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1.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 1082-1089, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1008476

ABSTRACT

Some Chinese herbal medicine needs to be processed before it can be used as medicine, especially toxic Chinese medicine. Highly toxic Aconti Kusnezoffii Radix(Caowu in Chinese) is widely used in traditional Chinese medicine and Mongolian medicine. In traditional Chinese medicine, Caowu is usually processed by boiling with water(CW) until no white part inside and being tasted without tongue-numbing. In Mongolian medicine, it is usually soaked in Chebulae Fructus(Hezi in Chinese) decoction for several days(CH). Both methods could reduce toxicity according to reports. The biggest difference between CW and CH is that CW needs to be heated for 4-6 h, while CH needs Hezi as processing adjuvants. To explore the toxicity reduction mechanism of CW and CH, we studied the contents of various compounds in Caowu processed by two methods by UPLC-Orbitrap-MS. The results indicated that CW had 14 new ingredients, such as 14-O-anisoylneoline and dehydro-mesaconitine, while N-demethyl-mesaconitine and aconitine disappeared. At the same time, it could significantly decrease the content of diester diterpenoid alkaloids and increase the contents of monoester diterpenoid alkaloids and amine-diterpenoid alkaloids. CH had 9 new ingredients from Hezi, like gallic acid, chebulic acid and shikimic acid. Neither the kinds nor the contents of compositions from Caowu in CH changed little. This suggested that the processing mechanism of CW reduced highly toxic components(diester diterpenoid alkaloids) and increased the content of lowly toxic components(monoester diterpenoid alkaloids and amine-diterpenoid alkaloids). Attenuated principle of CH may be related to the components of Hezi. In this experiment, the conclusion shows that the chemical constituents of CW and CH are essentially different, and the two methods have different toxicity reduction principles.


Subject(s)
Aconitine , Aconitum/chemistry , Alkaloids/analysis , Chemistry, Pharmaceutical/methods , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/analysis , Mass Spectrometry , Medicine, Chinese Traditional
2.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 98-105, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1008443

ABSTRACT

To improve the spray drying effect of extract of Wenjing Zhitong Prescription, this study takes the yield, hygroscopic property and the fluidity of dry powder as indexes to screen out auxiliary materials, and the proportion of the auxiliary materials was optimized based on the mixing design experiment; based on that, HPLC method was established for the determination of glycyrrhizin and 6-gingerol in spray powder, the yield of spray powder and the retention rate of the two index components were taken as indexes to further optimize the spray drying parameters. The finally selected auxiliary materials were light magnesium oxide, maltodextrin and silica, and regression equations of dry powder yield, moisture absorption rate, angle of rest with proportion of auxiliary materials were established, and the optimized proportion of auxiliary materials was dry paste-light magnesium oxide-maltodextrin-silica=0.5∶0.305∶0.145∶0.05; according to the optimized drying process parameters of Wenjing Zhitong Prescription, initial temperature was 60 ℃, air inlet temperature was 130 ℃, air flow rate was 35 m~3·h~(-1), atomizing pressure was 40 mm, and liquid inlet speed was 4.5 mL·min~(-1). Under these conditions, the dry powder yield was 90.28%, the retention rate of glycyrrhizin was 74.51%, and the retention rate of 6-gingerol was 72.10%. In this study, optimized auxiliary materials can improve the yield of spray drying and the property of spray powder, and the optimized processing conditions were good for retaining the unstable gingerol components, which can lay a foundation for the further preparation research of meridian warming and pain relieving prescriptions, and provide reference for extract of other traditional Chinese medicine extracts that are difficult to spray drying.


Subject(s)
Chemistry, Pharmaceutical/methods , Desiccation/methods , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/chemistry , Hot Temperature , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Powders
3.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 1-6, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1008430

ABSTRACT

The discovery of active constituents of traditional Chinese medicine(TCM) faces multiple challenges, such as limited approaches to evaluate poly-pharmacological effects, and the lack of systematic methods to identify active constituents. Aimed at these bottleneck problems in the field, the present study intensively discussed the key scientific problems in the identification of active constituents of TCM, based on scientific methodologies including systematology, information theory, and synergetics. A comprehensive strategy is herein proposed to investigate the correlations between the chemical composition and biological activities of TCM, from macro-, meso-, and micro-scales. Moreover, in this study, we systematically proposed the methodology of the multimodal identification of TCM active constituents, and thoroughly constructed its core technologies. Its technical framework is suggested to be assessed by multimodal information acquisition, centered on multisource information fusion, and focused on interaction evaluation. Furthermore, the core technologies for the multimodal identification of active constituents of TCM were developed in this study, which is according to the characteristics of the exchanges of between TCM and biological organisms, in the aspects of material, energy and information. Finally, two examples of the application of the proposed method were briefly introduced. The proposed methodology provides a novel way to solve the bottlenecks in the study of active constituents of TCM, and lays the foundation for the multimodal study of TCM.


Subject(s)
Chemistry, Pharmaceutical/methods , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/chemistry , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Research Design
4.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 4060-4066, 2019.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1008327

ABSTRACT

The molecular weight of the effective components of traditional Chinese medicine( TCM) is usually less than 1 000.However, " noneffective common macromolecules"( starch,pectin and other macromolecules commonly present in the water extract of TCM) generally have no physiological activity,which restricts the overall advantages of membrane technology to obtain small molecular pharmacodynamic substances,and such macromolecules are the main influence factor of membrane fouling. Therefore,in order to obtain the total pharmacological efficacy of TCM,based on the molecular structure analysis of noneffective common macromolecules,aimed at the key scientific problems in correlation between the molecular structure of noneffective common macromolecules and the pore structure of membrane material,and by referring to the material science theory and molecular simulation method,the correlations between noneffective common macromolecules' molecular structure-solution environment-membrane antagonism were investigated. Multidisciplinary approaches could be integrated to: ① optimize the spatial form of membrane surface and improve the membrane's antifouling ability; ② accurately control the pore structure and the size distribution of membranes,aimed at the innovative preparation technology of special membrane used for TCM; ③ adjust solution environment based on the analysis of molecular structure,and establish the pretreatment method based on the optimization of solution environment. Furthermore,the technical bottleneck on how to obtain the pharmacodynamic micromolecules effectively might be solved,and the theory and technology about TCM pharmaceutical engineering could be developed based on the concept of multivariate and integration.


Subject(s)
Chemistry, Pharmaceutical/methods , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Membranes, Artificial , Molecular Structure , Research Design
5.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 5405-5412, 2019.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1008413

ABSTRACT

Magnolia Officinalis Cortex has been used as a traditional Chinese herb for thousands of years in China. According to Chinese Pharmacopoeia,the processing of Magnolia Officinalis Cortex needs " sweating" or " Fahan",which was a special drying process and considered to be an important symbol for high quality and genuine medicinal materials. In this unique processing mode,Magnolia Officinalis Cortex's microbial community structure may be changed,but little is known about microbial diversity during the " sweating". In this study,to analyze the change and its change rules of microbial community of Magnolia Officinalis Cortex in the whole process of " sweating",and find out the microbial community that affects the quality of Magnolia Officinalis Cortex in the process of its " sweating",and provide a basis for further research on the microbial transformation of Magnolia Officinalis Cortex,MiSeq highthroughput sequencing was used to evaluate the microbial diversity of natural " sweating" of Magnolia Officinalis Cortex. In this research,334 genera fungi and 674 genera bacteria were identified. The dominant species weren' t obvious during the early stage of " sweating". Candida was the dominant fungal species( 45. 01%-71. 93%) during the medium " sweating" stage. Aspergillus is the dominant fungal species( 45. 83%-95. 51%) during the late stage of " sweating". Moreover,Enterobacter and Klebsiella were the primary bacterial genus( ≥56. 05%) during the middle and late stages of " sweating". In addition,the predominant bacteria in the process of " sweating" included Bacillus,Deinococcus,Sphingomonas,Hymenobacter and Jatrophihabitans. In conclusion,the microbial diversities and the main dominant fungi and bacteria in the process of " sweating" of Magnolia Officinalis Cortex were initially determined. It was also found that the metabolism of Aspergillus and Candida may be related to the character formation,which were sweet odor and brown inner surface after " sweating". The results provide a theoretical basis for the study of the influence of different microorganisms on the excellent traits formation of " sweating" Magnolia Officinalis Cortex.


Subject(s)
Chemistry, Pharmaceutical/methods , China , High-Throughput Nucleotide Sequencing , Magnolia/microbiology , Microbiota
6.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 5398-5404, 2019.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1008412

ABSTRACT

The study aimed to investigate the effect of processing on lectin protein in four toxic Chinese medicines tubers of Pinellia ternata,P. pedatisecta,Arisema heterophyllum and Typhonium giganteum. Western blot was used to semi-quantitatively analyze the content of lectin in the four kinds of toxic Chinese medicines and their different processed products. Raw products and lectin were treated by heating or soaking in ginger juice or alum solution. The effects of different excipients and the heating methods on lectin proteins were investigated. The results showed that the content of lectin in raw products of P. pedatisecta,P. ternata,A. heterophyllum,and T. giganteum were 7. 3%,4. 9%,2. 7%,2. 3%,respectively. And the content of lectin in Pinelliae Rhizoma praeparatum cum alumine was 0. 027%. Lectin was not detected in the Pinelliae Rhizoma Praeparatum cum Zingibere et Alumine,Arisaematis Rhizma Praeparatum and Typhonii Rhizoma Praeparatum,which indicated that processing could significantly reduce the content of active lectin in raw products. The results also showed that with the prolongation of soaking and heating time,the content of lectin in raw products decreased gradually,while the content was almost unchanged when soaked in ginger juice alone. The effects of different excipients and heating on lectin were the same as those on raw products. Therefore,the method with alum soaking and heating can reduce the content of active lectin,which is the key to reduce the toxicity of toxic Chinese medicines. In this paper,Western blot was used to study the content of toxic protein in Araceae toxic Chinese medicines as an evaluation method of the processing degree.


Subject(s)
Araceae/chemistry , Chemistry, Pharmaceutical/methods , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/analysis , Lectins/analysis , Plant Tubers/chemistry , Rhizome/chemistry
7.
São Paulo; s.n; s.n; 2018. 123 p. ilus, graf, tab.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-998353

ABSTRACT

A tuberculose (TB) é considerada uma das principais doenças infecciosas e apresenta fatores críticos como a relação com o HIV/AIDS, tratamento longo e a resistência a múltiplos fármacos. A enzima di-hidrofolato redutase das micobactérias (mtDHFR) é um alvo pouco explorado e apresenta grande potencial para o desenvolvimento de novos fármacos contra TB. Estudos preliminares obtiveram fragmentos com baixa afinidade à mtDHFR, entretanto com potencial para otimização. Com isso, o fragmento foi usado como protótipo para a proposição de 22 análogos. Os compostos foram planejados utilizando informações sobre ligantes e a estrutura tridimensional de mtDHFR, além do biososterismo como estratégia norteadora. Os ensaios de docking molecular com a mtDHFR revelaram que os análogos propostos tiveram escores interessantes e, além disso, a inserção de substituintes demonstrou favorecer a ligação à enzima, o que corroborou o planejamento. Com isso, sintetizou-se 22 análogos planejados e o protótipo MB872, por meio de protocolos de alquilação, hidrólise e cicloadição 1,3 dipolar para os compostos com anéis triazol e tetrazol. Os compostos foram obtidos com rendimentos de bom a ótimo (60 ~ 90%) e suas estruturas foram elucidadas por RMN 1H e 13C. Os resultados do ensaio de inibição enzimática corroboraram com os dados de docking, uma vez que a presença do grupo carboxílico revelou ser importante para a atividade. Além disso, alguns dos compostos revelaram atividades interessantes, entre 8 a 40 µM, sendo que o mais ativo apresentou IC50 de 7 µM. Ensaios de cinética enzimática com o análogo mais ativo indicou uma inibição não competitiva com o substrato natural da enzima, uma vez que os valores de Km se mantiveram constantes, enquanto Vmax decaiu (0,22 µM e 0,43 - 0,34 ΔFU/min, respectivamente). Os análogos sintetizados foram mandados para ensaio in vitro para avaliar a atividade frente a micobactéria


Tuberculosis (TB) is an important infectious disease and presents critical factors such as the relationship with HIV / AIDS, long treatment and resistance to multiple drugs. The enzyme dihydrofolate reductase from mycobacteria (mtDHFR) is a poorly explored and presents great potential to be a target for new drugs against TB. Preliminary studies have obtained fragments with low affinity to mtDHFR, but with potential to become lead compounds. Therefore, the fragment was used as a prototype for 22 analogues proposed in this work. The compounds were designed using bioisosterism, information about ligands and the three-dimensional structure of mtDHFR. Molecular docking assays with mtDHFR revealed satisfactory scores for anlogues. Furthermore, the insertion of substituents seemed to increase the affinity with the enzyme. Thereby, twenty two analogues and prototype were synthesized using alkylation, hydrolysiss and 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition methods. The compounds were obtained in good yields (60 ~ 90%) and their structures were elucidated with 1H and 13C NMR spectroscopy. The enzymatic affinity assay corroborates docking results, because the presence of carboxyl group showed to be important for the activity. Furthermore, some of the compounds revealead interesting activities, ranging 8 to 40 µM. The most active showed IC50 of 7 µM and enzyme kinetics assays indicated noncompetitive inhibition with natural enzyme substrate. The synthesized analogs were sent for in vitro assay to assess mycobacteria activity


Subject(s)
Process Optimization , Molecular Docking Simulation/instrumentation , Mycobacterium/classification , Tetrahydrofolate Dehydrogenase/analysis , Tuberculosis/pathology , Chemistry, Pharmaceutical/methods
8.
Braz. j. pharm. sci ; 52(3): 493-507, July-Sept. 2016. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-828277

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT The objective of the study is to formulate and evaluate a topical herbal gel containing Cardiospermum halicacabum and Vitex negundo leaf extracts for their anti-arthritic activity in rats. Twelve herbal gel formulations were prepared using 1.5% of gelling agents carbopol 934 (F1-F6) and carbopol 940 (F6-F12) and they were evaluated for physical appearance, net content, viscosity, extrudability, pH, spreadability, in vitro diffusion profile and primary skin irritation tests. The stability study for the topical herbal gel formulation was done as per ICH guidelines and anti-arthritic activity was evaluated by Freund's Complete Adjuvant (FCA) induced arthritis method. Assessment of body weight, paw volume, hematological and biochemical parameters, histopathological examination and In vitro determination of serum biomarkers were also carried out. Formulated gels were homogenous, stable and complied with the guidelines. Among the formulations, F4 showed better release (98.4 %) characteristics than other formulations. No erythema or edema was observed in the skin irritation test confirming the gel was non-toxic and safe. Topical application of the herbal gel F4 containing carbopol 934 displayed significant (p < 0.001) anti-arthritic activity compared to diseased rats. Reduction in paw volume, no agglutination in C - reactive protein and rheumatic factor, reduction in TNF level, regaining of normal hematological, and biochemical parameters, reduction in spleen and thymus weight and histopathological examination supported the anti-arthritic activity of the gel formulation.


Subject(s)
Rats , Plants, Medicinal/classification , Arthritis/diagnosis , Chemistry, Pharmaceutical/methods , /methods , Herbal , Vitex/classification , Sapindaceae/classification
9.
São Paulo; s.n; s.n; 2016. 375 p. tab, graf, ilus.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-846629

ABSTRACT

A doença de Chagas afeta cerca de 6 a 7 millhões de pessoas no mundo, principalmente América Latina. A busca de alternativas terapêuticas para esta enfermidade tem grande relevância para a sociedade, já que as opções atuais são limitadas, sendo disponível apenas o benznidazol (BZD) e nifurtimox. Os derivados nitroheterocíclicos são considerados compostos bioativos com número crescente de estudos na comunidade científica contra seu agente etiológico, o Trypanosoma cruzi. Neste sentido, o presente trabalho tem por objetivo a identificação de derivados do 5-nitrofurano com atividade frente a diferentes cepas do T. cruzi, assim como estudar possíveis modo de ação desta classe de compostos. Esta investigação envolve estudos computacionais com o propósito de construir modelos quantitativos de relações estrutura-atividade (QSAR multivariado) que possam auxiliar na previsão de novas estruturas com perfil farmacológico otimizado. No presente trabalho foram realizadas as etapas de planejamento, síntese e identificação de 36 compostos com resultados satisfatórios quanto à identificação estrutural, pureza e rendimento, que foi da ordem de 70%. A determinação da atividade anti-T. cruzi in vitro dos compostos obtidos foi realizada frente às cepas Silvio X10 cl1, Y, Bug 2149 cl10 e Colombiana na forma epimastigota do parasito. A maioria dos compostos analisados apresentou maior capacidade de inibição de crescimento do parasito, comparado ao BZD: Silvio X10 cl1 - IC50 = 29,16 ±2,90 µM, Y - IC50 = 40,40 ±3,37µM, Bug 2149 cl10 - IC50 = 30,63 ±3,21 µM, Colombiana - IC50 = 47,91 ±4,96 µM. O composto mais ativo (BSF-35) apresentou os seguintes valores: Silvio X10 cl1 - IC50 = 3,17 ±0,32 µM, Y - IC50 = 1,17 ±0,12 µM, Bug 2149 cl10 - IC50 = 1,81 ±0,18 µM e Colombiana - IC50 = 3,06 ±0,23 µM. Foram realizados cálculos de propriedades moleculares das estruturas tridimensionais dos compostos, seguido pela análise exploratória de dados por análise de agrupamentos hierárquicos (HCA) e análise de componentes principais (PCA), possibilitando o reconhecimento de padrões do conjunto. Considerando esta análise prévia, foram obtidos modelos QSAR com abordagem multivariada, aplicando algorítmo OPS e método de regressão por quadrados mínimos parciais, PLS. Os melhores modelos gerados foram obtidos considerando os compostos benzenos substituídos para as quatro cepas estudadas. Os descritores que mais influenciaram na análise foram o ClogP (coeficiente de partição) e cargas CHELPG. Considerando as informações obtidas, foram planejados e sintetizados quatro novos compostos com objetivo de obter compostos mais ativos e validar os modelos QSAR. Estes compostos apresentaram alta atividade frente a forma epimastigota das quatro cepas estudadas. Os compostos mais ativos foram avaliados quanto a citotoxicidade frente células LLC-MK2 e apresentaram seletividade até 25 vezes superior ao BZD. Estudos in vitro frente a forma amastigota da cepa Y em células U2OS foram realizados com metodologia fenotípica de análise de alto conteúdo (HCA') e os compostos apresentaram atividade até 64 vezes superior ao BZD e com seletividade de até 50 vezes superior a este fármaco. Quanto à determinação da atividade dos compostos frente às enzimas tripanotiona redutase (TcTR) e glutationa redutase (GR), os compostos analisados não apresentaram atividade relevante, indicando não ser este o mecanismo desta classe de compostos. Com finalidade de explorar outro possível mecanismo de ação dos compostos 5-nitrofurânicos, foi realizada a análise de potencial de redução da membrana mitocondrial, porém a morte parasitária não foi atribuída à despolarização da membrana em estudos simultâneos com iodeto de propídio


Chagas disease affects approximately 6-7 millions people worldwide, especially Latin America. The search for therapeutic alternatives for this disease is of great relevance to society, as current options are limited and there are only two available drugs: benznidazole (BZD) and nifurtimox. The nitroheterocyclic derivatives are considered bioactive compounds with increasing number of studies in the scientific community against its etiologic agent, Trypanosoma cruzi. In this sense, this work aims to identify derivatives of 5-nitrofuran with activity against different strains of T. cruzi, and to study possible mode of action of this compounds. This research involves computational studies to obtain models of quantitative structure-activity relationships (QSAR multivariate) that can help predict new structures with optimized pharmacological profile. In this work were carried out the design, synthesis and identification of 36 compounds with satisfactory results regarding the structural identification, purity and yield (approximately 70%). The determination of anti-T. cruzi activity in vitro of the compounds obtained was carried out with Silvio X10 cl1, Y, Bug 2149 CL10 and Colombiana strains of epimastigote form of the parasite. Most of the compounds examined showed greater capacity of growth inhibition of the parasite compared to the BZD (Silvio X10 CL1 - IC 50 = 29.16 ± 2.90 µM, Y - IC50 = 40.40 ± 3,37µM, 2149 CL10 Bug - IC 50 = 30.63 ± 3.21 µM, Colombiana - IC 50 = 47.91 ± 4.96 µM). The most active compound (BSF-35) showed the following values: Silvio X10 cl1 - IC 50 = 3.17 ± 0.32 uM, Y - IC 50 = 1.17 ± 0.12 µM, Bug 2149 CL10 - IC50 = 1, 81 ± 0.18 µM and Colombiana - IC 50 = 3.06 ± 0.23 µM. Calculations were performed for the molecular properties of three-dimensional structures of the compounds, followed by exploratory data analysis by hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) and principal component analysis (PCA), allowing the recognition of the set. Considering this preliminary analysis were obtained QSAR models with multivariate approach, using OPS algorithm and regression method of partial least squares, PLS. The best generated models were obtained considering the benzyl substituted compounds for the four strains. The descriptors that most influenced the analysis were ClogP (partition coefficient) and CHELPG charges. Considering the information obtained, four new compounds were designed and synthesized to obtain more active compounds and validate QSAR models. These compounds showed high activity against epimastigote form of the four strains studied. The most active compounds were evaluated for cytotoxicity against LLC-MK2 cells and the compounds selectivity values were up to 25 times higher than BZD. In vitro studies against amastigote form of the Y strain in U2OS cells were performed with phenotypic method of high content analysis (HCA') and the compounds showed activity to 64 times higher than BZD and selectivity of up to 50 times. The activity of the compounds against trypanothione reductase enzymes (TcTR) and glutathione reductase (GR) showed no significant activity, indicating that this is not the mechanism of this class of compounds. In order to exploit another possible mechanism of action of 5-nitrofuran derivatives, analysis reduction of mitochondrial membrane potential was held, however the cell death was not attributed to membrane depolarization in simultaneous studies with propidium iodide


Subject(s)
Structure-Activity Relationship , Trypanosoma cruzi/drug effects , In Vitro Techniques/methods , Pharmaceutical Preparations , /adverse effects , Nitrofurans/analysis , Oxidoreductases , Chemistry, Pharmaceutical/methods , Quantitative Structure-Activity Relationship , Cytotoxicity, Immunologic , Nifurtimox/administration & dosage
11.
Rev. chil. pediatr ; 86(4): 224-235, ago. 2015. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-764078

ABSTRACT

Los pilares terapéuticos del niño con shock séptico se mantienen en el tiempo, sin embargo, se han incorporado nuevos conceptos, siendo importante que el pediatra y el intensivista tengan conocimiento a cabalidad de ellos. La reanimación con fluidos es una intervención fundamental, no obstante, aún no se ha establecido un tipo de fluido ideal, presentando cada uno limitaciones específicas, no existiendo evidencia sobre la superioridad de un tipo de fluido. Si a pesar de una adecuada resucitación con fluidos persiste el shock, el inicio de inótropos y/o vasopresores está indicado. En caso de refractariedad al uso de vasopresores, nuevos fármacos vasoactivos pueden ser empleados y el uso de hidrocortisona debe considerarse en niños con sospecha de insuficiencia suprarrenal. Existe controversia respecto a la transfusión de glóbulos rojos o el nivel óptimo de glucemia, no existiendo consenso en el valor umbral para el uso de estos hemocomponentes o el inicio de insulina, respectivamente. Asimismo, la utilización de la hemofiltración de alto volumen (HFAV)aún permanece controversial, requiriendo mayores estudios para su recomendación en forma rutinaria en el curso de un shock séptico refractario. El soporte nutricional es primordial, ya que la desnutrición es una grave complicación que debe ser prevenida y tratada adecuadamente. El objetivo de la presente revisión es entregar una actualización en los más recientes avances en tratamiento del shock séptico en la población pediátrica.


Essential therapeutic principles in children with septic shock persist over time, although some new concepts have been recently incorporated, and fully awareness of pediatricians and intensivists is essential. Fluid resuscitation is a fundamental intervention, but the kind of ideal fluid has not been established yet, as each of these interventions has specific limitations and there is no evidence supportive of the superiority of one type of fluid. Should septic shock persists despite adequate fluid resuscitation, the use of inotropic medication and/or vasopressors is indicated. New vasoactive drugs can be used in refractory septic shock caused by vasopressors, and the use of hydrocortisone should be considered in children with suspected adrenal insufficiency, as it reduces the need for vasopressors. The indications for red blood cells transfusion or the optimal level of glycemia are still controversial, with no consensus on the threshold value for the use of these blood products or the initiation of insulin administration, respectively. Likewise, the use of high-volume hemofiltration is a controversial issue and further study is needed on the routine recommendation in the course of septic shock. Nutritional support is crucial, as malnutrition is a serious complication that should be properly prevented and treated. The aim of this paper is to provide update on the most recent advances as concerns the treatment of septic shock in the pediatric population.


Subject(s)
Chemistry, Pharmaceutical/methods , Tablets/chemistry , Technology, Pharmaceutical/methods , Bone Screws , Cellulose/chemistry , Desiccation/methods , Excipients/chemistry , Particle Size , Pressure , Starch/analogs & derivatives , Starch/chemistry , Stearic Acids/chemistry , Temperature , Water/chemistry
12.
Rev. chil. pediatr ; 86(4): 251-256, ago. 2015. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-764081

ABSTRACT

Introducción: Autoconcepto es el conjunto de ideas y actitudes que se tiene acerca de sí mismo. Nuestro objetivo fue evaluar si existen diferencias en el nivel de autoconcepto de niños de 8-12 años con y sin secuelas de quemaduras, e identificar variables predictoras del autoconcepto en los niños con secuelas. Pacientes y método: Estudio comparativo, transversal de 109 niños con secuelas de quemaduras de 8 a 12 años de edad, con 109 niños sin secuelas de quemaduras, del mismo grupo de edad y nivel socioeconómico. Se utilizó la escala de autoconcepto de Piers-Harris, que entrega medida de autoconcepto general y dimensiones: conductual, estatus intelectual y escolar, apariencia y atributos físicos, ansiedad, popularidad, felicidad y satisfacción. Resultados: No hubo diferencias significativas en el nivel de autoconcepto general ni en sus dimensiones al comparar ambos grupos (p > 0,05). Dentro del grupo con secuelas de quemaduras la variable número de secuelas resultó ser un factor protector para las dimensiones ansiedad, popularidad, felicidad-satisfacción y autoconcepto general. La variable localización surgió como factor de riesgo para la dimensión conductual. Discusión: La ausencia de diferencias en autoconcepto entre niños con secuelas de quemaduras y sin ellas es similar a lo reportado por la literatura. El hallazgo en factores de riesgo y protectores motiva a continuar investigando, incorporando antecedentes premórbidos y familiares.


Introduction: Self-concept is the set of ideas and attitudes that a person has about him/herself. Objective: To evaluate whether there are differences in the level of self-concept in children 8-12 years old with and without burns sequelae. To identify predictive variables of self-concept in children with sequelae. Patients and method: A comparative cross-sectional study of self-concept in 109 children with burns sequelae, from 8 to 12 years old, with 109 children without burns sequelae, and of the same age and socioeconomic status. The Piers-Harris self-concept scale is used, which provides a general measurement of self-concept and behavioural, intellectual and school status, appearance, and physical attributes, anxiety, popularity, happiness and satisfaction dimensions. Results: There were no significant differences in the level of general self-concept or their dimensions (P > .05). In the group with burns sequelae, the protective factor was the variable number of sequels was associated with the dimensions of anxiety, popularity, happiness-satisfaction and general self-concept. The location variable emerged as a risk factor for the behavioural dimension. Discussion: The absence of differences in self-concept between children with burns sequelae and children without them is similar to that reported in the literature. The finding in the risk and protective factors encourages to further research, and perhaps incorporating pre-morbidity and family background.


Subject(s)
Humans , DNA , Quaternary Ammonium Compounds/chemistry , Serine/chemistry , Surface-Active Agents/chemistry , Amides/chemistry , Amines/chemistry , Cell Line, Tumor , Chemistry, Pharmaceutical/methods , Esters/chemistry , Gene Transfer Techniques , Genetic Therapy/methods , HeLa Cells , Lipids/chemistry , Transfection/methods
13.
Rev. chil. pediatr ; 86(4): 279-282, ago. 2015. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-764085

ABSTRACT

Introducción: La rabdomiólisis es una enfermedad poco frecuente en pediatría. El objetivo es presentar un paciente en el que se desarrolló secundario a una deshidratación hipernatrémica grave tras una diarrea aguda. Caso clínico: Lactante de 11 meses que consultó por fiebre, vómitos, diarrea y anuria. Presentó convulsión tónico-clónica autolimitada. Ingresó en mal estado general, severamente deshidratado, con escasa reactividad. En las pruebas complementarias destacó acidosis metabólica grave, hipernatremia e insuficiencia renal prerrenal. Al tercer día apreció leve hipotonía axial y elevación de creatín fosfokinasa 75.076 UI/l, interpretado como rabdomiólisis. Se inició hiperhidratación y alcalinización sistémica, con buena respuesta clínica y bioquímica, siendo dado de alta sin secuelas motoras. Conclusiones: La hipernatremia grave está descrita como causa rara de rabdomiólisis e insuficiencia renal. En pacientes críticos es importante un alto índice de sospecha de rabdomiólisis y determinación seriada de la creatín fosfokinasa para su detección y tratamiento precoz.


Introduction: Rhabdomyolysis is a rare paediatric condition. The case is presented of a patient in whom this developed secondary to severe hypernatraemic dehydration following acute diarrhoea. Case report: Infant 11 months of age who presented with vomiting, fever, diarrhoea and anuria for 15 hours. Parents reported adequate preparation of artificial formula and oral rehydration solution. He was admitted with malaise, severe dehydration signs and symptoms, cyanosis, and low reactivity. The laboratory tests highlighted severe metabolic acidosis, hypernatraemia and pre-renal kidney failure (Sodium [Na] plasma 181 mEq/L, urine density> 1030). He was managed in Intensive Care Unit with gradual clinical and renal function improvement. On the third day, slight axial hypotonia and elevated cell lysis enzymes (creatine phosphokinase 75,076 IU/L) were observed, interpreted as rhabdomyolysis. He was treated with intravenous rehydration up to 1.5 times the basal requirements, and he showed a good clinical and biochemical response, being discharged 12 days after admission without motor sequelae. Conclusions: Severe hypernatraemia is described as a rare cause of rhabdomyolysis and renal failure. In critically ill patients, it is important to have a high index of suspicion for rhabdomyolysis and performing serial determinations of creatine phosphokinase for early detection and treatment.


Subject(s)
Animals , Guinea Pigs , Rabbits , Cytosine/analogs & derivatives , Delayed-Action Preparations/administration & dosage , Delayed-Action Preparations/chemistry , Organophosphonates/administration & dosage , Organophosphonates/chemistry , Vitreous Body/drug effects , Antiviral Agents/administration & dosage , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Chemistry, Pharmaceutical/methods , Cytosine/administration & dosage , Cytosine/chemistry , Drug Delivery Systems/methods , Half-Life , Herpes Simplex/drug therapy , Herpesvirus 1, Human/drug effects , Intravitreal Injections/methods , Micelles , Prodrugs/administration & dosage , Prodrugs/chemistry , Retina/drug effects , Retina/virology , Vitreous Body/virology
14.
Rev. chil. pediatr ; 86(4): 287-290, ago. 2015. ilus, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-764087

ABSTRACT

Introducción: La telorragia es un síntoma poco frecuente en pacientes pediátricos, la causa más frecuente en esta población es la ectasia ductal mamaria (EDM), que es una afección benigna y autolimitada, caracterizada por la dilatación del conducto mamario, fibrosis e inflamación periductal. Objetivo: Presentar un caso de EDM, para facilitar el rápido reconocimiento por parte de los médicos, y evitar estudios y tratamientos agresivos. Caso clínico: Lactante de sexo masculino de 6 meses de edad, sano, alimentado por lactancia materna exclusiva; consultó por un nódulo retroareolar derecho y telorragia unilateral. Se realizó una ecografía Doppler que mostró una lesión multiquística, sugerente de una EDM. Se planteó tratamiento expectante y acudió a control a los 6 meses con excelente evolución. Conclusiones: La EDM es la principal causa de telorragia en niños, corresponde a una afección benigna, y la resolución generalmente es espontánea, antes de los 9 meses. Por lo que su conocimiento es de gran relevancia para el adecuado diagnóstico y manejo de estos pacientes.


Introduction: Bloody nipple discharge is an infrequent symptom during childhood. The most common cause in this population is mammary duct ectasia (MDE), which is a benign and self-limiting condition, that is characterized by dilatation of the mammary ducts, fibrosis and periductal inflammation. Objective: Report of a case of MDE in order to improve physicians’ diagnosis accuracy and avoid aggressive studies and treatments. Case report: Six-months old male healthy infant, exclusively breastfeeded, that visited our clinic with a lump beneath his right nipple and bloody discharge from the same nipple. An ultrasound was performed which showed a multicystic lesion suggestive of MDE. Watchful waiting was decided as treatment, with good evolution after six months of follow up. Conclusions: The MDE is the leading cause of bloody discharge in pediatric population, being a benign condition that resolves spontaneously before nine months. The knowledge of this condition is essential so as to accurately diagnose and treat it.


Subject(s)
Humans , Cations/chemistry , Indicators and Reagents/chemistry , Lipids/chemistry , Polyenes/chemistry , RNA, Small Interfering/chemistry , Cell Line, Tumor , Chemistry, Pharmaceutical/methods , Gene Transfer Techniques , Genetic Vectors/genetics , HeLa Cells , Liposomes/chemistry , Luciferases/chemistry , Phospholipids/chemistry , RNA, Small Interfering/genetics , Transfection/methods
15.
Braz. j. pharm. sci ; 51(2): 429-437, Apr.-June 2015. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-755057

ABSTRACT

In this approach, a new voltammetric method for determination of norfloxacin was proposed with high sensitivity and wider detection linear range. The used voltammetric sensor was fabricated simply by coating a layer of graphene oxide (GO) and Nafion composited film on glassy carbon electrode. The advantage of proposed method was sensitive electrochemical response for norfloxacin, which was attributed to the excellent electrical conductivity of GO and the accumulating function of Nafion under optimum experimental conditions, the present method revealed a good linear response for determination of norfloxacin in the range of 1×10-8mol/L-7×10-6 mol/L with a detection limit of 5×10-9 mol/L. The proposed method was successfully applied in the determination of norfloxacin in capsules with satisfactory results...


Propos-se, por essa abordagem, novo método voltamétrico, com alta sensibilidade e faixa linear de detecção mais ampla, para a determinação de norfloxacino. O sensor voltamétrico utilizado foi fabricado simplismente por cobertura de camada de óxido de grafeno (GO) e filme de Nafion em eletrodo de cabrono vítreo. A vantagem do método proposto foi a resposta eletroquímica sensível para o norfloxacino, atribuída à condutividade elétrica excelente do GO e à função acumulada do Nafion. Sob condições experimentais ótimas, o presente método revelou boa resposta linear para a determinação do norfloxacino na faixa de limite de detecção de 1×10-8mol/L-7×10-6 mol/L. O método proposto foi aplicado com sucesso na determinação de norfloxacino em cápsulas, com resultados satisfatórios...


Subject(s)
Humans , Norfloxacin/analysis , Chemistry, Pharmaceutical/methods , Electrochemical Techniques/instrumentation , Electrochemical Techniques/methods
16.
Braz. j. pharm. sci ; 51(2): 285-294, Apr.-June 2015. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-755069

ABSTRACT

This article describes a differential pulse voltammetric (DPV) method for the determination of diclofenac in pharmaceutical preparations and human serum. The proposed method was based on electro-oxidation of diclofenac at platinum electrode in 0.1 M TBAClO4/acetonitrile solution. The well-defined two oxidation peaks were observed at 0.87 and 1.27 V, respectively. Calibration curves that obtained by using current values measured for second peak were linear over the concentration range of 1.5-17.5 μg mL-1and 2-20 μg mL-1 in supporting electrolyte and serum, respectively. Precision and accuracy were also checked in all media. Intra- and inter-day precision values for diclofenac were less than 3.87, and accuracy (relative error) was better than 4.12%. The method developed in this study is accurate, precise and can be easily applied to Diclomec, Dicloflam and Voltaren tablets as pharmaceutical preparation. In addition, the proposed technique was successfully applied to spiked human serum samples. No electro-active interferences from the endogenous substances were found in human serum...


Este artigo descreve um método de voltametria de pulso diferencial (VPD) para a determinação de diclofenaco em preparações farmacêuticas e em soro humano. O método proposto foi baseado em eletroxidação de diclofenaco no eléctrodo de platina em solução 0,1 M TBAClO4/acetonitrila. Dois picos de oxidação bem definidos foram observados em 0,87 e 1,27 V, respectivamente. As curvas de calibração obtidas utilizando-se valores de corrente medidos por segundo pico foram lineares no intervalo de concentração de 1,5-17,5 μg mL-1e 2-20 μg mL-1em eletrólito suporte e soro, respectivamente. Precisão e exatidão também foram verificadas em todos os meios. Valores de precisão intra- e inter-dia para o diclofenaco foram inferiores a 3.87 e a precisão (erro relativo) foi melhor do que 4,12%. O método desenvolvido neste estudo é exato, preciso e pode ser facilmente aplicado a Diclomec, Dicloflam e comprimidos Voltaren, como preparação farmacêutica. Além disso, a técnica proposta foi aplicada com sucesso em amostras de soro humano. Não se observaram interferências das substâncias endógenas no soro humano...


Subject(s)
Humans , Diclofenac/analysis , Diclofenac/pharmacology , Diclofenac/blood , Clinical Chemistry Tests/methods , Chemistry, Pharmaceutical/methods , Electrochemical Techniques/methods
17.
Braz. j. pharm. sci ; 51(3): 653-661, July-Sept. 2015. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-766319

ABSTRACT

The present work describes development and validation of a specific, sensitive, precise and stability-indicating high-performance liquid chromatographic method of analysis of atorvastatin calcium and celecoxib, both as a bulk drug and in niosomal formulation. The analysis has been performed by using Cosmosil-C18 column (4.6 mm´250 mm, 5 m) at 25 °C using acetonitrile: ammonium acetate buffer pH 5.0: methanol (50:25:25 v/v/v) as mobile phase. The detection was carried out at 277nm with a flow rate of 1.0mL/min. The retention times of Atorvastatin calcium and Celecoxib were 6.195 and 3.989min, respectively. The method was validated according to ICH guidelines, for specificity, precision, linearity, accuracy and robustness. Atorvastatin calcium and Celecoxib were subjected to stress conditions of hydrolysis, oxidation, photolysis and thermal degradation. The degradation was observed in oxidation and acid hydrolysis. The linearity for atorvastatin calcium and celecoxib were in the range of 100-500 µg/mL. The recovery study of atorvastatin and celecoxib were found to be in the range of 98.96 - 99.92% and 98.90-100%, respectively. The proposed method was validated and successfully applied to the estimation of Atorvastatin calcium and Celecoxib in combined in-house niosomal formulation.


O presente trabalho descreve o desenvolvimento e a validação de método de análise por cromatografia de alta eficiência específico, sensível, preciso e indicador de estabilidade de atorvastatina cálcica e celecoxibe, ambos como fármaco e como formulação niosômica. A análise foi realizada utilizando coluna Cosmosil-C18 (4,6 mm´250 mm, 5 m) a 25 °C, e acetonitrila: tampão acetato de amônio pH 5,0: metanol (50:25:25 v/v/v) como fase móvel. A detecção foi realizada a 277 nm, com fluxo de 1,0 mL/min. Os tempos de retenção de atorvastatina cálcica e de celecoxibe foram 6,195 e 3,989 min, respectivamente. O método foi validado de acordo com as regras da ICH para especificidade, precisão, exatidão e robustez. A atorvastatina cálcica e o celecoxibe foram submetidos a condições de estresse por hidrólise, oxidação, fotólise e degradação térmica. A degradação foi observada por oxidação e hidrólise ácida. Observou-se a linearidade da atorvastatina cálcica e do celecoxibe na faixa de 100-500 µg/mL. A recuperação da atorvastatina e do celecoxibe foi observada na faixa de 98,96-99,92% e 98,90-100%, respectivamente. O método proposto foi validado e aplicado com sucesso para a determinação de atorvastatina cálcica e celecoxibe em formulação niosômica caseira combinada.


Subject(s)
Validation Study , Chromatography, Reverse-Phase , Celecoxib/analysis , Atorvastatin/analysis , Chemistry, Pharmaceutical/methods , Chromatography, Liquid
18.
Braz. j. pharm. sci ; 50(3): 611-619, Jul-Sep/2014. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-728687

ABSTRACT

Here, a spectrofluorimetric method for the determination of potassium losartan (PL) in pharmaceutical products is described. The effects of critical parameters, pH, acid molarity, and temperature, on the fluorescence intensity of PL were analyzed, and these parameters were optimized using a central composite design (CCD). The highest fluorescent intensity at excitation (λex) and emission (λem) wavelengths of 248 nm and 410 nm, respectively, was achieved using 0.01 M sulfurous acid (pH 2) at 21.6 °C. Under optimum conditions, the method was linear from 0.025-0.5 µg/mL, with a reasonably high correlation coefficient (0.9993). Furthermore, the method was very sensitive (LOQ, 0.006), accurate (RE, ≤7.06), and precise (%RSD, ≤6.51). After development and validation of the method, samples containing PL were analyzed with this method, and the obtained data were statistically compared with those obtained with a previously published reference method using a two one-sided equivalence test (TOST). According to the data, the results from the proposed and reference assays were equivalent.


Descreve-se método espectrofluorométrico para a determinação de losartana potássica (PL) em produtos farmacêuticos. Os efeitos de parâmetros críticos (pH, molaridade ácida e temperatura) na intensidade da fluorecência foram otimizados usando o planejamento de componente central (DCC). A mais alta intensidade fluorescente com λex=248 nm e λem= 410 nm foi obtida usando ácido sulfúrico 0.01 M (pH 2) e 21.6 ºC. Nas condições ideais, a linearidade do método foi estabelecida na faixa de concentração de 0.025-0.5 µg/mL com coeficiente de correlação bastante elevado (0.9993). Além disso, o método foi muito sensível com valor de LOQ 0.006, exato (RE≤7.06) e preciso (RSD%≤6.51). Depois do desenvolvimento e validação do método, amostras de medicamentos contendo PL foram analisadas com este método e os resultados obtidos foram comparados estatisticamente com método de referência, publicado anteriormente, usando o Teste de equivalência TOST (Teste de Equivalência Unilateral). De acordo com os dados estatísticos, os resultados do ensaio de referência e do método proposto foram equivalentes.


Subject(s)
Spectrometry, Fluorescence/methods , Chemistry, Pharmaceutical/methods , Losartan/classification , Composite Resins
19.
Braz. j. pharm. sci ; 50(4): 931-941, Oct-Dec/2014. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-741355

ABSTRACT

Rational design of vaginal drug delivery formulations requires special attention to vehicle properties that optimize vaginal coating and retention. The aim of the present work was to perform a screening of mucoadhesive vaginal gels formulated with carbomer or carrageenan in binary combination with a second polymer (carbomer, guar or xanthan gum). The gels were characterised using in vitro adhesion, spreadability and leakage potential studies, as well as rheological measurements (stress and frequency sweep tests) and the effect of dilution with simulated vaginal fluid (SVF) on spreadability. Results were analysed using analysis of variance and multiple factor analysis. The combination of polymers enhanced adhesion of both primary gelling agents, carbomer and carrageenan. From the rheological point of view all formulations presented a similar behaviour, prevalently elastic and characterised by loss tangent values well below 1. No correlation between rheological and adhesion behaviour was found. Carbomer and carrageenan gels containing the highest percentage of xanthan gum displayed good in vitro mucoadhesion and spreadability, minimal leakage potential and high resistance to dilution. The positive results obtained with carrageenan-xanthan gum-based gels can encourage the use of natural biocompatible adjuvants in the composition of vaginal products, a formulation field that is currently under the synthetic domain.


O planejamento racional de formulações para a liberação vaginal de fármacos requer atenção especial às propriedades do veículo, que otimizem o revestimento e a retenção vaginal. O objetivo do presente trabalho foi realizar uma triagem de géis vaginais mucoadesivos formulados com carbomero ou carragenina em combinação binária com um segundo polímero (carbomero, goma guár ou xantana). Os géis foram caracterizados usando estudos in vitro de aderência, espalhabilidade e potencial de vazamento, bem como medições reológicas (testes de varredura de tensão e frequência) e o efeito de diluição com fluido vaginal simulado (SVF) na espalhabilidade. Os resultados foram analisados utilizando a análise de variância e de fator múltiplo. A combinação de polímeros reforçou a adesão de ambos os agentes gelificantes primários, carbomero e carragenina. Do ponto de vista reológico todas as formulações apresentaram comportamento semelhante, predominantemente elástico e caracterizado por valores de tangente de perda bem abaixo de 1. Não se encontrou correlação entre as medições reológicas e o comportamento de adesão. Os géis de carbomero e carragenina contendo o maior porcentual de goma xantana apresentaram melhor mucoadesão e espalhabilidade, menor potencial de vazamento e maior resistência à diluição in vitro. Os resultados positivos obtidos com géis de carragenina-goma xantana podem incentivar o uso de adjuvantes biocompatíveis naturais na composição dos produtos vaginais, um campo de formulação atualmente sob o domínio de produtos sintéticos.


Subject(s)
Vaginal Creams, Foams, and Jellies/analysis , Chemistry, Pharmaceutical/methods , Rheology/methods , Straining of Liquids/classification , Drug Liberation
20.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-705083

ABSTRACT

A monoleína é um lipídeo polar capaz de absorver água e formar sistemas líquido-cristalinos, os quais são utilizados como sistemas de liberação para administração de vários fármacos. Neste estudo foi avaliado o potencial de sistemas de fase lamelar constituídos por monoleína e água para veicular polihexametilenobiguanida (PHMB). A formação dos sistemas líquido-cristalinos foi caracterizada por microscopia de luz polarizada. Estudos de intumescimento foram realizados gravimetricamente em várias condições avaliando-se os efeitos de parâmetros como pH, força iônica e temperatura do meio de imersão. O processo de intumescimento foi caracterizado através da obtenção dos perfis de intumescimento e análise de sua cinética, além da determinação da capacidade máxima de intumescimento dos sistemas. Os sistemas de fase lamelar foram obtidos em presença de PHMB, os quais absorveram água rapidamente de acordo com cinética de segunda ordem e sofreram transição de fase, formando a fase cúbica. O intumescimento dos sistemas não foi influenciado pela presença do fármaco nos vários meios de imersão estudados, exceto pela imersão em meio ácido, no qual a presença do PHMB aumentou a captação de água. O intumescimento dos sistemas contendo PHMB não foi afetado pela força iônica do meio de imersão, porém foi diminuído com o aumento da temperatura. Desta maneira, sistemas líquido-cristalinos de monoleína e água foram obtidos e o processo de intumescimento foi caracterizado. Os sistemas apresentaram potencial para serem propostos como sistemas de liberação para administração de PHMB e estudos de liberação de fármacos serão realizados futuramente.


Monoolein is a polar lipid that absorbs water and forms liquid crystalline systems that are used as drug delivery systems for different medications. The aim of the present study was to investigate lamellar phases formed by monoolein and water as potential vehicles for the administration of polyhexamethylene biguanide (PHMB). Lamellar phase systems formed by monoolein and water containing PHMB were characterized by polarizing microscopy. Swelling studies were performed gravimetrically under different conditions for the evaluation of the effects of pH, ionic strength and temperature. Analyses of swelling profiles, swelling kinetics and maximum swelling capacity were performed. The lamellar phase systems of monoolein and water obtained in the presence of PHMB absorbed water very quickly following second-order swelling kinetics and formed a cubic phase. The swelling of the systems was not influenced by the presence of the drug in the immersion media studied, except under acidic conditions, in which the drug exhibited increased water uptake. The swelling of systems containing PHMB was not affected by the ionic strength of the immersion media, but was reduced with an increase in temperature. Liquid crystalline systems of monoolein and water were obtained and swelling behavior was investigated. The systems exhibited the potential for use as a drug delivery system for PHMB administration. However, further drug-release studies should be performed.


Subject(s)
Liquid Crystals , Lipids/biosynthesis , Pharmaceutical Preparations/analysis , Chemistry, Pharmaceutical/methods , Rheology/methods
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