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1.
Protein & Cell ; (12): 881-893, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-880884

ABSTRACT

Cytokines are secreted by various cell types and act as critical mediators in many physiological processes, including immune response and tumor progression. Cytokines production is precisely and timely regulated by multiple mechanisms at different levels, ranging from transcriptional to post-transcriptional and posttranslational processes. Monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 induced protein 1 (MCPIP1), a potent immunosuppressive protein, was first described as a transcription factor in monocytes treated with monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) and subsequently found to possess intrinsic RNase and deubiquitinase activities. MCPIP1 tightly regulates cytokines expression via various functions. Furthermore, cytokines such as interleukin 1 beta (IL-1B) and MCP-1 and inflammatory cytokines inducer lipopolysaccharide (LPS) strongly induce MCPIP1 expression. Mutually regulated MCPIP1 and cytokines form a complicated network in the tumor environment. In this review, we summarize how MCPIP1 and cytokines reciprocally interact and elucidate the effect of the network formed by these components in cancer-related immunity with aim of exploring potential clinical benefits of their mutual regulation.


Subject(s)
Chemokine CCL2/immunology , Humans , Interleukin-1beta/immunology , Neoplasm Proteins/immunology , Neoplasms/pathology , Ribonucleases/immunology , Transcription Factors/immunology
2.
Acta Physiologica Sinica ; (6): 441-448, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-827043

ABSTRACT

The aim of the present study was to investigate the role of chemokine CCL2 in angiogenesis of primary adult rat cardiac microvascular endothelial cells (CMEC). The rat CMECs were isolated and identified through morphology examination and immunostaining with CD31 and factor VIII antibodies. The angiogenesis of CMEC on Matrigel was evaluated at different time points. The expression and secretion of CCL2 during the process of angiogenesis was detected by real-time RT-PCR and ELISA, respectively. The results showed that, the primary rat CMEC was isolated successfully, and the angiogenesis of CMEC was significantly induced after Matrigel treatment for 4 h. The expression of CCL2 and CCR2 were increased during angiogenesis, and the secretion of CCL2 was detected after 2 h of angiogenesis and reached the peak concentration of 1 588.1 pg/mL after 4 h. Either CCL2 blocking antibody or CCR2 antagonist significantly reduced the angiogenesis of CMEC. These results suggest that CCL2 is secreted during the process of angiogenesis of CMEC, and CCL2/CCR2 signaling pathway may play an important role in promoting angiogenesis.


Subject(s)
Animals , Chemokine CCL2 , Endothelial Cells , Endothelium, Vascular , Heart , Neovascularization, Pathologic , Rats , Signal Transduction
3.
J. pediatr. (Rio J.) ; 95(3): 350-357, May-June 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1012602

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective: The prevalence of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in children has risen significantly, owing to the worldwide childhood obesity epidemic in the last two decades. Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease is closely linked to sedentary lifestyle, increased body mass index, and visceral adiposity. In addition, individual genetic variations also have a role in the development and progression of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. The aim of this study was to investigate the gene polymorphisms of MCP-1 (-2518 A/G) (rs1024611), CCR-2 (190 G/A) (rs1799864), ABCA1 (883 G/A) (rs4149313), and IL-17A (-197 G/A) (rs2275913) in obese Turkish children with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Methods: The study recruited 186 obese children aged 10 -17 years, including 101 children with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and 85 children without non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Anthropometric measurements, insulin resistance, a liver panel, a lipid profile, liver ultrasound examination, and genotyping of the four variants were performed. Results: No difference was found between the groups in respect to age and gender, body mass index, waist/hip ratio, or body fat ratio. In addition to the elevated ALT levels, AST and GGT levels were found significantly higher in the non-alcoholic fatty liver disease group compared to the non non-alcoholic fatty liver disease group (p < 0.05). The A-allele of IL-17A (-197 G/A) (rs2275913) was associated with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (odds ratio [OR] 2.05, 95% confidence interval: 1.12 -3.77, p = 0.02). Conclusions: The findings of this study suggest that there may be an association between IL-17A (-197 G/A) (rs2275913) polymorphism and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease development in obese Turkish children.


Resumo Objetivo: A prevalência de doença hepática gordurosa não alcoólica em crianças aumentou significativamente devido à epidemia de obesidade infantil em todo o mundo nas últimas duas décadas. A doença hepática gordurosa não alcoólica está intimamente ligada ao estilo de vida sedentário, ao aumento do índice de massa corporal e à adiposidade visceral. Além disso, variações genéticas individuais também têm um papel no desenvolvimento e na progressão da doença hepática gordurosa não alcoólica. O objetivo deste estudo foi investigar os polimorfismos genéticos MCP-1 (-2518 A/G) (rs1024611), CCR-2 (190 G/A) (rs1799864), ABCA1 (883 G/A) (rs4149313) e IL-17A (-197 G/A) (rs2275913) em crianças turcas obesas com doença hepática gordurosa não alcoólica. Métodos: O estudo recrutou 186 crianças obesas entre 10 e 17 anos, inclusive 101 crianças com doença hepática gordurosa não alcoólica e 85 crianças sem doença hepática gordurosa não alcoólica. Medidas antropométricas, resistência à insulina, painel hepático, perfil lipídico, exame ultrassonográfico do fígado e genotipagem de quatro variantes foram feitos. Resultados: Nenhuma diferença foi encontrada entre os grupos em relação à idade e sexo, índice de massa corporal, relação cintura/quadril ou proporção de gordura corporal. Além dos níveis elevados de ALT, os níveis de AST e GGT foram significativamente maiores no grupo doença hepática gordurosa não alcoólica em comparação com o grupo não doença hepática gordurosa não alcoólica (p < 0,05). O alelo A de IL-17A (-197 G/A) (rs2275913) foi associado à doença hepática gordurosa não alcoólica (odds ratio [OR] 2,05, intervalo de confiança de 95%: 1,12-3,77, p = 0,02). Conclusões: Os achados deste estudo sugerem que pode haver uma associação entre o polimorfismo IL-17A (-197 G/A) (rs2275913) e o desenvolvimento da doença hepática gordurosa não alcoólica em crianças turcas obesas.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Adolescent , Polymorphism, Genetic/genetics , Pediatric Obesity/complications , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease/genetics , Body Mass Index , Chemokine CCL2/genetics , Genetic Predisposition to Disease , Interleukin-17/genetics , Receptors, CCR2/genetics , ATP Binding Cassette Transporter 1/genetics , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease/complications , Genotype
4.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-773092

ABSTRACT

This paper was mainly to discuss the potential role and mechanism of Lianhua Qingwen Capsules(LHQW) in inhibiting pathological inflammation in the model of acute lung injury caused by bacterial infection. For in vitro study, the mRNA expression of MCP-1 in RAW264.7 cells and THP-1 cells, the content of MCP-1 in cell supernatant, as well as the effect of LHQW on chemotaxis of macrophages were detected. For in vivo study, mice were randomly divided into 7 groups, including normal group, model group(LPS 5 mg·kg~(-1)), LHQW 300, 600 and 1 200 mg·kg~(-1)(low, middle and high dose) groups, dexamethasone 5 mg·kg~(-1) group and penicillin-streptomycin group. Then, the anal temperature was detected two hours later. Dry weight and wet weight of lung tissues in mice were determined; TNF-α and MCP-1 levels in alveolar lavage fluid and MCP-1 in serum were detected. In addition, the infiltration of alveolar macrophages was also observed and the infiltration count of alveolar macrophages was measured by CCK-8 method. HE staining was also used to observe the inflammatory infiltration of lung tissues in mice. Both of the in vitro and in vivo data consistently have confirmed that: by down-regulating the expression of MCP-1, LHWQ could efficiently decrease the chemotaxis of monocytes toward the pulmonary infection foci, thus blocking the disease development in ALI animal model.


Subject(s)
Acute Lung Injury , Microbiology , Animals , Bacterial Infections , Drug Therapy , Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid , Capsules , Chemokine CCL2 , Metabolism , Chemotaxis , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Pharmacology , Humans , Lipopolysaccharides , Lung , Macrophages , Mice , Random Allocation , THP-1 Cells , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha , Metabolism
5.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-776512

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the effects of vitamin E on the respiratory function impairment in rats with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) after exposed to high temperature and PM.@*METHODS@#Fifty-four 7-week-old SPF male Wistar rats were randomly divided into 9 experimental groups (n=6). The rat COPD model was established by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and smoke exposure. After modeled, the rats were tracheal instilled with PM (0 mg/ml, 3.2 mg/ml) and intraperitoneally injected with vitamin E at the dose of 40 mg/kg (20 mg/ml). Part of rats (high temperature groups) were then exposed to high temperature (40℃), once (8 h) a day for three consecutive days. After the last exposure, the lung function of rats was detected. The expression levels of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1) were detected by corresponding ELISA kits.@*RESULTS@#Compared with the control group, exposure of high temperature and PM could inhibit the lung function of COPD rats significantly (P<0.05); the level of MCP-1 was increased significantly in PM-exposure groups (P<0.05); iNOS was increased significantly in the groups of high temperature (P<0.05). Compared with the single-PM exposure groups, TNF-α in lung was decreased in the normal temperature health group and high temperature COPD group (P<0.05) after treated with vitamin E; MCP-1 was decreased in all vitamin E-treated groups (P<0.05); the decreased iNOS only appeared in the group of high temperature with vitamin E treatment.@*CONCLUSION@#High temperature and PM could aggravate the inflammation of COPD rats. As an antioxidant, vitamin E may protect the lung from the damage effects.


Subject(s)
Animals , Chemokine CCL2 , Metabolism , Hot Temperature , Lung , Male , Nitric Oxide Synthase Type II , Metabolism , Particulate Matter , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive , Drug Therapy , Random Allocation , Rats , Rats, Wistar , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha , Metabolism , Vitamin E , Pharmacology
6.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-771435

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#To observe the effects of Chinese medicine (CM) Polygonum cuspidatum (PC) on adenosine 5'-monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK), forkhead box O3α (FOXO3α), Toll-like receptor-4 (TLR4), NACHT, LRR and PYD domains-containing protein 3 (NLRP3), and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) expression in a rat model of uric acid-induced renal damage and to determine the molecular mechanism.@*METHODS@#A rat model of uric acid-induced renal damage was established, and rats were randomly divided into a model group, a positive drug group, and high-, medium-, and low-dose PC groups (n=12 per group). A normal group (n=6) was used as the control. Rats in the normal and model groups were administered distilled water (10 mL•kg) by intragastric infusion. Rats in the positive drug group and the high-, medium-, and low-dose PC groups were administered allopurinol (23.33 mg•kg), and 7.46, 3.73, or 1.87 g•kg•d PC by intragastric infusion, respectively for 6 to 8 weeks. After the intervention, reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, Western blot, enzyme linked immunosorbent assay, and immunohistochemistry were used to detect AMPK, FOXO3α, TLR4, NLRP3, and MCP-1 mRNA and protein levels in renal tissue or serum.@*RESULTS@#Compared with the normal group, the mRNA transcription levels of AMPK and FOXO3α in the model group were significantly down-regulated, and protein levels of AMPKα1, pAMPKα1 and FOXO3α were significantly down-regulated at the 6th and 8th weeks (P<0.01 or P<0.05). The mRNA transcription and protein levels of TLR4, NLRP3 and MCP-1 were significantly up-regulated (P<0.01 or P<0.05). Compared with the model group, at the 6th week, the mRNA transcription levels of AMPK in the high- and medium-dose groups, and protein expression levels of AMPKα1, pAMPKα1 and FOXO3α in the high-dose PC group, AMPKα1 and pAMPKα1 in the mediumdose PC group, and pAMPKα1 in the low-dose PC group were significantly up-regulated (P<0.01 or P<0.05); the mRNA transcription and protein levels of TLR4 and NLRP3 in the 3 CM groups, and protein expression levels of MCP-1 in the medium- and low-dose PC groups were down-regulated (P<0.01 or P<0.05). At the 8th week, the mRNA transcription levels of AMPK in the high-dose PC group and FOXO3α in the medium-dose PC group, and protein levels of AMPKα1, pAMPKα1 and FOXO3α in the 3 CM groups were significantly up-regulated (P<0.01 or P<0.05); the mRNA transcription levels of TLR4 in the medium- and low-dose PC groups, NLRP3 in the high- and low-dose PC groups and MCP-1 in the medium- and low-dose PC groups, and protein expression levels of TLR4, NLRP3 and MCP-1 in the 3 CM groups were down-regulated (P<0.01 or P<0.05).@*CONCLUSION@#PC up-regulated the expression of AMPK and its downstream molecule FOXO3α and inhibited the biological activity of TLR4, NLRP3, and MCP-1, key signal molecules in the immunoinflammatory network pathway, which may be the molecular mechanism of PC to improve hyperuricemia-mediated immunoinflflammatory metabolic renal damage.


Subject(s)
AMP-Activated Protein Kinases , Physiology , Animals , Chemokine CCL2 , Blood , Disease Models, Animal , Fallopia japonica , Forkhead Box Protein O3 , Physiology , Hyperuricemia , Kidney Diseases , Drug Therapy , Male , Plant Extracts , Pharmacology , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Signal Transduction , Uric Acid
7.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-758978

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The prevalence of acute kidney injury (AKI) in elderly patients has grown considerably. Age-associated changes in the immune system can be one of the critical factors determining AKI outcomes. This study aimed to investigate the role of senescence of bone marrow (BM)-derived cells in the development of AKI, focusing on the immune response. METHODS: Female 7-week-old C57BL/6 mice were irradiated and treated with BM cells from either 48-week-old or 8-week-old male mice. Ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI) was induced, and their functional deterioration, histological tubular damage, and inflammatory responses were compared. For the in-vitro study, lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated cytokine production by BM cells from old and young mice were examined. RESULTS: At 24 hours after IRI, there was no significant difference in the number of circulating immune cells between the mice transplanted with old or young BM cells. However, the mice with old BM cells showed less functional deterioration and histological tubular injury than those with young BM cells. Moreover, macrophage infiltration and renal cytokine interleukin (IL)-12 levels were lower in the mice with old BM cells at 24 hours post-IRI. Consistently, the in vitro study showed that LPS-induced production of cytokines interferon-γ, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, and IL-10 was attenuated in cultured old BM cells, suggesting that age-related functional changes in these cells may lead to reduced inflammation in IRI. CONCLUSION: Immunosenescence could affect the susceptibility and response to renal IRI. Further studies specifically addressing age-related alterations can help in the development of treatment strategies for elderly patients with AKI.


Subject(s)
Acute Kidney Injury , Aged , Aging , Animals , Bone Marrow Cells , Bone Marrow , Chemokine CCL2 , Cytokines , Female , Humans , Immune System , Immunosenescence , In Vitro Techniques , Inflammation , Interleukin-10 , Interleukins , Macrophages , Male , Mice , Prevalence , Reperfusion Injury
8.
Asian Spine Journal ; : 368-376, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-762956

ABSTRACT

STUDY DESIGN: Experimental human study. PURPOSE: To determine whether angiopoietin-like protein 2 (ANGPTL2) is highly expressed in the hyperplastic facet joint (FJ) synovium and whether it activates interleukin-6 (IL-6) secretion in FJ synoviocytes. OVERVIEW OF LITERATURE: Mechanical stress-induced synovitis is partially, but significantly, responsible for degenerative and subsequently osteoarthritic changes in the FJ tissues in patients with lumbar spinal stenosis (LSS). However, the underlying molecular mechanism remains unclear. IL-6 is highly expressed in degenerative FJ synovial tissue and is responsible for local chronic inflammation. ANGPTL2, an inflammatory and mechanically induced mediator, promotes the expression of IL-6 in many cells. METHODS: FJ tissues were harvested from five patients who had undergone lumbar surgery. Immunohistochemistry for ANGPTL2, IL-6, and cell markers was performed in the FJ tissue samples. After cultured synoviocytes from the FJ tissues were subjected to mechanical stress, ANGPTL2 expression and secretion were measured quantitatively using real-time quantitative reverse-transcription–polymerase chain reaction and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), respectively. Following ANGPTL2 administration in the FJ synoviocytes, anti-nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) activation was investigated using immunocytochemistry, and IL-6 expression and secretion were assayed quantitatively with or without NF-κB inhibitor. Moreover, we assessed whether ANGPTL2-induced IL-6 modulates leucocyte recruitment in the degenerative process by focusing on the monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) expression. RESULTS: ANGPTL2 and IL-6 were highly expressed in the hyperplastic FJ synovium samples. ANGPTL2 was co-expressed in both, fibroblast-like and macrophage-like synoviocytes. Further, the expression and secretion of ANGPTL2 in the FJ synoviocytes increased in response to stimulation by mechanical stretching. ANGPTL2 protein promoted the nuclear translocation of NF-κB and induced IL-6 expression and secretion in the FJ synoviocytes. This effect was reversed following treatment with NF-κB inhibitor. Furthermore, ANGPTL2-induced IL-6 upregulated the MCP-1 expression in the FJ synoviocytes. CONCLUSIONS: Mechanical stress-induced ANGPTL2 promotes chronic inflammation in the FJ synovium by activating IL-6 secretion, leading to FJ degeneration and subsequent LSS.


Subject(s)
Chemokine CCL2 , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Humans , Immunohistochemistry , Inflammation , Interleukin-6 , Spinal Stenosis , Stress, Mechanical , Synovial Membrane , Synovitis , Zygapophyseal Joint
9.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 52(11): e8549, 2019. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1039260

ABSTRACT

The published data on the association between MCP-1 -2518A>G polymorphism and asthma susceptibility are inconclusive. Therefore, we performed a meta-analysis to estimate the impact of MCP-1 -2518A>G polymorphism on asthma susceptibility. PubMed, Web of Science, Wanfang, and China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) databases were used to identify eligible studies. The pooled odds ratios (ORs) and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were used to calculate the strength of association. Sensitivity analysis was performed to evaluate the influence of individual studies on the estimates of overall effect, and funnel plots and Egger's test were used to assess publication bias. Eight publications with 1562 asthma patients and 1574 controls were finally identified. Overall, we found no significant association between MCP-1 -2518A>G polymorphism and asthma susceptibility in any of the genetic model comparisons. After stratified analysis by ethnicity, the results showed that a significant association with asthma risk was found in Caucasians in all the genetic models. However, a protective association was found in Africans under the dominant model. The present meta-analysis suggested that the MCP-1 -2518 A>G polymorphism is a risk factor for asthma in the Caucasian population, nevertheless it has a protective effect in the African population.


Subject(s)
Humans , Polymorphism, Genetic/genetics , Asthma/genetics , Chemokine CCL2/genetics , Genetic Predisposition to Disease/genetics , Genetic Association Studies , Risk Factors , African Continental Ancestry Group/genetics , European Continental Ancestry Group/genetics , Protective Factors , Gene Frequency/genetics
10.
Acta cir. bras ; 33(11): 983-990, Nov. 2018. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-973479

ABSTRACT

Abstract Purpose: To investigate the efficacy and mechanisms of root tuber of Polygonum ciliinerve (Nakai) ohwi (rPC) which has been used to treat bacterial infection in traditional Chinese medicine. Methods: With the mouse model of Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) pneumonia, the phenotype of rPC treated mice, including body weight, mortality, lung slices and bacterial burden were evaluated. Furthermore, inflammatory factors in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) were determined by ELISA and the distribution of T cells in lung was assessed by immunofluorescence assay. Results: rPC treatment could dose-dependently reduce weight loss and mortality in S. aureus-infected mice. Upon 10 mg/ml rPC treatment, S. aureus-infected mice showed about 8 grams increase in body weight (P<0.001) and 50% enhancement in mortality. The integrity of lung tissue and bacterial burden were also improved by rPC treatment. Moreover, rPC was found to modulate the immune response in infection. Conclusion: rPC has therapeutic potential for S. aureus infections and pneumonia with immunomodulatory functions.


Subject(s)
Animals , Pneumonia, Staphylococcal/prevention & control , Staphylococcus aureus/drug effects , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/pharmacology , Protective Agents/pharmacology , Polygonum/chemistry , Immunomodulation/drug effects , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Pneumonia, Staphylococcal/pathology , Pneumonia, Staphylococcal/drug therapy , Time Factors , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid/chemistry , Immunohistochemistry , Colony Count, Microbial , Reproducibility of Results , Interleukin-6/analysis , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/analysis , Treatment Outcome , Chemokine CCL2/analysis , Lung/drug effects , Lung/pathology , Mice, Inbred C57BL
11.
Dental press j. orthod. (Impr.) ; 23(5): 41-46, Sept.-Oct. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-975013

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Introduction: The search for more aesthetic and comfortable orthodontic devices has led to an increase in the use of clear aligners. Objective: To increase knowledge on biological mechanisms of orthodontic tooth movement using Invisalign aligners. Methods: This study included 11 patients with a mean age of 23.6 ± 4.8 years. Cases planning included alignment and leveling of lower incisors using Invisalign aligners. Gingival crevicular fluid samples were collected from the lower incisors on the day of delivery of aligner number 1 (T0) and after 1 (T24h), 7 (T7d), and 21 (T21d) days. During the observation period of the study, the patients used only the aligner number 1. Levels of nine cytokines were quantified using Luminex's multi-analysis technology. Non-parametric tests were used for comparisons between cytokine expression levels over time. Results: Cytokine expression levels remained constant after 21 days of orthodontic activation, except those of MIP-1β, which presented a statistical difference between T24h and T21d with a decrease in the concentration levels. IL-8, GM-CSF, IL-1β, MIP-1β, and TNF-α showed the highest concentrations over time. Conclusions: The different behavior in the levels of the investigated cytokines indicates a role of these biomarkers in the tissue remodeling induced by Invisalign.


RESUMO Introdução: a busca por dispositivos ortodônticos mais estéticos e confortáveis gerou um aumento no uso de alinhadores transparentes. Objetivo: ampliar o conhecimento sobre os mecanismos biológicos associados ao movimento dentário ortodôntico promovido por alinhadores Invisalign®. Métodos: a amostra foi constituída por 11 pacientes, com idade média de 23,6 ± 4,8 anos. O planejamento dos casos incluiu alinhamento e nivelamento de incisivos inferiores usando os alinhadores. O fluido gengival crevicular foi coletado na superfície vestibular de incisivos inferiores no dia da entrega do alinhador número 1 (T0) e após 1 (T24h), 7 (T7d) e 21 (T21d) dias. Durante o período de observação do estudo, os pacientes utilizaram apenas o alinhador número 1. Os níveis de nove citocinas foram quantificados por meio do sistema Luminex de multianálise. Testes não paramétricos foram realizados para comparações entre os níveis de expressão de citocinas ao longo do tempo. Resultados: a concentração das citocinas manteve-se constante após 21 dias de ativação ortodôntica, exceto a MIP-1β, que apresentou uma redução estatisticamente significativa entre os tempos T24h e T21d. As IL-8, GM-CSF, IL-1β, MIP-1β e TNF-α apresentaram as maiores concentrações ao longo do tempo. Conclusão: a constância na expressão dos níveis das citocinas parece estar compatível com o estímulo mecânico induzido por alinhadores.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Young Adult , Tooth Movement Techniques , Cytokines/analysis , Gingival Crevicular Fluid/chemistry , Orthodontic Appliances, Removable , Cytokines/metabolism , Granulocyte-Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor/analysis , Interleukin-8/analysis , Colony-Stimulating Factors/analysis , Interleukin-7/analysis , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/analysis , Chemokine CCL2/analysis , Interleukin-17/analysis , Interleukin-1beta/analysis , Chemokine CCL4/analysis , Incisor
12.
Arch. endocrinol. metab. (Online) ; 62(2): 212-220, Mar.-Apr. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-887651

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective To observe the effect of short-term insulin intensive treatment on the monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) as well as on the nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) expression of peripheral blood monocyte. This is also in addition to observing the serum MCP-1 level in newlydiagnosed type 2 diabetic patients and probing its anti-inflammation effects. Subjects and methods Twenty newly-diagnosed type 2 diabetic patients were treated with an insulin intensive treatment for 2 weeks. MCP-1 and NF-κB expression on the monocyte surface were measured with flow cytometry, the serum MCP-1 level was measured by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) during pretreatment and post-treatment. Results After 2 weeks of the treatment, MCP-1 and NF-κB protein expression of peripheral blood monocyte and serum MCP-1 levels decreased significantly compared with those of pre-treatment, which were (0.50 ± 0.18)% vs (0.89 ± 0.26)% (12.22 ± 2.80)% vs (15.53 ± 2.49)% and (44.53 ± 3.97) pg/mL vs (49.53 ± 3.47) pg/mL, respectively (P < 0.01). The MCP-1 expression on monocyte surface had a significant positive relationship with serum MCP-1 levels (r = 0.47, P < 0.01). Conclusions Short-term insulin intensive therapy plays a role in alleviating the increased inflammation reaction in type 2 diabetics.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Monocytes/chemistry , NF-kappa B/adverse effects , Chemokine CCL2/drug effects , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/drug therapy , Inflammation/prevention & control , Insulin/administration & dosage , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Case-Control Studies , NF-kappa B/blood , Chemokine CCL2/blood , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/blood , Flow Cytometry
13.
Arch. endocrinol. metab. (Online) ; 62(1): 79-86, Jan.-Feb. 2018. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-887629

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective Monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP-1) has been suggested to be involved in the pathophysiology of insulin resistance (IR); therefore, variants in the MCP-1 gene may contribute to the development of this disease. The aim of this study was to analyze the relationship of the -2518 A>G MCP-1 (rs1024611) gene polymorphism with insulin resistance in Mexican children. Subjects and methods A cross-sectional study was performed in 174 children, including 117 children without insulin resistance and 57 children with IR, with an age range of 6-11 years. Levels for serum insulin and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein were determined. The -2518 A>G MCP-1 polymorphism was identified by the polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism method. Insulin resistance was defined as a HOMA-IR in the upper 75th percentile, which was ≥ 2.4 for all children. Results Genotype frequencies of the rs1024611 polymorphism for the insulin-sensitive group were 17% AA, 48% AG and 35% GG, and the frequency of G allele was 59%, whereas frequencies for the insulin-resistant group were 12% AA, 37% AG and 51% GG, and the frequency of G allele was 69%. The genotype and allele frequencies between groups did not show significant differences. However, the GG genotype was the most frequent in children with IR. The GG genotype was associated with insulin resistance (OR = 2.2, P = 0.03) in a genetic model. Conclusion The -2518 A>G MCP-1 gene polymorphism may be related to the development of insulin resistance in Mexican children.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Insulin Resistance/genetics , Chemokine CCL2/genetics , Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide/genetics , Genetic Markers/genetics , Case-Control Studies , Cross-Sectional Studies , Genetic Predisposition to Disease , Gene Frequency , Genotype
14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-717910

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Mannose-binding lectin (MBL) deficiency leads to increased susceptibility to infection. We investigated whether serial changes in MBL levels are associated with the prognosis of patients diagnosed with septic shock, and correlated with cytokine levels. METHODS: We enrolled 131 patients with septic shock in the study. We analyzed the serum samples for MBL and cytokine levels at baseline and 7 days later. Samples on day 7 were available in 73 patients. RESULTS: We divided the patients with septic shock into four groups according to serum MBL levels ( < 1.3 µg/mL or ≥1.3 µg/mL) on days 1 and 7. Patients with low MBL levels on day 1 and high MBL levels on day 7 showed a favorable prognosis for 28-day survival (odds ratio, 1.96, 95% confidence interval, 1.10–2.87; p=0.087). The high MBL group on day 7 showed a significant decrease in monocyte chemoattractant protein 1, interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, IL-8, interferon-γ, and granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor levels compared with the low MBL group on day 7. CONCLUSION: The increase in MBL levels of patients with septic shock may suggest a favorable prognosis and attenuate pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory responses.


Subject(s)
Chemokine CCL2 , Cytokines , Granulocytes , Humans , Interleukin-6 , Interleukin-8 , Interleukins , Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor , Mannose-Binding Lectin , Prognosis , Sepsis , Shock, Septic
15.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-740091

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Oxidative stress occurs in white adipose tissue and dysregulates the expression of adipokines secreted from adipocytes. Since adipokines influence inflammation, supplementation with antioxidants might be beneficial for preventing oxidative stress-mediated inflammation in adipocytes and inflammation-associated complications. β-Carotene is the most prominent antioxidant carotenoid and scavenges reactive oxygen species in various tissues. The purpose of this study was to determine whether β-carotene regulates the expression of adipokines, such as adiponectin, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), and regulated on activation, normal T cell expressed and secreted (RANTES) in 3T3-L1 adipocytes treated with glucose/glucose oxidase (G/GO). METHODS: 3T3-L1 adipocytes were cultured with or without β-carotene and treated with G/GO, which produces H2O2. mRNA and protein levels in the medium were determined by a real-time PCR and an ELISA. DNA binding activities of transcription factors were assessed using an electrophoretic mobility shift assay. RESULTS: G/GO treatment increased DNA binding affinities of redox-sensitive transcription factors, such as NF-κB, activator protein-1 (AP-1), and STAT3. G/GO treatment reduced the expression of adiponectin and increased the expression of MCP-1 and RANTES. G/GO-induced activations of NF-κB, AP-1, and STAT3 were inhibited by β-carotene. G/GO-induced dysregulation of adiponectin, MCP-1, and RANTES were significantly recovered by treatment with β-carotene. CONCLUSIONS: β-Carotene inhibits oxidative stress-induced inflammation by suppressing pro-inflammatory adipokines MCP-1 and RANTES, and by enhancing adiponectin in adipocytes. β-Carotene may be beneficial for preventing oxidative stress-mediated inflammation, which is related to adipokine dysfunction.


Subject(s)
Adipocytes , Adipokines , Adiponectin , Adipose Tissue, White , Antioxidants , beta Carotene , Chemokine CCL2 , Chemokine CCL5 , DNA , Electrophoretic Mobility Shift Assay , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Inflammation , Oxidative Stress , Oxidoreductases , Reactive Oxygen Species , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , RNA, Messenger , Transcription Factor AP-1 , Transcription Factors
16.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-713310

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is prevalent in both economically developed and developing countries. Twenty percent of NASH progresses to cirrhosis with/without hepatocellular carcinoma, and there is an urgent need to find biomarkers for early diagnosis and monitoring progression of the disease. Using immunohistochemical and immunoelectron microscopic examination we previously reported that expression of matrix metalloproteinase-1 (MMP-1) increased in monocytes, Kupffer cells and hepatic stellate cells in early stage NASH. The present study investigated whether serum MMP-1 levels reflect disease activity and pharmaceutical effects in NASH patients. METHODS: We measured the serum levels of MMPs, tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMPs), and several cytokines/chemokines in patients with histologically proven early and advanced stages of NASH and compared them with those in healthy controls. RESULTS: Serum MMP-1 levels in stage 1 fibrosis, but not in the more advanced fibrosis stages, were significantly higher than in healthy controls (P=0.019). There was no correlation between serum MMP-1 level and fibrosis stage. Serum MMP- 1 levels in NASH patients represented disease activity estimated by serum aminotransferase values during the follow-up period. In contrast, MMP-2, MMP-9 and TIMPs did not change with disease activity. Consistent with the finding that MMP-1 is expressed predominantly in monocytes and Kupffer cells, serum levels of monocyte chemotactic protein-1 and granulocyte-colony stimulating factor were significantly increased in NASH with stage 1 fibrosis. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that serum MMP-1 levels represent disease activity and may serve as a potential biomarker for monitoring the progression of NASH.


Subject(s)
Biomarkers , Carcinoma, Hepatocellular , Chemokine CCL2 , Cytokines , Developing Countries , Early Diagnosis , Fibrosis , Follow-Up Studies , Hepatic Stellate Cells , Humans , Kupffer Cells , Liver Cirrhosis , Matrix Metalloproteinase 1 , Matrix Metalloproteinases , Metalloproteases , Monocytes , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease
17.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-713168

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The nuclear receptor peroxisome proliferator-activator gamma (PPARγ) is a useful therapeutic target for obesity and diabetes, but its role in protecting β-cell function and viability is unclear. METHODS: To identify the potential functions of PPARγ in β-cells, we treated mouse insulinoma 6 (MIN6) cells with the PPARγ agonist pioglitazone in conditions of lipotoxicity, endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, and inflammation. RESULTS: Palmitate-treated cells incubated with pioglitazone exhibited significant improvements in glucose-stimulated insulin secretion and the repression of apoptosis, as shown by decreased caspase-3 cleavage and poly (adenosine diphosphate [ADP]-ribose) polymerase activity. Pioglitazone also reversed the palmitate-induced expression of inflammatory cytokines (tumor necrosis factor α, interleukin 6 [IL-6], and IL-1β) and ER stress markers (phosphor-eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2α, glucose-regulated protein 78 [GRP78], cleaved-activating transcription factor 6 [ATF6], and C/EBP homologous protein [CHOP]), and pioglitazone significantly attenuated inflammation and ER stress in lipopolysaccharide- or tunicamycin-treated MIN6 cells. The protective effect of pioglitazone was also tested in pancreatic islets from high-fat-fed KK-Ay mice administered 0.02% (wt/wt) pioglitazone or vehicle for 6 weeks. Pioglitazone remarkably reduced the expression of ATF6α, GRP78, and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, prevented α-cell infiltration into the pancreatic islets, and upregulated glucose transporter 2 (Glut2) expression in β-cells. Moreover, the preservation of β-cells by pioglitazone was accompanied by a significant reduction of blood glucose levels. CONCLUSION: Altogether, these results support the proposal that PPARγ agonists not only suppress insulin resistance, but also prevent β-cell impairment via protection against ER stress and inflammation. The activation of PPARγ might be a new therapeutic approach for improving β-cell survival and insulin secretion in patients with diabetes mellitus


Subject(s)
Animals , Apoptosis , Blood Glucose , Caspase 3 , Chemokine CCL2 , Cytokines , Diabetes Mellitus , Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress , Endoplasmic Reticulum , Glucose Transport Proteins, Facilitative , Humans , Inflammation , Insulin , Insulin Resistance , Insulin-Secreting Cells , Insulinoma , Interleukin-6 , Islets of Langerhans , Mice , Necrosis , Obesity , Peptide Initiation Factors , Peroxisomes , Repression, Psychology , Transcription Factors
18.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-773574

ABSTRACT

Triptolide (TP) induces severe liver injury, but its hepatotoxicity mechanisms are still unclear. Inflammatory responses may be involved in the pathophysiology. Neutrophils are the first-line immune effectors for sterile and non-sterile inflammatory responses. Thus, the aim of the present study was to investigate the neutrophilic inflammatory response in TP-induced liver injury in C57BL/6 mice. Our results showed that neutrophils were recruited and accumulated in the liver, which was parallel to or slightly after the development of liver injury. Neutrophils induced release of myeloperoxidase and up-regulation of CD11b, which caused cytotoxicity and hepatocyte death. Hepatic expressions of CXL1, TNF-α, IL-6, and MCP1 were increased significantly to regulate neutrophils recruitment and activation. Up-regulation of toll like receptors 4 and 9 also facilitated neutrophils infiltration. Moreover, neutrophils depletion using an anti-Gr1 antibody showed mild protection against TP overdose. These results indicated that neutrophils accumulation might be the secondary response, not the cause of TP-induced liver injury. In conclusion, the inflammatory response including neutrophil infiltration may play a role in TP-induced hepatotoxicity, but may not be severe enough to cause additional liver injury.


Subject(s)
Animals , Chemical and Drug Induced Liver Injury , Allergy and Immunology , Chemokine CCL2 , Genetics , Allergy and Immunology , Diterpenes , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Epoxy Compounds , Female , Humans , Interleukin-6 , Genetics , Allergy and Immunology , Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins , Genetics , Allergy and Immunology , Liver , Allergy and Immunology , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Neutrophil Infiltration , Neutrophils , Allergy and Immunology , Phenanthrenes , Tripterygium , Chemistry , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha , Genetics , Allergy and Immunology
19.
Neuroscience Bulletin ; (6): 13-21, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-777084

ABSTRACT

Mounting evidence supports an important role of chemokines, produced by spinal cord astrocytes, in promoting central sensitization and chronic pain. In particular, CCL2 (C-C motif chemokine ligand 2) has been shown to enhance N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA)-induced currents in spinal outer lamina II (IIo) neurons. However, the exact molecular, synaptic, and cellular mechanisms by which CCL2 modulates central sensitization are still unclear. We found that spinal injection of the CCR2 antagonist RS504393 attenuated CCL2- and inflammation-induced hyperalgesia. Single-cell RT-PCR revealed CCR2 expression in excitatory vesicular glutamate transporter subtype 2-positive (VGLUT2) neurons. CCL2 increased NMDA-induced currents in CCR2/VGLUT2 neurons in lamina IIo; it also enhanced the synaptic NMDA currents evoked by dorsal root stimulation; and furthermore, it increased the total and synaptic NMDA currents in somatostatin-expressing excitatory neurons. Finally, intrathecal RS504393 reversed the long-term potentiation evoked in the spinal cord by C-fiber stimulation. Our findings suggest that CCL2 directly modulates synaptic plasticity in CCR2-expressing excitatory neurons in spinal lamina IIo, and this underlies the generation of central sensitization in pathological pain.


Subject(s)
Animals , Benzoxazines , Pharmacology , Therapeutic Uses , Chemokine CCL2 , Genetics , Metabolism , Pharmacology , Excitatory Amino Acid Agents , Pharmacology , Excitatory Amino Acid Agonists , Pharmacology , Female , Freund's Adjuvant , Toxicity , Hyperalgesia , Metabolism , Long-Term Potentiation , Physiology , Luminescent Proteins , Genetics , Metabolism , Male , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Mice, Transgenic , Myelitis , Drug Therapy , Metabolism , Neurons , Pain Management , Somatostatin , Genetics , Metabolism , Spinal Cord , Cell Biology , Spiro Compounds , Pharmacology , Therapeutic Uses , Vesicular Glutamate Transport Protein 2 , Genetics , Metabolism , Vesicular Inhibitory Amino Acid Transport Proteins , Genetics , Metabolism
20.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-812363

ABSTRACT

Triptolide (TP) induces severe liver injury, but its hepatotoxicity mechanisms are still unclear. Inflammatory responses may be involved in the pathophysiology. Neutrophils are the first-line immune effectors for sterile and non-sterile inflammatory responses. Thus, the aim of the present study was to investigate the neutrophilic inflammatory response in TP-induced liver injury in C57BL/6 mice. Our results showed that neutrophils were recruited and accumulated in the liver, which was parallel to or slightly after the development of liver injury. Neutrophils induced release of myeloperoxidase and up-regulation of CD11b, which caused cytotoxicity and hepatocyte death. Hepatic expressions of CXL1, TNF-α, IL-6, and MCP1 were increased significantly to regulate neutrophils recruitment and activation. Up-regulation of toll like receptors 4 and 9 also facilitated neutrophils infiltration. Moreover, neutrophils depletion using an anti-Gr1 antibody showed mild protection against TP overdose. These results indicated that neutrophils accumulation might be the secondary response, not the cause of TP-induced liver injury. In conclusion, the inflammatory response including neutrophil infiltration may play a role in TP-induced hepatotoxicity, but may not be severe enough to cause additional liver injury.


Subject(s)
Animals , Chemical and Drug Induced Liver Injury , Allergy and Immunology , Chemokine CCL2 , Genetics , Allergy and Immunology , Diterpenes , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Epoxy Compounds , Female , Humans , Interleukin-6 , Genetics , Allergy and Immunology , Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins , Genetics , Allergy and Immunology , Liver , Allergy and Immunology , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Neutrophil Infiltration , Neutrophils , Allergy and Immunology , Phenanthrenes , Tripterygium , Chemistry , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha , Genetics , Allergy and Immunology
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