Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 118
Filter
1.
Evid. actual. práct. ambul ; 24(4): e002147, 2021.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS, UNISALUD | ID: biblio-1361868

ABSTRACT

A partir de 2022, a la dosis de vacuna contra la varicela contemplada a los 15 meses de edad en el Calendario Nacional de Vacunación de Argentina, se suma una segunda dosis al ingreso escolar. En este artículo se repasan los aspectos clave para la implementación de esta práctica de inmunización universal, gratuita y obligatoria. (AU)


Starting in 2022, a second dose of the varicella vaccine will be added to the 15-month-old dose included in Argentina's National Vaccination Schedule at school entry. This article reviews the key aspects for the implementation of this universal, free and mandatory immunization practice. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Chickenpox/prevention & control , Immunization Schedule , Chickenpox Vaccine/administration & dosage , Argentina , Chickenpox/immunology
2.
Medwave ; 20(6): e7983, 31-07-2020.
Article in English, Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1119734

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCCIÓN: La varicela es una enfermedad infectocontagiosa producida por el virus varicela-zóster. Para su prevención, convencionalmente se utiliza la vacuna varicela, cuya administración busca disminuir la aparición de enfermedad y sus complicaciones. Sin embargo, aún existe controversia sobre la efectividad. MÉTODOS: Realizamos una búsqueda en Epistemonikos, la mayor base de datos de revisiones sistemáticas en salud, la cual es mantenida mediante el cribado de múltiples fuentes de información, incluyendo MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane, entre otras. Extrajimos los datos desde las revisiones identificadas, analizamos los datos de los estudios primarios, realizamos un metanálisis y preparamos una tabla de resumen de los resultados utilizando el método GRADE. RESULTADOS Y CONCLUSIONES: Se identificaron dos revisiones sistemáticas que en conjunto incluyeron 16 estudios primarios, de los cuales, tres corresponden a ensayos aleatorizados. Concluimos que la vacunación contra la varicela disminuye el riesgo de contraer la enfermedad a largo plazo en pacientes sanos sin exposición previa y que probablemente disminuye el riesgo de contraer la enfermedad a corto plazo. Sin embargo, aumenta la reacción local 48 horas posterior a su administración y probablemente aumenta la aparición de fiebre y varicela-like rash.


INTRODUCTION: Chickenpox is an infectious disease caused by varicella-zoster virus. Varicella vaccine is conventionally used for its prevention, and its administration seeks to reduce the onset of the disease and complications associated. However, there is still controversy about its effectiveness. METHODS: We searched in Epistemonikos, the largest database of systematic reviews in health, which is maintained by screening multiple information sources, including MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane, among others. We extracted data from the systematic reviews, reanalyzed data of primary studies, conducted a meta-analysis and generated a summary of findings table using the GRADE approach. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: We identified two systematic reviews including 16 studies overall, of which three were randomized trials. We concluded that the varicella vaccine decreases the risk of contracting the disease in the long term and probably reduces the risk of developing the disease in the short term in healthy unexposed patients. Nevertheless, the vaccination increases the occurrence of local reactions 48 hours after its administration and probably increases the presence of fever and chickenpox-like rash.


Subject(s)
Humans , Chickenpox/prevention & control , Chickenpox Vaccine/administration & dosage , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Databases, Factual , Chickenpox Vaccine/adverse effects
4.
Cad. Saúde Pública (Online) ; 36(supl.2): e00008520, 2020.
Article in Portuguese | SES-SP, LILACS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1132881

ABSTRACT

Resumo: A vacinação é uma das maiores intervenções em saúde pública pela segurança e efetividade, porém nem sempre vacinar significa imunizar. Inúmeros aspectos relacionados tanto ao indivíduo que recebe a vacina, quanto à especificidade de cada imunobiológico administrado compõem o processo para a obtenção de uma adequada imunização, sendo essencial que sejam observados para não culminar em falhas vacinais. A análise dos estudos de imunogenicidade e efetividade para as vacinas sarampo, varicela e caxumba apontam para a necessidade da incorporação de duas doses aos calendários básicos de vacinação para o controle das referidas doenças. Estudos epidemiológicos que analisaram surtos dessas doenças identificaram casos em indivíduos que receberam duas doses da vacina, o que pode apontar provável falha secundária. Para a vacina febre amarela, a discussão atual reside no número de doses ideal para a proteção individual. A Organização Mundial da Saúde recomenda dose única para toda a vida. Apesar dos poucos relatos em literatura a respeito das falhas vacinais, os estudos de imunogenicidade demonstram perda de proteção ao longo dos anos, principalmente na faixa etária pediátrica. Num cenário atual de eliminação e controle de doenças, associado à diminuição da circulação de vírus selvagens, o papel da vigilância epidemiológica é fundamental para aprofundar o conhecimento a respeito dos múltiplos fatores envolvidos, que culminam com falhas vacinais e surgimento de surtos. A ocorrência de surtos de doenças imunopreveníveis impacta negativamente a credibilidade dos programas de imunização, acarretando baixas coberturas vacinais e interferindo no êxito da vacinação.


Resumen: La vacunación es una de las mayores intervenciones en salud pública, por su seguridad y efectividad, sin embargo, no siempre vacunar significa inmunizar. Innumerables aspectos relacionados tanto con el individuo que recibe la vacuna, como con la especificidad de cada inmunobiológico administrado, componen el proceso para conseguir una adecuada inmunización, siendo esencial que sean observados para no acabar con fallos en las vacunas. El análisis de los estudios de inmunogenicidad y efectividad para las vacunas sarampión, varicela y parotiditis, apuntan hacia la necesidad de la incorporación de dos dosis a los calendarios básicos de vacunación para el control de las mencionadas enfermedades. Estudios epidemiológicos que analizaron brotes de esas enfermedades identificaron casos en individuos que recibieron dos dosis de la vacuna, lo que puede apuntar un probable fallo secundario. Para la vacuna de fiebre amarilla la discusión actual reside en el número de dosis ideal para protección individual. La Organización Mundial de la Salud recomienda una dosis única para toda la vida. A pesar de los pocos relatos en la literatura, respecto a los fallos en las vacunas, los estudios de inmunogenicidad demuestran una pérdida de protección a lo largo de los años, principalmente en la franja de etaria pediátrica. En un escenario actual de eliminación y control de enfermedades, asociado a la disminución de la circulación de virus salvajes, el papel de la vigilancia epidemiológica es fundamental para profundizar el conocimiento respecto a los múltiples factores implicados, que culminan con fallos en las vacunas y surgimiento de brotes. La ocurrencia de brotes de enfermedades inmunoprevenibles impacta negativamente en la credibilidad de los programas de inmunización, acarreando bajas coberturas de vacunación e interfiriendo en el éxito de la vacunación.


Abstract: Vaccination is one of the greatest public health interventions, based on its safety and effectiveness, but vaccination does not always mean immunization. Numerous aspects related both to the individual that receives the vaccine and the specificity of each vaccine administered are part of the process of obtaining adequate immunization, and it is essential to observe the aspects in order to avoid vaccine failures. The analysis of immunogenicity and effectiveness studies for the measles, varicella, and mumps vaccines point to the need to incorporate two doses into the basic vaccination calendars in order to control these diseases. Epidemiological studies that analyzed outbreaks of these diseases identified cases in individuals that received two doses of the vaccine, which may indicate likely secondary failure. For the yellow fever vaccine, the current discussion lies in the ideal number of doses for individual protection. The World Health Organization recommends a single dose for life. Despite the few reports in the literature concerning vaccine failures, immunogenicity studies demonstrate waning protection over the years, mainly in the pediatric age bracket. In the current scenario of elimination and control of diseases, associated with the decrease in the circulation of the wild-type viruses, the role of epidemiological surveillance is crucial for expanding knowledge on the multiple factors involved, culminating in vaccine failures and the emergence of outbreaks. Outbreaks of vaccine-preventable diseases negatively impact the credibility of immunization programs, leading to low vaccination coverage rates and interfering in vaccination's success.


Subject(s)
Humans , Infant , Child , Rubella , Yellow Fever/prevention & control , Yellow Fever/epidemiology , Chickenpox , Measles/prevention & control , Measles/epidemiology , Mumps/prevention & control , Mumps/epidemiology , Brazil , Immunization Schedule , Vaccination , Vaccines, Combined , Chickenpox Vaccine/adverse effects , Measles-Mumps-Rubella Vaccine
5.
Cad. Saúde Pública (Online) ; 36(1): e00149119, 2020. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1055626

ABSTRACT

Abstract: Varicella in adults and immunocompromised patients can be severe. The clinical diagnosis of varicella has high accuracy and the history of disease has a high positive predictive value for protection. A significant portion of adults, however, cannot remember if they have had varicella, especially older individuals. We conducted a cross-sectional study to determine the seroprevalence of varicella protective antibodies titers in adults with no clinical history of disease, attended at a Reference Center for Special Immunobiologicals and Travel Medicine in Rio de Janeiro (Brazil). Titration of immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies to varicella-zoster was determined by chemiluminescence immunoassay. Among 140 adults without history of varicella, 92% had protective antibody titers. We concluded that seroprevalence of varicella-zoster protection was very high in adults with negative history of disease and the use of serology before vaccination reduced significantly unnecessary vaccine and immunoglobulin use.


Resumo: A varicela é uma doença potencialmente grave em adultos e em pacientes imunocomprometidos. O diagnóstico clínico da varicela apresenta alta acurácia, e o relato da doença na história individual tem alto valor preditivo positivo para a proteção. Entretanto, uma proporção significativa de adultos, principalmente os mais idosos, não se lembra se já teve a doença. Realizamos um estudo transversal para determinar a soroprevalência de títulos protetores de anticorpos contra a varicela em adultos sem história clínica da doença, atendidos em um Centro de Referência para Imunobiológicos Especiais e Medicina de Viagem no Rio de Janeiro, Brasil. Os títulos da imunoglobulina G (IgG) contra varicela-zoster foram determinados por quimiluminescência. Entre 140 adultos sem história de varicela, 92% apresentaram títulos protetores de anticorpos. Concluímos que a soroprevalência de proteção contra varicela-zoster é muito alta em adultos sem história da doença, e que o uso de teste sorológico antes da vacinação reduziria significativamente a vacinação desnecessária e o uso de imunoglobulina.


Resumen: La varicela en adultos y pacientes inmunocomprometidos puede ser grave. El diagnóstico clínico de la varicela tiene una gran precisión y la historia de la enfermedad cuenta con un alto valor predictivo positivo para la protección contra ella. Sin embargo, un porcentaje significativo de adultos, no puede recordar si tuvieron varicela, especialmente las personas más viejas. Realizamos un estudio transversal para determinar la seroprevalencia de las concentraciones de anticuerpos protectores frente a la varicela, en adultos sin historia clínica de la enfermedad, que se llevó a cabo en un Centro de Referencia para Inmunobiología Especial y Medicina del Viajero en Río de Janeiro (Brasil). Se determinó la valoración de los anticuerpos de inmunoglobulina G (IgG) a la varicela-zoster mediante un ensayo inmunológico quimioluminiscente. Entre 140 adultos sin historial de varicela, un 92% tuvieron concentraciones de anticuerpos protectores. Concluimos que la seroprevalencia de la protección a la varicela-zoster fue muy alta en adultos con un historial negativo de la enfermedad y la utilización de la serología antes de la vacunación redujo de manera significativa la vacunación innecesaria y el uso de la inmunoglobulina.


Subject(s)
Humans , Adult , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Chickenpox/epidemiology , Herpesvirus 3, Human/immunology , Measurements, Methods and Theories , Brazil/epidemiology , Chickenpox/prevention & control , Chickenpox/blood , Prevalence , Cross-Sectional Studies , Chickenpox Vaccine , Luminescent Measurements , Antibodies, Viral/blood
6.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS, ARGMSAL | ID: biblio-1117063

ABSTRACT

La varicela es una de las enfermedades inmunoprevenibles más comunes. En 1998 la Organización Mundial de la Salud recomendó incorporar la vacuna a los programas nacionales de vacunación. Argentina lo hizo en 2015. El objetivo de este trabajo fue analizar la serie temporal de varicela durante 2005-2019 y evaluar el impacto de la vacuna sobre su incidencia en Tucumán tras la implementación. MÉTODOS: Se llevó a cabo un estudio observacional de tipo ecológico con fuentes de datos secundarias. Los casos de varicela fueron los consignados por el Sistema Nacional de Vigilancia de Salud. Se describió la serie temporal de casos notificados de varicela para Tucumán y se construyeron modelos aditivos generalizados (GAM) utilizando una distribución binomial negativa. Se verificó el impacto de la vacuna tomando el período 2005-2014, se construyó un modelo GAM y se pronosticó el comportamiento más probable luego de la implementación. Se evaluó el impacto comparando las tasas con sus intervalos de confianza entre lo pronosticado y lo observado. RESULTADOS: Tucumán notificó 82 810 casos durante 2005-2019. La tasa anual varió entre 1,66 por 1000 habitantes (2019) y 6,04 por 1000 habitantes (2007). La serie presentó estacionalidad y en los últimos años una tendencia decreciente. Se observó una disminución significativa de la tasa de incidencia tras la implementación de la vacuna. DISCUSIÓN: El presente trabajo evidenció el impacto de una política pública como la vacuna


Subject(s)
Public Policy , Chickenpox , Time Series Studies , Chickenpox Vaccine
7.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-760223

ABSTRACT

The Committee on Infectious Diseases of the Korean Pediatric Society recommended immunization schedule for children and adolescents aged 18 years or younger in the 9th (2018) edition of Immunization guideline. This report provides the revised recommendations made by the committee and summarizes several changes from the 2015 guideline. National immunization program (NIP) launched a human papillomavirus (HPV) immunization for girls aged 12 years in 2016. NIP has also expanded age indication for inactivated influenza vaccine (IIV) to 12 years of age in the 2018-2019 season. Quadrivalent IIVs with a full dose (0.5 mL) are approved for all children of 6 months or older. Recommendations of live attenuated influenza vaccine were removed. For inactivated Japanese encephalitis vaccine, first 2 doses are considered as the primary series. Recommendations for use of newly introduced vaccines (diphtheria-tetanus-acellular pertussis/inactivated poliovirus/Haemophilus influenzae type b, 9-valent HPV, new varicella vaccine, new quadrivalent IIV, and attenuated oral typhoid vaccine) were added. Lastly, monitoring system for adverse events following immunization was updated. Other changes can be found in the 9th edition of Immunization guideline in detail.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Chickenpox Vaccine , Child , Communicable Diseases , Encephalitis, Japanese , Female , Humans , Immunization Programs , Immunization Schedule , Immunization , Infant , Influenza Vaccines , Influenza, Human , Korea , Seasons , Typhoid Fever , Vaccines
8.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-765158

ABSTRACT

The number of reported varicella cases is continuously increasing in Korea; however, associated medical utilization is declining. The ratio between varicella insurance claims and reports of passive infectious disease surveillance has gradually increased to > 80% since the second half of 2017. The recent increase in reported varicella cases is influenced by improved reporting. We calculated the varicella incidence and cumulative incidence in each birth cohort according to age. The cumulative incidence rate among children aged < 6 years in the birth cohort born after the National Immunization Program introduced the varicella vaccine was about 60% lower than among children born before


Subject(s)
Chickenpox Vaccine , Chickenpox , Child , Cohort Studies , Communicable Diseases , Humans , Immunization Programs , Immunization , Incidence , Insurance , Korea , Parturition
9.
Braz. j. infect. dis ; 22(1): 41-46, Jan.-feb. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-951623

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Introduction: Immune response to vaccination in infants born prematurely may be lower than in infants born at full-term. Some clinical factors might be associated with humoral immune response. Objectives: The objectives of this study were to compare the immune response to measles and varicella vaccination in infants born prematurely with those born at full-term and to analyze factors associated with measles and varicella antibody levels. Methods: Prospective study including two groups of infants aged 12 months. One group of infants born prematurely with birth-weight <1500 g and who were in follow-up at the outpatient clinic for preterm infants at the institution and other group of infants born at full-term. Infants with malformations, primary immunodeficiency diseases, born to HIV-positive mothers or who had received plasma or immunoglobulin transfusions five months before or three weeks after vaccination were excluded. Plasma antibodies were measured by ELISA and factors associated with antibody levels were assessed by linear regression. Results: Sixty-five premature and 56 full-term infants were included. The percentage of immune individuals after vaccination against measles (100% vs. 100%) and varicella (92.5% vs. 93.2%) were similar in both groups, as well as the antibody levels against measles (2.393 vs. 2.412 UI/mL; p = 0.970) and varicella (0.551 vs. 0.399 UI/mL; p = 0.114). Use of antenatal corticosteroids decreased measles antibody levels whereas breastfeeding for more than six months increased varicella antibody levels. Conclusions: Humoral responses to measles and varicella were similar between infants born prematurely and full-term infants. Measles antibody levels were negatively associated with antenatal corticosteroid use; varicella antibodies were positively associated with prolonged breastfeeding.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant , Infant, Premature/immunology , Infant, Very Low Birth Weight/immunology , Chickenpox Vaccine/immunology , Measles-Mumps-Rubella Vaccine/immunology , Immunity, Humoral/immunology , Breast Feeding , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Linear Models , Chickenpox/immunology , Chickenpox/prevention & control , Prospective Studies , Gestational Age , Vaccination/methods , Statistics, Nonparametric , Measles/immunology , Measles/prevention & control , Antibodies, Viral/blood
10.
EMHJ-Eastern Mediterranean Health Journal. 2018; 24 (03): 295-301
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-167933

ABSTRACT

Background: In Turkey, varicella vaccine was introduced into routine childhood immunization in 2013, with a single dose administered to children aged 12 months. However, there is limited information on the morbidity [incidence and seroprevalence], mortality and burden of disease of varicella in the overall Turkish population.


Aim: To determine varicella seroprevalence and its social determinants in Manisa Province, Turkey in children aged > 2 years before single-dose varicella vaccination was introduced in 2013.


Methods: The presence of anti varicella-zoster virus IgG antibodies was determined using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in serum samples collected from 1250 participants.


Results: The overall seroprevalence was 92.8% and the seroprevalence was > 90% among all age groups except 2–9 years [55.7%]. Seroprevalence was significantly associated with family size, annual per capita equivalent income, number of people per room and education level. After adjusting by age, only education level remained significantly associated with seroprevalence, reflecting the early age effect.


Conclusion: High seroprevalance depends on natural exposure to the infectious agent itself and is not associated with social determinants. High vaccine coverage should be maintained for effective varicella control and switching to a 2-dose schedule may also be considered to reduce the number and size of outbreaks in the Turkish population


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Socioeconomic Factors , Chickenpox Vaccine , Cross-Sectional Studies , Chickenpox/diagnosis
11.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-775305

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To evaluate the cost/benefit of different vaccination strategies related to chickenpox vaccine.@*METHODS@#The direct economic cost and indirect economic cost caused by chickenpox were obtained through questionnaire survey. The epidemic characteristics of chickenpox in Zhejiang province were studied by literature review. Dynamic model was set up by Matlab software based on the parameters of chickenpox, to predict the incidence trends of chickenpox with different immunization strategies (no vaccination, 1-dose vaccination, 2-dose vaccination) in future 40 years (2017-2056). A cost-benefit analysis was conducted, and the sensitivities of the main parameters were analyzed.@*RESULTS@#Through the questionnaire survey of 105 cases, the direct and indirect economic cost per case was 506.84 Yuan and 1045.39 Yuan respectively, with the total of 1552.23 Yuan. During the prediction period (40 years), there would be 7.0908 million cases in strategy 2, which was 59.71% less than strategy 1 (17.5989 million cases). Total vaccination costs in strategy 2 were 2.366 billion Yuan, with a total economic gain of 33.741 billion Yuan and benefit/cost ratio (BCR) of 14.26:1. If strategy 3 was adopted, 2.7249 million chickenpox cases would occur, with a decrease of 84.52% compared with strategy 1. Total vaccination costs in strategy 3 was 4.495 billion Yuan, with a total economic gain of 44.309 billion Yuan and BCR of 9.86:1. Analysis showed that the vaccine price was the most sensitive variable, followed by the incidence of chickenpox in the absence of vaccine.@*CONCLUSIONS@#In Zhejiang province, one-dose strategy and two-dose strategy were both cost effective. It is suggested that the chickenpox vaccination should be included in the immunization program in Zhejiang province.


Subject(s)
Chickenpox , Chickenpox Vaccine , Cost-Benefit Analysis , Humans , Immunization Programs , Economics , Methods , Vaccination , Economics
12.
Epidemiology and Health ; : 2018054-2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-786824

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Although the nationwide inoculation rate of varicella vaccine was approximately 95% in Korean children recently, the number of notified varicella cases is unexpectedly continuously increasing till now. To suggest some hypotheses regarding this discrepancy, an age-period-cohort (APC) analysis as a descriptive epidemiology study was conducted for children residing in Jeju-do, Korea.METHODS: The raw data were obtained from the nationwide database for insurance claim of healthcare fee provided by the National Health Insurance Service, Korea. The selection criteria were children aged 2–13 years who visited any healthcare center due to varicella from 2005 to 2016 while residing in Jeju-do. After calculating the birth cohort-specific crude incidence rates by age and year, the intrinsic estimator method was used to perform the APC analysis.RESULTS: As the annual crude incidence rates decreased with increasing age between 2005 and 2016, the age and period effects also decreased. The intrinsic estimator coefficients suggesting the cohort effect shifted from positive to negative in 2011, the starting year of free varicella vaccine program in Jeju-do.CONCLUSIONS: The results suggested that inoculated varicella vaccines have preventive effects. However, further studies to evaluate waning immunity would be needed.


Subject(s)
Chickenpox Vaccine , Chickenpox , Child , Cohort Effect , Delivery of Health Care , Epidemiology , Fees and Charges , Humans , Immunization Programs , Immunization Schedule , Incidence , Insurance , Korea , Measles-Mumps-Rubella Vaccine , Methods , National Health Programs , Parturition , Patient Selection , Vaccines
13.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-716811

ABSTRACT

Varicella-zoster virus (VZV) causes a highly contagious and generally benign, self-limited disease. However, in high-risk populations including immunocompromised patients, pregnant women, and neonates, VZV infection can be associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Healthcare-associated transmission of VZV occurs among healthcare workers (HCWs) and patients by airborne transmission or by direct contact with the index case. To minimize the risk of transmission in healthcare settings, all VZV-susceptible HCWs should be encouraged strongly to be immunized with the varicella vaccine. For post-exposure management, active immunization (varicella vaccine), passive immunization (varicella-zoster immune globulin) and/or antiviral agents, and isolation could be used in specific situations. To prevent the transmission of VZV infection in the hospital settings, the development and implementation of hospital policies for appropriate infection control is also warranted. This article reviews the general information and healthcare-associated transmission of VZV and summarizes the recommendations for the pre- and post-exposure management of HCWs and patients, in hospital settings.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents , Chickenpox Vaccine , Delivery of Health Care , Female , Herpesvirus 3, Human , Hospitals, Isolation , Humans , Immunization, Passive , Immunocompromised Host , Infant, Newborn , Infection Control , Mortality , Occupational Exposure , Pregnant Women , Vaccination
14.
Epidemiology and Health ; : e2018054-2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-721380

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Although the nationwide inoculation rate of varicella vaccine was approximately 95% in Korean children recently, the number of notified varicella cases is unexpectedly continuously increasing till now. To suggest some hypotheses regarding this discrepancy, an age-period-cohort (APC) analysis as a descriptive epidemiology study was conducted for children residing in Jeju-do, Korea. METHODS: The raw data were obtained from the nationwide database for insurance claim of healthcare fee provided by the National Health Insurance Service, Korea. The selection criteria were children aged 2–13 years who visited any healthcare center due to varicella from 2005 to 2016 while residing in Jeju-do. After calculating the birth cohort-specific crude incidence rates by age and year, the intrinsic estimator method was used to perform the APC analysis. RESULTS: As the annual crude incidence rates decreased with increasing age between 2005 and 2016, the age and period effects also decreased. The intrinsic estimator coefficients suggesting the cohort effect shifted from positive to negative in 2011, the starting year of free varicella vaccine program in Jeju-do. CONCLUSIONS: The results suggested that inoculated varicella vaccines have preventive effects. However, further studies to evaluate waning immunity would be needed.


Subject(s)
Chickenpox Vaccine , Chickenpox , Child , Cohort Effect , Delivery of Health Care , Epidemiology , Fees and Charges , Humans , Immunization Programs , Immunization Schedule , Incidence , Insurance , Korea , Measles-Mumps-Rubella Vaccine , Methods , National Health Programs , Parturition , Patient Selection , Vaccines
15.
Arch. argent. pediatr ; 115(5): 432-438, oct. 2017. tab
Article in English, Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-887368

ABSTRACT

Fundamento. La varicela, enfermedad infecto-contagiosa que afecta a la infancia de forma benigna, puede complicarse en adultos y niños vulnerables y ser mortal. Existen vacunas eficaces. Se estudiaron retrospectivamente los costes que supuso esta enfermedad en la población aragonesa en el período 2004-2014 y las hospitalizaciones generadas. Se compararon con los gastos que supondría haber vacunado a esas personas y también los gastos de vacunar a la población de 1 año de edad durante todo ese período. Mediante un análisis coste-beneficio, se evaluó el impacto económico de la vacunación. Método. Se utilizaron datos de la Autonomía de Aragón (España) de estos 11 años (incidencia anual de varicela, altas hospitalarias por este motivo, precio de la consulta de atención primaria y de hospitalización de cada año, así como el coste de días de trabajo según el salario mínimo anual y medicaciones utilizadas). Se calcularon los costes capitalizados, se compararon con los gastos capitalizados de vacunación y se realizó un análisis de sensibilidad. Resultados. Se obtuvo un índice beneficio-coste de 1,6 vacunando y revacunando a todos los niños que se enfermaron. Resultó un índice beneficio-coste de 1,24 al vacunar a toda la población de 12 meses con vacuna de 28,59€. En estos 11 años, el 53% de las hospitalizaciones fueron niños menores de 5 años. Conclusiones. Las campañas públicas de vacunación con 2 dosis a población menor de 4 años suponen ahorro y rentabilidad porque el precio de la vacuna permite un índice beneficio-coste superior a 1. Es esperable una gran disminución de hospitalizaciones en la población de 3-4 años.


Background. Varicella, a contagious and infectious disease that is usually benign in children, may become complicated among adults and vulnerable children and may even be life-threatening. There are effective vaccines. A retrospective study was conducted about costs and resulting hospitalizations related to this disease in the population of Aragón in the 2004-2014 period. Costs were compared to the expenses that would have been incurred if those people had received the vaccine and also to the expenses of vaccinating the 1-year-old population over the entire period. A cost-benefit analysis was done to assess the economic impact of varicella vaccination. Method. Data for the 11-year period were provided by the Autonomous Community of Aragón (Spain) and included annual varicella incidence, hospital discharges of varicella cases, costs of primary health care visits and hospitalizations for each year, costs of each workday as per the minimum annual salary and of drugs used). Capitalized costs were estimated and compared to capitalized expenses of vaccination, and a sensitivity analysis was performed. Results. A benefit-cost ratio of 1.6 was obtained considering that all children who had varicella had been vaccinated and had received a booster dose. A benefit-cost ratio of 1.24 was obtained considering that the vaccine had been administered to every 1-year-old individual at a price of EUR 28.59 per vaccine. Over the 11-year period, 53% of hospitalizations corresponded to children younger than 5 years old. Conclusions. Public campaigns for the immunization of children younger than 4 years old with 2 doses lead to cost savings and are cost-effective because the vaccine price results in a benefit-cost ratio greater than 1. A major reduction is expected in the number of hospitalizations among children aged 3-4 years.


Subject(s)
Humans , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Chickenpox/prevention & control , Cost-Benefit Analysis , Chickenpox Vaccine/economics , Spain , Retrospective Studies
16.
Weekly Epidemiological Monitor. 2017; 10 (18): 1
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-187410

ABSTRACT

The Ministry of National Health Services, Regulations and Coordination. Of Pakistan recently reported a total of 76 suspected cases of Varicella [Chickenpox] including 15 deaths [CFR: 19.7%]. These cases were reported From 2 January to 15 April 2017. So far all varicella cases have been reported from Faisalabad city, a highly populous city in Punjab province in the eastern part of the country


Subject(s)
Humans , Chickenpox/mortality , Herpesvirus 3, Human/pathogenicity , Chickenpox Vaccine/therapeutic use , Chickenpox/prevention & control
17.
Epidemiology and Health ; : e2017053-2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-721261

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The reported incidence rate of varicella infection in Jeju-do is higher compared with the national average. This study aimed to examine varicella vaccination history and evaluate clinical manifestation of varicella cases in Jeju-do. METHODS: Based on the guideline suggested by the Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (KCDC), two epidemic investigations for varicella infection were conducted in the first half of 2017. The history of varicella vaccination was confirmed using the Integrated Control System for Diseases and Health operated by the KCDC. RESULTS: Out of a total of 60 elementary school children as the study subjects, all had been previously vaccinated against varicella. Twenty cases (33%) showed mild clinical manifestations and no complications. CONCLUSIONS: As the government of Jeju-do has supplied a single-labeled vaccine since 2011, there is a need to evaluate the type of vaccination failure such as primary or secondary.


Subject(s)
Chickenpox Vaccine , Chickenpox , Child , Humans , Immunization , Incidence , Korea , Vaccination
18.
Epidemiology and Health ; : 2017053-2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-786765

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The reported incidence rate of varicella infection in Jeju-do is higher compared with the national average. This study aimed to examine varicella vaccination history and evaluate clinical manifestation of varicella cases in Jeju-do.METHODS: Based on the guideline suggested by the Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (KCDC), two epidemic investigations for varicella infection were conducted in the first half of 2017. The history of varicella vaccination was confirmed using the Integrated Control System for Diseases and Health operated by the KCDC.RESULTS: Out of a total of 60 elementary school children as the study subjects, all had been previously vaccinated against varicella. Twenty cases (33%) showed mild clinical manifestations and no complications.CONCLUSIONS: As the government of Jeju-do has supplied a single-labeled vaccine since 2011, there is a need to evaluate the type of vaccination failure such as primary or secondary.


Subject(s)
Chickenpox Vaccine , Chickenpox , Child , Humans , Immunization , Incidence , Korea , Vaccination
19.
Rev. paul. pediatr ; 34(3): 359-366, July-Sept. 2016. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-794957

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective: To describe the impact of varicella vaccination on varicella-related hospitalization rates in countries that implemented universal vaccination against the disease. Data source: We identified countries that implemented universal vaccination against varicella at the http://apps.who.int/immunization_monitoring/globalsummary/schedules site of the World Health Organization and selected articles in Pubmed describing the changes (pre/post-vaccination) in the varicella-related hospitalization rates in these countries, using the Keywords "varicella", "vaccination/vaccine" and "children" (or) "hospitalization". Publications in English published between January 1995 and May 2015 were included. Data synthesis: 24 countries with universal vaccination against varicella and 28 articles describing the impact of the vaccine on varicella-associated hospitalizations rates in seven countries were identified. The US had 81.4%–99.2% reduction in hospitalization rates in children younger than four years, 6–14 years after the onset of universal vaccination (1995), with vaccination coverage of 90%; Uruguay: 94% decrease (children aged 1–4 years) in six years, vaccination coverage of 90%; Canada: 93% decrease (age 1–4 years) in 10 years, coverage of 93%; Germany: 62.4% decrease (age 1–4 years) in 8 years, coverage of 78.2%; Australia: 76.8% decrease (age 1–4 years) in 5 years, coverage of 90%; Spain: 83.5% decrease (age <5 years) in four years, coverage of 77.2% and Italy 69.7%–73.8% decrease (general population), coverage of 60%–95%. Conclusions: The publications showed variations in the percentage of decrease in varicella-related hospitalization rates after universal vaccination in the assessed countries; the results probably depend on the time since the implementation of universal vaccination, differences in the studied age group, hospital admission criteria, vaccination coverage and strategy, which does not allow direct comparison between data.


Resumo Objetivo: Descrever o impacto da vacina varicela nas taxas de internações hospitalares associadas à varicela nos países que adotaram a vacinação universal contra a doença. Fontes de dados: Identificaram-se países que adotaram a vacinação universal contra varicela pelo site http://apps.who.int/immunization_monitoring/globalsummary/schedules da Organização Mundial de Saúde e selecionaram-se os artigos no Pubmed que descrevem a variação (pré/pós-vacinal) nas taxas de internações relacionadas à varicela desses países, com auxílio das palavras chaves: "varicella", "vaccination/vaccine" e "children" (ou) "hospitalization". Incluíram-se publicações em inglês entre janeiro de 1995 e maio de 2015. Síntese dos dados: Foram identificados 24 países com vacinação universal contra a varicela e 28 artigos que descrevem o impacto da vacina nas internações associadas à varicela em sete países. Os EUA tiveram 81,4%-99,2% de redução na taxa de internação em crianças menores de quatro anos, após 6-14 anos do início da vacinação universal (1995), com cobertura vacinal de 90%; Uruguai: 94% de queda (crianças de 1-4 anos) em 6 anos, cobertura vacinal de 90%; Canadá: 93% de redução (1-4 anos) em 10 anos, cobertura de 93%; Alemanha: 62,4% de redução (1-4 anos) em 8 anos, cobertura de 78,2%; Austrália: queda de 76,8% (1-4 anos) em 5 anos, cobertura de 90%; Espanha: 83,5% de queda (<5 anos) em 4 anos, cobertura de 77,2%; e Itália: queda entre 69,7%-73,8% (população geral), cobertura de 60%-95%. Conclusões: As publicações revelaram variação no percentual de queda na hospitalização por varicela após a vacinação universal nos países pesquisados; os resultados provavelmente dependem do tempo decorrido após introdução da vacinação universal, diferenças na faixa etária estudada, critérios de internação, cobertura vacinal e estratégia de vacina, não permitindo comparação direta entre os dados.


Subject(s)
Humans , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Chickenpox/prevention & control , Chickenpox/therapy , Vaccination/statistics & numerical data , Chickenpox Vaccine , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Global Health
20.
J. pediatr. (Rio J.) ; 92(4): 361-366, July-Aug. 2016. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-792582

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective: To characterize varicella zoster virus-related deaths and hospitalizations in Brazil before universal vaccination with the tetravalent (measles, mumps, rubella, and varicella) vaccine, attempting to collect baseline data on varicella morbidity and mortality in order to evaluate the impact of the varicella vaccination program. Methods: Varicella-associated mortality data were evaluated between 1996 and 2011 and varicella zoster virus-associated hospitalizations between 1998 and 2013. Data were gathered from the Informatics Department of the Unified Health System, considering the International Classification of Diseases, 10th Revision, code B01. All age groups were assessed. Varicella-specific mortality rates were calculated and seasonality of varicella-zoster virus-associated hospitalizations was described. Results: There were 2334 varicella deaths between 1996 and 2011, 19.3% in infants aged less than 1 year and 36% in children from 1 to 4 years. In infants under 1 year, varicella mortality rates reached 3.2/100,000/year. In children aged 1–4 years, varicella mortality rates reach 1.64/100,000/year. Average annual mortality rates for varicella in Brazil are 0.88/100,000 in infants under 1 year and 0.40/100,000 in children aged 1–4 years. The total number of hospitalizations associated with varicella zoster virus was 62,246 from 2008 to 2013. Varicella-associated hospitalizations have a seasonal distribution in children, peaking in November. In the elderly, monthly averages of herpes zoster-associated hospitalizations present no significant seasonal variation. Conclusions: Varicella is associated, in the pre-vaccine period, to significant morbidity and mortality in Brazil. The universal vaccination program is expected to decrease the disease burden from varicella.


Resumo Objetivo: Caracterizar os óbitos e internações relacionados ao vírus varicela-zoster no Brasil antes da vacinação universal com a vacina tetravalente (sarampo, caxumba, rubéola e varicela), tentando coletar dados de referência sobre a morbidez e mortalidade por varicela, para avaliar o impacto do programa de vacinação contra a varicela. Métodos: Os dados de mortalidade associada à varicela foram avaliados entre 1996 e 2011 e as internações associadas ao vírus varicela-zoster, entre 1998 e 2013. Os dados foram coletados do Departamento de Informática do Sistema Unificado de Saúde, considerando a Classificação Internacional de Doenças, 10ª Revisão, código B01. Todas as faixas etárias foram avaliadas. Foram calculadas as taxas de mortalidade específicas por varicela e foi descrita a sazonalidade das internações associadas ao vírus varicela-zoster. Resultados: Houve 2.334 óbitos por varicela entre 1996 e 2011, 19,3% em neonatos com menos de 1 ano e 36% em crianças de 1 a 4 anos. Em neonatos com menos de 1 ano, as taxas de mortalidade por varicela atingiram 3,2/100.000/ano. Em crianças de 1–4 anos de idade, as taxas de mortalidade por varicela atingem 1,64/100.000/ano. As taxas de mortalidade anuais médias por varicela no Brasil são de 0,88/100.000 em neonatos com menos de 1 ano de idade e 0,40/100.000 em crianças de 1 a 4 anos de idade. O número total de internações associadas ao vírus varicela-zoster foi de 62.246 de 2008 a 2013. As internações relacionadas à varicela apresentaram distribuição sazonal em crianças, com pico em novembro. Em idosos, as médias mensais de internações associadas ao herpes zoster não apresentam variação sazonal significativa. Conclusões: A varicela está associada a morbidez e mortalidade significativas no período pré-vacinação no Brasil. O programa de vacinação universal deve diminuir a carga de doença da varicela.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Young Adult , Chickenpox/mortality , Chickenpox/prevention & control , Immunization Programs/statistics & numerical data , Herpesvirus 3, Human , Herpes Zoster/mortality , Herpes Zoster/prevention & control , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Seasons , Time Factors , Brazil/epidemiology , Program Evaluation , Retrospective Studies , Age Factors , Vaccines, Combined/administration & dosage , Age Distribution , Chickenpox Vaccine/administration & dosage , Measles-Mumps-Rubella Vaccine/administration & dosage
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL