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1.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-880406

ABSTRACT

From the perspective of technical review, this paper made statistics on the supplement contents of


Subject(s)
Chemistry, Clinical/standards , China , Indicators and Reagents , Reagent Kits, Diagnostic/standards
2.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-785400

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Interpretation of changes in serial laboratory results is necessary for both clinicians and laboratories; however, setting decision limits is not easy. Although the reference change value (RCV) has been widely used for auto-verification, it has limitations in clinical settings. We introduce the concept of overlapping confidence intervals (CIs) to determine whether the changes are statistically significant in clinical chemistry laboratory test results.METHODS: In total, 1,202,096 paired results for 33 analytes routinely tested in our clinical chemistry laboratory were analyzed. The distributions of delta% absolute values and cut-off values for certain percentiles were calculated. The CIs for each analyte were set based on biological variation, and data were analyzed at various confidence levels. Additionally, we analyzed the data using RCVs and compared their clinical utility.RESULTS: Most analytes had low indexes of individuality with large inter-individual variability. The 97.5th percentile cut-offs for each analyte were much larger than conventional RCVs. The percentages of results exceeding RCV(95%) and RCV(99%) corresponded to those with no overlap at the 83.4% and 93.2% confidence levels, respectively.CONCLUSIONS: The use of overlapping CIs in serial clinical chemistry test results can overcome the limitations of existing RCVs and replace them, especially for analytes with large intra-individual variation.


Subject(s)
Chemistry, Clinical , Clinical Chemistry Tests , Confidence Intervals , Individuality
4.
Acta bioquím. clín. latinoam ; 53(4): 525-537, dic. 2019. ilus, graf, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1124030

ABSTRACT

Seis Sigma es un método de mejora de procesos que se focaliza en disminuir la variabilidad de los mismos. El enfoque más común es contar los defectos, determinar el porcentaje, convertirlos a una tasa de defectos por millón y luego usar una tabla para buscar la métrica sigma apropiada. El segundo enfoque consiste en utilizar la medida de la variación del proceso para estimar la métrica sigma. En el laboratorio clínico se pueden aplicar ambos conceptos según la etapa del laboratorio en la cual se pretenda usar la métrica sigma. Para ambos enfoques un proceso de 6 sigmas es considerado un proceso eficiente, de alta calidad. En este trabajo se planteó para la etapa preanalítica una meta mínima de 4 sigmas. Algunos procesos muestran un buen desempeño con indicadores de calidad con sigmas mayores de 4. Sin embargo, varios de ellos tienen sigmas menores que la meta propuesta demostrando ser los más vulnerables. En Química Clínica y Hematología, la elección del requisito de calidad es el punto clave para armonizar la métrica sigma junto a la estrategia para la obtención del error sistemático y aleatorio. En este trabajo se muestran las diferentes estrategias para relacionar el desempeño basado en el sigma del proceso analítico con las reglas de validación de las corridas analíticas.


Six Sigma is a method for improvement of processes that focuses on reducing their variability. The most common approach is to count the defects, determine the percentage, convert them to a defect rate per million and then use a table to find the appropriate sigma metric. The second approach consists of using the process variation measure to estimate the sigma metric. In the clinical laboratory, both concepts can be applied according to the stage of the laboratory in which the sigma metric is intended to be used. For both approaches, a 6 sigma process is considered an efficient, high quality process. In this work, a minimum goal of 4 sigma was raised for the preanalytical stage. Some processes show good performance with quality indicators with sigma greater than 4. However, several of them have sigma lower than the proposed goal proving to be the most vulnerable. In Clinical Chemistry and Hematology, the choice of the quality requirement is the key point to harmonize the Sigma metric together with the strategy to obtain systematic and random error. This paper shows the different strategies to relate the performance based on the sigma of the analytical process with the validation rules of the analytical runs.


Seis Sigma é um método de melhoria de processos focado na redução da sua variabilidade. A abordagem mais comum é contar os defeitos, determinar a porcentagem, convertê-los numa taxa de defeitos por milhão e, depois disso, usar uma tabela para procurar a métrica sigma apropriada. A segunda abordagem consiste em usar a medida da variação do processo para estimar a métrica sigma. No laboratório clínico, podem ser aplicados os dois conceitos de acordo com a fase do laboratório em que se pretenda usar a métrica sigma. Para ambas as abordagens, um processo de 6-sigmas é considerado um processo eficiente e de alta qualidade. Neste trabalho, uma meta mínima de 4 sigmas foi definida para o estágio pré-analítico. Alguns processos mostram bom desempenho com indicadores de qualidade com sigmas maiores que 4. No entanto, vários deles têm sigmas menores que a meta proposta provando ser os mais vulneráveis. Em Química Clínica e Hematologia, a escolha do requisito de qualidade é o ponto chave para harmonizar a métrica sigma juntamente com a estratégia para obter o erro sistemático e aleatório. Este artigo mostra as diferentes estratégias para relacionar o desempenho baseado no sigma do processo analítico com as regras de validação das execuções analíticas.


Subject(s)
Clinical Laboratory Techniques/methods , Quality Indicators, Health Care , Clinical Laboratory Services , Hematology , Indicators and Reagents , Training Support , Weights and Measures , Bias , Chemistry, Clinical , Incidence , Health Strategies , Total Quality Management , Benchmarking , Total Quality Management , Efficiency , Clinical Laboratory Services/organization & administration , Laboratories , Methods
5.
Acta bioquím. clín. latinoam ; 53(4): 487-497, dic. 2019. ilus, graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1124026

ABSTRACT

Equivalence of results among laboratories is a major mission for medical laboratories. In the Netherlands, medical laboratories only use homogenous, commercial for general chemistry analytes, whereas in Argentina heterogenous, home brew test applications are common. The effect of this practice difference on test accuracy is studied using key features of the accuracy-based EQA program of the Netherlands. Six frozen, human-based, commutable poolsera, covering the (patho) physiological measuring range for 17 general chemistry analytes, were assayed by ~75 Argentinian labs and ~200 Dutch laboratories in 2014. After removal of outliers, harmonization status among laboratories was evaluated by calculating overall mean interlaboratory coefficients of variation (CVs, %) per analyte and per country for all 6 levels. Evenso, standardization status was evaluated after removal of outliers by calculating overall mean recoveries (%) as compared to the assigned target values per analyte per country for all 6 levels. Absolute median biases were compared to (minimal/desirable) biases derived from biological variation criteria. For serum enzymes interlaboratory CVs in the Argentinian laboratories ranged between 10 and 22%, as compared to 3-6% in the Netherlands. For serum uric acid, creatinine, glucose and total protein, interlaboratory CVs varied between 4.3 and 13.1% in Argentinian labs, as compared to <3.5% in the Netherlands. For serum electrolytes, interlaboratory CVs ranged between 1.8 and 3.8% for Na+; 2.9-5.8% for Cl-; 3.8-7.5% for K+; 9.4-10.4% for Ca2+ and 16.2-22.3% for Mg2+ as compared to ≤2% (Na+, K+, Cl-, Ca2+) and ≤3% (Mg2+) in the Netherlands. Mean recoveries in Argentinian laboratories for e.g. serum creatinine, glucose, CK, Ca2+ and Na+ were 95-119%; 95-104%; 98-102%; 98-102% and 96-100% respectively, whereas min-max recovery ranges were 65-155%; 58-126%; 47-132%; 66-132% and 85-115%. In the Netherlands, absolute mean recoveries were overall 98.9% with a SD of 2.0%. Median biases in Argentinian laboratories ranged from -2.9 to 18.2%; -3.1 - 2.6%; -3.3 - 0.5%; -1.1 - 3.8% and -4.3-0% for serum creatinine, glucose, CK, Ca2+ and Na+. In the Netherlands overall mean/median biases were 1.1% (SD=2.0%). Exchange of commutable, value- assigned EQA-materials was helpful for studying the harmonization and standardization status of medical tests in Argentina, and for revealing the future harmonization and standardization potential. The results clearly demonstrate that metrological traceability of test results in Argentina is on average in line with what is expected; yet, the spreading among laboratories is far too high and should be improved.


La equivalencia de resultados entre laboratorios es una mision importante para los laboratorios medicos. En los Paises Bajos, los laboratorios medicos solo usan aplicaciones comerciales homogeneas, regulatoriamente aprobadas (CE-IVD) para analitos quimicos, mientras que en la Argentina son comunes las aplicaciones heterogeneas caseras. El efecto de esta diferencia practica en la precision de la prueba se estudia utilizando caracteristicas clave del programa EQA, basado en la precision, de los Paises Bajos. Se ensayaron seis pools de sueros, congelados, de origen humano, conmutables, que cubrian el rango de medidas (pato)fisiologicas para 17 analitos de quimica clinica. Estos analitos de quimica clinica fueron analizados por ~75 laboratorios argentinos y ~200 laboratorios holandeses en 2014. Despues de eliminar los valores atipicos, el estado de armonizacion entre los laboratorios fue evaluado calculando los coeficientes de variacion interlaboratorios medios globales (CV%) por analito y por pais para los 6 niveles. No obstante, el estado de estandarizacion se evaluo despues de la eliminacion de valores atipicos mediante el calculo de recuperaciones medias generales (%) en comparacion con los valores asignados por analito por pais para los 6 niveles. Los sesgos medios absolutos se compararon con los sesgos (minimos / deseables) derivados de los criterios de variacion biologica. Para enzimas sericas los CV interlaboratorio en los laboratorios argentinos oscilaron entre 10 y 22%, en comparacion con 3-6% en los Paises Bajos. Para el acido urico serico, creatinina, glucosa y proteinas totales, los CV entre laboratorios variaron entre 4,3 y 13,1% en los laboratorios argentinos, en comparacion con <3,5% en los Paises Bajos. Para los electrolitos sericos, los CV interlaboratorios oscilaron entre 1,8 y 3,8% para Na+; 2,9-5,8% para Cl-; 3,8-7,5% para K+; 9,4-10,4% para Ca2+ y 16,2-22,3% para Mg2+ en comparacion a ≤2% (Na+, K+, Cl-, Ca2+) y ≤3% (Mg2+) en los Paises Bajos. Las recuperaciones medias en laboratorios argentinos para, p.ej. la creatinina serica, glucosa, CK, Ca2+ y Na+ fueron 95-119%; 95-104%; 98-102%; 98-102% y 96-100% respectivamente, mientras que los rangos de recuperacion min-max fueron 65-155%; 58-126%; 47-132%; 66-132% y 85-115%. En los Paises Bajos, las recuperaciones medias absolutas fueron en general del 98,9% con una desviacion estandar (DE) del 2,0%. La mediana de los sesgos medios de los laboratorios argentinos oscilo entre -2,9 y 18,2%; -3,1 - 2,6%; -3,3 - 0,5%; -1,1 - 3,8% y -4,3-0% para creatinina serica, glucosa, CK, Ca2+ y Na+. En los Paises Bajos, las medias / medianas en general fueron de 1,1% (DE=2,0%). El intercambio de los valores asignados a los materiales EQA, conmutables fue de gran ayuda para la armonizacion y estandarizacion de los ensayos medicos en la Argentina y para revelar el potencial futuro de armonizacion y estandarizacion. Estos resultados claramente demuestran que la trazabilidad metrologica de los resultados de las pruebas en la Argentina esta, en promedio, de acuerdo con lo esperable; sin embargo, la dispersion entre laboratorios es muy grande y deberia ser mejorada.


A equivalencia de resultados entre laboratorios e uma missao importante para os laboratorios medicos. Nos Paises Baixos, os laboratorios medicos so utilizam aplicacoes comerciais homogeneas, aprovadas por regulacoes (CE-IVD) para analitos quimicos, ao passo que na Argentina sao comuns as aplicacoes heterogeneas caseiras. O efeito desta diferenca pratica na exatidao do teste e estudado utilizando caracteristicas essenciais do programa EQA, dos Paises Baixos, baseado na exatidao. Foram ensaiados seis pools de soros, congelados, de origem humana, comutaveis, que abrangiam a faixa de medidas (pato)fisiologicas para 17 analitos quimicos gerais. Esses analitos quimicos foram analisados por ~75 laboratorios argentinos e ~200 laboratorios holandeses em 2014. Apos eliminar os valores atipicos, o estado de harmonizacao entre os laboratorios foi avaliado atraves do calculo dos coeficientes de variacao interlaboratorio meios globais (CV%) por analito e por pais para os 6 niveis. Nao obstante, o estado de padronizacao foi avaliado depois da eliminacao de valores atipicos pelo calculo de recuperacoes medias gerais (%) se comparados com os valores atribuidos por analito por pais para os 6 niveis. Os vieses medios absolutos foram comparados com os vieses (minimos / desejaveis) decorrentes dos criterios de variacao biologica. Para enzimas sericas, os CV interlaboratorio nos laboratorios argentinos oscilaram entre 10 e 22%, em comparacao com 3-6% nos Paises Baixos. Para o acido urico serico, creatinina, glicose e proteinas totais, os CV entre laboratorios variaram entre 4,3 e 13,1% nos laboratorios argentinos, em comparacao com <3,5% nos Paises Baixos para os eletrolitos sericos, os CV interlaboratorios oscilaram entre 1,8 e 3,8% para Na+; 2,9-5,8% para Cl-; 3,8-7,5% para K+; 9,4-10,4% para Ca2+ e 16,2-22,3% para Mg2+ em comparacao com ≤2% (Na+, K+, Cl-, Ca2+) e ≤3% (Mg2+) nos Paises Baixos. As recuperacoes medias em laboratorios argentinos para, p.ex. a creatinina serica, glicose, CK, Ca2+ e Na+ foram 95-119%; 95-104%; 98-102%; 98-102% e 96-100% respectivamente, enquanto que os intervalos de recuperacao min-max. foram 65-155%; 58-126%; 47-132%; 66-132% e 85-115%. Nos Paises Baixos, as recuperacoes medias absolutas foram em geral de 98,9% com um desvio padrao (DE) de 2,0%. A mediana dos vieses medios dos laboratorios argentinos oscilou entre -2,9 e 18,2%; -3,1 - 2,6%; -3,3 - 0,5%; -1,1 - 3,8% e -4,3-0% para creatinina serica, glicose, CK, Ca2+ e Na+. Nos Paises Baixos, as medias / medianas em geral foram de 1,1% (DE=2,0%). O intercambio dos valores atribuidos aos materiais EQA, comutaveis, foi de grande ajuda para a harmonizacao e padronizacao dos ensaios medicos na Argentina e para revelar o potencial futuro de harmonizacao e padronizacao. Esses resultados demonstram as claras que a rastreabilidade metrologica dos resultados dos testes na Argentina esta de acordo com o esperavel; a dispersao entre laboratorios ainda e muito grande e deveria ser melhorada.


Subject(s)
Humans , Reference Standards , Clinical Chemistry Tests , Clinical Chemistry Tests/methods , Laboratories , Physicians , Uric Acid , Weights and Measures , Proteins , Bias , Chemistry, Clinical , Creatinine , State , Electrolytes , Enzymes , Methodology as a Subject , Glucose
6.
Acta bioquím. clín. latinoam ; 53(4): 499-504, dic. 2019. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1124027

ABSTRACT

Las determinaciones de los laboratorios clínicos tienen un papel muy importante en la evaluación, diagnóstico, tratamiento y evolución del estado de salud de las personas. La confiabilidad de sus resultados se logra a través del aseguramiento de la calidad y mejora continua. El Programa de Evaluación Externa de la Calidad "Prof. Dr. Daniel Mazziotta" acompaña a los laboratorios de análisis clínicos desde hace 31 años brindando distintas herramientas para garantizar la calidad analítica. Ofrece los servicios de evaluación externa de la calidad, suministro de material para control de calidad interno para determinaciones en Química Clínica y soluciones para control de instrumental y pruebas de suficiencia. Desde la creación del programa se establecieron objetivos estratégicos a desarrollarse en tres etapas: establecimiento, consolidación y apoyo a la gestión de la calidad. Se genera ahora una nueva etapa, cuyo objetivo final es la acreditación. Como primer paso de este ciclo, se implementó un sistema de gestión de la calidad (SGC) de acuerdo a los requisitos establecidos en la norma argentina IRAM-ISO 9001:2015. En agosto de 2019, el Instituto Argentino de Normalización y Certificación (IRAM), representante en Argentina de la International Organization for Standarization (ISO), certificó que el SGC del programa cumple lo establecido en dicha norma. Su aplicación tiene como objetivo asegurar que los servicios ofrecidos satisfagan las necesidades de los laboratorios clínicos cumpliendo los requisitos legales requeridos y asegurando la mejora continua. El objetivo de este trabajo fue describir las acciones realizadas en la implementación del SGC y la posterior certificación de IRAM-ISO 9001:2015, por el IRAM.


Clinical laboratory determinations have a very important role in the evaluation, diagnosis, treatment and evolution of the health status of people. The reliability of their results is achieved through quality assurance and continuous improvement. The External Quality Assessment Programme Prof. Dr. Daniel Mazziotta has been accompanying clinical analysis laboratories for 31 years offering different tools to ensure analytical quality. It provides the services of external quality assessment, supply of material for internal quality control for determinations in Clinical Chemistry and solutions for instrumental control and sufficiency tests. Since the creation of the program, strategic objectives have been established to be developed in three stages: establishment, consolidation and support for quality management. A new stage is now being generated, whose final objective is accreditation. As a first step of this cycle, a quality management system (QMS) was implemented according to the requirements established in the IRAM Argentina standard-ISO 9001:2015. In August 2019, the Argentine Institute for Standardization and Certification (IRAM), representative in Argentina of the International Organization for Standardization (ISO), certified that the Programme's QMS complies with the provisions of said standard. Its application aims to ensure that the services offered meet the needs of clinical laboratories by fulfilling the legal requirements and ensuring continuous improvement. The objective of this work is to describe the actions carried out in the implementation of the QMS and the subsequent IRAM-ISO 9001: 2015 certification by the IRAM.


As determinações laboratoriais clínicas têm um papel muito importante na avaliação, diagnóstico, tratamento e evolução do estado de saúde das pessoas. A confiabilidade de seus resultados é alcançada através da garantia de qualidade e melhoria contínua. O Programa de Avaliação da Qualidade Externa "Prof. Dr. Daniel Mazziotta" apoia os laboratórios de análises clínicas há 31 anos, oferecendo diferentes ferramentas para garantir a qualidade analítica. Oferece os serviços de: avaliação externa de qualidade, fornecimento de material de controle interno de qualidade para determinações em Química Clínica e soluções para controle instrumental e testes de suficiência. Desde a criação do programa, os objetivos estratégicos foram estabelecidos para serem desenvolvidos em três etapas: estabelecimento, consolidação e suporte para a gestão da qualidade. Uma nova etapa é agora gerada, cujo objetivo final é a Acreditação. Como primeira etapa desse ciclo, um sistema de gestão da qualidade (SGQ) foi implementado de acordo com os requisitos estabelecidos na norma IRAM Argentina - ISO 9001:2015. Em agosto de 2019, o Instituto Argentino de Normalização e Certificação (IRAM), representante na Argentina da Organização Internacional de Normalização (ISO), certificou que o SGC do programa está em conformidade com as disposições da referida norma. Sua aplicação visa garantir que os serviços oferecidos satisfaçam as necessidades dos laboratórios clínicos, atendendo aos requisitos legais exigidos e garantindo a melhoria contínua. O objetivo deste trabalho é descrever as ações realizadas na implementação do SGQ e a subsequente certificação da IRAM-ISO 9001:2015, pela IRAM.


Subject(s)
Humans , Quality Control , Total Quality Management , Laboratories , Reference Standards , Certification , Chemistry, Clinical , Health , Health Status , Clinical Laboratory Techniques , Supply , State , Diagnosis , Laboratory Proficiency Testing/methods , Health Services Needs and Demand , Accreditation
7.
Acta bioquím. clín. latinoam ; 53(4): 477-486, dic. 2019. graf, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1124025

ABSTRACT

En este estudio se evaluó el efecto de tomar mate en las pruebas bioquímicas de rutina. Se extrajo sangre a 32 mujeres voluntarias luego de 12 horas de ayuno y a la hora (T1), dos horas (T2) y tres horas (T3) posteriores a la toma de 5 mates. Se estudiaron parámetros hematológicos y analitos de química clínica. Los resultados se analizaron empleando pruebas estadísticas para muestras relacionadas. Se calculó la diferencia porcentual media (DM%) de cada analito en cada hora respecto del valor basal y se comparó con el valor de referencia del cambio (VRC). Una DM% mayor que el VRC se consideró clínicamente significativa. En T1, T2 y T3 los recuentos de neutrófilos, eosinófilos y linfocitos fueron más bajos que en T0, también los niveles de glucosa, urea, creatinina y cistatina C fueron más bajos que en T0, mientras que los valores de proteínas totales, colesterol transportado por lipoproteínas de baja densidad y la actividad enzimática de lactato deshidrogenasa fueron más altos que en T0. En todos los casos los cambios fueron estadísticamente significativos, aunque no lo fueron desde el punto de vista clínico. Tomar 5 mates antes de la flebotomía no interfiere en los resultados de las pruebas bioquímicas de rutina.


In the present study the effect of drinking mate in routine biochemical tests was evaluated. Blood was collected from 32 female volunteers after a 12 h fasting period. In addition, 1 hour (T1), 2 hours (T2), and 3 hours (T3) after drinking 5 mates, blood was collected again. Hematological parameters and clinical chemistry analytes were studied. The results were analyzed using statistical tests for related samples. Mean difference % (MD%) was calculated for each analyte and was further compared with reference change value (RCV). The MDs% higher than RCV were considered clinically significant. At T1, T2, and T3 the count neutrophils, eosinophils and lymphocytes were lower than at T0. Also glucose, urea, creatinine, and cystatin C values were lower than at T0 whereas total proteins, LDL-C, and LD enzymatic activity values were higher than at T0. In all cases, variability was statistically significant but not clinically significant. Drinking 5 mates prior to phlebotomy does not interfere with the results of routine biochemical tests.


Neste trabalho, o efeito de beber chimarrão foi avaliado em testes bioquímicos de rotina. O sangue foi extraído de 32 mulheres voluntárias após 12 horas de jejum, e uma hora (T1), duas horas (T2) e três horas (T3) após a tomada de 5 chimarrões. Parâmetros hematológicos e analitos de química clínica foram estudados. Os resultados foram analisados utilizando testes estatísticos para amostras relacionadas. A diferença percentual média% (DM%) de cada analito em cada hora foi calculada em relação ao valor basal e comparada com o valor de referência da modificação (VRM). Uma DM% maior que o VRM foi considerada clinicamente significativa. Em T1, T2 e T3 as contagens de neutrófilos, eosinófilos e linfócitos foram mais baixas que em T0, Também os níveis de glicose, ureia, creatinina e cistatina C foram mais baixos que em T0, ao passo que os valores de proteínas totais, colesterol transportado por lipoproteínas de baixa densidade e a atividade enzimática de lactato desidrogenase foram mais altos que em T0. Em todos os casos as alterações foram estatisticamente significativas, embora do ponto de vista clínico não o tenham sido. Tomar 5 chimarrões antes da flebotomia não interfere nos resultados dos testes bioquímicos de rotina.


Subject(s)
Humans , Urea , Blood , Lymphocytes , Chemistry, Clinical , Fasting , Phlebotomy , Creatinine , Drinking , Cystatin C , Pre-Analytical Phase/methods , Glucose , Lipoproteins, LDL , Referral and Consultation , Rutin , Triiodothyronine , Women , Cholesterol , Data Collection , Eosinophils , Reference Standards , Pre-Analytical Phase/statistics & numerical data , L-Lactate Dehydrogenase , Neutrophils
8.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-765646

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Although the same equipment and reagents can be employed for inspecting identical samples, the setting and verification methods for the corresponding reference intervals differ from each other, and such methods are not well established. To address the issues associated with establishing and validating reference intervals, a Web-based application is proposed for collaboratively setting reference intervals. METHODS: A Web application was designed for automatically providing the statistical results associated with a reference interval upon receiving the corresponding test results from participating institutions and incorporating the cumulative data. RESULTS: By employing the proposed Web-based application (www.referencerange.org), reference intervals can be collaboratively set based on objective and statistical analyses incorporating clinical chemistry results obtained from Korea Healthcare Association in the years 2016 and 2017. Cumulative data obtained from the existing input peer group associated with an inspection are updated in real time, and the current set reference interval is displayed in real time. CONCLUSIONS: In this study, a Web-based application is designed for collaboratively setting reference intervals whereby all Korean laboratories can easily participate, collectively set reference intervals, and apply the set reference intervals. Hence, the proposed application can aid in providing basic data associated with health information.


Subject(s)
Chemistry, Clinical , Delivery of Health Care , Indicators and Reagents , Korea , Peer Group
10.
Laboratory Medicine Online ; : 232-235, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-760513

ABSTRACT

An observational study was conducted at the Section of Clinical Chemistry, Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, to assess the iodine status using the World Health Organization (WHO), United Nations International Children's Emergency Fund (UNICEF), and the International Council for Control of Iodine Deficiency Disorders (ICCIDD) consensus criteria, which state that >3% prevalence of serum thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) ≥10 mIU/L in the population is an indicator of iodine deficiency. Serum neonatal TSH was analyzed from January to December 2013. In a period of one year, a total of 11,597 neonates with the mean (25 percentile, 75 percentile value) age of 2.0 days (0.5–3.5) were tested for serum TSH. The overall mean TSH level was 3.38 mIU/L (5.63–1.96), with optimal levels (1–39 mIU/L) in 93%, <1 mIU/L in 6.3%, and ≥40 mIU/L in 0.3% neonates. Of all the neonates, 7.9% (N=916) showed TSH ≥10 mIU/L which is higher than the recommended WHO/UNICEF/ICCIDD criteria for mild endemicity for iodine deficiency in the population. These results suggest that iodine deficiency is still prevalent in our population, indicating a need for effective intervention programs and increasing awareness regarding the use of iodized salt and supplementation in all reproductive-aged women to prevent iodine deficiency in neonates.


Subject(s)
Chemistry, Clinical , Congenital Hypothyroidism , Consensus , Emergencies , Female , Financial Management , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Iodine , Observational Study , Pathology , Prevalence , Thyrotropin , United Nations , World Health Organization
11.
Laboratory Medicine Online ; : 161-165, 2019.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-760500

ABSTRACT

The Clinical Mass Spectrometry Research Committee (CMSRC), in affiliation with the Korean Society of Clinical Chemistry (KSCC), conducted a questionnaire survey on opinions about the general status of clinical mass spectrometric analysis in Korea. As a result, we understand that this field has passed through the introductory stage and is settled as a field of clinical laboratory testing in Korea, with the number of new laboratories performing mass spectrometric analysis being low. In spite of the many difficulties in introducing and operating clinical mass spectrometric analysis, there is a strong interest in this field, and even though further expansion is expected, there are still many issues to be resolved. In the future, it will be necessary to make concrete and thorough efforts to further develop the laboratory tests using clinical mass spectrometric analysis in Korea, centering on the CMSRC affiliated with the KSCC.


Subject(s)
Chemistry, Clinical , Korea , Mass Spectrometry
12.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-718776

ABSTRACT

As part of the clinical chemistry programs of the Korean Association of External Quality Assessment Service, we organized trials to conduct external quality assessment of hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) in 2016 and 2017. We delivered three commutable whole blood specimens for each trial. The overall response rates were 96.4% in 2016 and 98.4% and 99.6% in the first and second trials in 2017, respectively. Two types of reports were generated: a common report including the mean, standard deviation, coefficient of variation, median, minimum value, and maximum value according to manufacturer and instrument, as well as a summary report of the results from each participating laboratory, including a histogram for each specimen, Levey-Jennings chart for serial percent deviations, and table showing the target value, upper and lower limits, percent deviation, and grade. From 2016, the acceptance criterion was changed from ±8.0% to ±6.7%. The overall acceptable rates for the survey were 91.5%, 91.4%, 94.9%, and 89.0% for the first trial in 2016 through the second trial in 2017, respectively. The requisite continual improvement in the quality of HbA1c testing can be achieved through participation in similar accuracy-based proficiency testing programs.


Subject(s)
Chemistry, Clinical , Korea , Laboratory Proficiency Testing , Research Report
13.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-718772

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: It is known that the blood collection tube used can cause fluctuations in laboratory test results. We compared test results obtained when blood was collected in V-tube (AB Medical, Korea), BD Vacutainer Tubes (BD, USA), and Greiner Vacuette Tubes (Greiner, USA) in clinical chemistry and thyroid hormone assays. METHODS: One hundred volunteers from three hospitals were recruited and the peripheral blood samples were collected in each of the three serum separation tubes (SSTs). These samples were used for 28 routine clinical chemistry assays and three thyroid hormone assays. The results were analyzed by the Student paired t-test and the Bland-Altman plot. For stability tests, the initial results were compared with the day 1 (24±2 hours), day 3 (72±2 hours), and day 7 (168±2 hours) results, respectively. RESULTS: The difference in the test results obtained from the samples in each tube (V-Tube vs. BD-Tube, V-Tube vs. Greiner-Tube, and BD-Tube vs. Greiner-Tube) were satisfied with the Clinical Laboratory Improvement Amendments of 1988 allowable difference ranges. Except for four analytes (low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, magnesium, potassium, and thyroid-stimulating hormone), all analytes were within the allowable critical difference range based on biological variability. The paired t-test revealed significant differences between the results of nine assays for samples in V-Tube vs. BD-Tube and seven assays for samples in V-Tube vs. Greiner-Tube, but each set of results showed good correlations. The test results on different days showed a significant difference in several assays, but they were within the allowable difference range. CONCLUSIONS: The assay results for blood samples collected in SST V-Tubes were comparable to those obtained when blood was collected in BD Tubes and Greiner Tubes, and the blood collected in V-Tubes also showed excellent results in the stability tests.


Subject(s)
Chemistry , Chemistry, Clinical , Cholesterol , Humans , Lipoproteins , Magnesium , Potassium , Thyroid Gland , Vacuum , Volunteers
14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-713611

ABSTRACT

High oxygen-affinity hemoglobin (Hb) variants and a 2,3-diphosphoglycerate (2,3-DPG) deficiency could cause congenital (familial) erythrocytosis. High oxygen-affinity Hb variants and a 2,3-DPG deficiency might result in low tissue oxygen tension left-shifted oxygen dissociation curves and reduction in the standard P₅₀ value (P(50,std), oxygen tension at which haemoglobin is 50% saturated). Hence, the P(50,std) value is considered while formulating diagnostic strategies for erythrocytosis. In this study, we established a reference range for P(50,std) using an International Federation of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine-approved equation (Hill's equation) for individual single venous/arterial blood samples. Blood gas analysis results of 243 samples with oxygen saturation ranging from 40%–90% (Hb < 16 mg/dL) were selected. The reference range of P(50,std) was in the 2.5th–97.5th percentile, and was 25.9–27.3 mm Hg. Hill's equation is a simple approved method for evaluating the P(50,std) values. Only a single sample of venous or arterial blood and a blood gas analyser are required to obtain the P(50,std). Our study provides a useful tool for the diagnostic work-up of patients with erythrocytosis.


Subject(s)
2,3-Diphosphoglycerate , Blood Gas Analysis , Chemistry, Clinical , Humans , Methods , Oxygen , Polycythemia , Reference Values
15.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-716939

ABSTRACT

In 2017, the clinical chemistry proficiency testing program consisted of 24 programs with the addition of the urine chemistry program in the Korean Association of External Quality Assessment Service. The routine chemistry program consisted of 32 test items, including osmolality, total CO2, and estimated glomerular filtration rate tests, and the urine chemistry program consisted of 12 test items, including the albumin test. Based on the information and results of each test item entered by each institution, statistical analysis data according to test method, instrument, and reagent were reported. The statistics included the number of participating institutions, mean, standard deviation, coefficient of variation, median, minimum, and maximum values for each group. Each report was composed of a table, histogram, Levy-Jennings chart, and standard deviation index showing statistics by each test item. A total of 14 items, including albumin, were evaluated by more than 1,000 institutions, and the number of participating institutions is continuously increasing. The coefficient of variation tended to increase, as the concentration of the control material was lower for each test item. Most of them showed a coefficient of variation within 10%. Alkaline phosphatase and lactate dehydrogenase were found to have high coefficients of variation due to differences in measurement values between measurement methods. The distribution of measurement methods in general chemistry test items was not significantly different from that of previous years, and the distribution of measurement methods for albumin, glucose, phosphorus, and protein among the urine chemistry program was different from that of the routine chemistry program.


Subject(s)
Alkaline Phosphatase , Chemistry , Chemistry, Clinical , Glomerular Filtration Rate , Glucose , Korea , L-Lactate Dehydrogenase , Methods , Osmolar Concentration , Phosphorus
16.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-758772

ABSTRACT

A fixed-dose combination tablet of benazepril and pimobendan (Fortekor Plus; Elanco Animal Health) was tested in dogs with congestive heart failure (CHF) caused by myxomatous mitral valve disease (MMVD) in a three-arm, masked, randomized, non-inferiority clinical trial in Japan. The test group (n = 34) received Fortekor Plus twice daily. Two control groups received registered formulations of benazepril (Fortekor; Elanco Animal Health) and pimobendan (Vetmedin; Boehringer Ingelheim Vetmedica) with administration of Vetmedin twice daily and Fortekor twice (Control I, n = 14) or once (Control II, n = 19) daily. Diuretics were used in 22 dogs (32.8%). Global clinical scores decreased significantly from baseline in all groups; there were no significant differences between groups, and non-inferiority of Fortekor Plus compared to Control I, Control II, and combined Control I + II groups was demonstrated. There were no significant differences between groups for relevant clinical chemistry and hematology variables or frequency of all adverse events. Frequency of emesis was significantly (p = 0.0042) lower in the Fortekor Plus (8.8%) group than in the Control I + II (39.4%) group. In conclusion, Fortekor Plus had non-inferior efficacy and was associated with significantly less emesis compared to Fortekor and Vetmedin in dogs with CHF caused by MMVD.


Subject(s)
Animals , Chemistry, Clinical , Diuretics , Dogs , Estrogens, Conjugated (USP) , Heart Failure , Hematology , Japan , Masks , Mitral Valve , Vomiting
17.
Journal of Epidemiology and Global Health. 2017; 7 (4): 305-308
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-189828

ABSTRACT

Diarrhoeagenic E. coil [DEC] is one of the most common causes of diarrhoeal death in children less than five years globally. It is responsible for 30%-40% of all diarrhoeal episodes in developing countries. It is estimated that 0.12 million children died of diarrhoea caused by DEC in 2011 globally. There is no baseline data on the occurrence of DEC diarrhoea in Andaman Islands, the remote islands of India. The study is particularly important as these strains are the emerging enteric pathogen in both developed and developing countries. DEC was screened from £ coli isolates obtained from diarrhoeal stool samples by multiplex PCR with specific primers using stasndard protocols. During the study period, among the 1394 stool samples collected, 95 [6.82%] patients were found infected with DEC. Of the 97 isolates from 95 patients, 68 [70.1%] were EAEC, 19 [19.6%] were EPEC and 10 [10.3%] were ETEC. Of the 19 EPEC isolates, 63.2% were atypical EPEC which is the emerging enteric pathogen among the children in developing as well as developed countries. More than 80% of the patients had watery diarrhoea and 6% of them had invasive diarrhoea. Persistent diarrhoea was also found in three infected children. This study documents the occurrence and type of DEC diarrhoea in Andaman Islands first time and highlights the significant proportions of £ coli diarrhoea being caused by EAEC and atypical EPEC strains


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Child, Preschool , Escherichia coli , Chemistry, Clinical , Diarrhea , Multiplex Polymerase Chain Reaction , Child
18.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-108649

ABSTRACT

Medical diagnostics plays a significant role in clinical decisions. The first medical laboratory test to be developed was urine analysis, in which urine properties were analyzed for diagnosis. Urine analysis has been long used as a routine laboratory test that was improved with the development of sampling and test methods. As the field of hematology progressed with the invention of the microscope, blood tests were developed. Demands for tests based on clinical chemistry have existed since the 17th century, and research using patient blood began in the 18th century. In the 20th century, with the development of the spectrophotometer, chemical analyses were performed for diagnostic purposes. With the appearance of cholera outbreaks, the identification of microorganisms was necessary for patient diagnosis, and the development of specific test methods contributed to microorganism detection in the laboratory. Blood transfusion, which started with blood collection in the 15th century, is currently used as a therapeutic method in medicine. Moreover, once the hypothesis of acquired immunity was proven in the 18th century, various methods for measuring immunity were developed. Molecular diagnosis, which was established during the 20th century after the presentation of Mendel's Genetic Laws in the 19th century, developed rapidly and became the predominant field in medical laboratory diagnostics. Thus, medical laboratory technology became an academic field, with foundations based on basic sciences. Modern medicine will further progress thanks to medical advancements, leading to an extension of average human lifespan up to 100 years. Laboratory medicine will provide significant support for this development.


Subject(s)
Adaptive Immunity , Blood Transfusion , Chemistry, Clinical , Cholera , Diagnosis , Disease Outbreaks , Foundations , Hematologic Tests , Hematology , History, Modern 1601- , Humans , Inventions , Jurisprudence , Medical Laboratory Science , Methods , Pathology, Molecular
19.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-108647

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The amount of interference due to hemolysis, bilirubin, and lipemia can be measured on the AU5800 autoanalyzer (Beckman Coulter, USA) by spectrophotometry. This is reported as semi-quantitative indices, specifically H-index, I-index, and L-index, respectively. In this study, we evaluated the impact of interference using chemistry assays and established the concentration of interfering substances and HIL-index above which analytically significant interference exists, according to CLSI guidelines C56-A and EP7-A2. METHODS: Pooled sera including different concentrations of analytes were prepared and mixed with hemoglobin, bilirubin, or Intralipid. These samples were then tested for 35 clinical chemistry analytes by AU5800 and the bias based on interferent concentrations was computed. The interferent concentration above which significant interference exists was calculated from the 50% within-subject biological variation (desirable analytic goal), and the corresponding index was assigned. RESULTS: Among 35 items evaluated, interference was detected for 12 analytes by hemoglobin, 7 analytes by bilirubin, and 12 analytes by Intralipid. We proposed HIL-index₁ and HIL-index₂ for each analyte according to 2 different medical decision levels. HIL-index₁ and HIL-index₂ were considered more reasonable criteria than the HIL-index from the manufacturer's technical document (HIL-index(TD)). This is because HIL-index(TD) was empirically set to 5% or 10%, and had a wide tolerance range, which was not sufficient to reflect the presence of interference, compared to HIL-index₁ and HIL-index₂. CONCLUSIONS: We have demonstrated hemoglobin, bilirubin, and Intralipid interferences according to CLSI guidelines using the desirable analytic goal. Our results provide applicable information for Beckman Coulter automated chemistry analyzers.


Subject(s)
Bias , Bilirubin , Chemistry , Chemistry, Clinical , Hemolysis , Hyperlipidemias , Jaundice , Spectrophotometry
20.
Laboratory Animal Research ; : 223-230, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-101377

ABSTRACT

Angelica acutiloba (AA), a Japanese species of Danggui, has been used worldwide as a traditional herbal medicine with several bioactivities including anti-diabetic, anti-allergic, anti-inflammatory, anti-tumor, and anti-obesity. However, there is lack of toxicological data available to evaluate potential long-term toxicity and the no-observed-adverse-effect level (NOAEL) of AA extract in accordance with the test guidelines published by the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development. In the 14-day repeat-dose toxicity study, no adverse effects on mortality, body weight change, clinical signs, and organ weights was found following repeat oral administration to rats for 14 days (125, 250, 500, 1000, and 2000 mg/kg body weight), leading that 2000 mg/kg is the highest recommended dose of AA extract for the 13-week repeat-dose oral toxicity study. In the 13-week repeat-dose oral toxicity study, the AA extract was orally administered to groups of rats for 13 weeks (125, 250, 500, 1000, and 2000 mg/kg body weight) to compare between control and AA extract groups. The administration of AA extract did not produce mortality or remarkable clinical signs during this 13-week study. And, the data revealed that there were no significant differences in food/water consumption, body weight, hematological parameters, clinical chemistry parameters, gross macroscopic findings, organ weight and histopathology in comparison to the control group. On the basis of these results, the subchronic NOAEL of the AA extract was more than 2000 mg/kg/day when tested in rats. And, the AA extract is considered safe to use orally as a traditional herbal medicine.


Subject(s)
Administration, Oral , Angelica , Animals , Asians , Body Weight , Body Weight Changes , Chemistry, Clinical , Herbal Medicine , Humans , Medicine, Traditional , Mortality , No-Observed-Adverse-Effect Level , Organ Size , Organisation for Economic Co-Operation and Development , Rats
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