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1.
Arch. argent. pediatr ; 121(1): e202202885, feb. 2023. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1413466

ABSTRACT

Los errores innatos de la inmunidad (EII), antes llamados inmunodeficiencias primarias (IDP), son un grupo heterogéneo de trastornos genéticos con defectos en uno o más componentes del sistema inmune. Los pacientes afectados por EII presentan aumentada susceptibilidad a microorganismos únicos o múltiples que se manifestará con infecciones recurrentes de diferente tipo y gravedad dependiendo del tipo de la localización del defecto. La prevención de infecciones es uno de los pilares fundamentales en el abordaje integral de los pacientes con EII. En este trabajo se resumen las conclusiones consensuadas en el Grupo de Trabajo de Inmunología Pediátrica de la Sociedad Argentina de Pediatría, sobre la base de la revisión de la evidencia disponible, respecto a los principios esenciales para el cuidado, la prevención de infecciones y la quimioprofilaxis en los errores innatos de la inmunidad para la orientación del pediatra y especialista dedicados al seguimiento de estas enfermedades.


Inborn errors of immunity, previously named primary immunodeficiency are a heterogeneous group of genetic defects of different components of the immune system. Patients present high susceptibility to an only or several microorganisms, developing recurrent infections; the severity is related to the specific genetic type of immunity defect. The main strategy on the management of these illness is the prevention of infections. These consensus guidelines made by the Pediatric Immunology Work Group of Sociedad Argentina de Pediatría, givese main approaches of infection prevention in order to provide a useful tool for all practitioners who are involved in the management of these patients, based on scientific evidence and broad consensus of a specialized panel expert.


Subject(s)
Humans , Child , Chemoprevention , Immune System Diseases/congenital
2.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 1144-1154, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-980900

ABSTRACT

Tumor chemoprevention and treatment are two approaches aimed at improving the survival of patients with cancers. An ideal anti-tumor drug is that which not only kills tumor cells but also alleviates tumor-causing risk factors, such as precancerous lesions, and prevents tumor recurrence. Chinese herbal monomers are considered to be ideal treatment agents due to their multi-target effects. Astragaloside has been shown to possess tumor chemoprevention, direct anti-tumor, and chemotherapeutic drug sensitization effects. In this paper, we review the effects of astragaloside on tumor prevention and treatment and provide directions for further research.


Subject(s)
Humans , Chemoprevention , Antineoplastic Agents , Neoplasms/prevention & control , Saponins/pharmacology , Triterpenes/pharmacology
3.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 788-798, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-980870

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#Many nutritional supplements and pharmacological agents have been reported to show preventive effects on colorectal adenoma and colorectal cancer (CRC). We performed a network meta-analysis to summarize such evidence and assess the efficacy and safety of these agents.@*METHODS@#We searched PubMed, Embase, and the Cochrane Library for studies published in English until October 31, 2021 that fit our inclusion criteria. We performed a systematic review and network meta-analysis to assess the comparative efficacy and safety of candidate agents (low-dose aspirin [Asp], high-dose Asp, cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitors [coxibs], calcium, vitamin D, folic acid, ursodeoxycholic acid [UDCA], estrogen, and progesterone, alone or in combination) for preventing colorectal adenoma and CRC. Cochrane risk-of-bias assessment tool was employed to evaluate the quality of each included study.@*RESULTS@#Thirty-two randomized controlled trials (278,694 participants) comparing 13 different interventions were included. Coxibs significantly reduced the risk of colorectal adenoma (risk ratio [RR]: 0.59, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.44-0.79, six trials involving 5486 participants), advanced adenoma (RR: 0.63, 95% CI: 0.43-0.92, four trials involving 4723 participants), and metachronous adenoma (RR: 0.58, 95% CI: 0.43-0.79, five trials involving 5258 participants) compared with placebo. Coxibs also significantly increased the risk of severe adverse events (RR: 1.29, 95% CI: 1.13-1.47, six trials involving 7109 participants). Other interventions, including Asp, folic acid, UDCA, vitamin D, and calcium, did not reduce the risk of colorectal adenoma in the general and high-risk populations compared with placebo.@*CONCLUSIONS@#Considering the balance between benefits and harms, regular use of coxibs for prevention of colorectal adenoma was not supported by the current evidence. Benefit of low-dose Asp for chemoprevention of colorectal adenoma still requires further evidence.@*REGISTRATION@#PROSPERO, No. CRD42022296376.


Subject(s)
Humans , Cyclooxygenase 2 Inhibitors , Calcium , Network Meta-Analysis , Vitamins , Colorectal Neoplasms/drug therapy , Chemoprevention , Aspirin , Adenoma/prevention & control , Vitamin D
4.
São Paulo; s.n; s.n; 2023. 93 p. graf, tab.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1437666

ABSTRACT

A quimioprevenção do câncer refere-se ao uso de compostos naturais ou sintéticos para prevenir o desenvolvimento das neoplasias antes do estabelecimento da malignidade. O ácido butirico (AB) atua como um potente quimiopreventivo na hepatocarcinogênese, reduzindo o número e o tamanho de lesões pré neoplásicas persistentes (pLPN), induzindo a apoptose e modulando mecanismos epigenéticos. Já o ácido caprílico (AC), além da sua atuação como potencializador de absorção, vem sendo investigado na área da prevenção do câncer. Neste cenário, o objetivo do trabalho visa avaliar a atividade quimiopreventiva de lipídios estruturados (EST) obtidos por interesterificação enzimática da tributirina com a tricaprilina, na fase de promoção da hepatocarcinogênese experimental. Após o processo de interesterificação, o produto final apresentou novos triacilgliceróis com composição de duas moléculas de ácido butírico para uma de ácido caprilíco. Ratos machos isogênicos da linhagem Fischer 344 foram submetidos ao modelo do hepatócito resistente, sendo distribuídos em dois grupos e tratados diariamente por via intragástrica com lipídios estruturados (EST) ou com o seu controle isocalórico, a maltodextrina (MD), durante a fase de promoção. Como esperado, não houve diferença estatística (p>0,05) em relação ao peso inicial e final dos animais dos grupos MD e EST, o que indica ausência de toxicidade dos compostos administrados. Na análise macroscópica do fígado, foi observada uma redução de 33,3% no grupo EST em relação ao número médio de nódulos macroscópicos em comparação ao grupo MD, porém essa redução não atingiu diferença estatística (p>0,05). Para a avaliação das lesões pré neoplásicas (LPN) foi utilizada a marcação imunoistoquímica para glutationa-S-transferase (GST-P). O grupo EST apresentou uma redução no número de lesões em remodelação e total GSTP-P+, quando comparado com o grupo MD (p<0,05). Quando avaliada a % de corpúsculos apoptóticos e índice de proliferação celular, não houve diferença estatística entre os grupos (p>0,05). Animais tratados com lipídios estruturados apresentaram maiores (p<0,05) concentrações de AC e AB por grama de tecido hepático em relação ao tratamento com maltodextrina. Em relação aos danos no DNA, o grupo EST resultou em cometas de comprimentos menores (p<0,05), menores níveis de γ-H2AX (p<0,05) e maiores concentrações de p53 nuclear, quando comparados aos animais que receberam maltodextrina, sugerindo uma proteção contra danos no DNA no grupo tratado com EST. Os resultados mostraram que o tratamento com EST resultou em ações efetivas na fase de promoção da hepatocarcinogênese experimental


Cancer chemoprevention refers to the use of natural or synthetic compounds to prevent the development of neoplasms before the establishment of malignancy. Butyric acid (AB) acts as a potent chemopreventive in hepatocarcinogenesis, reducing the number and size of persistent preneoplastic lesions (pLPN), inducing apoptosis and modulating epigenetic mechanisms. Caprylic acid (CA), in addition to its role as an absorption enhancer, has been investigated in the area of cancer prevention. In this scenario, the objective of this work was to evaluate the chemopreventive activity of structured lipids (EST) obtained by enzymatic interesterification of tributyrin with tricaprylin, in the phase of promotion experimental hepatocarcinogenesis. After the interesterification process, the final product presented new triacylglycerols with a composition of two molecules of butyric acid to one of caprylic acid. Isogenic male Fischer 344 rats were submitted to the resistant hepatocyte model, divided into two groups and treated daily intragastrically with structured lipids (EST) or with its isocaloric control, maltodextrin (MD), during the promotion phase. As expected, there was no statistical difference (p>0.05) in relation to the initial and final weight of the animals in the MD and EST groups, which indicates the absence of toxicity of the administered compounds. In the macroscopic analysis of the liver, a reduction of 33.3% was observed in the EST group in relation to the mean number of macroscopic nodules compared to the MD group, but this reduction did not reach a statistical difference (p>0.05). For the evaluation of pre-neoplastic lesions (PNL) immunohistochemical staining for glutathione-Stransferase (GST-P) was used. The EST group showed a reduction in the number of remodeling lesions and total GSTP-P+, when compared to the MD group (p<0.05). Animals treated with structured lipids had higher (p<0.05) concentrations of AC and AB per gram of liver tissue compared to treatment with maltodextrin. Regarding DNA damage, the EST group resulted in comets of shorter lengths (p<0.05), lower levels of γ-H2AX (p<0.05) and high concentration of nuclear p53, when compared to animals that received maltodextrin, suggesting protection against DNA damage in the EST treated group. The results showed that EST treatment resulted in effective actions in the promotion phase of experimental hepatocarcinogenesis


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Chemoprevention , Lipase/analysis , Neoplasms/pathology , Wounds and Injuries/complications , Biotechnology/classification , Carcinoma, Hepatocellular/pathology , Absenteeism
5.
Arq. ciências saúde UNIPAR ; 26(3)set-dez. 2022.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1399147

ABSTRACT

Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) is a non-melanoma skin cancer, with chronic sun exposure as the main risk factor. Excisional surgery is the most indicated treatment; however, patients can suffer functional, aesthetic, and psychological damage depending on the lesion site. Topical administration of 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA) and 12-O-Tetradecanoylphorbol-13- acetate (TPA) induce to the appearance of benign skin tumors in mice, some of which develop into SCC. This protocol has been used to analyze the effects of many chemopreventive agents that may block or inhibit the mechanisms of action of chemical carcinogenesis. We compared the effects of chemopreventive agents in an induced skin carcinogenesis animal model. In the Scopus, PubMed, and EMBASE databases, we searched for manuscripts published between June 16, 2011, and June 16, 2021. We excluded studies conducted in vitro or on transgenic mice; in addition, studies without drug dosage, route of administration, or tumor incidence were excluded. We selected 26 studies and analyzed their main characteristics and the outcomes of tumorigenesis analysis. Most chemopreventive agents have shown excellent potential to inhibit the development of skin tumors. This review also discusses the standardization of studies in animal models to ensure better responses and future randomized clinical trials for cancer treatment and prevention.


O carcinoma espinocelular cutâneo (CEC) é um câncer de pele não melanoma, com a exposição solar crônica como o principal fator de risco. A cirurgia excisional é o tratamento mais indicado; entretanto, os pacientes podem sofrer danos funcionais, estéticos e psicológicos dependendo do local da lesão. A administração tópica de 7,12-dimetilbenz[a]antraceno (DMBA) e 12-O- Tetradecanoilforbol-13-acetato (TPA) induz ao aparecimento de tumores cutâneos benignos em camundongos, alguns dos quais evoluíram para CEC. Este protocolo tem sido utilizado para analisar os efeitos de muitos agentes quimiopreventivos que podem bloquear ou inibir os mecanismos de ação da carcinogênese química. Comparamos os efeitos de agentes quimiopreventivos em um modelo animal que foi induzido à carcinogênese de pele. Nas bases de dados Scopus, PubMed e EMBASE, buscamos manuscritos publicados entre 16 de junho de 2011 e 16 de junho de 2021. Excluímos estudos realizados in vitro ou em camundongos transgênicos; além disso, estudos sem dosagem de drogas, via de administração ou incidência de tumores foram excluídos. Selecionamos 26 estudos e analisamos suas principais características e os resultados da análise da tumorigênese. A maioria dos agentes quimiopreventivos tem demonstrado excelente potencial para inibir o desenvolvimento de tumores cutâneos. Esta revisão também discute a padronização de estudos em modelos animais para garantir melhores respostas e futuros ensaios clínicos randomizados para tratamento e prevenção do câncer.


El carcinoma de células escamosas (CCE) es un cáncer de piel no melanoma, cuyo principal factor de riesgo es la exposición crónica al sol. La cirugía de escisión es el tratamiento más indicado; sin embargo, los pacientes pueden sufrir daños funcionales, estéticos y psicológicos dependiendo de la localización de la lesión. La administración tópica de 7,12-dimetilbenz[a]antraceno (DMBA) y 12-O-Tetradecanoilforbol-13-acetato (TPA) inducen a la aparición de tumores cutáneos benignos en ratones, algunos de los cuales se convierten en CCE. Este protocolo se ha utilizado para analizar los efectos de muchos agentes quimiopreventivos que pueden bloquear o inhibir los mecanismos de acción de la carcinogénesis química. Comparamos los efectos de los agentes quimiopreventivos en un modelo animal de carcinogénesis cutánea inducida. En las bases de datos Scopus, PubMed y EMBASE, se buscaron los manuscritos publicados entre el 16 de junio de 2011 y el 16 de junio de 2021. Se excluyeron los estudios realizados in vitro o en ratones transgénicos; además, se excluyeron los estudios sin dosis de fármacos, vía de administración o incidencia tumoral. Se seleccionaron 26 estudios y se analizaron sus características principales y los resultados del análisis de la tumorigénesis. La mayoría de los agentes quimiopreventivos han mostrado un excelente potencial para inhibir el desarrollo de tumores cutáneos. Esta revisión también analiza la estandarización de los estudios en modelos animales para garantizar mejores respuestas y futuros ensayos clínicos aleatorios para el tratamiento y la prevención del cáncer.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Skin Neoplasms/drug therapy , Chemoprevention , Antineoplastic Agents , Tetradecanoylphorbol Acetate , Models, Animal , 9,10-Dimethyl-1,2-benzanthracene/analysis , Carcinogenesis , Phytochemicals
6.
Rev. colomb. obstet. ginecol ; 73(3): 274-282, July-Sept. 2022. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1408052

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN Objetivos: Establecer la concordancia para evaluar el requerimiento de profilaxis farmacológica en el puerperio entre la escala del Rojal College Obstetricians and Gynaecologists y la escala de la guía colombiana en una institución de cuarto nivel en Bogotá, Colombia. Materiales y métodos: Estudio de concordancia diagnóstica ensamblado sobre un estudio transversal. Se incluyeron mujeres embarazadas con 24 o más semanas de gestación que ingresaron para inducción de trabajo de parto, en trabajo de parto activo, para cesárea electiva, o que requirieron cesárea de urgencia, hospitalizadas entre el 1 de marzo y 30 de abril de 2021 en una institución privada de alta complejidad en Bogotá, Colombia. Se realizó un muestreo por conveniencia. Se midieron variables demográficas, factores de riesgo, clasificación del riesgo y profilaxis farmacológica según las dos escalas. Se calculó la prevalencia de los factores de riesgo por cada escala y la concordancia en la indicación de la profilaxis entre las dos escalas por medio del valor de kappa ponderado. Resultados: Se incluyeron 320 pacientes. La escala del Royal College Obstetricians and Gynaecologists clasificó al 54,7 % de las pacientes en riesgo bajo, riesgo intermedio al 42,5 % y riesgo alto al 2,8 %. La escala colombiana clasificó al 80 % de las pacientes en riesgo bajo, 17,2 % riesgo intermedio, 2,2 % riesgo alto y 0,6 % con riesgo muy alto. El valor kappa ponderado para la concordancia para indicación fue de 0,47 (IC 95 %: 0,38-0,56). Conclusiones: La concordancia de las dos escalas para definir requerimiento de profilaxis farmacológica en el posparto tiene un acuerdo moderado. Se considera es necesario validar los criterios de clasificación del riesgo de la escala colombiana en una segunda cohorte, además evaluar la capacidad predictiva de la herramienta de la guía colombiana en diferentes puntos de corte en términos de las consecuencias de falsos positivos y negativos.


ABSTRACT Objectives: To determine agreement in assessing the need for postpartum pharmacological prophylaxis between the scale of the Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists and the Colombian guideline scale in a Level IV institution in Bogota, Colombia. Material and methods: Diagnostic agreement study assembled on a cross-sectional study. The included population consisted of pregnant women with 24 or more weeks of pregnancy admitted between March 1 and April 30 of 2021 to a high complexity private institution in Bogotá, Colombia, for labor induction, in active labor, for elective cesarean section, or who required urgent cesarean section. Convenience sampling was used. Measured variables included demographics, risk factors, risk classification and pharmacological prophylaxis according to the two scales. The prevalence of risk factors for each scale was estimated and agreement regarding prophylaxis indication between the two scales was measured using the weighted kappa value. Results: Overall, 320 patients were included. According to the scale of the Royal College Obstetricians and Gynaecologists, 54.7 % patients were classified as low risk, 42.5 % as intermediate risk and 2.8 % as high risk. The Colombian scale classified 80 % of patients as low risk, 17.2 % as intermediate risk, 2.2 % as high risk, and 0.6 % as very high risk. The weighted kappa value for agreement regarding the indication was 0.47 (95 % CI: 0.38-0.56). Conclusions: Agreement between the two scales to determine the need for postpartum pharmacological prophylaxis is moderate. Risk classification criteria for the Colombian scale should be validated in a second cohort. Moreover, the predictive ability of the Colombian guideline tool should be assessed at different cut-off points in terms of the consequences of false positive and false negative results.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Adult , Practice Guidelines as Topic/standards , Chemoprevention/standards , Postpartum Period , Venous Thromboembolism/prevention & control , Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis , Pregnancy Outcome , Risk Factors , Gestational Age , Colombia , Risk Assessment
7.
Rev. chil. enferm. respir ; 38(2): 123-130, jun. 2022.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1407769

ABSTRACT

Resumen La infección tuberculosa latente (TL) afecta al 23% de la población y constituye un reservorio de tuberculosis (TBC) ya que 10% progresa hacia una TBC. La TL se reconoce por pruebas como la tuberculina (PPD o TST) y los ensayos de liberación de Interferón gama (IGRAs). La sensibilidad de IGRAs (versión Quantiferon TB Gold plus) es 94% y del PPD 77%. La especificidad del Quantiferon TB Gold Plus es 97% y del PPD 68%. El valor predictivo de progresión a TBC activa de estas pruebas es bajo (PPD: 1,5%, IGRAs: 2,7%) pero mejora en personas de alto riesgo de contraer TBC (PPD: 2,4%, IGRAs: 6,8%). Las personas con pruebas negativas que posteriormente presentan viraje (prueba positiva) tienen mayor riesgo de progresión a TBC activa. Estas pruebas son útiles en el seguimiento de contactos intradomiciliarios, extranjeros de países con altas tasas de TBC, inmunosuprimidos, enfermedad renal crónica, diabetes, silicosis y secuelas pulmonares de TBC no tratada. En la terapia de TL se utiliza isoniazida (H) auto-administrada por plazos de 6 a 12 meses con eficacia protectora de 60% y riesgo de toxicidad hepática de 2% pero con baja adherencia (50-70%). La asociación de H con rifapentina en dosis única semanal durante 12 semanas tiene eficacia de 81%, adherencia de 82% y baja toxicidad hepática (0,4%). Nuevos biomarcadores de TL y vacunas que mejoren la inmunidad en TL se encuentran en estudio. El tratamiento de la TL puede reducir la incidencia de TBC a largo plazo.


Latent tuberculosis infection (LT) affects 23% of the population and constitutes a reservoir of tuberculosis (TB) as 10% progresses to TB. LT is recognized by tests such as tuberculin (PPD or TST) and Interferon gamma release assays (IGRAs). The sensitivity of IGRAs (Quantiferon TB Gold plus version) is 94% and PPD 77%. The specificity of Quantiferon TB Gold Plus is 97% and PPD 68%. The predictive value of progression to active TB of these tests is low (PPD: 1.5%, IGRAs: 2.7%) but improves in people at high risk of contracting TB (PPD: 2.4%, IGRAs: 6.8%). People with negative tests who subsequently turn around (positive) have a higher risk of progression to active TB. These tests are useful in the follow-up of intra-household contacts, foreigners from countries with high rates of TB, immunosuppressed, chronic kidney disease, diabetes, silicosis and pulmonary sequelae of untreated TB. In LT therapy, self-administered isoniazid (H) is used for periods from 6 to 12 months with protective efficacy of 60% and risk of liver toxicity of 2%, but with low adherence (50-70%). The association of H with rifapentine in a single weekly dose for 12 weeks has efficacy of 81%, adherence of 82% and low liver toxicity (0.4%). New LT biomarkers and vaccines that improve immunity in LT are under study. Treatment of LT may reduce the incidence of TB in the long term.


Subject(s)
Humans , Latent Tuberculosis/diagnosis , Latent Tuberculosis/therapy , Tuberculin Test , Chemoprevention , Interferon-gamma Release Tests , Antitubercular Agents/therapeutic use
8.
Rev. bras. anal. clin ; 54(1)20220330.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1395655

ABSTRACT

Com a ampliação e a frequência das campanhas de desparasitação contra os geo-helmintos Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura, ancilostomídeos e Strongyloides stercoralis, ocorreu, como esperado, a redução da prevalência e da morbidade associada a estas parasitoses. Entretanto, alterações no perfil parasitológico das populações com redução dos helmintos e aumento significativo das protozooses intestinais se tornaram evidentes em todo o mundo. Além disso, a redução de carga parasitária tem dificultado o diagnóstico de rotina por meio de técnicas microscópicas de baixa sensibilidade. Neste artigo trazemos atualizações sobre algumas técnicas diagnósticas, como a Técnica de Sedimentação Espontânea em Tubo (SSTT), FLOTAC/Mini-FLOTAC e a otimização do método de Kato-Katz, além de alternativas viáveis para aumentar a sensibilidade dos métodos e tornar o diagnóstico das parasitoses intestinais mais preciso.


With the expansion and increased frequency of deworming against soil-transmitted helminths Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura, hookworms and Strongyloides stercoralis, there was, as expected, a reduction in the prevalence and morbidity associated with these diseases. However, changes in the parasitological profile of populations, with a reduction in helminths and a significant increase in intestinal protozoa, became evident worldwide. In addition, the reduction in the parasitic burden has made routine diagnosis difficult through low-sensitivity microscopic techniques. In this article we bring updates on diagnostic techniques, such as spontaneous sedimentation technique in tube (SSTT), FLOTAC/Mini-FLOTAC and optimization of Kato-Katz technique, as well as viable alternatives to increase the sensitivity of methods and make the diagnosis of intestinal parasites more accurate.


Subject(s)
Feces/parasitology , Helminthiasis , Chemoprevention , Clinical Laboratory Techniques
9.
Health sci. dis ; 23(7): 18-22, 2022. figures, tables
Article in English | AIM | ID: biblio-1379119

ABSTRACT

Introduction. We studied malaria in HIV infected subjects hospitalized in the department of infectious diseases at Point G Teaching Hospital in Mali, with the objective to have current data on malaria in patients infected by HIV. Materials and methods. We conducted a prospective study from October, 1st 2016 to September 30th 2018 in patients seropositive for HIV having positive thick smear for Plasmodium and hospitalized in the department of infectious diseases at Point G Teaching Hospital. We collected sociodemographic, clinical and lab data form those patients. Data have been entered and analyzed using SPSS20.0 software. Results. Hospital frequency of malaria among People living with HIV was 24.4% (151/618). This population has a mean-age of 44.1±12.4 y/o and a sex ratio (M/F) of 0.86. Majority of patients were at WHO stage IV of HIV infection (63.4%). Symptoms were by decreasing frequency: fever (98.3%); headache (86.4%); anorexia (72.9%); asthenia (61.0%) and vomiting (42.4%). the mean parasitemia was 172.9±352.1 trophozoite/mm3 . Mean hemoglobin level was 9.1±3.2 g/dl and the mean CD4 count was 9±3 cell/mm3 . Severe malaria was independent from WHO HIV stage and from immunologic deficiency. The malaria treatment when correctly followed conduct to good improvement of the anemia (p = 0.03) and the negativity of the parasitemia (p = 0.00). Death in our HIV patient is linked to association with severe malaria (p = 0,012). Conclusion. Malaria is relatively common and severe among PLWHA in Mali. Prompt treatment is still effective and must be implemented to ensure a good prognosis. Despite cotrimoxazole chemoprophylaxis, a certain number of PLHIV suffer from malaria, raising the hypothesis of plasmodium resistance to antifolates.


Subject(s)
HIV Infections , Trimethoprim, Sulfamethoxazole Drug Combination , Inpatients , Malaria , Chemoprevention
10.
Acta cir. bras ; 37(9): e370901, 2022. tab, graf, ilus
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1402981

ABSTRACT

Purpose: To evaluate the effect of preoperative intravenous chemotherapy with 5-fluorouracil on liver regeneration in an experimental model of major hepatectomy in rats. Methods: Wistar rats were divided into two groups of 20 animals each and submitted to 70% hepatectomy 24 h after intravenous injection of 5-fluorouracil 20 mg/kg (fluorouracil group, FG) or 0.9% saline (control group, CG). After hepatectomy, each group was subdivided into two subgroups of 10 animals each according to the day of sacrifice (24 h or 7 days). Liver weight during regeneration, liver regeneration rate using Kwon formula, and the immunohistochemical markers proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) and Ki-67 were used to assess liver regeneration. Results: At early phase (24 h after hepatectomy) it was demonstrated the negative effect of 5-fluorouracil on liver regeneration when assessed by Kwon formula (p < 0.0001), PCNA analysis (p = 0.02). With regeneration process complete (7 days), it was possible to demonstrate the sustained impairment of chemotherapy with 5-fluorouracil on hepatocytes regeneration phenomenon when measured by Kwon formula (p = 0.009), PCNA analysis (p = 0.0001) and Ki-67 analysis (0.001). Conclusions: Preoperative chemotherapy with intravenous 5-fluorouracil negatively affected the mechanisms of liver regeneration after major hepatectomy in rats.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Chemoprevention/methods , Fluorouracil/therapeutic use , Hepatectomy/rehabilitation , Liver Regeneration/drug effects
11.
j. public health epidemiol. (jphe) ; 14(4): 166-172, 2022. tables
Article in English | AIM | ID: biblio-1401737

ABSTRACT

Seasonal malaria chemoprevention (SMC) is effective to prevent malaria in children 3 to 59 months in the Sahel region. Mother's seasonal malaria chemoprevention related knowledge and attitudes and the coverage of the strategy among targeted children were assessed. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in 1828 children aged 3 to 59 months from November 7 to 18, 2018 in eight health regions of Burkina Faso where SMC was implemented with Malaria Consortium supported fund. Data were collected using structured questionnaire and direct inspection of SMC card. MAGPI software was used for data collection and STATA 12.0 was used for the analysis. A total of 1828 children 3 to 59 months were enrolled and 951 mothers interviewed on different aspects of SMC. Overall, the SMC coverage was high for single cycle or for cumulative coverage basis. Single cycle coverage increased over rounds, from mother and tutor's interview (from 87.09% (1592/1828) to 91.19% (1667/1828); p=0.001). Over 91.18% (869/951) knew that SMC objective was to prevent malaria. Overall SMC was well tolerated and most 95.2% (296/320) of mothers and tutors surveyed owned treated bed nets. Despite combining high coverage and treated bed-net use, at least 16.19% remained rapid diagnosis test positives during the survey. SMS coverage was high in the current survey and most mothers knew the relevance of SMC administration with high bed-net coverage.


Subject(s)
Male , Female , Infant , Child, Preschool , Therapeutics , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Chemoprevention , Disease Prevention , Malaria , Mothers , Antimalarials
13.
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 58: e19238, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1374561

ABSTRACT

Abstract The aim of this work is to study three cultivars of artichoke (Cynara cardunculus var. scolymus): Gauchito, Guri and Oro Verde in terms of their in vitro chemoprevention and anti-inflammatory properties. These cultivars show good productive performance. The phenolic composition of their fresh leaves and edible bracts was analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography and high resolution mass spectrometry (HPLC-HRMS), showing mainly caffeoylquinic acids and flavonoids. Caffeoylquinic acids were quantified and the highest content was found in Gauchito cultivar. In this cultivar, the content of dicaffeoylquinic acids in fresh bracts was six times higher than that in fresh leaves (10064.5 ± 378.3 mg/kg versus 1451.0 ± 209.3 mg/kg respectively). Luteolin flavonoids were detected in leaves. The extracts from fresh bracts and leaves were assessed in their in vitro bioactivity against human neuroblastoma cells (SH-SY5Y). Inhibition of SH-SY5Y cells proliferation by Gauchito and Guri leaf extracts (8 µg/mL) was higher than 50 %. The leaf extracts of the same cultivars showed an inhibitory effect on human interferon IFN-I, decreasing its activity 50% at 40 µg/mL. Interestingly, the bract extracts did not show in vitro bioactivity at these concentrations, nor did the pure compounds chlorogenic acid, cynarin, apigenin and luteolin (at 2 µg/mL). These results suggest that Gauchito and Guri leaf extracts have potential for human neuroblastoma chemoprevention and treatment of inflammatory processes.


Subject(s)
Plant Leaves/classification , Chemoprevention , Cynara scolymus/metabolism , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/pharmacology , Mass Spectrometry/methods , Plant Extracts/analysis , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid/methods , Phenolic Compounds , Neuroblastoma/pathology
14.
Rev. patol. trop ; 50(3)2021. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1292380

ABSTRACT

In regions where sanitary conditions are poor, prophylactic administration of antiparasitic drugs is common and affects the prevalence of intestinal parasites, in spite of the environmental maintenance of their life cycle. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of parasitic infections, patient lifestyles, health conditions and environmental sources of contamination. One hundred seventy two children and adolescents, 5 to 15 years of age of both sexes were analyzed. Data were obtained through epidemiological questionnaires, parasitological examinations using Paratest®, IgG testing for Entamoeba histolytica, and analysis of sources of contamination in living areas. The study detected a prevalence of 45.9% (79/172) parasitic infections, of which 62.0% (49/79) Entamoeba histolytica/E. dispar complex; 46.8% (37/79) Entamoeba coli; 27.8% (22/79) Giardia intestinalis; 12.7% (10/79) Endolimax nana; 10.1% (8/79) Hymenolepis nana; 8.9% (7/79) Ascaris lumbricoides and 2.5% (2/79) Trichuris trichiura. Out of the 49 samples positive for Entamoeba histolytica complex, there was only one case of antibodies to E. histolytica. The children's life habits demonstrated inadequate food hygiene practices. These insufficient sanitary parameters revealed a general lack of information in face of an alarming situation regarding sewage and other sources of environmental contamination in 20% of the areas. The high prevalence of protozoan infections despite chemoprophylaxis, with environmental sources of contamination/risk, inadequate health conditions and the general apathy of the population suggest the ineffectiveness of current preventive practices. Thus, it is advisable that control actions include protozoa as therapeutic targets and, above all, health education as a routine practice to prevent the long-term continuance of this vicious cycle.


Subject(s)
Humans , Child , Adolescent , Parasitic Diseases , Child , Prevalence , Chemoprevention
15.
São Paulo; s.n; s.n; 2021. 275 p. tab, graf.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1379262

ABSTRACT

A alta incidência, prevalência e mortalidade do câncer de pulmão demonstram a necessidade de se identificar alterações moleculares envolvidas na carcinogênese pulmonar. Nesse contexto, a reprogramação do metabolismo energético é uma marca emergente do câncer. Há evidências de que benzo[a]pireno (B[a]P), um conhecido carcinógeno humano, induz alterações metabólicas via modificação da função mitocondrial tanto in vitro quanto in vivo. Uma vez que as alterações metabólicas não são somente o resultado da transformação celular, mas podem também ter papel na etiologia do câncer ao modular o epigenoma e a expressão de genes, intervir no metabolismo de células em processo de transformação pode contribuir para desvendar mecanismos de carcinogênese e revelar alvos para quimioprevenção. A fim de investigar a relação entre alterações no metabolismo celular, marcas epigenéticas e transformação celular, implementamos um modelo de tumorigênese (avaliada pela formação de colônias em soft-agar) induzida por B[a]P em células epiteliais bronquiais humanas imortalizadas (linhagem BEAS-2B) crescidas em monocamada (2D). O modelo possibilitou a observação de alterações precoces do metabolismo celular. Levando em consideração que o nucleotídeo NAD+ regula as atividades de diversas vias moleculares importantes para a sobrevivência, diferenciação, crescimento e morte celular, e que suas concentrações foram rapidamente diminuídas após exposição a B[a]P, decidimos suplementar as células BEAS-2B com nicotinamida ribosídeo (NR), um precursor intracelular de NAD+, concomitantemente à exposição a B[a]P. NR em baixa concentração no meio de cultura (1 µM) induziu estresse energético em células BEAS-2B expostas a B[a]P (1 µM) ao longo do período de uma semana de co-incubação, aumentando seletivamente a taxa de apoptose dessas células. Protegeu contra a transformação celular induzida por B[a]P e impediu completamente a formação espontânea de colônias das células controle em soft-agar. Usamos uma abordagem metabolômica direcionada a alvos específicos ("targeted metabolomics") desenvolvida no grupo para quantificar metabólitos conhecidamente alterados no câncer. Os dados indicam que NR diminui o metabolismo de glutamina nas células expostas a B[a]P, o que ocorre em paralelo com a diminuição das concentrações de citrato e aspartato, aumento da razão malato/aspartato, diminuição das razões ATP/AMP e ATP/ADP e aumento das concentrações de adenosina. As alterações se enquadram na hipótese de inibição do shuttle malato-aspartato, cuja atividade é necessária para a sobrevivência de células que sofrem o efeito Warburg (alta dependência de NADH citosólico para geração de ATP). NR adicionalmente protegeu as células contra o estresse redox, a hipermetilação do DNA e o aumento da atividade de sirtuína 1 (SIRT1) induzidos por B[a]P, além de aumentar a expressão de genes supressores tumorais (E-caderina, PTEN, semaforina 3F, p16(ink4a)) que podem ser reprimidos por CtBP (proteína ligante de NADH que atua como sensor redox e traduz a condição metabólica da célula para o controle da expressão gênica). Foi ainda observada maior atividade de PARP1 nas células expostas a B[a]P+NR em comparação aos demais grupos. Os resultados obtidos mostram que NR se contrapõe a ou exacerba alterações bioquímicas induzidas por B[a]P, diminuindo a chance de transformação carcinogênica das células BEAS-2B. Estudos em modelos mais complexos, como micro tecidos in vitro, são necessários para a confirmação do efeito quimiopreventivo da NR e alterações bioquímicas subjacentes


Tese de DoutoradoDOIhttps://doi.org/10.11606/T.9.2021.tde-05082021-095853DocumentoTese de DoutoradoAutorCordeiro, Everson Willian Fialho (Catálogo USP)Nome completoEverson Willian Fialho CordeiroE-mailE-mailUnidade da USPFaculdade de Ciências FarmacêuticasÁrea do ConhecimentoToxicologiaData de Defesa2021-04-08ImprentaSão Paulo, 2021OrientadorLoureiro, Ana Paula de Melo (Catálogo USP) Banca examinadoraLoureiro, Ana Paula de Melo (Presidente) Àvila, Daiana Silva de Meotti, Flavia Carla Silva, Eloiza Helena Tajara da Título em portuguêsModulação da concentração intracelular de NAD+ e seu efeito na tumorigênese induzida por benzo[a]pireno em células bronquiais epiteliais humanasPalavras-chave em portuguêsBenzo[a]pireno Câncer de pulmão Metabolismo energético Nicotinamida ribosídeo Resumo em portuguêsA alta incidência, prevalência e mortalidade do câncer de pulmão demonstram a necessidade de se identificar alterações moleculares envolvidas na carcinogênese pulmonar. Nesse contexto, a reprogramação do metabolismo energético é uma marca emergente do câncer. Há evidências de que benzo[a]pireno (B[a]P), um conhecido carcinógeno humano, induz alterações metabólicas via modificação da função mitocondrial tanto in vitro quanto in vivo. Uma vez que as alterações metabólicas não são somente o resultado da transformação celular, mas podem também ter papel na etiologia do câncer ao modular o epigenoma e a expressão de genes, intervir no metabolismo de células em processo de transformação pode contribuir para desvendar mecanismos de carcinogênese e revelar alvos para quimioprevenção. A fim de investigar a relação entre alterações no metabolismo celular, marcas epigenéticas e transformação celular, implementamos um modelo de tumorigênese (avaliada pela formação de colônias em soft-agar) induzida por B[a]P em células epiteliais bronquiais humanas imortalizadas (linhagem BEAS-2B) crescidas em monocamada (2D). O modelo possibilitou a observação de alterações precoces do metabolismo celular. Levando em consideração que o nucleotídeo NAD+ regula as atividades de diversas vias moleculares importantes para a sobrevivência, diferenciação, crescimento e morte celular, e que suas concentrações foram rapidamente diminuídas após exposição a B[a]P, decidimos suplementar as células BEAS-2B com nicotinamida ribosídeo (NR), um precursor intracelular de NAD+, concomitantemente à exposição a B[a]P. NR em baixa concentração no meio de cultura (1 µM) induziu estresse energético em células BEAS-2B expostas a B[a]P (1 µM) ao longo do período de uma semana de co-incubação, aumentando seletivamente a taxa de apoptose dessas células. Protegeu contra a transformação celular induzida por B[a]P e impediu completamente a formação espontânea de colônias das células controle em soft-agar. Usamos uma abordagem metabolômica direcionada a alvos específicos ("targeted metabolomics") desenvolvida no grupo para quantificar metabólitos conhecidamente alterados no câncer. Os dados indicam que NR diminui o metabolismo de glutamina nas células expostas a B[a]P, o que ocorre em paralelo com a diminuição das concentrações de citrato e aspartato, aumento da razão malato/aspartato, diminuição das razões ATP/AMP e ATP/ADP e aumento das concentrações de adenosina. As alterações se enquadram na hipótese de inibição do shuttle malato-aspartato, cuja atividade é necessária para a sobrevivência de células que sofrem o efeito Warburg (alta dependência de NADH citosólico para geração de ATP). NR adicionalmente protegeu as células contra o estresse redox, a hipermetilação do DNA e o aumento da atividade de sirtuína 1 (SIRT1) induzidos por B[a]P, além de aumentar a expressão de genes supressores tumorais (E-caderina, PTEN, semaforina 3F, p16(ink4a)) que podem ser reprimidos por CtBP (proteína ligante de NADH que atua como sensor redox e traduz a condição metabólica da célula para o controle da expressão gênica). Foi ainda observada maior atividade de PARP1 nas células expostas a B[a]P+NR em comparação aos demais grupos. Os resultados obtidos mostram que NR se contrapõe a ou exacerba alterações bioquímicas induzidas por B[a]P, diminuindo a chance de transformação carcinogênica das células BEAS-2B. Estudos em modelos mais complexos, como micro tecidos in vitro, são necessários para a confirmação do efeito quimiopreventivo da NR e alterações bioquímicas subjacentes.Título em inglêsModulation of intracellular concentration of NAD+ and its effect on benzo[a]pyrene-induced tumorigenesis in human epithelial bronchial cellsPalavras-chave em inglêsBenzo[a]pyrene Energetic metabolism Lung cancer Nicotinamide riboside Resumo em inglêsThe high incidence, prevalence and mortality of lung cancer demonstrates the need to identify molecular changes involved in lung carcinogenesis. In this context, the reprogramming of energy metabolism is an emerging brand of cancer. There is evidence that benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P), a known human carcinogen, induces metabolic changes via modification of mitochondrial function both in vitro and in vivo. Since metabolic changes are not only the result of cell transformation, but can also play a role in the etiology of cancer by modulating the epigenome and gene expression, intervening in the metabolism of cells in the process of transformation can contribute to unravel mechanisms of carcinogenesis and reveal targets for chemoprevention. In order to investigate the relationship between changes in cell metabolism, epigenetic marks and cell transformation, we implemented a model of tumorigenesis (assessed by the formation of colonies on soft-agar) induced by B[a]P in immortalized human bronchial epithelial cells (BEAS-2B cell line human) grown in monolayer (2D). The model enabled the observation of early changes in cell metabolism. Taking into account that the NAD+ nucleotide regulates the activities of several molecular pathways important for cell survival, differentiation, growth and death, and that their concentrations were rapidly decreased after exposure to B[a]P, we decided to supplement the BEAS-2B cells with nicotinamide riboside (NR), an intracellular precursor of NAD+, concomitantly with exposure to B[a]P. NR in low concentration in the culture medium (1 µM) induced energy stress in BEAS-2B cells exposed to B[a]P (1 µM) over the period of a week of co-incubation, selectively increasing the apoptosis rate of these cells. It protected against cell transformation induced by B[a]P and completely prevented the spontaneous formation of control cell colonies on soft-agar. We use a targeted metabolomics approach developed in the group to quantify metabolites known to be altered in cancer. The data indicate that NR decreases the glutamine metabolism in cells exposed to B[a]P, which occurs in parallel with the decrease in citrate and aspartate concentrations, increased malate/aspartate ratio, decreased ATP/AMP and ATP/ADP ratios and increased adenosine concentrations. The changes fit the hypothesis of inhibition of the malate-aspartate shuttle, whose activity is necessary for the survival of cells that suffer the Warburg effect (high dependence on cytosolic NADH for ATP generation). NR additionally protected cells against redox stress, DNA hypermethylation and increased B[a]P-induced sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) activity, in addition to increasing the expression of tumor suppressor genes (E-cadherin, PTEN, semaphorin 3F, p16 (ink4a)) that can be suppressed by CtBP (NADH-binding protein that acts as a redox sensor and translates the cell's metabolic condition to control gene expression). Higher PARP1 activity was also observed in cells exposed to B[a]P+NR compared to the other groups. The results obtained show that NR is opposed to or exacerbates biochemical changes induced by B[a]P, reducing the chance of carcinogenic transformation of BEAS-2B cells. Studies on more complex models, such as micro tissues in vitro, are necessary to confirm the chemopreventive effect of NR and underlying biochemical changes


Subject(s)
Niacinamide/adverse effects , Carcinogenesis/drug effects , Lung Neoplasms/pathology , In Vitro Techniques/methods , DNA , Chemoprevention/classification , Energy Metabolism , Epithelial Cells/classification
16.
Cad. Saúde Pública (Online) ; 36(3): e00068719, 2020. graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, SES-SP, CONASS, HANSEN, HANSENIASE, SESSP-ILSLACERVO, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1089447

ABSTRACT

Resumo: O objetivo deste artigo foi analisar a aceitabilidade da quimioprofilaxia com rifampicina em dose única (PEP) entre os contatos, casos índices de hanseníase e profissionais da saúde e fatores relacionados que possam influenciar na adesão. Realizou-se um estudo qualitativo de análise de conteúdo após aplicação de entrevistas semiestruturadas segundo protocolo proposto no programa LPEP (2016), realizado em Alta Floresta, Mato Grosso, Brasil, em julho de 2016. Participaram do estudo indivíduos notificados com hanseníase, contatos e profissionais da saúde. Utilizou-se o software QRS NVivo versão 10. Foram contatados 80 indivíduos, sendo 54 (67%) contatos, 11 (14%) casos índices e 15 (19%) profissionais de saúde. Dentre os contatos, 94% (51/54) tomaram PEP. Foram identificadas 3 categorias quanto à PEP: compreensão, aceitação e expectativa da intervenção. A compreensão se mostrou relacionada ao cuidado da equipe de saúde. Aceitar ou não a medicação revelou-se relacionada ao medo, confiança e proteção, operacionalidade da estratégia, autoestima e insegurança quanto à intervenção. A expectativa da intervenção relacionou-se ao bem-estar, prevenção da doença e de sequelas, diminuição de gastos públicos e ampliação do acesso. Houve reconhecimento da relevância da estratégia PEP pela possibilidade de interrupção da cadeia de transmissão, diminuição de casos novos e melhora na qualidade de vida. A insegurança em tomar a medicação e de a doença se manifestar influenciaram negativamente à aceitação da PEP; por outro lado, as informações prévias sobre a estratégia PEP contribuíram para o fortalecimento da confiança nos profissionais de saúde e para a aceitabilidade da medicação(AU).


Abstract: The aim was to analyze the acceptability of chemoprophylaxis with single-dose rifampicin (PEP) in contacts, index leprosy cases, and health professionals and related factors that can influence adherence. A qualitative content analysis study was performed after application of semi-structured interviews according to the protocol proposed in the LPEP program (2016) drafted at Alta Floresta, Mato Grosso State, Brazil, in July 2016. Study participants included individuals with leprosy, contacts, and health professionals. The QRS NVivo software version 10 was used. A total of 80 individuals were contacted, including 54 (67%) contacts, 11 (14%) index cases, and 15 (19%) health professionals. 94% of the contacts (51/54) took PEP. Three PEP categories were identified: understanding, acceptance, and expectation towards the intervention. Understanding proved to be related to care by the health team. Acceptance (or lack thereof) of the medication was related to fear, trust, and protection, the strategy's operability, self-esteem, and insecurity regarding the intervention. Expectation towards the intervention was related to wellbeing, prevention of the disease, sequelae, decrease in public expenditures, and expanded access. Participants acknowledged the relevance of the PEP strategy based on the possibility of interrupting the transmission chain, reduction in new cases, and improved quality of life. Insecurity in taking the medication and the possibility of the disease manifesting itself had a negative influence on acceptance of PEP, while prior information on the PEP strategy helped strengthen trust in the health professionals and the medication's acceptance(AU).


Resumen: El objetivo fue analizar la aceptabilidad de la quimioprofilaxis con rifampicina en dosis única (PEP) entre los contactos, casos índices de hanseniasis y profesionales de salud, así como los factores relacionados que puedan influenciar en la adhesión al tratamiento. Se realizó un estudio cualitativo de análisis de contenido, tras la realización de entrevistas semiestructuradas, según el protocolo propuesto en el programa LPEP (2016), realizado en Alta Floresta, Mato Grosso, Brasil, en julio de 2016. Participaron en el estudio individuos diagnosticados con hanseniasis, contactos y profesionales de la salud. Se utilizó el software QRS NVivo versión 10. Se contactó con 80 individuos, siendo 54 (67%) contactos, 11 (14%) casos índices y 15 (19%) profesionales de salud. Entre los contactos 94% (51/54) tomaron PEP. Se identificaron 3 categorías respecto a la PEP: comprensión, aceptación y expectativa de intervención. La comprensión estuvo relacionada con el cuidado del equipo de salud. El aceptar o no la medicación estuvo relacionado con el miedo, confianza y protección, operatividad de la estrategia, autoestima e inseguridad de la intervención. La expectativa de la intervención estuvo relacionada con el bienestar, prevención de la enfermedad, así como secuelas, disminución de gasto público y ampliación del acceso. Existió un reconocimiento de la relevancia de la estrategia PEP por la posibilidad de interrupción de la cadena de transmisión, disminución de casos nuevos y mejora en la calidad de vida. La inseguridad en tomar la medicación y de que la enfermedad se manifestara influenciaron negativamente en la aceptación de la PEP, por otro lado, la información previa sobre la estrategia PEP contribuyó al fortalecimiento de la confianza en los profesionales de salud y a la aceptabilidad de la medicación(AU).


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Rifampin/therapeutic use , Chemoprevention , Treatment Adherence and Compliance , Leprosy/prevention & control , Patient Acceptance of Health Care , Post-Exposure Prophylaxis , Leprosy/therapy
17.
Philippine Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology ; : 6-11, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-876592

ABSTRACT

Background@#Administration of chemotherapy to prevent postmolar gestational trophoblastic neoplasia was first implemented in the 1960’s. However, its use has remained controversial.@*Objectives@#This study aimed to describe the effect of chemoprophylaxis in preventing progression of hydatidiform mole to gestational trophoblastic neoplasia among patients managed in a tertiary hospital in Davao City from 2011 to 2015.@*Materials & Method@#This retrospective cross-sectional study evaluated 123 cases of hydatidiform mole who were managed at a tertiary hospital in Davao City from the years 2011 to 2015. The patients’ charts were retrieved to get the clinicodemographic profile, progression to gestational trophoblastic neoplasia, and occurrence of adverse effects secondary to chemoprophylaxis. Patients with rising or plateauing beta human chorionic gonadotropin titer were identified within the 3-year period from molar evacuation. Collected data were analyzed using frequency and percentage distribution.@*Results@#The mean age of the patients was 30.5 years, 24% of whom were noted in women more than 40 years of age. The average age of gestation on admission was 14.89 weeks. All patients had a histopathologic diagnosis of complete mole and at least one risk factor for developing postmolar gestational trophoblastic neoplasia. Patients did not experience any significant side effect to chemoprophylaxis. None of the patients developed gestational trophoblastic neoplasia within the 3-year period of monitoring.@*Conclusion@#The administration of chemoprophylaxis to patients diagnosed with hydatidiform mole may be effective against the development of postmolar gestational trophoblastic neoplasia.


Subject(s)
Pregnancy , Female , Gestational Trophoblastic Disease , Hydatidiform Mole , Neoplasms , Chemoprevention
18.
Rev. bras. parasitol. vet ; 29(4): e010520, 2020. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1144235

ABSTRACT

Abstract Cattle tick fever (CTF) causes significant economic losses in the livestock sector. The pathogenic action of the hemoparasites is associated with anemia, weight loss, abortion and reduced productivity, which result with animal death. Programs to prevent CTF involve several procedures, including immunization, chemoprophylaxis and use of ectoparasiticides, together with the vector control in the environment. The objective of this study was to report an acute outbreak of CTF in a group of 157 Hereford cattle from a farm without presence of the vector, that were moved to a farm in the same state with a high tick infestation (Rhipicephalus microplus). On the day before the transportation, the animals received a chemoprophylaxis with imidocarb dipropionate (3 mg/kg, SC), which was repeated 21 days after the first application. After 42 days, some animals showed signs compatible with CTF, which was confirmed through clinical examination, necropsy, histopathological and hemoparasitological analyses. The morbidity rate was 37.6% and the mortality rate was 24.8%. Calves that were recently weaned were the group most affected with the tick fever, morbidity (100% and mortality (73%). Chemoprophylaxis in association with use of ectoparasiticides was not sufficient to control the outbreak of the disease.


Resumo A "tristeza parasitária bovina" (TPB) gera importantes perdas econômicas na bovinocultura mundial. A ação patogênica dos hemoparasitas resulta em anemia, perda de peso, abortos e diminuição da produtividade, culminando, muitas vezes, em óbito dos animais. Um programa de prevenção para TPB necessita de medidas integradas, como a imunização, quimioprofilaxia e utilização de ectoparasiticidas, em conjunto com ações que visem ao controle ambiental dos vetores. Este artigo tem em vista o relato de um surto de TPB em uma fazenda de produção de bovinos de corte e com alta infestação do carrapato (Rhipicephalus microplus). A fazenda adquiriu 157 animais puros de origem, da raça Hereford, proveniente de uma fazenda sem presença do vetor. No dia anterior ao transporte, os animais receberam quimioprofilaxia com dipropionato de imidocarb (3mg/Kg/SC), repetindo-se 21 dias após a primeira aplicação. Aos 42 dias, alguns bezerros manifestaram sinais clínicos compatíveis com TPB, sendo confirmado pelo exame clínico, necropsia, análises histopatológicas e hemoparasitológicas. A morbidade foi de 37,6% (59/157), e a letalidade de 24,8% (39/157). A categoria de bezerros recém desmamados foi a mais acometida, com morbidade de 100% (52/52) e letalidade de 73% (38/52). A quimioprofilaxia associada à utilização de ectoparasiticidas foram insuficientes para evitar a ocorrência do surto da enfermidade.


Subject(s)
Animals , Babesiosis/diagnosis , Babesiosis/prevention & control , Babesiosis/epidemiology , Anaplasmosis/diagnosis , Anaplasmosis/prevention & control , Anaplasmosis/epidemiology , Tick Infestations/prevention & control , Tick Infestations/veterinary , Cattle , Cattle Diseases/prevention & control , Chemoprevention/veterinary , Rhipicephalus
19.
Rev. urug. enferm ; 14(2): 7-14, dic. 2019.
Article in Spanish | BNUY-Enf, LILACS, BNUY, BDENF | ID: biblio-1051251

ABSTRACT

La tuberculosis continúa siendo uno de los problemas de salud pública más importantes a nivel mundial. La estrategia "Fin a la Tuberculosis" desarrollada por la Organización Mundial de la Salud busca acabar con la epidemia mundial para el año 2035, para lo cual los países deben fortalecer sus programas nacionales. Uruguay en 2016 presentó una incidencia de tuberculosis pulmonar de 22 por 100 mil habitantes, con una tendencia de la velocidad en ascenso desde 2005. Objetivos: Describir la situación epidemiológica de la tuberculosis en el departamento de Maldonado-Uruguay, tomando como fuente primaria, la base de datos del Registro Nacional de Tuberculosis, brindada por la Comisión Honoraria de Lucha Antituberculosa y Enfermedades Prevalentes de Uruguay, en el período comprendido entre el 2012 al 2016. Materiales y Métodos: Estudio descriptivo a partir de la revisión de datos proporcionados por el Registro Nacional de Tuberculosis, sobre notificaciones de casos pulmonares y extrapulmonares confirmados y no confirmados, brindado por la Comisión Honoraria de Lucha Antituberculosa y Enfermedades Prevalentes del Ministerio de Salud Pública de Uruguay. Resultados: En el año 2016 la tasa de casos confirmados en el departamento de Maldonado fue de 34 por 100 mil habitantes, siendo el departamento de Uruguay que presentó en ese año la mayor tasa por 100 mil habitantes de casos confirmados pulmonares bacilíferos. Se evidencia una baja cobertura de quimioprofilaxis a contactos declarados. Conclusiones: La tasa de casos por departamento fue mayor que la cifra para el total país, siendo esa diferencia de tasas estadísticamente significativa. La tuberculosis evidencia un problema de salud pública esencial, la vulnerabilidad social y la baja cobertura de quimioprofilaxis de los contactos son dos dimensiones importantes en el abordaje de este problema. Es necesario implementar una propuesta de descentralización supervisada del diagnóstico, tratamiento y profilaxis en Maldonado-Uruguay.


Tuberculosis continues to be one of the most important public health problems worldwide. The "End of Tuberculosis" strategy developed by the World Health Organization seeks to end the global epidemic by 2035, for which countries must strengthen their national programs. Uruguay in 2016 presented an incidence of pulmonary tuberculosis of 22 per 100 thousand inhabitants, with a tendency of the speed in ascent since 2005. Objectives: To describe the epidemiological situation of tuberculosis in the department of Maldonado-Uruguay, using as a primary source, the database of the National Registry of Tuberculosis, provided by the Honorary Commission of Antituberculosis and Prevalent Diseases of Uruguay, in the period included between 2012 to 2016. Materials and Methods: Descriptive study based on the review of data provided by the National Registry of Tuberculosis, on notifications of confirmed and unconfirmed pulmonary and extrapulmonary cases, provided by the Honorary Commission for Antituberculosis and Prevalent Diseases of the Ministry of Public Health of Uruguay. Results: In 2016 the rate of confirmed cases in the department of Maldonado was 34 per 100 thousand inhabitants, being the department of Uruguay that presented in that year the highest rate per 100 thousand inhabitants of confirmed pulmonary smear-positive cases. Tere is evidence of low coverage of chemoprophylaxis at declared contacts. Conclusions: The case rate per department was greater than the figure for the total country, this difference being statistically signifi cant. Tuberculosis evidences an essential public health problem, social vulnerability and low coverage of chemoprophylaxis of contacts are two important dimensions in the approach to this problem. It is necessary to implement a proposal of supervised decentralization of diagnosis, treatment and prophylaxis in Maldonado-Uruguay.


TB continua a ser um dos problemas mais importantes de saúde pública global. A estratégia "Stop Tuberculose", desenvolvido pela Organização Mundial da Saúde busca acabar com a epidemia global até o ano de 2035, para os quais os países devem fortalecer seus programas nacionais. Uruguai em 2016 mostrou uma incidência de tuberculose pulmonar de 22 por 100 mil habitantes, com uma tendência de velocidade subindo desde 2005. Objetivos: descrever a situação epidemiológica da tuberculose no departamento de Maldonado--Uruguay, tomando-se como um banco de dados fonte primária do Registro Nacional de Tuberculose, fornecidos pelo Comitê Honorário de Luta contra a Tuberculose e Doenças Prevalentes do Uruguai, no período 2012-2016. Materiais e Métodos: Estudo descritivo com base na revisão dos dados fornecidos pelo Instituto Nacional de Tuberculose Register, as notificações de casos pulmonar e extrapulmonar confirmados e não confirmados de que o Comitê Honorário de Luta contra a Tuberculose e Doenças Prevalentes, Ministério da Saúde Pública Uruguai. Resultados: Em 2016 a taxa de casos confirmados no departamento de Maldonado foi de 34 por 100 mil habitantes, departamento Uruguai nesse ano apresentou a maior taxa por 100 mil habitantes de casos pulmonares com baciloscopia positiva confirmados. baixa cobertura da quimioprofilaxia para os contatos declarou evidências. Conclusões: A taxa por departamento foi maior do que a figura para todo o país, com a diferença de taxas estatisticamente significativas. Tuberculose evidenciar um problema de saúde pública essencial, vulnerabilidade social e baixa cobertura da quimioprofilaxia dos contatos são duas dimensões importantes na resolução deste problema. Você precisa implementar uma proposta de descentralização supervisionada de diagnóstico, tratamento e profilaxia em Maldonado-Uruguay.


Subject(s)
Humans , Bacterial Infections , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary , Uruguay , Public Health , Epidemiology , Incidence , Data Interpretation, Statistical , Chemoprevention
20.
Acta amaz ; 49(2): 145-151, abr. - jun. 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1119166

ABSTRACT

The skin secretion from toads of the Bufonidae family has great potential in the search for new active compounds to be used as drug candidates in treating some diseases, among them cancer. In this context, this study aimed to evaluate the cytotoxic and antimutagenic activity of the parotoid gland secretion extracts of Rhinella marina and Rhaebo guttatus, as well as biochemically analyze transaminases and serum creatinine for liver and renal damage, respectively. Cytotoxicity was performed by the colorimetric method based on MTT (3- [4, 5-dimethyl-2-thiazolyl]-2, 5-diphenyl-2H-tetrazolium bromide) with different concentrations of the extracts in Walker or splenic tumor cell cultures from rats and mice. The micronucleus test was performed with male Swiss mice treated orally with the extracts for 15 days, and then intraperitoneally with N-ethyl-N-nitrosurea (50 mg kg-1). Micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes (MNPCE) were evaluated in bone marrow. The extracts showed cytotoxic activity in the evaluated cells. There was a significant reduction in the frequency of MNPCE (R. marina = 56% and R. guttatus = 75%, p < 0.001), indicating antimutagenic potential of the extracts. The groups treated only with extract showed an increase in MNPCE frequency, evidencing mutagenic potential. Biochemical analyzes showed no significant difference between treatments. Thus, under our experimental conditions, the extracts of R. marina and R. guttatus skin secretions presented chemopreventive potential for cancer. (AU)


A secreção cutânea de anuros da família Bufonidae tem grande potencial na busca de novos compostos ativos para utilização como fármacos candidatos no tratamento de algumas doenças, entre elas o câncer. Neste contexto, este estudo teve como objetivo avaliar a atividade citotóxica e antimutagênica dos extratos da secreção da glândula parótida de Rhinella marina e Rhaebo guttatus, bem como a análise bioquímica de transaminases e creatinina séricas, para avaliar dano hepático e renal, respectivamente. A avaliação de citotoxicidade foi realizada pelo método colorimétrico baseado no MTT (3-[4, 5-dimethyl-2-thiazolyl]-2, 5-diphenyl-2H-tetrazolium bromide), com diferentes concentrações dos extratos em culturas de células do Tumor de Walker ou células esplênicas de rato e camundongo. O teste do micronúcleo foi realizado com camundongos Swiss machos que receberam tratamento oral com os extratos durante 15 dias, seguido de tratamento intraperitoneal com N-etil-N-nitrosuréia (50 mg kg-1). A frequência de eritrócitos policromáticos micronucleados (PCEMN) foi determinada em medula óssea. Os extratos apresentaram ação citotóxica nas células avaliadas. Houve uma redução significativa na frequência de PCEMN (R. marina = 56% e R. guttatus = 75%, p < 0,001), observando-se um potencial antimutagênico dos extratos. Os grupos tratados somente com os extratos apresentaram um aumento na frequência de PCEMNs, evidenciando um potencial mutagênico. As análises bioquímicas não apresentaram diferença significativa entre os tratamentos. Assim, nas condições experimentais testadas, as secreções cutâneas de R. marina e R. guttatus apresentaram potencial quimiopreventivo para câncer.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Mice , Bufonidae/physiology , Antimutagenic Agents/analysis , Cytotoxins/analysis , Parotid Gland/chemistry , Chemoprevention/veterinary , Bioprospecting
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