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1.
Braz. oral res. (Online) ; 33: e093, 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1039302

ABSTRACT

Abstract Cytokines and chemokines have a fundamental role in the maintenance of inflammation and bone response, which culminate in the development of chronic periapical lesions. Regulatory (Treg) and Th17 cytokines play a key role in regulating the immune response involved in this process. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of Treg and Th17 cells in chronic inflammatory periapical disease, by comparing the expression of the immunoregulatory mediators TGF-β, IL-10, CCL4, and the proinflammatory IL-17 and CCL20 in the periapical tissue of teeth with pulp necrosis, with and without associated chronic lesions. Eighty-six periapical tissue samples were obtained from human teeth. The samples were divided into three groups: pulp necrosis with a periapical lesion (n=26); pulp necrosis without a periapical lesion (n=30), and control (n=30). All samples were submitted to histopathological analysis and cytokine and chemokine measurement through ELISA. Statistical analyses were done with Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney tests and Spearman correlation. The group with pulp necrosis and a periapical lesion showed a higher expression of CCL4 and TGF-β in comparison with pulp necrosis without a lesion. CCL20 was higher in the group with a periapical lesion when compared to the control. In all groups there was a weak positive correlation between IL-17/CCL20, IL-10/CCL4, and IL-17/TGF-β. Both types of cytokines, pro-inflammatory and immunoregulatory, occur simultaneously in periapical tissue. However, a rise in immunosuppressive cytokines and chemokines (CCL4 and TGF-β) in periapical lesions suggests a role of these cytokines in stable periapical disease.


Subject(s)
Humans , Adult , Young Adult , Periapical Periodontitis/pathology , Transforming Growth Factor beta/analysis , Interleukins/analysis , T-Lymphocytes, Regulatory/immunology , Chemokines, CC/analysis , Th17 Cells/immunology , Periapical Periodontitis/immunology , Reference Values , Case-Control Studies , Chronic Disease , Transforming Growth Factor beta/immunology , Interleukins/immunology , Statistics, Nonparametric , Dental Pulp Necrosis/immunology , Dental Pulp Necrosis/pathology , Chemokines, CC/immunology , Middle Aged
2.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-749686

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the expression and clinical significance of Eotaxin-3 in chronic rhinosinusitis with and without nasal polyps.@*METHOD@#The ethmoid inflammation mucosa of 15 cases diagnosed as chronic rhinosinusitis (sinusitis group), the nasal polyps in the middle meatus of 25 cases diagnosed as nasal polyps (nasal polyp group) and the ethmoid or uncinate process mucosa of 7 cases diagnosed as sinonasal non-inflamnatory diseases (control group), were collected as the research object. Eotaxin-3 expression was detected in the tissues by immunohistochemical SABC assay and the correlation between Eotaxin-3 and blood eosinophil counts was analyzed.@*RESULT@#Eotaxin-3 were detected both in sinusitis group and nasal polyp group, and the expression level in sinusitis group and nasal polyp group were higher than that in control group. The difference was statistically significant (P < 0.05). The Eotaxin-3 expression in nasal polyps group was higher than that in sinusitis group, and the difference was statistically significant (P < 0.05). The expression of Eotaxin-3 in nasal polyps group and sinusitis group were both significantly positively correlated with the eosinophil counts in the blood (P < 0.05).@*CONCLUSION@#Eotaxin-3 may be involved,in the pathogenesis of chronic rhinosinusitis with and without nasal polyps, and further research will help us to understand the pathophysiology of chronic rhinosinusitis with and without nasal polyps.


Subject(s)
Chemokine CCL26 , Chemokines, CC , Metabolism , Chronic Disease , Eosinophils , Ethmoid Sinus , Pathology , Humans , Mucous Membrane , Pathology , Nasal Polyps , Metabolism , Pathology , Rhinitis , Metabolism , Pathology , Sinusitis , Metabolism , Pathology
3.
J. appl. oral sci ; 23(5): 536-546, Sept.-Oct. 2015. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-764159

ABSTRACT

In Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, different serotypes have been described based on LPS antigenicity. Recently, our research group has reported a differential immunogenicity when T lymphocytes were stimulated with these different serotypes. In particular, it was demonstrated that the serotype b of A. actinomycetemcomitans has a stronger capacity to trigger Th1- and Th17-type cytokine production.Objective This study aimed to quantify the expression of different CC chemokines (CCLs) and receptors (CCRs) in T lymphocytes stimulated with the differentA. actinomycetemcomitans serotypes. In addition, the expression of the transcription factors T-bet, GATA-3, RORC2, and Foxp3, master-switch genes implied in the Th1, Th2, Th17, and T-regulatory differentiation, respectively, was analysed in order to determine T-cell phenotype-specific patterns of CCL and CCR expression upon A. actinomycetemcomitans stimulation.Material and Methods Human naïve CD4+ T lymphocytes were obtained from healthy subjects and stimulated with autologous dendritic cells primed with the differentA. actinomycetemcomitans serotypes. The expression levels for the chemokines CCL1, CCL2, CCL3, CCL5, CCL11, CCL17, CCL20, CCL21, CCL25, and CCL28, as well as the chemokine receptors CCR1, CCR2, CCR3, CCR4, CCR5, CCR6, CCR7, CCR8, CCR9, and CCR10 were quantified by qPCR. Similarly, the expression levels for the transcription factors T-bet, GATA-3, RORC2, and Foxp3 were quantified and correlated with the CCL and CCR expression levels.Results Higher expression levels of CCL2, CCL3, CCL5, CCL20, CCL21, CCL28, CCR1, CCR2, CCR5, CCR6, CCR7, and CCR9 were detected in T lymphocytes stimulated with the serotype b of A. actinomycetemcomitans compared with the other serotypes. In addition, these higher expression levels of CCLs and CCRs positively correlated with the increased levels of T-bet and RORC2 when T lymphocytes were stimulated with the serotype b.Conclusion A T-lymphocyte response biased towards a Th1- and Th17-pattern of CCL and CCR expression was detected under stimulation with the serotype b ofA. actinomycetemcomitans.


Subject(s)
Adult , Female , Humans , Male , Young Adult , Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans/immunology , Antigens, Differentiation, T-Lymphocyte/analysis , Chemokines, CC/analysis , Receptors, CCR/analysis , T-Lymphocytes/immunology , Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans/genetics , Antigens, Differentiation, T-Lymphocyte/genetics , Antigens, Differentiation, T-Lymphocyte/immunology , Cells, Cultured , Cell Differentiation/immunology , Chemokines, CC/genetics , Chemokines, CC/immunology , Dendritic Cells/immunology , Flow Cytometry , Lymphocyte Activation , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Receptors, CCR/genetics , Receptors, CCR/immunology , Serogroup
4.
Braz. j. infect. dis ; 19(4): 403-409, July-Aug. 2015. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-759282

ABSTRACT

Human cytomegalovirus is a ubiquitous pathogen that infects the majority of the world's population. After long period of time co-evolving with human being, this pathogen has developed several strategies to evade host immune surveillance. One of the major trick is encoding homologous to those of the host organism or stealing host cellular genes that have significant functions in immune system. To date, we have found several viral immune analogous which include G protein coupled receptor, class I major histocompatibility complex and chemokine. Chemokine is a small group of molecules which is defined by the presence of four cysteines in highly conserved region. The four kinds of chemokines (C, CC, CXC, and CX3C) are classified based on the arrangement of 1 or 2 N-terminal cysteine residues. UL128 protein is one of the analogous that encoded by human cytomegalovirus that has similar amino acid sequences to the human CC chemokine. It has been proved to be one of the essential particles that involved in human cytomegalovirus entry into epithelial/endothelial cells as well as macrophages. It is also the target of potent neutralizing antibodies in human cytomegalovirus-seropositive individuals. We had demonstrated the chemotactic trait of UL128 protein in our previous study. Recombinant UL128 in vitrohas the ability to attract monocytes to the infection region and enhances peripheral blood mononuclear cell proliferation by activating the MAPK/ERK signaling pathway. However, the way that this viral encoded chemokine interacting with peripheral blood mononuclear cells and the detailed mechanism that involving the virus entry into host cells keeps unknown. Here we performed in vitroinvestigation into the effects of UL128 protein on peripheral blood mononuclear cell's activation and receptor binding, which may help us further understand the immunomodulatory function of UL128 protein as well as human cytomegalovirus diffusion mechanism.


Subject(s)
Humans , Chemokines, CC , Cytomegalovirus , Gene Expression Regulation, Viral/genetics , Leukocytes, Mononuclear/virology , Membrane Glycoproteins/immunology , Viral Envelope Proteins/immunology , Cells, Cultured , Cross-Linking Reagents , Chemokines, CC/genetics , Chemokines, CC/immunology , Cytomegalovirus/genetics , Cytomegalovirus/immunology , Receptors, Chemokine/genetics , Recombinant Proteins/immunology
5.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-815208

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To explore the association of the dental decay of children with the contents of chemokine CCL28 and secretory immunoglobulin A (sIgA) in saliva.@*METHODS@#A total of 108 children in 2 kindergartens of Changsha, with age from 3 to 5 years old, were enrolled for this study. The saliva was collected from these children when they were in the examination of mouth. Th e children were divided into 3 groups: A non-caries group [dynamical mean-field theory (DMFT)=0], a low caries group (DMFT=1-4) and a high caries group (DMFT ≥ 5). Th e contents of CCL28 and sIgA were measured by ELISA.@*RESULTS@#The contents of CCL28 and sIgA in saliva were (121.22 ± 32.63) pg/mL and (16.49 ± 8.02) μg/mL, respectively. A positive linear correlation was found between the CCL28 content and sIgA content in saliva (r=0.734). Th e CCL28 and sIgA contents in saliva were positively correlated with the degree of dental caries in children (P<0.05).@*CONCLUSION@#The dental decay of children leads to the secretion of chemokine CCL28, which promotes the secretion of sIgA in saliva.


Subject(s)
Chemokines, CC , Child, Preschool , Dental Caries , Pathology , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Humans , Immunoglobulin A, Secretory , Saliva , Chemistry
6.
Chinese Journal of Oncology ; (12): 823-827, 2014.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-272282

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To compare the CC-chemokine ligand 18 (CCL18) expression in the serum and malignant pleural effusion (MPE) of NSCLC patients and explore its regulatory effect on differentiation of monocyte-derived dendritic cells (Mo-DC).</p><p><b>METHODS</b>CCL18 levels in the serum and MPE from 62 NSCLC patients were quantitated by immunoassay. CCL18 in sera from 26 healthy individuals, 28 exudative pleural effusions from inflammatory pulmonary diseases and 17 transudative pleural effusions from non-inflammatory diseases were used as control. Mo-DC was generated by culturing NSCLC-derived monocytes with GM-CSF and IL-4 in the presence or absence of CCL18. The mean fluorescent intensity (MFI) of CD14, CD80, CD83, CD86 and HLA-DR were analyzed by flow cytometry (FCM). Mo-DC was then co-cultured with purified T cells and the percence of CD25(+)FoxP3(+) cells was assayed by FCM.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>CCL18 levels in the sera of NSCLC patients and healthy individuals were (132.70 ± 15.52) ng/ml and (18.44 ± 0.99) ng/ml, respectively (P < 0.001). The levels of CCL18 in MPE, exudative PE and transudative PE were (155.6 ± 13.58) ng/ml, (190.4 ± 22.33) ng/ml and (20.89 ± 3.03) ng/ml, respectively. CCL18 in the MPE was significantly higher than that in transudates (P < 0.001), however, no significant difference was observed between CCL18 expression in exudative PE and MPE (P = 0.172). Of note, a moderate positive correlation (r = 0.421, P < 0.01) was observed between CCL18 levels in the paired MPE and serum of NSCLC. In the healthy control group, Mo-DC cultured in the presence of CCL18 showed 31.4 ± 15.8 (MFI) of CD14 expression, which was significantly higher than that in Mo-DC cultured in the absence of CCL18 (18.5 ± 8.9, P < 0.05). In contrast, the expressions of MFI of CD80, CD83, CD86 and HLA-DR were significantly decreased upon CCL18 induction (P < 0.05). In the NSCLC group, GM-CSF+IL-4+CCL18 induced a MFI of 45.2 ± 13.8 of CD14 expression in Mo-DC, which was also significantly higher than that of GM-CSF+ IL-4 induction (22.6 ± 10.5, P < 0.01). Similarly, the expressions of MFI of CD80, CD83, CD86 and HLA-DR were significantly decreased in the presence of CCL18 (P < 0.05). Furthermore, the MFI of CD14, CD83, CD86 and HLA-DR had significant differences between GM-CSF/IL-4/CCL18-induced Mo-DC derived from NSCLC patients and healthy control (P < 0.05). Finally, CD4(+) T cells co-cultured with NSCLC-derived, GM-CSF/IL-4/CCL18-treated Mo-DC had significantly higher percent of CD25(+)FoxP3(+) cells compared with that of CD4(+) T cells stimulated with Mo-DC induced by GM-CSF/IL-4(P < 0.01).</p><p><b>CONCLUSIONS</b>CCL18 is present at a high level in MPE and serum of NSCLC patients complicated with pleural effusion and a moderate positive correlation exists between CCL18 levels in the two fluids. CCL18 inhibits maturation of Mo-DC, which consequently stimulates T cells to differentiate into CD25(+)FoxP3(+) regulatory T cells.</p>


Subject(s)
Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung , Metabolism , Cell Differentiation , Chemokines , Chemokines, CC , Metabolism , Coculture Techniques , Dendritic Cells , Metabolism , Flow Cytometry , Granulocyte-Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor , Metabolism , Humans , Interleukin-4 , Metabolism , Ligands , Lung Neoplasms , Monocytes , Physiology , Pleural Effusion , T-Lymphocytes, Regulatory
7.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 72-78, 2014.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-341712

ABSTRACT

<p><b>BACKGROUND</b>Keshan disease (KD) is an endemic cardiomyopathy in China. The etiology of KD is still under debate and there is no effective approach to preventing and curing this disease. Young women of child-bearing age are the most frequent victims in rural areas. The aim of this study was to determine the differences between molecular pathogenic mechanisms in male and female KD sufferers.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>We extracted RNA from the peripheral blood mononuclear cells of KD patients (12 women and 4 men) and controls (12 women and 4 men). Then the isolated RNA was amplified, labeled and hybridized to Agilent human 4×44k whole genome microarrays. Gene expression was examined using oligonucleotide microarray analysis. A quantitative polymerase chain reaction assay was also performed to validate our microarray results.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>Among the genes differentially expressed in female KD patients we identified: HLA-DOA, HLA-DRA, and HLA-DQA1 associated with spontaneous autoimmunity; BMP5 and BMP7, involved in cardiomyocyte differentiation defect; and ADAMTS 8, CCL23, and TNFSF15, implicated in anti-angiogenic activities. These genes are involved in the canonical pathways and networks recognized for the female KD sufferers and might be related to the pathogenic mechanism of KD.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>Our results might help to explain the higher susceptibility of women to this disease.</p>


Subject(s)
ADAM Proteins , Genetics , ADAMTS Proteins , Adult , Autoimmunity , Genetics , Physiology , Bone Morphogenetic Protein 5 , Genetics , Bone Morphogenetic Protein 7 , Genetics , Cardiomyopathies , Genetics , Pathology , Cell Differentiation , Genetics , Physiology , Chemokines, CC , Genetics , Enterovirus Infections , Genetics , Pathology , Female , Gene Expression Profiling , HLA-D Antigens , Genetics , HLA-DQ alpha-Chains , Genetics , HLA-DR alpha-Chains , Genetics , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Myocytes, Cardiac , Cell Biology , Metabolism , Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis , Sex Factors , Tumor Necrosis Factor Ligand Superfamily Member 15 , Genetics
8.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-251420

ABSTRACT

In order to study whether cysteine-rich 61 protein (cyr61) is involved in the pathogenesis of asthma and its relation to airway inflammation, the effect of dexamethasone (Dxm) on the expression of cyr61 in the lung tissues of asthmatic mice was investigated. Forty BALB/c mice were divided into asthma group (n=15), control group (n=10) and Dxm group (n=15). The asthma group was sensitized and challenged by ovalbumin (OVA). The mice in Dxm group were intraperitoneally administered with Dxm after OVA challenge. The expression of cyr61 in the lung tissues was detected by using immunohistochemistry, and that of eotaxin protein in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) by using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The number of inflammatory cells in BALF was also analyzed. The results showed that the cyr61 expression was highest in asthma group (P<0.05), followed by Dxm group (P<0.05) and control group. The cyr61 had a positive correlation with the total nucleated cells (r=0.867, P<0.05), especially eosinophils (r=0.856, P<0.05), and eotaxin level (r=0.983, P<0.05) in the BALF. Our findings suggested that cyr61 is expressed in airway epithelial cells and has a positive correlation with eotaxin and number of airway infiltrating eosinophils.


Subject(s)
Animals , Anti-Inflammatory Agents , Pharmacology , Asthma , Drug Therapy , Metabolism , Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid , Chemistry , Cell Biology , Chemokines, CC , Metabolism , Cysteine-Rich Protein 61 , Dexamethasone , Pharmacology , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Epithelial Cells , Metabolism , Pathology , Female , Immunohistochemistry , Injections, Intraperitoneal , Leukocyte Count , Lung , Metabolism , Pathology , Mice , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Neutrophils , Pathology , Ovalbumin
9.
Chinese Journal of Hepatology ; (12): 524-527, 2013.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-278043

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To investigate the role of CCL28 in hypoxia-induced cell migration of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC).</p><p><b>METHODS</b>Resected liver tissues from 50 HCC patients were subjected to real-time (rt)-PCR analysis to evaluate the mRNA expression levels of the hypoxia-induced factor HIF-1a and the chemokine CCL28. Patient data on treatment and outcome were analyzed. The human HCC cell lines HepG2 and HCCLM3 were used to investigate effects of hypoxic conditions on HIF-1a and CCL28 expressions by rt-PCR, western blotting, and enzyme-linked immunoassay. The CCL28-mediated effects of hypoxic conditions on cell mobility and invasion were assessed by trans-well and matrigel assays, respectively, in HCCLM3 with CCL28 expression silenced by small-interfering (si)RNA transfection. Spearman's rank test was used to assess the correlation between CCL28 and effects on disease- and treatment-related factors.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>The mRNA levels of CCL28 (0.025 +/- 0.075) were found to be strongly correlated with HIF-1a(0.065 +/- 0.098) in human clinical samples of HCC (r = 0.595, P less than 0.01), with higher expressions of both related to recurrence after surgery (P = 0.011 and 0.019, respectively). In vitro hypoxic conditions stimulated HIF-1a and CCL28 expression in a time-dependent manner in both HepG2 (HIF-1a: F = 873.5; CCL28: F = 151.6) and HCCLM3 (HIF-1a: F = 964.5; CCL28: F = 285.8) (all P less than 0.01). siRNA inhibition of CCL28 in HCCLM3 cells led to a significant reduction in hypoxia-induced invasion and migration (all P = 0.011).</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>Chemokine CCL28 expression is up-regulated in human HCC and under in vitro hypoxic conditions, and may play an important role in hypoxia-induced HCC migration and invasion.</p>


Subject(s)
Carcinoma, Hepatocellular , Metabolism , Pathology , Cell Hypoxia , Cell Line, Tumor , Chemokines, CC , Genetics , Metabolism , Gene Silencing , Hep G2 Cells , Humans , Hypoxia-Inducible Factor 1, alpha Subunit , Metabolism , Liver Neoplasms , Metabolism , Pathology , RNA, Messenger , Genetics
10.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-242764

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To measure the peripheral serum levels of CC-chemokine ligand-18 (CCL-18) in patients with pneumoconiosis, and to investigate the feasibility of the index asa potential biomarker for pneumoconiosis.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>Seventy-seven male patients with pneumoconiosis (stage 1:40 cases, stage 2:22 cases, stage 3:15 cases), including 42 cases of silicosis and 35 cases of coal worker pneumoconiosis, were enrolled as subjects, and 162 healthy male physical examinees in our hospital were used as controls. A fasting blood sample (3 ml) was collected from the peripheral venous blood of each patient or control. The CCL-18 concentration in serum was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA).</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>The serum CCL-18 concentrations of the patients with pneumoconiosis were significantly higher than those of the controls [(116.70 ± 82.85) ng/ml vs. (83.34 ± 64.83) ng/ml]; (Z = -2.389, P < 0.05). The serum CCL-18 concentrations of the patients with silicosis were significantly higher than those of the patients with coal worker pneumoconiosis (147.02 ± 93.32 ng/ml vs. 96.43 ± 47.19 ng/ml; Z = -3.030, P < 0.05). There were no significant differences in serum CCL-18 concentration among different stages of pneumoconiosis (P > 0.05). The degree of respiratory impairment was positively correlated with the serum CCL-18 concentration in patients with pneumoconiosis (r = 0.611, P < 0.01).</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>Serum CCL-18 level can be used as a potential biomarker for pneumoconiosis.</p>


Subject(s)
Case-Control Studies , Chemokines, CC , Blood , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pneumoconiosis , Blood , Epidemiology
11.
Chinese Journal of Hepatology ; (12): 372-376, 2012.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-261999

ABSTRACT

To explain biological function of protein CCL15 in HCC cell lines. The different expression level of CCL15 among HCC cell lines was validated by RT-PCR and Western blot. The expression recombinant plasmid of siRNA-CCL15 was constructed successfully and transfected into high metastasis cell lines HCCML3 to observe the alteration of biological function of HCCML3. The overexpression of CCL15 in high metastasis HCC cell lines was confirmed by validation tests. After transfected with siRNA-CCL15, the average amounts of invaded cells in cell invasion assay were 657.9 (HCCML3) and 148.4(HCCML3-siCCL15) (t=19.34, P less than 0.05). And in the scratch assay, the migrating distance were (0.35+/-0.02) mm (HCCML3) and (0.82+/-0.03)mm (HCCML3-siCCL15) (t=15.67, P less than 0.05). The expression of MMP-9 in HCCML3 was higher than HCCML3-siCCL15 through Western blot. Some biological properties (migration, invasion, MMP-9) of HCCML3 transfected with siRNA-CCL15 were decreased. The results suggest CCL15 might play an important role in HCC cell invasion and metastasis through two paths of MMPs regulation and invasion potential strengthening.


Subject(s)
Carcinoma, Hepatocellular , Metabolism , Pathology , Cell Line, Tumor , Cell Movement , Cell Proliferation , Chemokines, CC , Metabolism , Humans , Liver Neoplasms , Metabolism , Pathology , Macrophage Inflammatory Proteins , Metabolism , Matrix Metalloproteinase 9 , Metabolism , Neoplasm Invasiveness , Transfection
12.
Protein & Cell ; (12): 571-580, 2012.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-757257

ABSTRACT

Epithelial tissues covering the external and internal surface of a body are constantly under physical, chemical or biological assaults. To protect the epithelial tissues and maintain their homeostasis, multiple layers of immune defense mechanisms are required. Besides the epithelial tissue-resident immune cells that provide the first line of defense, circulating immune cells are also recruited into the local tissues in response to challenges. Chemokines and chemokine receptors regulate tissue-specific migration, maintenance and functions of immune cells. Among them, chemokine receptor CCR10 and its ligands chemokines CCL27 and CCL28 are uniquely involved in the epithelial immunity. CCL27 is expressed predominantly in the skin by keratinocytes while CCL28 is expressed by epithelial cells of various mucosal tissues. CCR10 is expressed by various subsets of innate-like T cells that are programmed to localize to the skin during their developmental processes in the thymus. Circulating T cells might be imprinted by skin-associated antigen- presenting cells to express CCR10 for their recruitment to the skin during the local immune response. On the other hand, IgA antibody-producing B cells generated in mucosa-associated lymphoid tissues express CCR10 for their migration and maintenance at mucosal sites. Increasing evidence also found that CCR10/ligands are involved in regulation of other immune cells in epithelial immunity and are frequently exploited by epithelium-localizing or -originated cancer cells for their survival, proliferation and evasion from immune surveillance. Herein, we review current knowledge on roles of CCR10/ligands in regulation of epithelial immunity and diseases and speculate on related important questions worth further investigation.


Subject(s)
B-Lymphocytes , Cell Biology , Allergy and Immunology , Cell Lineage , Cell Movement , Genetics , Allergy and Immunology , Chemokine CCL27 , Genetics , Allergy and Immunology , Chemokines, CC , Genetics , Allergy and Immunology , Epithelial Cells , Cell Biology , Allergy and Immunology , Epithelium , Allergy and Immunology , Gene Expression Regulation , Allergy and Immunology , Humans , Immunity, Mucosal , Immunoglobulin A , Allergy and Immunology , Mucous Membrane , Cell Biology , Allergy and Immunology , Receptors, CCR10 , Genetics , Allergy and Immunology , Signal Transduction , Genetics , Allergy and Immunology , T-Lymphocytes , Cell Biology , Allergy and Immunology
13.
Braz. j. otorhinolaryngol. (Impr.) ; 77(5): 605-610, Sept.-Oct. 2011. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-601859

ABSTRACT

Glucocorticoids are considered the main treatment option for nasal polyps, but their effect is only recently being understood. AIM: To evaluate whether fluticasone propionate (FP) inhibits the inflammatory process induced by TNF-alpha in vitro, and to assess if NF-kappaB is associated to this inhibition. STUDY DESIGN: Experimental in vitro study. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Nasal polyp fibroblasts were cultured during 24 hours. Three different concentrations of FP (1, 10 and 100 nM, added to TNF-alpha) were compared to negative (without additive) and positive (TNF-alpha) controls. Gene expression (RTQ-PCR) and protein concentration (ELISA) of VCAM-1, ICAM-1, eotaxin and RANTES were measured, as well as the nuclear translocation of NF-kappaB. RESULTS: TNF-alpha significantly increased protein concentration and RNA expression of all the studied molecules, as well as the nuclear translocation of NF-kappaB, when compared to the negative control. FP decreased these parameters in a dose-dependent manner, statistically different from positive control up to 100nM. CONCLUSIONS: FP extensively inhibited inflammatory recruiters, at both protein and RNA levels, confirming the ability of glucocorticoids to modulate the inflammatory process in nasal polyps. This inhibition was associated to decreased NF-kappaB nuclear translocation, demonstrating that this is an important mechanism of glucocorticoids action for nasal polyps.


Glicocorticoides são considerados a principal opção terapêutica para polipose nasossinusal, mas seus efeitos estão sendo descobertos apenas recentemente. OBJETIVO: Avaliar se proprionato de fluticasona (FP) inibe in vitro o processo inflamatório induzido por TNF-alfa, e se NF-kappaB está associado a esta inibição. FORMA DE ESTUDO: Experimental in vitro. MATERIAIS E MÉTODOS: Fibroblastos de pólipos nasais foram cultivados por 24 horas. Três concentrações diferentes de FP (1, 10 e 100nM, além do TNF-alfa) foram comparados a controles negativo (sem aditivo) e positivo (TNF-alfa). Expressão gênica (RTQ-PCR) concentração proteica (ELISA) de VCAM-1, ICAM-1, eotaxin e RANTES foram medidos, assim como a translocação nuclear de NF-kappaB. RESULTADOS: TNF-alfa aumentou significativamente a concentração proteica e expressão gênica de todas molé¬culas estudadas, assim como a translocação nuclear de NF-kappaB, quando comparado ao controle negativo. O FP diminuiu estes parâmetros numa forma dose-dependente, diferente estatisticamente do controle positivo até 100nM. CONCLUSÕES: O FP extensivamente inibiu os recrutadores inflamatórios, em níveis proteicos e gênicos, confirmando a habilidade dos glicocorticoides em modular o processo inflamatório na polipose nasossinusal. Esta inibição esteve associada à diminuição da translocação nuclear de NF-kappaB, demonstrando que este é um importante mecanismo de ação dos glicocorticoide na polipose nasossinusal.


Subject(s)
Humans , Androstadienes/pharmacology , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/pharmacology , Fibroblasts/drug effects , Nasal Polyps/drug therapy , Cells, Cultured , Cell Adhesion Molecules/metabolism , Chemokines, CC/metabolism , Fibroblasts/pathology , NF-kappa B/metabolism , Nasal Polyps/pathology , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/metabolism
14.
Medical Journal of Cairo University [The]. 2009; 77 (1): 107-112
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-92114

ABSTRACT

Chemokines are critical for the inflammatory process in autoimmune diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis [RA]. The chemokine receptor-5 [CCR5] mediates chemotaxis by CC chemokines and is expressed by lymphocytes with the phenotype and monocyte/macrophages. A 32bp deletion in the CCR5 [CCR5-delta 32 allele] abolishes receptor expression in homozygotes, while CCR5-delta 32 carriers express less receptor level than wild type homozygotes. This polymorphism is related to resistance to HIV-1 infection and progression to AIDS. It is hypothesized that CCR5-delta 32 allele may modulate the inflammatory response involved in rheumatoid arthritis and therefore may affect disease severity, susceptibility or both. In the present study 70 rheumatoid arthritis patients and 40 healthy individuals were genotyped. The frequency of CCR5-delta 32 allele was significantly higher in healthy individuals compared to rheumatoid arthritis patients [45% Vs 17%] respectively [p.value 0.033]. Homozygous delta 32 mutation was not detected in patients or controls No significant difference was found between CCR5-delta 32 carriers and wild type homozygotes regarding clinical or laboratory findings except for the tender joint count and rheumatoid factor positivity which was higher in wild type homozygotes [p.value 0.046 and 0.007 respectively]. Our data suggest that CCR5-dlta 32 carriers may partially protected against rheumatoid arthritis, and suggest CCR5 receptor as a candidate for targeted therapy in rheumatoid arthritis


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Chemokines, CC , Polymorphism, Genetic , Disease Progression , Genotype , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Receptors, CCR5/genetics
15.
Journal of Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences. 2009; 19 (70): 49-53
in Persian | IMEMR | ID: emr-111944

ABSTRACT

Chemokines and their receptors are expressed in different types of malignancies. CC chemokines MIP-1alpha [CCL3], MIP-1beta [CCL4] and RANTES [CCL5] is believed to be anti-tumor and also aid to the metastasis in tumor microenvironment. CCR2 and CCR5 are special G-protein receptors for these chemokines. Due to the important role of CCR5 chemokine receptor in tumor biology, this project is designed to examine delta 32 mutation in CCR5 gene regards breast cancer. This experimental study was performed during 2007-8 on delta healthy adults and 36 breast cancer patients by Gap-PCR. The demographic information also was collected by questionner and t-test Chi-square was used for statistical analysis of data. Our results showed that none of breast cancer patients had CCR5-delta 32 mutation while 3 [3%] cases of controls had heterozygotic form of this mutation. Our results showed that there is not any CCR5-delta 32 mutation in patients. Therefore, it appears that this mutation don't play any role in breast cancer


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Mutation/genetics , Prevalence , Receptors, CCR5/genetics , Chemokines, CC , Surveys and Questionnaires
16.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-156345

ABSTRACT

Toxoplasma gondii provokes rapid and sustained nuclear translocation of the signal transducer and activator of transcription 6 (STAT6) in HeLa cells. We observed activation of STAT6 as early as 2 hr after infection with T. gondii by the nuclear translocation of fluorescence expressed from exogenously transfected pDsRed2-STAT6 plasmid and by the detection of phosphotyrosine-STAT6 in Western blot. STAT6 activation occurred only by infection with live tachyzoites but not by co-culture with killed tachyzoites or soluble T. gondii extracts. STAT6 phosphorylation was inhibited by small interfering RNA of STAT6 (siSTAT6). In view of the fact that STAT6 is a central mediator of IL-4 induced gene expression, activation of STAT6 by T. gondii infection resembles that infected host cells has been stimulated by IL-4 treatment. STAT1 was affected to increase the transcription and expression by the treatment of siSTAT6. STAT6 activation was not affected by any excess SOCS's whereas that with IL-4 was inhibited by SOCS-1 and SOCS-3. T. gondii infection induced Eotaxin-3 gene expression which was reduced by IFN-gamma. These results demonstrate that T. gondii exploits host STAT6 to take away various harmful reactions by IFN-gamma. This shows, for the first time, IL-4-like action by T. gondii infection modulates microbicidal action by IFN-gamma in infected cells.


Subject(s)
Active Transport, Cell Nucleus , Animals , Chemokines, CC/biosynthesis , HeLa Cells , Humans , Interleukin-4/immunology , Mice , Mice, Inbred BALB C , STAT6 Transcription Factor/immunology , Toxoplasma/immunology
17.
Braz. dent. j ; 19(1): 3-8, 2008. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-481120

ABSTRACT

Advances in diagnostic research are moving towards methods whereby the periodontal risk can be identified and quantified by objective measures using biomarkers. Patients with periodontitis may have elevated circulating levels of specific inflammatory markers that can be correlated to the severity of the disease. The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether differences in the serum levels of inflammatory biomarkers are differentially expressed in healthy and periodontitis patients. Twenty-five patients (8 healthy patients and 17 chronic periodontitis patients) were enrolled in the study. A 15 mL blood sample was used for identification of the inflammatory markers, with a human inflammatory flow cytometry multiplex assay. Among 24 assessed cytokines, only 3 (RANTES, MIG and Eotaxin) were statistically different between groups (p<0.05). In conclusion, some of the selected markers of inflammation are differentially expressed in healthy and periodontitis patients. Cytokine profile analysis may be further explored to distinguish the periodontitis patients from the ones free of disease and also to be used as a measure of risk. The present data, however, are limited and larger sample size studies are required to validate the findings of the specific biomarkers.


Avanços no diagnóstico da doença periodontal levam a métodos nos quais o risco e atividade da doença periodontal podem ser identificados e quantificados por biomarcadores. Pacientes com periodontite podem apresentar elevados níveis circulatórios de marcadores inflamatórios específicos que podem ser correlacionados com a severidade da doença. Portanto, o objetivo desse estudo foi avaliar as diferenças nos níveis séricos de biomarcadores inflamatórios em pacientes saudáveis e com doença periodontal. Foram incluídos no estudo 25 pacientes (8 saudáveis e 17 com periodontite crônica). Uma amostra de 15 mL de sangue foi obtida para identificar os marcadores inflamatórios simultaneamente utilizando Array de proteínas através de citometria de fluxo. De 24 citocinas inflamatórias analisadas, apenas 3 (RANTES, MIG e Eotaxina) apresentaram diferenças estatisticamente significantes (p<0,05) entre os dois grupos. Conclui-se que alguns marcadores inflamatórios selecionados apresentam diferença de concentração em pacientes com periodontite e saudáveis. A análise do perfil de citocinas pode ser utilizada tanto para distinguir pacientes periodontais de pacientes saudáveis, como para medir o risco à doença. Contudo, mais estudos com número maior de amostras são necessários para validar os achados sobre os biomarcadores específicos.


Subject(s)
Humans , Chronic Periodontitis/blood , Inflammation Mediators/blood , Biomarkers/blood , /blood , /blood , /blood , /blood , Chemokine CXCL9/blood , Chemokines, CC/blood , Cytokines/blood , Fas Ligand Protein/blood , /blood , Gingival Hemorrhage/blood , Granulocyte Colony-Stimulating Factor/blood , Granulocyte-Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor/blood , Interferon-gamma/blood , Interleukin-9/blood , Interleukins/blood , Lymphotoxin-alpha/blood , Periodontal Attachment Loss/blood , Periodontal Pocket/blood , Transforming Growth Factor beta/blood
18.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-205423

ABSTRACT

Chemokines and chemokine receptors play a role in migration of circulating leukocytes to the region of inflammation. Human LZIP is an uncharacterized transcription factor and is known to participate in leukotactin (Lkn)-1/CCL15-induced cell migration. We investigated the role of human LZIP in expression of CC chemokine receptors (CCRs) and its involvement in monocyte migration. RNase protection analysis showed that LZIP increased mRNA expression of CCR2 and CCR1 in THP-1 cells. Surface expressions of both CCR2 and CCR1 were also increased by LZIP. Results from an electrophoretic mobility shift assay showed that LZIP binds to the C/EBP element in the CCR2 promoter. LZIP also enhanced the chemotactic activities of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1/CCL2 and Lkn-1. These results suggest that LZIP regulates expression of chemokine receptors that are involved in monocyte migration.


Subject(s)
Atherosclerosis/drug therapy , CCAAT-Enhancer-Binding Proteins/genetics , Cell Line, Tumor , Cell Movement/drug effects , Chemokine CCL2/pharmacology , Chemokines, CC/pharmacology , Humans , Macrophage Inflammatory Proteins/pharmacology , Monocytes/drug effects , Promoter Regions, Genetic , Protein Binding , RNA, Messenger/analysis , Receptors, CCR1/biosynthesis , Receptors, CCR2/biosynthesis , Transcriptional Activation/drug effects , Transfection , Transgenes
19.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-58832

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha and eosinophilic inflammation have their role in asthma, but there were no studies on respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) bronchiolitis. The aim of our study was to investigate whether TNF-alpha has a role in eosinophilic inflammation of lower respiratory tract infections with RSV and has the correlation with other cytokines. METHODS: Fifty children with first RSV bronchiolitis (RSV group) and 18 healthy children without any respiratory symptom and sign (control group) were enrolled. Clinical data, such as eosinophil-derived neurotoxin (EDN), eosinophil cationic protein (ECP), were analyzed. We measured interleukin (IL)-5, IL-8, TNF-alpha, granulocyte macrophage-colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF), interferon (IFN)-gamma, eotaxin, and regulated on activation, normal T cell expressed and secreted (RANTES) in nasal lavage fluid in both groups. RESULTS: Eotaxin, GM-CSF, IL-8, IFN-gamma and TNF-alpha were higher in the RSV group than the control group. TNF-alpha correlated with an eosinophil-active cytokine, GM-CSF (r=0.86, P<0.0001), IFN-gamma (r=0.90, P<0.0001), and with eosinophil-active C-C chemokines such as eotaxin (r=0.50, P<0.0001). TNF-alpha also correlated with proinflammatory cytokines such as IL-8 (r= 0.81, P<0.0001). CONCLUSION: TNF-alpha correlated with eosinophil-active chemokines and cytokines. Therefore, TNF-alpha may have a role in eosinophilic inflammation in children with RSV bronchiolitis.


Subject(s)
Asthma , Bronchiolitis , Chemokines , Chemokines, CC , Child , Cytokines , Eosinophil Cationic Protein , Eosinophil-Derived Neurotoxin , Eosinophils , Granulocyte-Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor , Granulocytes , Humans , Inflammation , Interferons , Interleukin-8 , Interleukins , Nasal Lavage Fluid , Respiratory Syncytial Viruses , Respiratory Tract Infections , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha
20.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-226408

ABSTRACT

Bronchiolitis is a risk factor for the development of childhood asthma. Eosinophilic inflammation in airways plays an important role in the pathophysiology of both bronchiolitis and asthma. To investigate this inflammation, we measured the eosinophil cationic protein (ECP), regulated on activation normal T-cell expressed and secreted (RANTES) and eotaxin levels in nasopharyngeal secretions (NPS). Twenty-eight patients with RSV bronchiolitis (RSV group), 11 patients with non-RSV bronchiolitis (non-RSV group) and 7 controls were enrolled in this study. ECP, RANTES, and eotaxin levels were measured by enzyme immunoassays. The ECP level in the NPS of the RSV group was significantly higher than that in the NPS of the non-RSV group and controls. RANTES and eotaxin levels in infants with bronchiolitis were significantly higher than those in the controls, but there was no significant difference between the RSV and non-RSV groups. In conclusion, with regard to eosinophilic airway inflammation, as compared with non-RSV bronchiolitis, RSV bronchiolitis may be more similar to childhood asthma.


Subject(s)
Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections/immunology , Chemokine CCL5/analysis , Nasopharynx/immunology , Male , Infant , Humans , Female , Eosinophil Cationic Protein/analysis , Chemokines, CC/analysis , Chemokines/analysis , Bronchiolitis/immunology
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