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Gac. méd. Méx ; 157(1): 61-66, ene.-feb. 2021. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1279075


Resumen Introducción: La distinción clínica entre infecciones arbovirales y las provocadas por rickettsias es crucial para iniciar el tratamiento médico apropiado. Objetivo: Comparar las diferencias entre fiebre manchada de las Montañas Rocosas (FMMR) y otras enfermedades transmitidas por vector (dengue y chikungunya) con presentación clínica similar e identificar los datos que pudieran ayudar al diagnóstico rápido de esas enfermedades. Métodos: Se evaluaron datos sociodemográficos, clínicos y de laboratorio de 399 pacientes de cinco hospitales y clínicas en Sonora, México, entre 2004 y 2016, con el diagnóstico confirmado por laboratorio de FMMR, dengue o chikungunya. Resultados: El grupo con FMMR presentó la mayor letalidad (49/63 muertes, 77.8 %), seguido por el de chikungunya (3/161, 1.9 %) y el de dengue (3/161, 1.9 %). Las diferencias clínicas consistieron en la presencia de exantema, edema y prurito; además, se documentaron diferencias en múltiples biomarcadores como plaquetas, hemoglobina, bilirrubina indirecta y niveles de sodio sérico. Conclusión: El exantema en palmas y plantas, edema y ausencia de prurito, aunados a niveles altos de bilirrubina directa y trombocitopenia severa pudieran ser indicadores útiles para diferenciar a pacientes con FMMR en etapas avanzadas de aquellos con dengue y chikungunya.

Abstract Introduction: Clinical distinction between arbovirus infections and those caused by rickettsia is crucial to initiate appropriate medical treatment. Objective: To compare the differences between Rocky Mountain spotted fever (RMSF) and other vector-borne diseases (dengue and chikungunya) with similar clinical presentation, and to identify data that could aid rapid diagnosis of these diseases. Methods: Sociodemographic, clinical and laboratory data of 399 patients from five hospitals and clinics of Sonora, Mexico, with laboratory-confirmed diagnosis of RMSF, dengue, or chikungunya between 2004 and 2016 were evaluated. Results: The RMSF group had the highest lethality (49/63 deaths, 77.8 %), followed by the chikungunya group (3/161, 1.9 %) and the dengue group (3/161, 1.9 %). Clinical differences included the presence of rash, edema, and pruritus; in addition, differences in multiple biomarkers such as platelets, hemoglobin, indirect bilirubin, and serum sodium levels were documented. Conclusion: Rash on the palms and soles, edema and absence of pruritus, together with high levels of direct bilirubin and severe thrombocytopenia could be useful indicators to differentiate patients at RMSF advanced stages from those with dengue and chikungunya.

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Young Adult , Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever/diagnosis , Dengue/diagnosis , Chikungunya Fever/diagnosis , Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever/complications , Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever/mortality , Cross-Sectional Studies , Dengue/complications , Dengue/mortality , Diagnosis, Differential , Symptom Assessment , Chikungunya Fever/complications , Chikungunya Fever/mortality , Mexico/epidemiology
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 53: e20190580, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1101436


Abstract INTRODUCTION: In 2014, the first cases of autochthonous chikungunya (CHIK) were recorded in Brazil. Lethality associated with this disease is underestimated. Thus, this study aimed to analyze the causes of death among individuals with CHIK in Brazil. METHODS: A descriptive observational study was conducted on individuals with CHIK who died within 6 months from symptom onset. Data pairing between the Information System for Notifiable Diseases and the Mortality Information System was performed. Deaths were classified according to case confirmation criterion, mention of CHIK in the death certificates (DCs), and disease phase. The lethality rate per 1,000 cases was corrected for underreporting and was estimated according to region, sex, age, years of education, race/color, and cause groups. RESULTS: We identified 3,135 deaths (mention of CHIK in the DCs, 764 [24.4%]). In 17.6% of these cases, CHIK was the underlying cause. Most deaths occurred in the acute (38.1%) and post-acute (29.6%) phases. The corrected LR (5.7; x1,000) was 6.8 times higher than that obtained from the Information System for Notifiable Diseases (0.8). The highest corrected LRs were estimated for among individuals living in the Northeast region (6.2), men (7.4), those with low years of education and those aged <1 year (8.6), 65-79 years (20.7), and ≥80 years (75.4). CONCLUSIONS: The LR of CHIK estimates based on information system linkage help to reveal the relevance of this disease as the direct cause or as a cause associated with serious or fatal events, provide timely interventions, and increase the knowledge about this disease.

Humans , Male , Female , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Young Adult , Cause of Death , Chikungunya Fever/mortality , Socioeconomic Factors , Brazil/epidemiology , Disease Notification , Middle Aged
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 53: e04312019, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, ColecionaSUS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1136839


Abstract Since its re-emergence in the late 1990s, there have been reports of Chikungunya fever (CHIK-F) presenting with severe or atypical findings. There is little knowledge regarding the clinical events leading to the death of patients with CHIK-F. This study aimed to systematically review the literature regarding CHIK-F and identify clinical features preceding death. We searched PubMed, Scopus, Embase, Lilacs, and IsiWeb for case-reports, case-series, or cohorts of CHIK-F reporting at least one death, up to December 2019. Fifty-seven reports were analyzed, including 2140 deaths. Data about specific clinical events that precede death are scarce. The central tendency of time between disease onset and death ranged from 2 days to 150 days. The most common clinical findings among decedents were fever (22.0%), arthralgia (15.7%), myalgia (10.7%), and headache (8.2%). Excluding pediatric populations, the reported central tendency of age among the decedents was 53 or older, with a non-weighted median of 67, ranging up to 80 years old. Authors mentioned organic dysfunction in 91.2% reports. Among all the 2140 decedents, the most common dysfunctions were cardiovascular (7.2%), respiratory (6.4%), neurological (5.4%), renal (4.2%), liver (3.0%), and hematological (1.3%) dysfunction. Exacerbation of previous diabetes (5.6%) or hypertension (6.9%) was mentioned as conditions preceding death. Currently, older age, primary neurological, cardiovascular, or respiratory dysfunction and a previous diagnosis of diabetes or hypertension are the main clinical events preceding death.

Humans , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Chikungunya Fever/mortality , Cause of Death , Disease Progression , Chikungunya Fever/complications , Middle Aged
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 52: e20190266, 2019. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1041518


Abstract INTRODUCTION Chikungunya causes fever and severe and persistent joint pain. METHODS We reported a chikungunya outbreak that occurred in Ceará State, Brazil between 2016 and 2017 with emphasis on epidemiological characterization of cases, high number of deaths, mortality-associated factors, and spatial and temporal spread of the epidemic among municipalities. RESULTS: In November 2015, the first autochthonous cases of chikungunya were confirmed in Ceará, Brazil. In 2016-2017, 195,993 cases were reported, with an incidence of 2,186.5/100,000 inhabitants and 244 confirmed deaths. CONCLUSIONS: Rapid transmission and high mortality rate are serious problems, especially in regions with co-circulating arboviruses.

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Young Adult , Disease Outbreaks , Chikungunya Fever/mortality , Brazil/epidemiology , Incidence , Cross-Sectional Studies , Spatio-Temporal Analysis , Middle Aged
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 51(1): 63-65, Jan.-Feb. 2018. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1041444


Abstract INTRODUCTION: Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) can negatively influence outcomes in patients with pre-existing conditions. We investigated the association between the recent CHIKV outbreak and increased type 2 diabetes (T2D)-attributable deaths. METHODS: Monthly averages of T2D-attributable deaths between 2001 and 2016 were determined and compared to the equivalent data for 2017 and the recent CHIKV outbreak. RESULTS: CHKV outbreak peaked in April 2017 with 4,394.4 cases/100,000 inhabitants, while T2D-attributable deaths in the same period increased by 35.2%. CONCLUSIONS: T2D-attributable deaths significantly increased compared to the previous data, which overlapped with CHIKV incidence. The pathophysiology of this association warrants further investigations.

Humans , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/mortality , Epidemics/statistics & numerical data , Chikungunya Fever/mortality , Brazil/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/virology , Chikungunya Fever/complications
Rev. chil. infectol ; 35(6): 658-668, 2018. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-990849


Resumen Introducción: Los virus del dengue y chikungunya son transmitidos por la hembra de los mosquitos Aedes aegypti y Aedes albopictus, ampliamente distribuidos en zonas tropicales y subtropicales, lo que facilita la co-infección. Objetivo: Determinar la magnitud, la distribución geográfica y el cuadro clínico de la co-infección por dengue y chikungunya. Material y Métodos: Revisión narrativa. Búsqueda en las bases de datos PubMed y Lilacs, utilizando los términos MeSH "Chikungunya", "CHIKV", "DENV", "Dengue" y "coinfection. Se incluyeron los artículos de los últimos 20 años. Resultados: Se incluyeron 45 artículos. El mayor reporte de co-infección fue en Asia seguido de África. En las Américas la información es limitada por la reciente circulación del chikungunya. La magnitud de la co-infección varió entre 0 y 31,9%. No se encontraron diferencias en la distribución de la co-infección por sexo y edad. El cuadro clínico de la mono-infección y la co-infección fue similar. Algunos reportes de caso exponen cuadros graves con afección del sistema nervioso central, manifestaciones hemorrágicas y enfermedad de Still. Conclusión: Las manifestaciones clínicas de la co-infección por dengue y chikungunya son similares a la mono-infección, situación que dificulta el diagnóstico y la medición de su magnitud.

Background: Dengue and chikungunya viruses are transmitted by the female Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus, which are widely distributed in tropical and subtropical areas, facilitating coinfection. Aim: To determine the magnitude, geographical distribution and clinical picture of dengue and chikungunya coinfection. Material and Methods: Narrative review. A search in the PubMed and Lilacs databases was made, using the MeSH terms "Chikungunya", "CHIKV", "DENV", "Dengue" and "coinfection. The articles of the last 20 years were included. Results: A total of 45 articles were included. The largest coinfection report was in Asia followed by Africa. In the Americas, the information is limited because of the recent circulation of chikungunya. The magnitude of coinfection varies between 0% and 31.9%. No differences were found in the distribution of coinfection by sex and age. The clinical picture of monoinfection and coinfection was similar. Some case reports show severe cases with central nervous system involvement, hemorrhagic manifestations and Still's disease. Conclusion: The clinical manifestations of coinfection by dengue and chikungunya viruses are similar to those due to monoinfection, which difficult the diagnosis and measurement of its magnitude.

Humans , Animals , Dengue/virology , Coinfection/virology , Chikungunya Fever/virology , Severity of Illness Index , Chikungunya virus/genetics , Dengue/diagnosis , Dengue/mortality , Dengue/transmission , Dengue Virus/genetics , Coinfection/diagnosis , Coinfection/mortality , Coinfection/transmission , Chikungunya Fever/diagnosis , Chikungunya Fever/mortality , Chikungunya Fever/transmission , Mosquito Vectors , Genotype , Geography
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 112(9): 650-651, Sept. 2017. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1040576


In early 2016, it was suspected that there were more deaths in Pernambuco than in previous years during an epidemic of chikungunya. This study tested whether there was an increased number of deaths and, if so, whether this increase could be related to a chikungunya epidemic. Indeed, there was an increase of 4235 deaths in 2016 compared to the average of the four previous years, and the highest differences were found during the peak period of the epidemic. It was evident that not all of these deaths could be attributed to complications of chikungunya. However, considering the temporal overlap, some of these deaths may have been caused by the aggravation of pre-existing comorbidities or complications caused directly by chikungunya virus infection.

Humans , Chikungunya Fever/mortality , Brazil/epidemiology , Cause of Death , Epidemics
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 50(5): 585-589, Sept.-Oct. 2017. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-897019


Abstract Since the detection of the Chikungunya virus in America in 2013, two million cases of the disease have been notified worldwide. Severe cases and deaths related to Chikungunya have been reported in India and Reunion Island, estimated at 1 death per 1,000 inhabitants. Joint involvement in the acute and chronic phase is the main clinical manifestation associated with Chikungunya. The severity of the infection may be directly attributable to viral action or indirectly, owing to decompensation of preexisting comorbidities. In Brazil, the virus was identified in 2014, and recently, there has been a significant increase in the number of deaths caused by the Chikungunya virus infection, especially in Pernambuco. However, the numbers of fatalities are probably underreported, since for many cases, the diagnosis of Chikungunya infection may not be considered, for deaths by indirect causes. An increase in the mortality rate within months of epidemic occurrence, compared to previous years has also been reported and may be associated with Chikungunya virus infection. An in-depth investigation of reported mortality in Brazil is necessary, to measure the actual impact of the deaths, thereby, allowing the identification of possible causes. This will alert professionals about the risks, and hence, enable creation of protocols that target reducing mortality.

Humans , Chikungunya Fever/mortality , Severity of Illness Index , Brazil/epidemiology , Chikungunya virus , Dengue/complications , Dengue/mortality , Epidemics , Chikungunya Fever/complications
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 112(8): 583-585, Aug. 2017.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-894869


Did death occur DUE TO dengue, or in a patient WITH dengue virus infection? It seems a matter of semantics, but in fact, it underscores how challenging it is to distinguish whether the disease contributed to death, or was itself the underlying cause of death. Can a death be attributed to chikungunya virus, when some deaths occur after the acute phase? Did the virus decompensate the underlying diseases, leading to death? Did prolonged hospitalisation lead to infection, resulting in the patient's progression to death? Were there iatrogenic complications during patient care? The dengue question, for which there has not yet been a definitive response, resurfaces prominently under the chikungunya surveillance scenario. We are facing an epidemic of a disease that seems to be more lethal than previously thought. The major challenge ahead is to investigate deaths suspected of occurring due to arbovirus infections and to understand the role of each infection in the unfavourable outcome.

Humans , Animals , Dengue/mortality , Chikungunya Fever/mortality , Brazil/epidemiology , Population Surveillance , Cause of Death