05) the oxidant parameters and liver enzymes were decreased in TDG (p<0.0001). Whereas multiple prominent, congestion, hemorrhage and dilatation were observed in sinusoids and lymphocyte-rich inflammation results in the centrilobular and portal areas of liver tissue in DCG, these findings were observed less frequently in TDG. CONCLUSİON : Thiamine pyrophosphate prevented liver oxidative damage induced with desflurane and may be useful in prophylaxis of desflurane induced hepatotoxicity.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Thiamine Pyrophosphate/therapeutic use , Anesthetics, Inhalation/adverse effects , Protective Agents/pharmacology , Chemical and Drug Induced Liver Injury/prevention & control , Isoflurane/analogs & derivatives , Aspartate Aminotransferases/drug effects , Aspartate Aminotransferases/metabolism , Rats, Wistar , Peroxidase/drug effects , Oxidative Stress/drug effects , Alanine Transaminase/drug effects , Alanine Transaminase/metabolism , Chemical and Drug Induced Liver Injury/metabolism , Glutathione/drug effects , Glutathione/metabolism , Isoflurane , L-Lactate Dehydrogenase/drug effects , L-Lactate Dehydrogenase/metabolism , Liver/enzymology , Liver/pathology , Malondialdehyde/metabolism , Nitric Oxide/metabolism
12.
Acta cir. bras ; 30(11): 778-784, Nov. 2015. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-767597

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To investigate the possible protective effect of rutin on methotrexate induced hepatotoxicity in rats. METHODS: Twenty-two rats were divided into three experimental groups; Control-saline, Mtx, Mtx+Rutin. Hepatic tissue was taken for histological assessment and biochemical assays. Oxidative stress parameters malondialdehyde (MDA), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) were investigated. Liver markers aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) were analyzed in serum. RESULTS: Mtx+Rutin group showed lower histological injury compared to Mtx group, MDA and ALT levels were increased, while SOD and GSH-Px were decreased in Mtx group compared with Control-saline group. MDA and ALT levels were increased, while SOD and GSH-Px were decreased in Mtx group, compared with Mtx +Rutin group. Serum AST levels were similar among the groups. CONCLUSION: Rutin may be a potential adjuvant drug to reduce the hepatic side effects observed during Mtx therapy for various clinical conditions.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Chemical and Drug Induced Liver Injury/drug therapy , Immunosuppressive Agents/toxicity , Methotrexate/toxicity , Rutin/therapeutic use , Alanine Transaminase/blood , Antioxidants/pharmacology , Antioxidants/therapeutic use , Aspartate Aminotransferases/blood , Chemical and Drug Induced Liver Injury/pathology , Chemical and Drug Induced Liver Injury/prevention & control , Glutathione Peroxidase/analysis , Liver/drug effects , Liver/pathology , Malondialdehyde/analysis , Oxidative Stress/drug effects , Rats, Wistar , Reproducibility of Results , Rutin/pharmacology , Superoxide Dismutase/analysis
13.
Acta cir. bras ; 30(4): 247-252, 04/2015. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-744281

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To determine the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects of alfa lipoic acid (ALA) on the liver injury induced by methotrexate (MTX) in rats. METHODS: Thirty two rats were randomly assigned into four equal groups; control, ALA, MTX and MTX with ALA groups. Liver injury was performed with a single dose of MTX (20 mg/kg) to groups 3 and 4. The ALA was administered intraperitonealy for five days in groups 2 and 4. The other rats received saline injection. At the sixth day the rats decapitated, blood and liver tissue samples were removed for TNF-α, IL-1β, malondialdehyde, glutathione, myeloperoxidase and sodium potassium-adenosine triphosphatase levels measurement and histological examination. RESULTS: MTX administration caused a significant decrease in tissue GSH, and tissue Na+, K+ ATPase activity and which was accompanied with significant increases in tissue MDA and MPO activity. Moreover the pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL- β) were significantly increased in the MTX group. On the other hand, ALA treatment reversed all these biochemical indices as well as histopathological alterations induced by MTX. CONCLUSION: Alfa lipoic acid ameliorates methotrexate induced oxidative damage of liver in rats with its anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects. .


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Male , Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic/toxicity , Antioxidants/therapeutic use , Chemical and Drug Induced Liver Injury/prevention & control , Methotrexate/toxicity , Thioctic Acid/therapeutic use , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/therapeutic use , Chemical and Drug Induced Liver Injury/pathology , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Glutathione/analysis , Interleukin-1beta/blood , Liver/drug effects , Liver/pathology , Malondialdehyde/analysis , Necrosis/pathology , Peroxidase/analysis , Random Allocation , Rats, Wistar , Reproducibility of Results , Treatment Outcome , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/blood
14.
Indian J Exp Biol ; 2015 Jan; 53(1): 44-50
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-154993

ABSTRACT

Carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) intake damages liver. We evaluated therapeutic potential of aqueous extract of Nigella sativa seeds against CCl4 induced liver damage in rats. The hepatic damage induced by CCl4 @ 1.5 mL/kg, ip was evidenced by a significant increase in the serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), albumin, protein and urea lipid peroxidation (LPO) as well as reduction in hepatic antioxidant system e.g. reduced glutathione. Hepatic total protein and glucose-6-phosphatase activity were found decreased. Histological studies substantiated the above biochemical findings. However, after 48 h of administration of aqueous extract of N. sativa seeds (250, 500 and 750 mg/kg, po) it not only detoxified the toxicity but also reversed LPO, GSH, AST, ALT and serum protein changes at all the three doses. Both higher doses of extract were found effective in monitoring urea, albumin, total protein and G-6-Pase activity. However, on the basis of percent protection highest dose i.e., 750 mg/kg proved better. The result suggests that the aqueous extract of N. sativa seeds can be used as a hepatoprotective agent.


Subject(s)
Animals , Carbon Tetrachloride/toxicity , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Chemical and Drug Induced Liver Injury/blood , Chemical and Drug Induced Liver Injury/physiopathology , Chemical and Drug Induced Liver Injury/prevention & control , Female , Nigella sativa/chemistry , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Rats , Rats, Wistar
15.
Indian J Biochem Biophys ; 2014 Oct; 51(5): 358-364
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-154264

ABSTRACT

Anticancer potential of Piper longum fruit against human cancer cell lines (DU-145 prostate, A549 lung, THP-1 leukemia, IGR-OVI-1 ovary and MCF-7 breast) as well as its in vitro and in vivo biochemical efficacy in AlCl3-induced hepatotoxicity were evaluated in the rats. Dried samples were extracted with several solvents using soxhlet apparatus. Flavonoid content in chloroform, benzene, ethyl alcohol and aqueous extracts of fruit was 19, 14, 12 and 11 μg quercetin equivalent/mg of sample, respectively. Hexane extracts exhibited 90-92% cytotoxicity against most of the test cell lines (A549, THP-1, IGR-OVI-1 and MCF-7), while benzene extract displayed 84-87% cytotoxicity against MCF-7, IGR-OV-1 and THP-1 cell lines. Among extracts, hexane, benzene and acetone extracts demonstrated considerable cytotoxicity (91-95%) against A549 (lung cancer) cell line in Sulforhodamine B dye (SRB) assay. Cell cycle analysis revealed that hexane, benzene and acetone extracts produced 41, 63 and 43% sub-G1 DNA fraction, demonstrating cell cycle inhibitory potential of these extracts against A549 cell line. Chloroform, ethyl alcohol and aqueous extracts displayed 71, 64 and 65% membrane protective activity, respectively in lipid peroxidation inhibition assay. P. longum fruit extracts also ameliorated AlCl3-induced hepatotoxicity, as indicated by alterations observed in serum enzymes ALP, SGOT and SGPT activity, as well as creatinine and bilirubin contents. In conclusion, study established the cytotoxic and hepatoprotective activity in P. longum extracts.


Subject(s)
Animals , Antineoplastic Agents/administration & dosage , Apoptosis/drug effects , Cell Cycle Checkpoints/drug effects , Cell Line, Tumor , Chlorides , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Chemical and Drug Induced Liver Injury/etiology , Chemical and Drug Induced Liver Injury/physiopathology , Chemical and Drug Induced Liver Injury/prevention & control , Fruit/chemistry , Humans , Male , Metals , Neoplasms, Experimental/drug therapy , Neoplasms, Experimental/pathology , Piper/chemistry , Plant Extracts/administration & dosage , Rats , Rats, Wistar , Treatment Outcome
16.
Indian J Exp Biol ; 2014 Jul; 52(7): 705-711
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-153750

ABSTRACT

Justicia adhatoda (vasaka) leaves have long been used in Indian Ayurvedic system of medicine as antitussive. Its crude extract has been previously reported to have hepatoprotective activity. Vasicinone was isolated from leaves of J. adhatoda, column purified and characterized using, TLC UV, FT-IR and 1H NMR. The isolated vasicinone was evaluated for hepatoprotective activity using (CCl4)-induced acute hepatotoxicity model in mice. CCl4 treatments lead to significant increase in SGOT, SGPT, ALP levels. Pre-treatment with vasicinone and silymarin (25 mg/kg/day for 7 days) significantly decreased these enzyme levels. Histopathology of the livers from vasicinone and silymarin pre-treated animals showed normal hepatic cords and absence of necrotic changes suggesting pronounced recovery from CCl4 induced liver damage. Both vasicinone and silymarin significantly decrease the CCl4 mediated increase in pentobarbital indiced sleeping time in experimental animals, thus indicating recovery of liver function. Based on the above results it can be concluded that vasicinone may act as hepatoprotective in mice and warrants further investigation on human volunteers.


Subject(s)
Justicia/chemistry , Alkaloids/therapeutic use , Animals , Carbon Tetrachloride Poisoning , Chemical and Drug Induced Liver Injury/prevention & control , Humans , Male , Mice , Phytotherapy , Plant Extracts/therapeutic use , Plant Leaves/chemistry , Protective Agents/therapeutic use , Silymarin/therapeutic use , Spectroscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared
17.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 47(3): 231-236, 03/2014. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-704623

ABSTRACT

Studies have shown that edaravone may prevent liver injury. This study aimed to investigate the effects of edaravone on the liver injury induced by D-galactosamine (GalN) and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in female BALB/c mice. Edaravone was injected into mice 30 min before and 4 h after GalN/LPS injection. The survival rate was determined within the first 24 h. Animals were killed 8 h after GalN/LPS injection, and liver injury was biochemically and histologically assessed. Hepatocyte apoptosis was measured by TUNEL staining; proinflammatory cytokines [tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-6 (IL-6)] in the liver were assayed by ELISA; expression of caspase-8 and caspase-3 proteins was detected by Western blot assay; and caspase-3 activity was also determined. Results showed that GalN/LPS induced marked elevations in serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT). Edaravone significantly inhibited elevation of serum AST and ALT, accompanied by an improvement in histological findings. Edaravone lowered the levels of TNF-α and IL-6 and reduced the number of TUNEL-positive cells. In addition, 24 h after edaravone treatment, caspase-3 activity and mortality were reduced. Edaravone may effectively ameliorate GalN/LPS-induced liver injury in mice by reducing proinflammatory cytokines and inhibiting apoptosis.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Antipyrine/analogs & derivatives , Apoptosis/drug effects , Cytokines/drug effects , Chemical and Drug Induced Liver Injury/prevention & control , Free Radical Scavengers/pharmacology , Alanine Transaminase/blood , Antipyrine/pharmacology , Aspartate Aminotransferases/blood , /analysis , /metabolism , /analysis , Chemical and Drug Induced Liver Injury/physiopathology , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Endotoxins/toxicity , Galactosamine/toxicity , Hepatocytes/drug effects , In Situ Nick-End Labeling , /analysis , Lipopolysaccharides/toxicity , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Random Allocation , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/analysis
18.
Biol. Res ; 47: 1-7, 2014. ilus, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-950745

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The liver is an important organ for its ability to transform xenobiotics, making the liver tissue a prime target for toxic substances. The carotenoid bixin present in annatto is an antioxidant that can protect cells and tissues against the deleterious effects of free radicals. In this study, we evaluated the protective effect of bixin on liver damage induced by carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) in rats. RESULTS: The animals were divided into four groups with six rats in each group. CCl4 (0.125 mL kg-1 body wt.) was injected intraperitoneally, and bixin (5.0 mg kg-1 body wt.) was given by gavage 7 days before the CCl4 injection. Bixin prevented the liver damage caused by CCl4, as noted by the significant decrease in serum aminotransferases release. Bixin protected the liver against the oxidizing effects of CCl4 by preventing a decrease in glutathione reductase activity and the levels of reduced glutathione and NADPH. The peroxidation of membrane lipids and histopathological damage of the liver was significantly prevented by bixin treatment. CONCLUSION: Therefore, we can conclude that the protective effect of bixin against hepatotoxicity induced by CCl4 is related to the antioxidant activity of the compound.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Carbon Tetrachloride/antagonists & inhibitors , Carotenoids/pharmacology , Reactive Oxygen Species/analysis , Oxidative Stress/drug effects , Chemical and Drug Induced Liver Injury/prevention & control , Antioxidants/pharmacology , Plant Extracts/chemistry , Lipid Peroxidation/drug effects , Carotenoids/chemistry , Rats, Wistar , Bixaceae/chemistry , Chemical and Drug Induced Liver Injury/metabolism , Chemical and Drug Induced Liver Injury/pathology , Glutathione/analysis , Glutathione Reductase/drug effects , Transaminases/blood , Liver/enzymology , Malondialdehyde/analysis , NADP/analysis
19.
Pakistan Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences. 2013; 26 (5): 999-1008
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-138422

ABSTRACT

Different fraction obtained from the aerial parts of Juniperus phoenicea showed significant activity as hepatoprotective when investigated against carbon tetrachloride induced liver injury. The hepatoprotective activity was evaluated through the quantification of biochemical parameters and confirmed using histopathology study. Phytochemical investigation of the petroleum ether, chloroform and methanol fractions utilizing different chromatographic techniques resulted in the isolation of five known diterpenoids namely: 13-epicupressic acid [1], imbricatolic acid [2], 7 alpha -hydroxysandaracopimaric acid [3], 3 beta -hydroxysandaracopimaric acid [4], isopimaric acid [5], four flavonoid derivatives: cupressuflavone [6], hinokiflavone [7], hypolaetin-7-O- beta -xylopyranoside [9], [-] catechin [10], inaddition to sucrose [8]. Both physical and spectral data were used for structure determination and all isolates were evaluated for their hepatoprotective activity. Compounds 2 and 6 were effective, however; 7 was the most active. Hepatoprotective activity of 7 is comparable with the standard drug silymarin in reducing the elevated liver enzymes and restoring normal appearance of hepatocytes. Hepatoprotective effect of combination of 6, 7 and silymarin with the diterpene sugiol was also explored


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Chemical and Drug Induced Liver Injury/prevention & control , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Biomarkers/blood , Carbon Tetrachloride , Cytoprotection , Disease Models, Animal , Rats, Wistar , Plants, Medicinal , Silymarin/pharmacology
20.
Pakistan Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences. 2013; 26 (1): 99-103
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-146754

ABSTRACT

Herbs have been a huge source of natural substances used to treat and prevent several illnesses; therefore it is vital to identify the probable toxicity that might take place as a consequence of using herbal combinations. This study was undertaken in rabbits to investigate the hepatoprotective effects of herbal drug in normal and CCI[4] induced hepatic damage. Herbal drug was tested in 3 different doses, each group comprising of seven rabbits of either sex followed by the administration of CCI[4] with herbal drug and saline for 45 days. Liver function tests and histopathological evaluation were carried out at the end of dosing using standards kits. The result shows that normal dose of herbal drug [0.43 ml/kg] possess hepatoprotective effects against CCI[4] induced liver damage in rabbits which may be due to the various active ingredients present in herbal drug combination. Present study also suggests that there was a significant [p<0.05] increase in serum alkaline phosphatase and gamma-GT in animals kept on high dose of herbal drug [10 ml/kg]; however studies on huge number of animals and humans are requisite before reaching to definite conclusion


Subject(s)
Male , Female , Animals, Laboratory , Carbon Tetrachloride Poisoning , Carbon Tetrachloride/adverse effects , Rabbits , Plants, Medicinal , Herbal Medicine , Chemical and Drug Induced Liver Injury/prevention & control
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