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1.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-740091

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Oxidative stress occurs in white adipose tissue and dysregulates the expression of adipokines secreted from adipocytes. Since adipokines influence inflammation, supplementation with antioxidants might be beneficial for preventing oxidative stress-mediated inflammation in adipocytes and inflammation-associated complications. β-Carotene is the most prominent antioxidant carotenoid and scavenges reactive oxygen species in various tissues. The purpose of this study was to determine whether β-carotene regulates the expression of adipokines, such as adiponectin, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), and regulated on activation, normal T cell expressed and secreted (RANTES) in 3T3-L1 adipocytes treated with glucose/glucose oxidase (G/GO). METHODS: 3T3-L1 adipocytes were cultured with or without β-carotene and treated with G/GO, which produces H2O2. mRNA and protein levels in the medium were determined by a real-time PCR and an ELISA. DNA binding activities of transcription factors were assessed using an electrophoretic mobility shift assay. RESULTS: G/GO treatment increased DNA binding affinities of redox-sensitive transcription factors, such as NF-κB, activator protein-1 (AP-1), and STAT3. G/GO treatment reduced the expression of adiponectin and increased the expression of MCP-1 and RANTES. G/GO-induced activations of NF-κB, AP-1, and STAT3 were inhibited by β-carotene. G/GO-induced dysregulation of adiponectin, MCP-1, and RANTES were significantly recovered by treatment with β-carotene. CONCLUSIONS: β-Carotene inhibits oxidative stress-induced inflammation by suppressing pro-inflammatory adipokines MCP-1 and RANTES, and by enhancing adiponectin in adipocytes. β-Carotene may be beneficial for preventing oxidative stress-mediated inflammation, which is related to adipokine dysfunction.


Subject(s)
Adipocytes , Adipokines , Adiponectin , Adipose Tissue, White , Antioxidants , beta Carotene , Chemokine CCL2 , Chemokine CCL5 , DNA , Electrophoretic Mobility Shift Assay , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Inflammation , Oxidative Stress , Oxidoreductases , Reactive Oxygen Species , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , RNA, Messenger , Transcription Factor AP-1 , Transcription Factors
2.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-713201

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: In order to gain an insight into determinants of reported variability in immune responses to respiratory viruses in human bronchial epithelial cells (HBECs) from asthmatics, the responses of HBEC to viral infections were evaluated in HBECs from phenotypically heterogeneous groups of asthmatics and in healthy controls. METHODS: HBECs were obtained during bronchoscopy from 10 patients with asthma (6 atopic and 4 non-atopic) and from healthy controls (n=9) and grown as undifferentiated cultures. HBECs were infected with parainfluenza virus (PIV)-3 (MOI 0.1) and rhinovirus (RV)-1B (MOI 0.1), or treated with medium alone. The cell supernatants were harvested at 8, 24, and 48 hours. IFN-α, CXCL10 (IP-10), and RANTES (CCL5) were analyzed by using Cytometric Bead Array (CBA), and interferon (IFN)-β and IFN-λ1 by ELISA. Gene expression of IFNs, chemokines, and IFN-regulatory factors (IRF-3 and IRF-7) was determined by using quantitative PCR. RESULTS: PIV3 and RV1B infections increased IFN-λ1 mRNA expression in HBECs from asthmatics and healthy controls to a similar extent, and virus-induced IFN-λ1 expression correlated positively with IRF-7 expression. Following PIV3 infection, IP-10 protein release and mRNA expression were significantly higher in asthmatics compared to healthy controls (median 36.03-fold). No differences in the release or expression of RANTES, IFN-λ1 protein and mRNA, or IFN-α and IFN-β mRNA between asthmatics and healthy controls were observed. However, when asthmatics were divided according to their atopic status, HBECs from atopic asthmatics (n=6) generated significantly more IFN-λ1 protein and demonstrated higher IFN-α, IFN-β, and IRF-7 mRNA expressions in response to PIV3 compared to non-atopic asthmatics (n=4) and healthy controls (n=9). In response to RV1B infection, IFN-β mRNA expression was lower (12.39-fold at 24 hours and 19.37-fold at 48 hours) in non-atopic asthmatics compared to atopic asthmatics. CONCLUSIONS: The immune response of HBECs to virus infections may not be deficient in asthmatics, but seems to be modified by atopic status.


Subject(s)
Asthma , Bronchi , Bronchoscopy , Chemokine CCL5 , Chemokines , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Epithelial Cells , Gene Expression , Humans , Immunity, Innate , Interferons , Paramyxoviridae Infections , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Rhinovirus , RNA, Messenger
3.
Braz. j. infect. dis ; 21(1): 42-50, Jan.-Feb. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-839183

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objectives: Three decades after HIV recognition and its association with AIDS development, many advances have emerged – especially related to prevention and treatment. Undoubtedly, the development of Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy (HAART) dramatically changed the future of the syndrome that we know today. In the present study, we evaluate the impact of Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy on macrophage function and its relevance to HIV pathogenesis. Methods: PBMCs were isolated from blood samples and monocytes (CD14+ cells) were purified. Monocyte-Derived Macrophages (MDMs) were activated on classical (MGM-CSF+IFN-γ) or alternative (MIL-4+IL13) patterns using human recombinant cytokines for six days. After this period, Monocyte-Derived Macrophages were stimulated with TLR2/Dectin-1 or TLR4 agonists and we evaluated the influence of HIV-1 infection and Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy on the release of cytokines/chemokines by macrophages. Results: The data were obtained using Monocyte-Derived Macrophages derived from HIV naïve or from patients on regular Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy. Classically Monocyte-Derived Macrophages obtained from HIV-1 infected patients on Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy released higher levels of IL-6 and IL-12 even without PAMPs stimuli when compared to control group. On the other hand, alternative Monocyte-Derived Macrophages derived from HIV-1 infected patients on Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy released lower levels of IL-6, IL-10, TNF-α, IP-10 and RANTES after LPS stimuli when compared to control group. Furthermore, healthy individuals have a complex network of cytokines/chemokines released by Monocyte-Derived Macrophages after PAMP stimuli, which was deeply affected in MDMs obtained from naïve HIV-1 infected patients and only partially restored in MDMs derived from HIV-1 infected patients even on regular Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy. Conclusion: Our therapy protocols were not effective in restoring the functional alterations induced by HIV, especially those found on macrophages. These findings indicate that we still need to develop new approaches and improve the current therapy protocols, focusing on the reestablishment of cellular functions and prevention/treatment of opportunistic infections.


Subject(s)
Humans , Adult , HIV Infections/drug therapy , HIV-1/drug effects , Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active , Macrophages/drug effects , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/drug effects , Case-Control Studies , HIV Infections/blood , Acute Disease , Chronic Disease , Interleukins/metabolism , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/metabolism , Treatment Outcome , CD4-CD8 Ratio , Statistics, Nonparametric , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/drug effects , Chemokine CCL5/metabolism , Lipopolysaccharide Receptors/drug effects , Viral Load/drug effects , Chemokine CXCL10/metabolism
4.
Arq. neuropsiquiatr ; 74(8): 626-631, Aug. 2016. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-792507

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objectives Inflammatory molecules and neurotrophic factors are implicated in pain modulation; however, their role in primary headaches is not yet clear. The aim of this study was to compare the levels of serum biomarkers in migraine and tension-type headache. Methods This was a cross-sectional study. We measured serum levels of adiponectin, chemokines, and neurotrophic factors in patients with migraine and tension-type headache. Depression and anxiety symptoms, headache impact and frequency, and allodynia were recorded. Results We included sixty-eight patients with migraine and forty-eight with tension-type headache. Cutaneous allodynia (p = 0.035), CCL3/MIP-1α (p = 0.041), CCL5/RANTES (p = 0.013), and ADP (p = 0.017) were significantly higher in migraine than in tension-type headache. The differences occurred independently of anxiety and depressive symptoms, frequency and impact of headache, and the presence of pain. Conclusions This study showed higher CCL3/MIP-1α, CCL5/RANTES, and ADP levels in migraine in comparison with tension-type headache. Our findings suggest distinctive roles of these molecules in the pathophysiology of these primary headaches.


RESUMO Objetivos Moléculas inflamatórias e fatores neurotróficos estão implicados na modulação dolorosa, contudo, seu papel nas cefaleias primárias não é claro. O objetivo do presente estudo foi comparar níveis de biomarcadores séricos na migrânea e cefaleia do tipo tensional. Métodos Este foi um estudo transversal, no qual foram avaliados níveis de adiponectina, quimiocinas e fatores neurotróficos em pacientes com migrânea e cefaleia do tipo tensional. Sintomas depressivos e ansiosos, o impacto e a frequência da cefaleia e alodínea foram registrados. Resultados Foram incluídos 68 pacientes com migrânea e 48 pacientes com cefaleia do tipo tensional. A alodínia cutânea (p = 0.035), CCL3/MIP-1α (p = 0.041), CCL5/RANTES (p = 0.013), e adiponectina (p = 0.017) foram maiores na migrânea, independentemente de sintomas depressivos e ansiosos, frequência e impacto da cefaleia. Conclusões Níveis de CCL3/MIP-1α, CCL5/RANTES e adiponectina foram maiores na migrânea do que na cefaleia do tipo tensional, sugerindo papeis distintos destas moléculas na fisiopatologia destas duas cefaleias primárias.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Young Adult , Tension-Type Headache/diagnosis , Chemokine CCL5/blood , Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor/blood , Chemokine CCL3/blood , Migraine Disorders/diagnosis , Biomarkers/blood , Cross-Sectional Studies , Tension-Type Headache/blood , Migraine Disorders/blood
5.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-309155

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>A study was conducted to investigate the effects of Porphyromonas gingivalis lipopolysaccharide (Pg-LPS) on the expression of regulated upon activation normal T-cell expressed and secreted (RANTES) and fractalkine in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs).</p><p><b>METHODS</b>HUVECs were incubated with different concentrations of Pg-LPS (200, 500, and 1000 ng x mL(-1)) for 1, 6, 12, and 24 h, respectively. Then real time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent method (ELISA) were adopted to detect the protein levels and mRNA levels of RANTES and fractalkine.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>The RANTES protein levels and mRNA levels, as well as fractalkine mRNA levels, were significantly higher in all experimental groups of 1, 6, and 12 h than in the control group (P<0.05), except the expression of RANTES mRNA in 200 ng x mL(-1) group of 12 h and RANTES protein in 200 ng x mL(-1) group of 1 h. The expression levels of RANTES mRNA and fractalkine mRNA were highest in 1000 ng x mL(-1) group of 6 h and were 4.88- and 6.20-fold higher, respectively, than those in the control group. The expression levels of RANTES protein, mRNA, and fractalkine mRNA decreased 6 h after stimulation, and were significantly higher than those in the control group (P<0.05) in the RANTES and fractalkine in HUVEC, and such expression is important in the development of atherosclerosis 500 ng x mL(-1) group of 24 h. There was a significant difference between the expression of fractalkine mRNA in 1000 ng x mL(-1) group of 6 and 12 h than in the control group (P<0.05).</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>Pg-LPS infection might up-regulate the expression of RANTES and fractalkine in HUVEC, and such expression is important in the development of atherosclerosis.</p>


Subject(s)
Atherosclerosis , Cells, Cultured , Chemokine CCL5 , Genetics , Metabolism , Chemokine CX3CL1 , Genetics , Metabolism , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells , Metabolism , Humans , Lipopolysaccharides , Pharmacology , Porphyromonas gingivalis , Allergy and Immunology , RNA, Messenger , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , Up-Regulation
6.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-812435

ABSTRACT

Marsdenia tenacissima, a traditional Chinese medicine, is long been used to treat various diseases including asthma, cancer, trachitis, tonsillitis, pharyngitis, cystitis, and pneumonia. Although Marsdenia tenacissima has been demonstrated to have strong anti-tumor effects against primary tumors, its effect on cancer metastasis remains to be defined, and the molecular mechanism underlying the anti-metastatic effect is unknown. In the present study, we investigated the effects of XAP (an extract of Marsdenia tenacissima) on A549 lung cancer cell migration and explored the role of CCR5-CCL5 axis in the anti-metastatic effects of XAP. Our resutls showed that XAP inhibited A549 lung cancer cell migration and invasion in a dose-dependent manner. The protein levels of CCR5, but not CCR9 and CXCR4, were decreased by XAP. The secretion of CCL5, the ligand of CCR5, was reduced by XAP. XAP down-regulated Rho C expression and FAK phosphorylation. In conclusion, XAP inhibited A549 cell migration and invasion through down-regulation of CCR5-CCL5 axis, Rho C, and FAK.


Subject(s)
A549 Cells , Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic , Pharmacology , Cell Line, Tumor , Cell Movement , Chemokine CCL5 , Metabolism , Focal Adhesion Kinase 1 , Metabolism , Humans , Lung Neoplasms , Marsdenia , Chemistry , Phosphorylation , Plant Extracts , Pharmacology , Receptors, CCR5 , Metabolism , rho GTP-Binding Proteins , Metabolism , rhoC GTP-Binding Protein
7.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-201285

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Despite major advances in lung cancer treatment, early detection remains the most promising way of improving outcomes. To detect lung cancer in earlier stages, many serum biomarkers have been tested. Unfortunately, no single biomarker can reliably detect lung cancer. We combined a set of 2 tumor markers and 4 inflammatory or metabolic markers and tried to validate the diagnostic performance in lung cancer. METHODS: We collected serum samples from 355 lung cancer patients and 590 control subjects and divided them into training and validation datasets. After measuring serum levels of 6 biomarkers (human epididymis secretory protein 4 [HE4], carcinoembryonic antigen [CEA], regulated on activation, normal T cell expressed and secreted [RANTES], apolipoprotein A2 [ApoA2], transthyretin [TTR], and secretory vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 [sVCAM-1]), we tested various sets of biomarkers for their diagnostic performance in lung cancer. RESULTS: In a training dataset, the area under the curve (AUC) values were 0.821 for HE4, 0.753 for CEA, 0.858 for RANTES, 0.867 for ApoA2, 0.830 for TTR, and 0.552 for sVCAM-1. A model using all 6 biomarkers and age yielded an AUC value of 0.986 and sensitivity of 93.2% (cutoff at specificity 94%). Applying this model to the validation dataset showed similar results. The AUC value of the model was 0.988, with sensitivity of 93.33% and specificity of 92.00% at the same cutoff point used in the validation dataset. Analyses by stages and histologic subtypes all yielded similar results. CONCLUSIONS: Combining multiple tumor and systemic inflammatory markers proved to be a valid strategy in the diagnosis of lung cancer.


Subject(s)
Apolipoprotein A-II , Area Under Curve , Biomarkers , Biomarkers, Tumor , Carcinoembryonic Antigen , Chemokine CCL5 , Dataset , Diagnosis , Epididymis , Humans , Lung Neoplasms , Lung , Male , Prealbumin , Sensitivity and Specificity , Vascular Cell Adhesion Molecule-1
8.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-17704

ABSTRACT

Ischemia-reperfusion injury arises from the restoration of blood supply after ischemia. Both reactive oxygen species and various cytokines produced by activated immune cells are the primary causal risk factors for ischemic injury. Cytokines are intercellular signaling substances for regulating any infection, immune reactions and inflammation, and pro-inflammatory cytokines adversely affect any diseases through an increase in inflammatory reaction. This study was conducted to investigate whether the periods of reperfusion after ischemia result in any changes of pro-inflammatory cytokines in the serum, including IL-1α, IL-1β, IL-2, IL-3, IL-5, IL-6, Eotaxin, MCP-1, MDC, MIP-1α, RANTES, TARC, IFNδ. A total of 96 male mice aged at 12 weeks was used in this study, and the groups of ischemia were divided into the following three different groups: 2-hour, 4-hour, and 6-hour ischemia groups. For the object of ischemic injury, the left common iliac artery was clamped by vascular clamp, each ischemia group was subdivided into 5 different groups according to the periods of reperfusion: 0-, 2-, 4-, 8-, and 16-hour reperfusion time. Blood samples after general anesthesia were collected from the mice hearts, and the serum was separated from them. The concentration of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1α, IL-1β, IL-2, IL-3, IL-5, IL-6, Eotaxin, MCP-1, MDC, MIP-1α, RANTES, TARC, IFNδ) in the serum was measured by ELISA, and the following results were acquired. The concentrations of the 13 pro-inflammatory cytokines were significantly different in accordance with the periods of ischemia and the reperfusion time. In 2-hour ischemia group, IL-1α and IL-3 were increaed compared to normal control group, and 12 cytokines were increased followed by reperfusion except for MIP-1α. MCP-1 and TARC were expressed as the highest concentration in the 16-hour reperfusion time. In 4-hour ischemia group, TARC was significant differences with normal control group, and the concentration of 13 cytokines were decreased after 4-hour reperfusion time. In 6-hour ischemia group, IL-2, IL-3, MCP-1 and TARC were increased, compared to normal control group, and IL-3 and MCP-1 were increased in 16-hour reperfusion time. To sum up, ischemia increased the pro-inflammatory cytokines compared to normal control group and in the 2-hour and 6-hour ischemia groups, IL-1α, IL-3, MCP-1 and TARC were increased until the late reperfusion time.


Subject(s)
Anesthesia, General , Animals , Chemokine CCL5 , Cytokines , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Heart , Humans , Iliac Artery , Inflammation , Interleukin-2 , Interleukin-3 , Interleukin-5 , Interleukin-6 , Ischemia , Male , Mice , Reactive Oxygen Species , Reperfusion Injury , Reperfusion , Risk Factors
9.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-310865

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To investigate the preventive effects of Qiangzhi Decoction (, QZD) on influenza A pneumonia through inhibition of inflammatory cytokine storm in vivo and in vitro.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>One hundred ICR mice were randomly divided into the virus control, the Tamiflu control and the QZD high-, medium-, and low-dose groups. Mice were infected intranasally with influenza virus (H1N1) at 10 median lethal dose (LD50). QZD and Tamiflu were administered intragastrically twice daily from day 0 to day 7 after infection. The virus control group was treated with distilled water alone under the same condition. The number of surviving mice was recorded daily for 14 days after viral infection. The histological damage and viral replication and the expression of inflammatory cytokines were monitored. Additionally, the suppression capacity on the secretion of regulated on activation normal T cells expressed and secreted (RANTES) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) in epithelial and macrophage cell-lines were evaluated.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>Compared with the virus control group, the survival rate of the QZD groups significantly improved in a dose-dependent manner (P<0.05), the viral titers in lung tissue was inhibited (P<0.05), and the production of inflammatory cytokines interferon-γ (IFN-γ), interleukin-6 (IL-6), TNF-α, and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) were suppressed (P<0.05). Meanwhile, the secretion of RANTETS and TNF-α by epithelial and macrophage cell-lines was inhibited with the treatment of QZD respectively in vitro (p<0.05) CONCLUSIONS: The preventive effects of QZD on influenza virus infection might be due to its unique cytokine inhibition mechanism. QZD may have significant therapeutic potential in combination with antiviral drugs.</p>


Subject(s)
Animals , Cell Line , Cell Survival , Chemokine CCL5 , Metabolism , Chemokines , Metabolism , Cytokines , Metabolism , Dogs , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Pharmacology , Therapeutic Uses , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Hemagglutination, Viral , Humans , Inflammation , Pathology , Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype , Physiology , Influenza A Virus, H1N2 Subtype , Lung , Pathology , Madin Darby Canine Kidney Cells , Mice, Inbred ICR , Orthomyxoviridae Infections , Pathology , Pneumonia , Pathology , Protective Agents , Pharmacology , Therapeutic Uses , Survival Rate , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha , Pharmacology
10.
Journal of Experimental Hematology ; (6): 1325-1330, 2015.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-274042

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To explore whether the chemotactic factor CCL5 is the major factor of diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL) induced by diabetes or not.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>The normal human B cells and DLBCL cells were cultured in vitro; the RT-PCR was used to detect their CCL5 mRNA expression, the human DLBCL cell line and mouse-derived DLBCL cell line A20 were cultured in vitro by using glucose at 5 and 30 mmol/L, respectively, then their CCL5 mRNA expression was detected by PT-PCR; the diabetic mouse model was constructed through peritoneal injection of streptozotocin at low dose in the BALB/c mice; the cell lines with stably high and low expression of CCL5 were established via lentiviral transfection and the cell lines with low and high expression of CCL5 were subcutaneously injected into diabetic mice and mice with normal blood sugar level. According to blood sugar level, the experimental mice were divided into 2 groups: diabetic group (A group) and normal blood sugar group as control (B group); then according to CCL5 expression level, the A group and B group were divided as well into high expression group (A1 group and B1 group) and low expression group (A2 group and B2 group), respectively, the tumor-formation rate, tumor-formation time, tumor size and texture were analyzed, respectively; the CCL5 expression was detected by using HE staining of tumor tissue and immunohistochemical method.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>The expression of CCL5 mRNA in human DLBCL cell line cultured in vitro was higher than that in normal B cells (P < 0.05); the expressions of CCL5 mRNA in human DLBCL cells cultured in high sugar concentration in vitro and mouse DLBCL cells were higher than those in cells cultured in low sugar concentration (P < 0.05). The tumor-formation rates in diabetic mice injected with high and low expression of CCL5 cell line A20 were 93.3% in A1 group and 60% in A2 group; the their tumor-formation time was 7.0 ± 0.85 days in A1 group and 9.5 ± 2.8 days in A2 group, while the tumor formation rates in mice with normal blood sugar level were 20% in B1 group and 20% in B2 group, and their tumor-formation time was 12 ± 1.3 days and 14 ± 2.5 days respectively; the CCL5 expression level in tumor tissue of diabetic mice was higher than that in tumor tissue of mice with normal blood sugar level.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>The high blood glucose level can casase increase of DLBCL risk and promote the tumor growth; the chemotactic factor CCL5 may play an important role in the growth and migration of DLBCL caused by diabetes mellitus.</p>


Subject(s)
Animals , B-Lymphocytes , Metabolism , Cell Line, Tumor , Chemokine CCL5 , Metabolism , Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental , Disease Models, Animal , Humans , Lymphoma, Large B-Cell, Diffuse , Metabolism , Mice , Mice, Inbred BALB C , RNA, Messenger
11.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-302394

ABSTRACT

This study was purposed to investigate the accumulative regularity of tumor-associated noncellular components in supernatant of stored packed red blood cells (PRBC) during storage. The supernatant of PRBC was obtained by centrifugation with 1 006×g for 10 min at day 0, 7, 14, 21, 28 and 35 d. The enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was used to detect the expression of T cells and the accumulative levels of secreted RANTES/CCL5, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), platelet derived growth factor (PDGF), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1). The results showed that the high concentration of RANTES/CCL5 and TNF-α was found in fresh PRBC, and their accumulative concentration did not increase along with the prolonging of storage time. The VEGF level in PRBC at day 0 of storage was 229.9 pg/ml, and increased to 749.08 pg/ml at end of day 7, then it was stable, and increased to 760.67 pg/ml at end of day 35. The PDGF level in supernatant of PRBC was 13.54 ng/L at dag 0 of storage, and increased stably during storage, then decreased at day 28, however PDGF rapidly rose to 22.13 ng/L at the end of day 35 (P < 0.05). The MCP-1 level in supernatant of PRBC was 39.98 ng/L at day 0 of storage, then slowly increased during storage time, at end of day 35 MCP-1 level increased to 49.83 ng/L. It is concluded that along with the prolongation of storage time, the growth factors in the supernatant of PRBC display the tendency of accumulative increment and RANTES/CCL5 and TNF-α show relative high level at day 0 of storage, moreover, no obvious increase of accumulation is observed along with prolonging of the storage time, suggesting no relation of concentration with storage time.


Subject(s)
Adult , Blood Donors , Blood Preservation , Chemokine CCL2 , Blood , Chemokine CCL5 , Blood , Erythrocytes , Metabolism , Humans , Male , Platelet-Derived Growth Factor , Metabolism , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha , Blood , Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A , Blood , Young Adult
12.
Acta Physiologica Sinica ; (6): 145-150, 2014.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-297507

ABSTRACT

The present study was undertaken to determine the effect of epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced production of inflammatory chemokine regulated upon activation normal T cell expressed and secreted (RANTES) in human retinal endothelial cells (HRECs) and to explore the underlying regulatory mechanism. HRECs were stimulated with LPS in the presence or absence of EGCG at various concentrations (100, 50, 25, 12.5, 6.25 μmol/L). The optimum concentration of drug was determined by a real-time cell-electronic sensing (RT-CES) system, and MTS chromatometry was used to detect the toxicity of LPS and EGCG on HRECs. RANTES production in the culture supernatant was measured by ELISA. The expression levels of Akt and phosphorylated Akt were examined by Western blot assay. The result showed that LPS markedly stimulated RANTES secretion from HRECs. EGCG treatment significantly suppressed LPS-induced RANTES secretion in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, EGCG exhibited a dose-dependent inhibitory effect on LPS-induced phosphorylation of Akt. Taken together, our data suggest that EGCG suppresses LPS-induced RANTES secretion, possibly via inhibiting Akt phosphorylation in HRECs.


Subject(s)
Catechin , Pharmacology , Cells, Cultured , Chemokine CCL5 , Metabolism , Endothelial Cells , Metabolism , Humans , Lipopolysaccharides , Phosphorylation , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt , Metabolism , Retina , Cell Biology
13.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-747689

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the distribution of mast cells in nasal polyps.@*METHOD@#Biopsy specimens from patients with nasal polyps (n = 20) and control patients (n = 8) were obtained and included in this study. The distribution of mast cells in nasal polyps and the expression of chemokines (CCL5, CCL11, CX3CL1, IL-8, IL-6) in the epithelial cells of normal nasal mucosa and nasal polyps was determined by immunohistochemistry.@*RESULT@#Mast cells migrate to intraepithelial in nasal polyps and the expression of chemokines (CCL5, CCL11, CX3CL1, IL-8) was up regulated in the epithelial cells of nasal polyps compare to normal nasal mucosa.@*CONCLUSION@#Our findings showed that mast cells migrate to intraepithelial in nasal polyps and the over expression of chemotaxins (CCL5, CCL11, CX3CL1, IL-8) may be response for mast cells' migration in nasal polyps. Mast cells might be associated with the development of nasal polyps.


Subject(s)
Chemokine CCL11 , Metabolism , Chemokine CCL5 , Metabolism , Chemokine CX3CL1 , Metabolism , Epithelial Cells , Metabolism , Humans , Immunohistochemistry , Interleukin-6 , Metabolism , Interleukin-8 , Metabolism , Mast Cells , Metabolism , Pathology , Nasal Mucosa , Cell Biology , Metabolism , Nasal Polyps , Metabolism , Pathology , Up-Regulation
14.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-746448

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To explore the expression and significance of Eotaxin and RANTES in the rat model of allergic rhinitis (AR).@*METHOD@#20 female SD rats in 6-7 weeks were randomly divided into control group and AR group (n = 10, respectively). AR rat model was made with ovalbumin stimulation. To detect pathological changes in mucosa and chemokine Eotaxin, RANTES in their nasal and lung tissues after execution.@*RESULT@#Compared with the control group, Lung EOS cell counted higher in AR group and the difference was significant (P < 0.01); the AR rats nasal mucosa and lung tissue of Eotaxin, RANTES expression was significantly increased (P < 0.01).@*CONCLUSION@#There exist high expression of Eotaxin, RANTES, infiltration of eosinophils in nasal and lung tissue of model rats with allergic rhinitis, inferring that the upper and lower respiratory tract inflammatory response has obvious consistency.


Subject(s)
Animals , Chemokine CCL11 , Metabolism , Chemokine CCL5 , Metabolism , Disease Models, Animal , Female , Lung , Metabolism , Nasal Mucosa , Metabolism , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Rhinitis, Allergic , Metabolism
15.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-84052

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The primary aim of the study was to investigate the cytokine/chemokine response in the kidney, lung, and liver following acute kidney injury (AKI). The secondary aim was to test whether alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (alpha-MSH) could prevent a reduction in organ function, and attenuate the inflammatory cytokine/chemokine response within the kidney, lung, and liver following AKI in rats with or without preexisting chronic kidney disease (CKD). METHODS: A two-stage animal model, in which AKI was induced in rats with preexisting CKD, induced by 5/6 nephrectomy (Nx), was used. Six weeks later, AKI was induced by intestinal ischemia and reperfusion (IIR). Sham procedures [S(Nx) and S(IIR)] were also performed. RESULTS: Increasing levels of serum creatinine (sCr) demonstrated progressive development of CKD in response to Nx, and following IIR sCr levels increased further significantly, except in the S(Nx) group treated with alpha-MSH. However, no significant differences in the fractional increase in sCr were observed between any of the groups exposed to IIR. In kidney, lung, and liver tissue the levels of interleukin (IL)-1beta were significantly higher in rats undergoing IIR when compared to the S(IIR) and control rats. The same pattern was observed for the chemokine monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP)-1 in lung and liver tissue. Furthermore, kidney IL-1beta and RANTES levels were significantly increased after IIR in the Nx rats compared to the S(Nx) rats. CONCLUSION: Both the functional parameters and the cytokine/chemokine response are as dramatic when AKI is superimposed onto CKD as onto non-CKD. No convincing protective effect of alpha-MSH was detected.


Subject(s)
Acute Kidney Injury , alpha-MSH , Animals , Chemokine CCL5 , Creatinine , Interleukins , Ischemia , Kidney , Liver , Lung , Models, Animal , Monocytes , Nephrectomy , Rats , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic , Reperfusion
16.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-313046

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To investigate the effect of triptolide (TPL) on the renal tissue of diabetic rats and its possible mechanisms.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>SD rats were randomly divided into the normal control group (as the normal group), the diabetic model group (the model group), the low dose TPL treatment group (the low dose TPL group, TPL 0.2 mg/kg by gastrogavage), the high dose TPL treatment group (the high dose TPL group, TPL 0.4 mg/kg by gastrogavage). Equal volume of normal saline was given to rats in the normal group and the model group. Five rats were randomly selected from each group at week 4, 8, and 12 of the experiment to detect body weight, kidney weight, 24 h urinary albumin (24 h UAL), plasma glucose (FBG), total cholesterol (TC), total triglyeride (TG), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), white blood cell (WBC), and hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c). The mRNA and protein expression of regulated upon activation normal T-cell expressed and secreted (RANTES) in the renal tissue was assessed by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The renal tissue was pathologically stained by HE, PAS, and Masson staining. The glomerular and renal tubular interstitial lesions were observed at each time point. The glomerular sclerosis index (GSI) was observed by PAS staining, and the renal interstitial filrosis index (RIFI) was calcutated.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>Compared with the same group at week 4, the expression of 24 h UAL, RANTES, GSI, and RIFI at week 12 significantly decreased in two TPL groups (P <0.01). Compared with the same group at week 8, the expression of 24 h UAL, RANTES, GSI, and RIFI at week 12 also significantly decreased in the two TPL groups (P <0. 05, P <0.01). Compared with the normal group, body weight and the kidney weight obviously decreased at week 4, 8, and 12 in the model group (P <0. 01); 24 h UAL, FBG, TG, TC, HbA1c, RANTES, GSI, and RIFI were obviously elevated (P <0.01). Compared with the model group, 24 h UAL, RANTES, GSI, and RIFI also decreased in the two TPL treatment groups (P <0.01). Compared with the low dose TPL group, they were attenuated in the high dose TPL group (P <0. 05, P <0. 01).</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>TPL could not only inhibit the over-expression of RANTES, but also improve the glomerular sclerosis and renal interstitial fibrosis in the renal tissue of diabetic rats.</p>


Subject(s)
Animals , Chemokine CCL5 , Metabolism , Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental , Drug Therapy , Diabetic Nephropathies , Drug Therapy , Diterpenes , Pharmacology , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Metabolism , Epoxy Compounds , Pharmacology , Glycated Hemoglobin A , Metabolism , Immunosuppressive Agents , Pharmacology , Kidney , Kidney Diseases , Drug Therapy , Kidney Glomerulus , Metabolism , Kidney Tubules , Metabolism , Phenanthrenes , Pharmacology , RNA, Messenger , Genetics , Rats
17.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-236306

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To investigate the effect of curcumin on the injury in hippocampal neurons and the expression of regulated upon activation nonnal T-cell expressed and secreted (RANTES) in hippocamp during cerebral ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) in rats with spontaneous hypertension (SH).</p><p><b>METHODS</b>Male Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats and spontaneous hypertension rats (SHR) were randomly divided into five groups (n = 6): sham group (W-Sham and S-Sham group), ischemia/reperfusion group (W-/R and S/R group), curcumin group (S-Cur group) . Each group was splitted into 5 subgroups of 3 h,12 h, 1 d, 3 d and 7 d according to the time interval before reperfusion. Global brain ischemia/reperfusion model was established by 4-VO method. Hematoxylin-eosin staining (HE staining) was used to observe the vertebral cell morphology in hippocampal CA1 region. Nissl staining was applied to detect the average density of cone cells in hippocampal CA1 region. The expression of RANTES in hippocamp was determined by ELISA. The behavior of the rats was evaluated at 7 days after reperfusion. Results: Compared with the sham group rats, the ability of learning and memory was significantly decreased in ischemia/reperfusion group rats, the number of injured neurons were greatly elevated , the protein expression levels of RANTES was significantly increased (P < 0.05). Compared with W-I/R group rats, the ability of learning and memory in S-I/R group rats was greatly reduced, the number of injured neurons increased extremely, the protein expression level of RANTES was significantly enhanced( P <0.05). The number of injured neurons declined significantly in S-Cur group rats, the ability to learn and remember of these rats was improved and the RANTES protein content decreased significantly (P < 0.05).</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>SHR are more susceptible to ischemia/reperfusion induced hippocampal neuronal injury which may be improved by curcu min. Its underlying mechanism is possibly associated with the inhibition of RANTES protein expression level.</p>


Subject(s)
Animals , Brain Ischemia , Metabolism , Pathology , Chemokine CCL5 , Metabolism , Cognition , Curcumin , Pharmacology , Hippocampus , Cell Biology , Metabolism , Pathology , Hypertension , Metabolism , Pathology , Male , Neurons , Metabolism , Pathology , Rats , Rats, Inbred SHR , Rats, Inbred WKY , Reperfusion Injury , Metabolism
18.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-101640

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to investigate the inflammatory changes and their main indicators according to the time-period of postischemic reperfusion injury confirmed by analyzing changes of both pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines in the skeletal muscle and serum. By using 12-week-old male ICR strain mice were grouped into sham control and 8 different time-periods of reperfusion groups (0, 0.5, 1, 2, 4, 8, 16, 24 hours). Left common iliac artery of each mice in the reperfusion group was devascularized by a vascular clamp for 2 hours. Once anesthesia was applied to the experimental animals, blood serum was obtained from right heart atrium on the difference time-period of reperfusion (0-, 0.5-, 1-, 2-, 4-, 8-hour, respectively). Then, tissue fluid was collected in calf muscles (gastrocnemius muscle) after the mice were sacrificed by cervical dislocation. By using these serum and tissue fluids, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was used to analyze both pro-inflammatory cytokines (Eotaxin, IFNgamma, IL-1alpha, IL-1beta, IL-2, IL-3, IL-5, IL-6, MCP-1, MDC, MIP-1alpha, RANTES, TARC, TCA-3) and anti-inflammatory cytokines (IL-4, IL-10). Consequently, there were significant differences of pro-inflammatory cytokines levels in the skeletal muscle of 0-hour reperfusion group (p<.05) and those in the serum of 0-, 1-, 2-, 4-, 8-, 16-hour reperfusion groups (p<.05). In the serum of 4-hour reperfusion group, the presence of anti-iflammatory cytokines was significant from other groups (p<.05). By the comparison with the control group, furthermore, pro-inflammatory cytokines in the serum of 2-, 4-, 16-hour reperfusion group and anti-inflammatory cytokines in the serum of 4-hour reperfusion group were considerably different (p<.05). To sum up, changes of cytokine levels according to the time-period of reperfusion were considerably different in the serum rather than the tissue fluids from the skeletal muscle. In particular, IL-6 and MCP-1 in the serum showed higher density in 4- and 16-hour reperfusion groups so that they could be considered as the main indicator of pro-inflammatory cytokines.


Subject(s)
Anesthesia , Animals , Chemokine CCL3 , Chemokine CCL5 , Cytokines , Joint Dislocations , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Heart Atria , Humans , Iliac Artery , Interleukin-2 , Interleukin-3 , Interleukin-5 , Interleukin-6 , Ischemia , Male , Mice , Muscle, Skeletal , Muscles , Reperfusion , Reperfusion Injury , Serum
19.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-51698

ABSTRACT

We evaluated the effect of cobalt chloride (CoCl2) on TNF-alpha and IFN-gamma-induced-inflammation and reactive oxygen species (ROS) in renal tubular epithelial cells (HK-2 cells). We treated HK-2 cells with CoCl2 before the administration of TNF-alpha/IFN-gamma. To regulate hemeoxygenase-1 (HO-1) expression, the cells were treated CoCl2 or HO-1 siRNA. CoCl2 reduced the generation of ROS induced by TNF-alpha/IFN-gamma. TNF-alpha/IFN-gamma-treated-cells showed an increase in the nuclear translocation of phosphorylated NF-kappaBp65 protein, the DNA-binding activity of NF-kappaBp50 and NF-kappaB transcriptional activity and a decrease in IkappaBalpha protein expression. These changes were restored by CoCl2. We noted an intense increase in monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) and regulated on activation normal T cell expressed and secreted (RANTES) production in TNF-alpha/IFN-gamma-treated cells. We demonstrated that this effect was mediated through NF-kappaB signaling because an NF-kappaB inhibitor significantly reduced MCP-1 and RANTES production. CoCl2 effectively reduced MCP-1 and RANTES production. The expression of HO-1 was increased by CoCl2 and decreased by HO-1 siRNA. However, knockdown of HO-1 by RNA interference did not affect MCP-1 or RANTES production. We suggest that CoCl2 has a protective effect on TNF-alpha/IFN-gamma-induced inflammation through the inhibition of NF-kappaB and ROS in HK-2 cells. However, CoCl2 appears to act in an HO-1-independent manner.


Subject(s)
Cell Line , Chemokine CCL2/metabolism , Chemokine CCL5/metabolism , Cobalt/pharmacology , Epithelial Cells/cytology , Heme Oxygenase-1/antagonists & inhibitors , Humans , Inflammation , Interferon-gamma/pharmacology , Kidney Tubules, Proximal/cytology , NF-kappa B/antagonists & inhibitors , NF-kappa B p50 Subunit/genetics , Oxidative Stress/drug effects , Phosphorylation , Protein Binding , RNA Interference , RNA, Small Interfering/metabolism , Transcription Factor RelA/metabolism , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/pharmacology
20.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-812194

ABSTRACT

AIM@#To investigate the effect of DT-13 on gastric cancer cell migration, and to explore the possible mechanisms underlying the anti-metastasis activity of DT-13.@*METHODS@#Growth inhibition of DT-13 was analyzed by the MTT assay. Cell migration was measured by the scratch-wound assay and transwell double chamber assay. To investigate the possible mechanisms underlying the anti-metastasis activity of DT-13, chemokine receptors that are involved in cancer metastasis (CCR2, CCR5, CCR7, CXCR4, and CXCR6) were detected by conventional PCR. The effect of DT-13 on CCR5 and CXCR4 expression was further evaluated by quantitative PCR and Western blot, respectively. The secretion of CCL5 (ligand of CCR5) and SDF-1 (ligand of CXCR4) were detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA).@*RESULTS@#DT-13 inhibited BGC-823 and HGC-27 cell growth in a dose dependent manner, and the estimated IC50 value for 24 h treatment was 23.5 ± 5.1 μmol·L(-1) for BGC-823 cells and 35.6 ± 7.6 μmol·L(-1) for HGC-27 cells. DT-13 also significantly decreased gastric cancer cell migration. DT-13 significantly decreased the gene expression of CCR5 in both BGC-823 and HGC-27 gastric cancer cells, and moderately reduced the expression of CXCR4. Similar to the results of gene expression, significant down-regulation of CCR5 protein was observed, but CXCR4 protein levels were much less affected. CCL5 secretion, but not SDF-1 production, was inhibited by DT-13.@*CONCLUSION@#DT-13 inhibited gastric cancer cell migration by down-regulation of the CCR5-CCL5 axis.


Subject(s)
Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic , Pharmacology , Cell Movement , Chemokine CCL5 , Down-Regulation , Humans , Neoplasm Metastasis , Drug Therapy , Receptors, CCR5 , Saponins , Pharmacology , Stomach Neoplasms , Pathology , Tumor Cells, Cultured
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