Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 15.562
Filter
1.
Ciênc. cogn ; 26(1): 66-76, 10 set. 2021. ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1292983

ABSTRACT

O objetivo deste estudo interdisciplinar foi usar curtas metragens produzidos por estudantes do ensino médio sobre temas da Química para o ensino de Sociologia. Neste sentido, foram produzidos mapas conceituais pelos estudantes, após a discussão dos curtas metragens, sob uma perspectiva sociológica. Nossos resultados mostram que os mapas conceituais podem atuar como instrumentos facilitadores para a aprendizagem, capazes de estimular a pesquisa e promover a autonomia dos estudantes durante o processo de construção do conhecimento.


The aimof this interdisciplinary study was useshort films produced by high school students about chemical themes to Sociology teaching. In this way, conceptual maps were constructedby students after short films discussion under a social perspective. Our results showed that conceptual maps could act as facilitating learning instrument, able to stimulate research and to promote student autonomy during the knowledge construction process.


Subject(s)
Humans , Adolescent , Teaching , Education, Primary and Secondary , Sociology , Students , Chemistry
2.
Acta bioeth ; 26(1): 101-106, mayo 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1114603

ABSTRACT

As declared by the United Nations, 2019 is the International Year of the Periodic Table of Chemical Elements. Accordingly, an innovative new Periodic Table of Chemical Elements and Ethics [PETE] has been developed as an educational tool for secondary and university STEM (Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics) education. The tool is designed to be used in a case-based approache that is feasible to both individual and small group learners. Specifically, with the new periodic table, STEM becomes aligned with STSE (Science and Technology on Society and Environment), laying a curricular pathway for integrating discussions of ethics into the teaching of chemistry. Presented is the table, as well as sources for pairable ethics cases, and guidance for teachers to create curriculum which facilitates connections between ethics, chemistry, and society.


Según lo declarado por las Naciones Unidas, 2019 es el Año Internacional de la Tabla Periódica de Elementos Químicos. En consecuencia, se ha desarrollado una nueva e innovadora tabla periódica de elementos químicos y ética [PETE] como una herramienta educativa para la educación secundaria y universitaria STEM (Ciencia, Tecnología, Ingeniería y Matemáticas). La herramienta está diseñada para usarse en un enfoque basado en casos que sea factible tanto para estudiantes individuales como para grupos pequeños. Específicamente, con la nueva tabla periódica, STEM se alinea con STSE (Ciencia y Tecnología en Sociedad y Medio Ambiente), estableciendo una vía curricular para integrar las discusiones de ética en la enseñanza de la química. Se presenta la tabla, así como las fuentes de casos de ética que se pueden pactar, y orientación para que los maestros creen un plan de estudios que facilite las conexiones entre la ética, la química y la sociedad.


Como declarado pelas Nações Unidas, 2019 é o Ano Internacional da Tabela Periódica de Elementos Químicos. Portanto, uma inovadora e nova Tabela Periódica de Elementos Químicos e Ética (PETE, sigla em inglês) foi desenvolvida como uma ferramenta educacional para educação STEM (sigla em inglês para Ciência, Tecnologia, Engenharia e Matemática) secundária e universitária. A ferramenta é elaborada para ser usada em uma abordagem baseada em casos, viável tanto para aprendizagem individual como de pequenos grupos. Especificamente, com a nova tabela periódica, STEM se alinha com STSE (sigla em inglês para Ciência e Tecnologia na Sociedade e Ambiente), estabelecendo uma via curricular para integrar discussões de ética no ensino de química. Apresenta-se a tabela, bem como fontes de casos éticos pareados, e orientação para professores criarem um currículo que facilite conexões entre ética, química e sociedade.


Subject(s)
Science/education , Chemistry/education , Chemistry/ethics , Educational Technology , Education/ethics , Periodicity , Science/ethics , Curriculum , Education, Primary and Secondary , Education, Higher
3.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-828542

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To analysis the medication characteristics of the prescriptions issued via open channel by the National and Provincial Health Committee and the State Administration of Traditional Chinese Medicine in treating coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19).@*METHODS@#We collected the data of traditional Chinese medicine related to treatment plans published by the National and Provincial Health Committee and the State Administration of Traditional Chinese Medicine from the start of COVID-19 outbreak to February 19, 2020. The frequency analysis, cluster analysis and association analysis were performed.@*RESULTS@#The study collected 4 national and 34 regional prevention and treatment plans, 578 items, 84 traditional Chinese formulations, 60 Chinese patent medicines, and 230 Chinese herbs. The high frequently used herbs were , and . The commonly used traditional formulations included decoction, powder, and decoction. The Chinese patent drugs included pill, injection, and capsule. The most common paired medications were and and Two core combinations and one novel formula were discovered in the study.@*CONCLUSIONS@# powder and decoction are the basic formulations for syndrome of COVID-19. In addition, decoction, powder, decoction and decoction are the basic formulations for syndrome of COVID-19. The main medication characteristics are clearing heat, entilating lung, removing toxicity and removing turbidity. It shows that removing toxicity and eliminating evil are the prescription thought in treating epidemic disease of traditional Chinese medicine.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections , Therapeutics , Data Mining , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Chemistry , Therapeutic Uses , Humans , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Therapeutics
4.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-828541

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the clinical outcome of patients with moderate type of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) after discharge by retesting viral nucleic acid.@*METHODS@#Seven patients with moderate COVID-19 met the discharge criteria enacted by National Health Commission were quarantined in hospital for 7 days, then continuously quarantined at home for 4 weeks after discharged. During the quarantined period, the symptoms and signs were documented, and sputum or nasal swab and feces samples were collected to test SARS-CoV-2 nucleic acid by RT-PCR method.@*RESULTS@#There was no symptoms and signs during the quarantine period in all 7 patients. However, respiratory swabs from 3 patients were confirmed positive of SARS-CoV-2 nucleic acid at 5 to 7 days after they met the discharge criteria.@*CONCLUSIONS@#There is a relatively high incidence of positive viral nucleic acid in patients met the discharge criteria, and it is suggested that patients met the current discharge criteria should be quarantined in hospital for another 7 days and the follow-up viral testing is necessary.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections , Diagnosis , Feces , Chemistry , Virology , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Pandemics , Patient Discharge , Pneumonia, Viral , Diagnosis , Quarantine , RNA, Viral , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , Time Factors
5.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-828521

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To study the plasma concentration and pharmacokinetics of 3, 29-Dibenzoyl Karounitriol (3, 29-DK) from sustained- release pellets and extracts of Trichosanthes at different time points in rats using high-performance liquid chromatography- tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS).@*METHODS@#Healthy male SD rats were given a single gavage of Trichosanthes sustained-release pellets or Trichosanthes extract, and orbital blood samples were taken at different time points within 48 h after drug administration in the pellet group and within 5 h in Trichosanthes extract group for determination of the plasma concentrations of 3, 29-DK using LC-MS/MS. The standard curve of 3, 29-DK content was established, and the specificity, minimum detection limit, precision and accuracy, extraction recovery, stability and matrix effect of LC-MS/MS analysis were assessed. The mean plasms levels of 3, 29-DK at different time points after the drug administration were determined and its pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated using Das 2.0 software.@*RESULTS@#LC-MS/MS analysis showed a good linearity of 3, 29-DK concentration within the range of 0.5-32 ng/mL, and the results of methodological validation confirmed the validity of this method for biological sample determination. Trichosanthes sustained-release pellets and Trichosanthes extract showed significant differences in their AUC, AUC, MRT, MRT, t and T of 3, 29-DK after administration in rats ( < 0.05).@*CONCLUSIONS@#Trichosanthes sustained-release pellets are capable of sustained-release of 3, 29-DK in rats, and thus provides a basis for the study of new dosage forms of Trichosanthes.


Subject(s)
Animals , Area Under Curve , Benzoates , Pharmacokinetics , Chromatography, Liquid , Delayed-Action Preparations , Male , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Reproducibility of Results , Tandem Mass Spectrometry , Trichosanthes , Chemistry
6.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-828431

ABSTRACT

In this study, HPLC was used to determine the content of the four isoflavones of Astragalus membranceus var. mongholicus from different regions(calycosin-7-glucoside, ononin, calycosin and formononetin), and gray correlation analysis and path analysis were used to explore the influence of climate factors on the content of isoflavone components in A. membranceus var. mongholicus. The results showed that there were significant differences in the content of the four isoflavones in different areas(P<0.05); grey correlation analysis showed that the highest temperature in July, the lowest temperature in January and the daily average temperature had a greater impact on the content of flavonoid glycosides, meanwhile precipitation and relative humidity were the more important factors for the accumulation of flavonoid aglycones. According to the general analysis, the direct positive effects of the lowest temperature in January and altitude on the contents of four isoflavones in A. membranceus var. mongholicus were significant. High altitude and extreme temperature conditions might be more adverse to the formation and accumulation of isoflavone components. Therefore, the religions of A. membranceus var. mongholicus with high contents of isoflavones should be chosen the low altitude region with higher minimum temperature in January. This study provides a reference basis for the quality evaluation of A. membranceus var. mongholicus, and basic data for the selection of suitable habitat, construction of planting standards and directional cultivation of medicinal materials in A. membranceus var. mongholicus.


Subject(s)
Astragalus Plant , Astragalus propinquus , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Isoflavones , Plant Roots , Chemistry
7.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-828388

ABSTRACT

Schisandra is the mature fruit of Schisandra chinensis(known as "north Schisandra") or S. shenanthera(known as "south Schisandra"). S. chinensis contains a variety of lignans, volatile oils, polysaccharides, organic acids and other chemical constituents; among them, lignans are recognized as the characteristic active components. Clinical studies have found that Schisandra and Schisandra-related products have a better effect in the prevention and treatment of viral hepatitis, drug-induced liver injury, liver cirrhosis, liver failure and other liver diseases. Modern pharmacological studies have demonstrated that Schisandra has a variety of pharmacological activities, such as anti-inflammation, antioxidation, anticancer, regulation of nuclear receptor, antivirus, regulation of cytochrome P450 enzyme, inhibition of liver cell apoptosis and promotion of liver regeneration. This paper reviews the studies about the applications and mechanism of Schisandra in the prevention and treatment of liver diseases, in the expectation of providing guidance for the development of hepatoprotective drugs from Schisandra and the clinical applications of Schisandra-related products.


Subject(s)
Chemical and Drug Induced Liver Injury , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Fruit , Chemistry , Humans , Lignans , Protective Agents , Schisandra
8.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-828369

ABSTRACT

A highly sensitive monoclonal antibody against aflatoxin B_1(AFB_1) was prepared and an indirect competition enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay(ic-ELISA) was established based on the antibody which was used for high-throughput and rapid screening of AFB_1 contamination in Chinese herbal medicines to ensure the safety of medication. In this study, the structure of AFB_1 was modified by improved oxime method, and the carrier protein was coupled by EDC-NHS method to obtain the complete antigen of AFB_1, which was more convenient and environmental friendly. The Balb/c female mice were immunized using increasing the immunization dose and various ways of injection, and finally the AFB_1 monoclonal antibody was prepared. The AFB_1 monoclonal antibody belongs to IgG_(2 b) immunoglobulin by identifying its immunological characteristics, and its sensitivity(IC_(50)) can reach 0.15 μg·L~(-1), and the affi-nity is 2.81×10~8 L·mol~(-1). The cross-reaction rates of AFB_2, AFG_1, and AFG_2 were 35.07%, 8.75%, and 1.15%, respectively, and there was almost no cross-reactivity with other mycotoxins. Based on the high sensitivity and specificity of the antibody, an ic-ELISA method was established and applied to the determination of AFB_1 contamination in Ziziphi Spinosae Semen. According to the matrix matching standard curve, the linear concentration range for AFB_1 was 0.05-0.58 μg·L~(-1)(R~2=0.992), the recoveries were 88.00%-119.0%, and the detection limit was 1.69 μg·kg~(-1). The AFB_1 in 33 batches of Ziziphi Spinosae Semen samples was determined by ic-ELISA, and the contamination level was 3.62-206.58 μg·kg~(-1). The linear correlation coefficient between the detection results of ic-ELISA and UHPLC-MS/MS was 0.996, and there were no false positive and false negative cases. It indicates that the established ic-ELISA is accurate and reliable, and could provide a simple and effective technique for fast screening of AFB_1 contamination in Ziziphi Spinosae Semen, and also could be considered as the reference for the detection and monitoring of AFB_1 contamination in other Chinese herbal medicines.


Subject(s)
Aflatoxin B1 , Animals , Antibodies, Monoclonal , Drug Contamination , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Female , Mice , Semen , Chemistry , Tandem Mass Spectrometry
9.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-828177

ABSTRACT

Prostate cancer is the most common tumor of the urinary system, and its mortality rate is second only to lung cancer. With the specific and high expression on the surface of prostate cancer cells, prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) has been an ideal theranostic target of prostate cancer with great clinical significance and research value. Positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT), a new modality of molecular imaging combining functional metabolic information and anatomical structure, provides high diagnostic performance for cancer detection. This paper mainly reviewed recent progress of PSMA inhibitors labeled by positron-emitting radionuclides for early diagnosis, preoperative staging, response assessment, restaging and metastasis detection of prostate cancer.


Subject(s)
Electrons , Humans , Kallikreins , Male , Positron Emission Tomography Computed Tomography , Prostate-Specific Antigen , Prostatic Neoplasms , Diagnostic Imaging , Radioisotopes , Chemistry
10.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-828051

ABSTRACT

Ethylene responsive factor(ERF), one of the largest families of transcriptional factors in plants, plays a key role in se-condary metabolism of herbal plants. To analyze the expression of ERF family genes, the heat map clustering method was used by analyzing the ginseng transcriptomes of different parts and different growth years. The contents of ginsenosides Rg_1, Re and Rb_1 in various concentrations of MeJA-treated ginseng adventitious roots were determined by UPLC-MS/MS method. The expression of key genes of ginsenoside biosynthesis(DDS, CYP716A47, CYP716A53v2) and ERF family genes in MeJA-treated ginseng adventitious roots were determined by using real-time quantitative PCR. Pearson correlation was adopted to analyze the gene expression pattern of DDS, CYP716A47, CYP716A53v2 gene and ERF family. The results showed that the content of ginseng diol ginsenoside Rb_1 in ginseng adventitious roots treated with different concentrations of MeJA increased, and the content of ginseng triol ginsenoside Rg_1 and Re decreased. It is consistent with the increase of DDS and CYP716A47 expression and the decrease of CYP716A53v2 gene expression. The expression of ERF003, ERF118 and ERF012 genes was significantly positively correlated with CYP716A53v2, but negatively correlated with DDS. While the expression of ERF1B was significantly negatively correlated with CYP716A47.It is proved that ERF003, ERF118 and ERF012 were likely to inhibit the expression of DDS and promote the expression of CYP716A53v2, and ERF1B was likely to inhibit CYP716A47. This work could provide theoretical basis of ERF functional verification of regulating the biosynthesis of ginsenosides.


Subject(s)
Chromatography, Liquid , Gene Expression Regulation, Plant , Ginsenosides , Panax , Plant Roots , Chemistry , Tandem Mass Spectrometry , Transcription Factors
11.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-828004

ABSTRACT

To reveal the processing mechanism of Chrysanthemi Flos from the changes of chemical compositions after frying and its effect on the efficacy of liver protection. Ultra performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole-time of flight-mass spectrometry(UPLC-Q-TOF-MS) and ultra high performance liquid chromatography(HPLC) were used for the qualitative and quantitative researches of chemical compositions before and after Chrysanthemi Flos frying. Progenesis QI and SPSS software were used for principal component analysis(PCA), partial least squares discriminant analysis(PLS-DA), variable importance projection(VIP) analysis and t-test to identify the compositions with significant changes. Pharmacodynamics experiment was used to investigate the protective effect of crude and fried Chrysanthemi Flos on CCl_4-induced acute liver injury in mice. According to mass spectrometry data, there were 28 chemical compositions in crude and fried Chrysanthemi Flos, mainly including flavonoids and organic acids. 13 compositions such as luteolin, apigenin and luteolin glycoside were increased significantly after frying, while 7 compositions such as chlorogenic acid, luteolin-7-O-glucuronide and apigenin-7-O-glucuronide were decreased significantly after frying. Through principal component analysis, crude and fried Chrysanthemi Flos products were divided into two categories, indicating that there were internal differences in quality. The results of liver injury protection experiment in mice showed that the AST, ALT and MDA contents were significantly decreased and SOD level was increased in mice with liver injury in both the high and medium dose groups. Histopathological examination showed that crude and fried Chrysanthemi Flos can protect the liver by reducing inflammatory cell infiltration, reducing steatosis, and repairing damaged liver cells. The results of this study showed that the chemical compositions had obvious changes after frying, and both crude and fried Chrysanthemis Flos had protective effects on CCl_4-induced acute liver injury in mice. In addition, in the range of high, medium and low doses, the liver protection effect of crude and fried Chrysanthemi Flos increased with the increase of dose. The experiment results provided reference for the mechanism of fried Chrysanthemi Flos and clinical selection of processed products.


Subject(s)
Animals , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Chrysanthemum , Flavonoids , Flowers , Chemistry , Liver , Chemistry , Mice
12.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-827964

ABSTRACT

Stilbenes is a class of natural polyphenols with 1,2-diphenylethylene as the skeleton structure which have structural and active diversity. However, there are fewer studies on their metabolic process, which limits the in-depth research and development of such components. An UPLC-MS/MS method simultaneously determining contents of ten stilbenes was firstly established in this study and applied to study the ten stilbenes of peony seed coats in the serum of C57 mice.Piceatannol was the internal standard, and methanol was used for protein precipitation, UPLC-MS/MS with negative ion mode was used for analysis, and the method was validated.The serum samples were collected and detected after mice being oral administered with 800 mg·kg~(-1) peony seed coat extracts for 8 weeks. The results showed that suffruticosol A, suffruticosol B, suffruticosol C, trans-ε-viniferin, cis-gnetin H, trans-suffruticosol D and trans-gnetin H were detected in serum samples, and the highest is suffruticosol A. The method is simple and quick with high specificity and sensitivity, and it is suitable for quantitative determination of ten stilbenes in the serum of mice.


Subject(s)
Animals , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Chromatography, Liquid , Mice , Paeonia , Reproducibility of Results , Seeds , Chemistry , Stilbenes , Tandem Mass Spectrometry
13.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-827481

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the effects of Composition of Ophiopogon polysaccharide, Notoginseng total saponins and Rhizoma Coptidis alkaloids (CONR) on myocardial apoptosis of diabetic atherosclerosis (DA) rabbits METHODS: Sixty male New Zealand white rabbits were randomly divided into 6 groups [control group, model group, CONR high-dose group (450 mg/kg), CONR medium-dose group (150 mg/kg), CONR low-dose group (50 mg/kg), and simvastatin group] by using a completely random method, 10 in each group. DA model was established by intravenously injected alloxan combined with high-fat diet and abdominal aortic balloon injury. After mediation for 10 weeks, fasting blood glucose (FBG), glycosylated hemoglobin (GHB), glycosylated serum protein (GSP), fructoseamine (FRA), aldose reductase (AR), advanced glycation end products (AGEs) in serum were measured by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) method; the expression of receptor of AGEs (RAGE) in myocardial tissue were observed by immunohistochemical method; and p-Jun N-terminal kinase (p-JNK), caspase-3, B-cell lymphoma-2 (bcl-2) protein expression in myocardial tissue were measured by Western blotting. The myocardial apoptosis was detected by TdT-mediated dUTPnick-end labeling (TUNEL) method, and apoptosis index (AI) was calculated.@*RESULTS@#Compared with the control group, serum FBG, GHB, GSP, FRA, AR, AGEs and the expression of myocardium RAGE, p-JNK, caspase-3 proteins, as well as apoptosis index (AI) were significantly increased and bcl-2 protein was significantly decreased in the model group (P<0.01). Compared with the model group, the levels of serum FBG, GHB, GSP, FRA and AR showed a significant decline in CONR high- and medium-dose groups (P<0.01). FBG and GHB showed a significant decline in CONR low-dose group (P<0.01). Compared with the model group, the expression of serum AGEs and myocardium RAGE, p-JNK and caspase-3 protein as well as AI were significantly decreased and bcl-2 protein was significantly up-regulated in all treatment groups (P<0.01); high-dose CONR had the most significant effect on abovementioned indices compared with other treatment groups (P<0.01). Middle-dose CONR had better effect on serum AGEs compared with the low-dose group (P<0.01); middle-dose CONR and simvastatin groups had better effect on the expression of caspase-3, bcl-2 protein, myocardium apoptosis compared with the CONR low-dose group (P<0.01).@*CONCLUSION@#CONR may effectively inhibit myocardial apoptosis on DA rabbits by intervening AGEs-RAGE and JNK, caspase-3, and bcl-2 protein expressions.


Subject(s)
Alkaloids , Pharmacology , Animals , Apoptosis , Atherosclerosis , Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental , Diabetic Angiopathies , Drug Therapy , Disease Models, Animal , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Pharmacology , Heart , Male , Ophiopogon , Chemistry , Panax notoginseng , Chemistry , Polysaccharides , Pharmacology , Rabbits , Saponins , Pharmacology
14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-827466

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the effect of hydrogen-rich Korean Red Ginseng (KRG) water (HRGW) mixture on the spermatogenesis and sperm motility of mice of different ages.@*METHODS@#Eighty young (3 month-old) and aged (12 month-old) male mice were randomly assigned to 4 groups (n =10 per group) including control group, hydrogen-rich water (HRW) group (10 mL/kg daily), KRG group (50 mg/kg daily) and HRGW group (10 mL/kg and 50 mg/kg daily) by an oral zoned needle for 4 weeks. Sperm count and motility were measured using sperm suspension released from cauda epididymis. Serum follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), testosterone, and reactive oxygen species (ROS) in serum have also been estimated. Tubular changes were examined through histological hematoxylin and eosin staining. Expression of antioxidation (PPx3, PPx4, GSTm5 and GPx4), spermatogenesis (inhibin-a, neptin-2 and CREM), antiaging (SIRT1 and SIRT2), and angiogenesis [visfatin and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)] related genes were examined through real-time polymerase chain reaction.@*RESULTS@#HRW and KRG treatment stimulated spermatogenesis followed by increasing sperm production and sperm motility (P <0.05). These effects were strengthened synergistically by a HRGW mixture (P <0.05 or P <0.01). HRGW greatly increased the expressions of antioxidation, antiaging, spermatogenesis related genes and VEGF especially in aged mice (P <0.05). Serum testosterone and FSH levels also increased, while serum ROS level decreased (all P <0.05).@*CONCLUSION@#HRGW increases sperm production and motility by enhancing antioxidation and stimulating spermatogenesis and sex hormone production, particularly in aged mice.


Subject(s)
Animals , Hydrogen , Pharmacology , Male , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Panax , Chemistry , Plant Extracts , Pharmacology , Republic of Korea , Sperm Motility , Spermatogenesis , Water
15.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-827262

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#Pilea umbrosa (Urticaceae) is used by local communities (district Abbotabad) for liver disorders, as anticancer, in rheumatism and in skin disorders.@*METHODS@#Methanol extract of P. umbrosa (PUM) was investigated for the presence of polyphenolic constituents by HPLC-DAD analysis. PUM (150 mg/kg and 300 mg/kg) was administered on alternate days for eight weeks in rats exposed with carbon tetrachloride (CCl). Serum analysis was performed for liver function tests while in liver tissues level of antioxidant enzymes and biochemical markers were also studied. In addition, semi quantitative estimation of antioxidant genes, endoplasmic reticulum (ER) induced stress markers, pro-inflammatory cytokines and fibrosis related genes were carried out on liver tissues by RT-PCR analysis. Liver tissues were also studied for histopathological injuries.@*RESULTS@#Level of antioxidant enzymes such as catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD) and glutathione (GSH) decreased (p < 0.05) whereas level of thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS), HO and nitrite increased in liver tissues of CCl treated rat. Likewise increase in the level of serum markers; alanine transaminase (ALT), aspartate transaminase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and total bilirubin was observed. Moreover, CCl caused many fold increase in expression of ER stress markers; glucose regulated protein (GRP-78), x-box binding protein1-total (XBP-1 t), x-box binding protein1-unspliced (XBP-1 u) and x-box binding protein1-spliced (XBP-1 s). The level of inflammatory mediators such as tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-6 (IL-6) and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) was aggregated whereas suppressed the level of antioxidant enzymes; γ-glutamylcysteine ligase (GCLC), protein disulfide isomerase (PDI) and nuclear erythroid 2 p45-related factor 2 (Nrf-2). Additionally, level of fibrosis markers; transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β), Smad-3 and collagen type 1 (Col1-α) increased with CCl induced liver toxicity. Histopathological scrutiny depicted damaged liver cells, neutrophils infiltration and dilated sinusoids in CCl intoxicated rats. PUM was enriched with rutin, catechin, caffeic acid and apigenin as evidenced by HPLC analysis. Simultaneous administration of PUM and CCl in rats retrieved the normal expression of these markers and prevented hepatic injuries.@*CONCLUSION@#Collectively these results suggest that PUM constituted of strong antioxidant chemicals and could be a potential therapeutic agent for stress related liver disorders.


Subject(s)
Animals , Carbon Tetrachloride , Chemical and Drug Induced Liver Injury , Drug Therapy , Pathology , Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress , Fibrosis , Drug Therapy , Genetics , Inflammation , Drug Therapy , Genetics , Liver , Metabolism , Male , Protective Agents , Pharmacology , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Urticaceae , Chemistry
16.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 605-611, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-827008

ABSTRACT

Cyclophilin A (CypA) is a widely distributed and highly conserved protein in organisms. It has peptidyl-prolyl cis/trans isomerase activity and is a receptor for cyclosporin A (CsA). Coronaviruses are enveloped, single-stranded, positive-sense RNA viruses. Seven types of coronaviruses are currently known to infect humans, among which SARS-CoV, MERS-CoV, and SARS-CoV-2 are fatal for humans. It is well established that CypA is essential for the replication of various coronaviruses such as SARS-CoV, CoV-229E, CoV-NL63, and FCoV. Additionally, CsA and its derivatives (ALV, NIM811, etc.) have obvious inhibitory effects on a variety of coronaviruses. These results suggest that CypA is a potential antiviral target and the existing drug CsA might be used as an anti-coronavirus drug. At the end of 2019, SARS-CoV-2 raged in China, which seriously theatern human health and causes huge economic lases. In view of this, we describe the effects of CypA on the replication of coronaviruses and the antiviral activities of its inhibitors, which will provide the scientific basis and ideas for the development of antiviral drugs for SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents , Pharmacology , Therapeutic Uses , Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus , Coronavirus Infections , Drug Therapy , Epidemiology , Virology , Cyclophilin A , Cyclosporine , Chemistry , Pharmacology , Therapeutic Uses , Humans , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Drug Therapy , Epidemiology , Virology , SARS Virus , Virus Replication
17.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 632-642, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-827005

ABSTRACT

Extracellular vesicles (EVs) refer to bilayer membrane transport vesicles secreted by cells. EVs can take macromolecules from cells and transfer them to receptor cells. Among these macromolecular substances, the most studied are microRNAs (miRNAs). miRNA is non-coding RNA involved in the regulation of gene expression. It has been confirmed that there are different non-coding RNAs in mammalian follicular fluid EVs. EVs carrying miRNA can act as an alternative mechanism for autocrine and paracrine, affecting follicular development. This paper systematically introduced the kinds, characteristics and methods of isolation and identification of EVs, focusing on the effects of EVs and miRNAs on follicular development, including early follicular development, oocyte maturation, follicular dominance and effects on granulosa cell function. At the same time, the authors prospected the future research of EVs and microRNAs in follicular fluid, and provided ideas and directions for the research and application of EVs and miRNA functions in follicular fluid.


Subject(s)
Animals , Extracellular Vesicles , Metabolism , Female , Follicular Fluid , Chemistry , Granulosa Cells , MicroRNAs , Pharmacology , Oogenesis
18.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 693-699, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-826907

ABSTRACT

To study the interaction between C4b-binding protein (C4BP) and Riemerella anatipestifer (RA), we cloned duck C4BPα, conducted prokaryotic expression and prepared the polyclonal antibody by immunizing mice. Then indirect immunofluorescence assay and dot blotting hybridization assay were used to verify the interaction between C4BP and RA. The full length of duck C4BPα nucleotide sequence was 1 230 bp, with the highest similarity to chicken C4BPα (82.1%). Phylogenetic tree analysis showed that duck C4BPα and chicken C4BPα were on the same phylogenetic tree branch and the genetic evolution relationship between them was the closest. C4BPα was efficiently expressed in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3). The recombinant proteins existed in intracellular soluble form. The titer of polyclonal antibody was more than 1:10 000 and polyclonal antibodies could specifically recognize the recombinant proteins. The results of indirect immunofluorescence assay and dot blot hybridization assay showed that RA could interact with duck C4BP. The results provide a basis to further reveal the pathogenesis of RA.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cloning, Molecular , Complement C4b-Binding Protein , Chemistry , Genetics , Metabolism , Ducks , Classification , Genetics , Microbiology , Gene Expression Regulation , Mice , Phylogeny , Riemerella , Metabolism
19.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 716-731, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-826904

ABSTRACT

Stearoyl-ACP Δ⁹ desaturase (SAD) catalyzes the synthesis of monounsaturated oleic acid or palmitoleic acid in plastids. SAD is the key enzyme to control the ratio of saturated fatty acids to unsaturated fatty acids in plant cells. In order to analyze the regulation mechanism of soybean oleic acid synthesis, soybean (Glycine max) GmSAD family members were genome-wide identified, and their conserved functional domains and physicochemical properties were also analyzed by bioinformatics tools. The spatiotemporal expression profile of each member of GmSADs was detected by qRT-PCR. The expression vectors of GmSAD5 were constructed. The enzyme activity and biological function of GmSAD5 were examined by Agrobacterium-mediated transient expression in Nicotiana tabacum leaves and genetic transformation of oleic acid-deficient yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) mutant BY4389. Results show that the soybean genome contains five GmSAD family members, all encoding an enzyme protein with diiron center and two conservative histidine enrichment motifs (EENRHG and DEKRHE) specific to SAD enzymes. The active enzyme protein was predicted as a homodimer. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that five GmSADs were divided into two subgroups, which were closely related to AtSSI2 and AtSAD6, respectively. The expression profiles of GmSAD members were significantly different in soybean roots, stems, leaves, flowers, and seeds at different developmental stages. Among them, GmSAD5 expressed highly in the middle and late stages of developmental seeds, which coincided with the oil accumulation period. Transient expression of GmSAD5 in tobacco leaves increased the oleic acid and total oil content in leaf tissue by 5.56% and 2.73%, respectively, while stearic acid content was reduced by 2.46%. Functional complementation assay in defective yeast strain BY4389 demonstrated that overexpression of GmSAD5 was able to restore the synthesis of monounsaturated oleic acid, resulting in high oil accumulation. Taken together, soybean GmSAD5 has strong selectivity to stearic acid substrates and can efficiently catalyze the biosynthesis of monounsaturated oleic acid. It lays the foundation for the study of soybean seed oleic acid and total oil accumulation mechanism, providing an excellent target for genetic improvement of oil quality in soybean.


Subject(s)
Fatty Acid Desaturases , Genetics , Metabolism , Gene Expression Profiling , Oleic Acid , Phylogeny , Plant Proteins , Genetics , Seeds , Chemistry , Soybeans , Classification , Genetics
20.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 811-819, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-826895

ABSTRACT

Sequencing technology has been greatly improved in terms of throughput and cost. The single-molecule nanopore DNA sequencing, one of the major branches of the third-generation sequencing technology, has made great contributions in the fields of medicine and life sciences due to its advantages of ultra-long reading length, real-time detection and direct detection of base methylation modification, etc. This article briefly describes the principle of nanopore sequencing technology, and discusses its application in clinical, animal, plant, bacterial and virus fields and its future development direction.


Subject(s)
Animals , Base Sequence , DNA , Chemistry , Genetics , Humans , Nanopore Sequencing , Nanopores , Research , Sequence Analysis, DNA
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL