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1.
Ciênc. Saúde Colet ; 25(2): 665-672, Feb. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1055817

ABSTRACT

Resumo A dengue ocorre no Timor-Leste desde 2005, porém não existe um programa de monitoramento e controle do "Aedes aegypti". O objetivo deste estudo foi de avaliar a armadilha ovitrampa iscada com atraente natural como uma possível ferramenta para monitorar o vetor das arboviroses: Dengue (DENV), Chikungunya (CHIKV) e Zika (ZIKV). O estudo foi realizado na cidade de Dili, capital do Timor-Leste, entre as semanas epidemiológicas 32 (02/08) a 48 (02/12) de 2016. Foram instaladas 70 armadilhas Ovitrampa, em residências de 15 sucos (ruas), de quatro Postos Administrativos (bairros) da cidade. Para as analises dos dados utilizou-se os indicadores entomológicos: Índice de Positividade de Ovitrampa (IPO), Índice de Densidade Vetorial (IDV) e Índice de Densidade de Ovos (IDO). Durante o experimento foram coletados 158.904 ovos de Aedes spp.. O IPO demonstrou que todas as áreas tiveram 98% a 100% de armadilhas contendo ovos de Aedes spp.. Os indicadores IDO e IPO apresentaram correlações positivas e significativa com a temperatura. A defasagem de duas e três semanas para precipitação indicou correlação positiva significativa para IDV e IDO. Portanto, a armadilha ovitrampa é uma ferramenta que pode integrar as ações de um programa de monitoramento e controle de Aedes spp. no Timor-Leste.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Female , Mosquito Control/methods , Aedes/virology , Mosquito Vectors/virology , Oviposition , Chikungunya virus/isolation & purification , Aedes/physiology , Dengue/prevention & control , Dengue/transmission , Dengue Virus/isolation & purification , Timor-Leste , Chikungunya Fever/prevention & control , Chikungunya Fever/transmission , Zika Virus/isolation & purification , Zika Virus Infection/prevention & control , Zika Virus Infection/transmission
2.
Ciênc. Saúde Colet ; 24(8): 2983-2992, ago. 2019.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1011893

ABSTRACT

Resumo O Aedes aegypti é um importante agente transmissor de afecções na atualidade, sendo o responsável por enfermidades como Zika, Chikungunya e os quatro sorotipos do Dengue. Por ocasião da relevância desse mosquito para o corpo social atual, investigações em Ecossaúde se tornam prementes, já que essa abordagem visa articular diferentes campos teóricos para entender as conexões históricas entre a natureza, a sociedade e a saúde. Partindo de uma premissa etnográfica, este estudo considerou as condições de desigualdade e injustiça que tornam vulneráveis a saúde de mulheres em torno do dengue, analisando práticas e percepções destas acerca dos potencias criadouros existentes no espaço público. Para compor o estudo, utilizou-se a entrevista semiestruturada e a observação participante, com uso de diário de campo. A pesquisa contou com a participação de dez mulheres moradoras de um bairro periférico da cidade de Fortaleza, Ceará, Brasil, tendo ocorrido no período de janeiro a agosto de 2014. Da Análise de Conteúdo emergiu a categoria "Iniquidade social, contexto e práticas no espaço público". A partir das narrativas, constatou-se que condições precárias de vida e evidente iniquidade social poderão influenciar em um contexto permeado por lixo, com grande potencial para a proliferação do mosquito causador da dengue.


Abstract Aedes aegypti is currently a critical disease agent and is responsible for viruses such as Zika, Chikungunya and Dengue's four serotypes. This mosquito's relevance to the current social body has come to the fore and triggered urgent EcoHealth investigations since this approach aims to articulate different theoretical fields to understand the historical linkages between nature, society and health. Based on an ethnographic premise, this study considered the unequal and unfair conditions that make women's health vulnerable to dengue, analyzing their practices and perceptions about the potential breeding grounds in the public space. A semi-structured interview and participant observation, as well as a field diary, were used to compose the study. The research included the participation of ten women living in the outskirts of Fortaleza, Ceará, Brazil, from January to August 2014. The category "Social inequality, context and practices in the public space" emerged from the content analysis. The narratives revealed that unstable living conditions and evident social inequality might influence in a context permeated by waste, with great potential for dengue's mosquito proliferation.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Female , Adult , Aged , Young Adult , Mosquito Control/methods , Dengue/prevention & control , Chikungunya Fever/prevention & control , Zika Virus Infection/prevention & control , Socioeconomic Factors , Brazil , Interviews as Topic , Aedes/virology , Dengue/transmission , Chikungunya Fever/transmission , Zika Virus Infection/transmission , Mosquito Vectors/virology , Middle Aged
3.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 52: e20180341, 2019. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1041576

ABSTRACT

Abstract INTRODUCTION: Areas at risk of transmission of arboviruses have been monitored using ovitraps. This study aimed to evaluate the spatial distribution of Aedes aegypti in vulnerable areas for the transmission of arboviruses and assess the influence of climatic conditions on the infestation of these culicids. METHODS: Ovitraps were installed in Agrestina, Pernambuco, Northeastern Brazil. RESULTS: Overall, 44,936 eggs were collected, and the indexes of infestation varied. Relative humidity was significantly associated with the infestations. CONCLUSIONS: Using ovitraps, entomologic indexes and analysis of climatic factors might be good strategies for monitoring vulnerable areas for the transmission of arboviruses.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Oviposition , Mosquito Control/methods , Dengue/prevention & control , Flavivirus , Chikungunya Fever/prevention & control , Zika Virus Infection/prevention & control , Rain , Seasons , Temperature , Brazil , Residence Characteristics , Aedes/physiology , Dengue/transmission , Spatial Analysis , Chikungunya Fever/transmission , Zika Virus Infection/transmission , Mosquito Vectors/physiology , Humidity
4.
Rev. chil. infectol ; 35(4): 413-419, ago. 2018. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-978052

ABSTRACT

Resumen Introducción: Chikungunya (CHIK) se introduce en América el año 2013 diseminándose rápidamente. En 2014, se diagnosticó el primer caso importado en Chile. Objetivos: Identificar pacientes con sospecha clínica de CHIK. Describir sus características clínicas y laboratorio. Pacientes y Métodos: Se enrolaron pacientes con sospecha de CHIK. Se confirmó mediante reacción de polimerasa en cadena (RPC), IgM o IgG CHIKV. Se aplicó encuesta con preguntas demográficas, características del viaje, manifestaciones clínicas y laboratorio a pacientes y médicos tratantes. Resultados: Se enrolaron 21 pacientes, confirmando CHIK en 16 que se analizaron; 12 mujeres (75%), promedio edad 39 años (27-52). Exposición más frecuente fue el Caribe y Sudamérica. El síntoma inicial fue artralgia en 63%. Los síntomas más frecuentes fueron mialgias y malestar general (100%), fiebre y poliartralgia (94%). La mediana de duración de artralgias 90 días (3-262 días) y en 53% > 3 meses. Las articulaciones más comprometidas fueron tobillos, manos y muñecas, 87% con dolor invalidante. La artritis duró más en hombres que en mujeres (p < 0,001). El 38% de pacientes presentó linfopenia y un paciente trombocitopenia leve. Hubo dos hospitalizaciones por cefalea y pielonefritis aguda. Conclusiones: Chikungunya debe sospecharse en viajeros que regresan febriles y con poliartralgias intensas. Medidas de prevención deben ser indicadas a viajeros a zonas de riesgo.


Background: Chikungunya (CHIK) was introduced in The Americas in 2013, spreading rapidly. In 2014, the first imported case was diagnosed in Chile. Aim: To identify patients with clinical suspicion of CHIK and describe their clinical and laboratory characteristics. Patients and Methods: Patients with suspected CHIK were enrolled. All were confirmed by PCR, IgM or IgG CHIK. A structured survey was applied, which included demographic questions, travel characteristics, clinical manifestations, and laboratory results. Results: 21 patients were enrolled and CHIK was confirmed in 16, who were further analyzed; 12 were female (75%), average age 39 years (27-52). The Caribbean and South Americawere the most frequent sites of exposure. In 63%, the initial symptom was arthralgia. Most frequent symptoms were myalgias, malaise (both 100%), fever, and polyarthralgia (both 94%). The median duration of arthralgias was 90 days (3-262); in 53% arthralgias lasted ≥ 3 months. Main joints involved were ankles, hands, and wrists; 87% reported invalidating pain. Arthritis lasted longer in men than in women (p < 0.001). 38% of patients presented lymphopenia and one patient mild thrombocytopenia. Two patients required hospitalization, one with severe headaches, the other with acute pyelonephritis. Conclusions: Chikungunya should be suspected in returning travelers presenting with fever and severe polyarthralgia. Travelers to endemic areas should apply prevention measures to avoid mosquito bites.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Chikungunya Fever/diagnosis , Travel , Chikungunya virus , Chile/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Prospective Studies , Chikungunya Fever/prevention & control , Chikungunya Fever/transmission , Chikungunya Fever/epidemiology , Latin America
5.
Rev. chil. infectol ; 35(6): 658-668, 2018. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-990849

ABSTRACT

Resumen Introducción: Los virus del dengue y chikungunya son transmitidos por la hembra de los mosquitos Aedes aegypti y Aedes albopictus, ampliamente distribuidos en zonas tropicales y subtropicales, lo que facilita la co-infección. Objetivo: Determinar la magnitud, la distribución geográfica y el cuadro clínico de la co-infección por dengue y chikungunya. Material y Métodos: Revisión narrativa. Búsqueda en las bases de datos PubMed y Lilacs, utilizando los términos MeSH "Chikungunya", "CHIKV", "DENV", "Dengue" y "coinfection. Se incluyeron los artículos de los últimos 20 años. Resultados: Se incluyeron 45 artículos. El mayor reporte de co-infección fue en Asia seguido de África. En las Américas la información es limitada por la reciente circulación del chikungunya. La magnitud de la co-infección varió entre 0 y 31,9%. No se encontraron diferencias en la distribución de la co-infección por sexo y edad. El cuadro clínico de la mono-infección y la co-infección fue similar. Algunos reportes de caso exponen cuadros graves con afección del sistema nervioso central, manifestaciones hemorrágicas y enfermedad de Still. Conclusión: Las manifestaciones clínicas de la co-infección por dengue y chikungunya son similares a la mono-infección, situación que dificulta el diagnóstico y la medición de su magnitud.


Background: Dengue and chikungunya viruses are transmitted by the female Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus, which are widely distributed in tropical and subtropical areas, facilitating coinfection. Aim: To determine the magnitude, geographical distribution and clinical picture of dengue and chikungunya coinfection. Material and Methods: Narrative review. A search in the PubMed and Lilacs databases was made, using the MeSH terms "Chikungunya", "CHIKV", "DENV", "Dengue" and "coinfection. The articles of the last 20 years were included. Results: A total of 45 articles were included. The largest coinfection report was in Asia followed by Africa. In the Americas, the information is limited because of the recent circulation of chikungunya. The magnitude of coinfection varies between 0% and 31.9%. No differences were found in the distribution of coinfection by sex and age. The clinical picture of monoinfection and coinfection was similar. Some case reports show severe cases with central nervous system involvement, hemorrhagic manifestations and Still's disease. Conclusion: The clinical manifestations of coinfection by dengue and chikungunya viruses are similar to those due to monoinfection, which difficult the diagnosis and measurement of its magnitude.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Dengue/virology , Coinfection/virology , Chikungunya Fever/virology , Severity of Illness Index , Chikungunya virus/genetics , Dengue/diagnosis , Dengue/mortality , Dengue/transmission , Dengue Virus/genetics , Coinfection/diagnosis , Coinfection/mortality , Coinfection/transmission , Chikungunya Fever/diagnosis , Chikungunya Fever/mortality , Chikungunya Fever/transmission , Mosquito Vectors , Genotype , Geography
6.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 113(5): e170398, 2018. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-894919

ABSTRACT

Since the 1940s, French Guiana has implemented vector control to contain or eliminate malaria, yellow fever, and, recently, dengue, chikungunya, and Zika. Over time, strategies have evolved depending on the location, efficacy of the methods, development of insecticide resistance, and advances in vector control techniques. This review summarises the history of vector control in French Guiana by reporting the records found in the private archives of the Institute Pasteur in French Guiana and those accessible in libraries worldwide. This publication highlights successes and failures in vector control and identifies the constraints and expectations for vector control in this French overseas territory in the Americas.


Subject(s)
Humans , Chikungunya Fever/transmission , Zika Virus Infection/therapy , Mosquito Vectors/classification
7.
Nursing (Säo Paulo) ; 20(233): 1889-1892, out.2017.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1029272

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: identificar o perfil dos pacientes por idade, sexo e sintomatologia como também analisar a área de abrangênciadas notificações realizadas pela Unidade de Pronto Atendimento. Método: trata-se de uma pesquisa descritiva, com abordagemquantitativa, com corte transversal e dados secundários. A coleta foi realizada por meio das fichas de notificação incluídas noSistema de Informação de Agravos de Notificação. Registros notificados no período de novembro/2015 a fevereiro/2016. Apopulação e amostra foram as mesmas 230 notificações. Resultados: quando avaliada a variável faixa etária mais acometida,percebe-se que esta corresponde às idades entre 30 e 40 anos incompletos, com 22,61% (n=52). Ao ser analisado o sexo,observou-se a predominância do feminino, com 58,85% (n=133) das notificações. Quando analisada a variável sintoma artralgia,observa-se 94,78% (n=218). Considerações: é necessário o treinamento das equipes de saúde para atendimento da população.


Subject(s)
Humans , Aedes , Nursing Care , Risk Factors , Chikungunya Fever/diagnosis , Chikungunya Fever/prevention & control , Chikungunya Fever/therapy , Chikungunya Fever/transmission , Socioeconomic Factors
8.
Braz. j. infect. dis ; 21(4): 457-463, July-Aug. 2017. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-888895

ABSTRACT

Abstract The dengue fever is a major public health problem in the world. In Brazil, in 2015, there were 1,534,932 cases, being 20,320 cases of severe form, and 811 deaths related to this disease. The distribution of Aedes aegypti, the vector, is extensive. Recently, Zika and Chikungunya viruses had arisen, sharing the same vector as dengue and became a huge public health issue. Without specific treatment, it is urgently required as an effective vector control. This article is focused on reviewing vector control strategies, their effectiveness, viability and economical impact. Among all, the Sterile Insect Technique is highlighted as the best option to be adopted in Brazil, once it is largely effectively used in the USA and Mexico for plagues related to agribusiness.


Subject(s)
Animals , Mosquito Control/methods , Aedes/virology , Insect Vectors/virology , Dengue/transmission , Chikungunya Fever/transmission , Zika Virus Infection/transmission
9.
Rev. chil. pediatr ; 88(2): 285-288, abr. 2017. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-844613

ABSTRACT

La infección por virus chikungunya es una enfermedad transmitida por vectores, que en los años 2005-2006 se describió la transmisión vertical, con una tasa de infección en el recién nacido hasta del 49% en madres con presencia de viremia durante el parto. Puede presentar manifestaciones clínicas graves en los neonatos y potenciales secuelas en el neurodesarrollo. OBJETIVO: Presentar un caso de infección por virus chikungunya vertical y revisión de la literatura disponible. CASO CLÍNICO: Recién nacido de sexo femenino que inició con fiebre y exantema durante la primera semana de vida, posteriormente con elevación de transaminasas y trombocitopenia, con el antecedente de un cuadro clínico en la madre de síntomas compatibles con infección por chikungunya el día del parto. Se documentaron anticuerpos tipo IgM específicos para chikungunya que establecieron el diagnóstico. CONCLUSIONES: Dada la alta tasa de transmisibilidad perinatal de la infección por virus chikungunya, este diagnóstico debe considerarse en todo recién nacido hijo de madre con síntomas sugestivos de la infección en el período cercano al parto.


Chikungunya virus infection is a disease transmitted by vectors, in which vertical transmission was described in years 2005-2006. An infection rate up to 49% in neonates born from mothers with active viremia during labor has been observed. Perinatal infection could results in serious complications and potential cognitive impairment. OBJECTIVE: To describe a newborn with Chikungunya virus infection secundary to vertical transmission. CLINICAL CASE: A female newborn is analyzed. She presented with fever and exanthema during her first week of life, elevation of transaminases and thrombocytopenia. Her mother had had symptoms compatible with chikungunya virus infection on the day of the delivery. Specific IgM antibodies against chikungunya were documented and the diagnosis was confirmed. CONCLUSION: Given the high perinatal transmissibility rate of chikungunya virus, this diagnosis should be considered in every newborn child of a mother with suggestive symptoms of chikungunya in the days surrounding delivery.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Infant, Newborn , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/virology , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical , Chikungunya Fever/transmission , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/diagnosis , Immunoglobulin M/immunology , Delivery, Obstetric , Chikungunya Fever/diagnosis
10.
Arq. neuropsiquiatr ; 75(2): 123-126, Feb. 2017.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-838867

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Dengue, Zika and Chikungunya are emerging arboviruses and important causes of acute febrile disease in tropical areas. Although dengue does not represent a new condition, a geographic expansion over time has occurred with the appearance of severe neurological complications. Neglect has allowed the propagation of the vector (Aedes spp), which is also responsible for the transmission of other infections such as Zika and Chikungunya throughout the world. The increased number of infected individuals has contributed to the rise of neurological manifestations including encephalitis, myelitis, meningitis, Guillain-Barré syndrome and congenital malformations such as microcephaly. In this narrative review, we characterize the impact of the geographic expansion of the vector on the appearance of neurological complications, and highlight the lack of highly accurate laboratory tests for nervous system infections. This represents a challenge for public health in the world, considering the high number of travelers and people living in endemic areas.


RESUMO Dengue, Zika e Chikungunya são arbovírus emergentes e importante causa de doença febril aguda em áreas tropicais. Embora a dengue não represente uma doença nova, houve uma expansão geográfica ao longo do tempo, com o aparecimento de complicações neurológicas graves. A negligência desta situação permitiu a propagação do vetor (Aedes spp) em todo o mundo, que também é responsável pela transmissão de outras infecções pelos vírus Zika e Chikungunya. O grande número de casos infectados contribui para o aumento de manifestações neurológicas incluindo encefalite, mielite, meningite, síndrome de Guillain-Barré e má formações congênitas, como microcefalia. Nesta revisão narrativa, destaca-se o impacto da expansão geográfica do vetor no aparecimento de complicações neurológicas e a falta de testes laboratoriais de elevada acurácia para o diagnóstico da infecção neurológica. Estes aspectos representam desafio para a saúde pública mundial, considerando o grande número de indivíduos que moram ou viajam para áreas endêmicas.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Dengue/complications , Chikungunya Fever/complications , Zika Virus Infection/complications , Insect Vectors/virology , Nervous System Diseases/virology , Dengue/transmission , Chikungunya Fever/transmission , Zika Virus Infection/transmission
11.
Rev. saúde pública ; 51: 30, 2017.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-845887

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Arboviruses have been emerging in different parts of the world due to genetic changes in the virus, alteration of the host and vector population dynamics, or because of anthropogenic environmental factors. These viruses’ capacity for adaptation is notable, as well as the likelihood of their emergence and establishment in new geographic areas. In Brazilian epidemiologic scenario, the most common arboviruses are DENV, CHIKV, and ZIKV, although others may spread in the country. Little is yet known of the impact of viral co-circulation, which would theoretically result in more intense viremia or other immunological alterations that could trigger autoimmune diseases, such as Guillain-Barré syndrome. The impact on morbidity and mortality intensifies as extensive epidemics lead to a high number of affected individuals, severe cases, and implications for health services, mainly due to the absence of treatment, vaccines, and effective prevention and control measures.


RESUMO Notifica-se a emergência de arboviroses em diferentes regiões do planeta em decorrência de mudanças genéticas no vírus, alteração da dinâmica populacional de hospedeiros e vetores ou por fatores ambientais de origem antropogênica. É notável a capacidade de adaptação desses vírus e a possibilidade de emergirem e se estabelecerem em novas áreas geográficas. No contexto epidemiológico brasileiro, os arbovírus de maior circulação são DENV, CHIKV e ZIKV, embora existam outros com potencial de disseminação no País. O impacto da cocirculação viral ainda é pouco conhecido, a qual teoricamente resultaria em viremias mais intensas ou outras alterações imunológicas que poderiam ser o gatilho para doenças autoimunes, como a síndrome de Guillain-Barré. O impacto na morbidade e mortalidade se intensifica à medida que extensas epidemias pressupõem grande número de indivíduos acometidos, casos graves e implicações sobre os serviços de saúde, principalmente diante da ausência de tratamento, vacinas e medidas efetivas de prevenção e controle.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Chikungunya Fever/epidemiology , Communicable Diseases, Emerging/epidemiology , Dengue/epidemiology , Zika Virus Infection/epidemiology , Aedes , Brazil/epidemiology , Chikungunya Fever/transmission , Communicable Diseases, Emerging/transmission , Insect Vectors , Zika Virus Infection/transmission
12.
Weekly Epidemiological Monitor. 2017; 10 (09): 1
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-187397

ABSTRACT

During the month of February 2017, Pakistan's Ministry of National Health Services, Regulations and Coordination reported new cases of Chikungunya. Since December 2016 up to 24 February 2017, a total of 816 cases have been reported in the Sindh province, including 29 cases reported from various towns in Karachi


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Male , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Young Adult , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Chikungunya Fever/transmission , Chikungunya virus/growth & development , Dengue/transmission , Pakistan/epidemiology
13.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1043206

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Dengue and chikungunya viruses are transmitted by Aedes mosquitoes. In Martinique, an island of the French West Indies, Aedes aegypti is the suspected vector of both arboviruses; there is no Aedes albopictus on the island. During the concomitant outbreak of 2013 - 2015, the authors collected wild A. aegypti populations, and for the first time, detected dengue and chikungunya viruses in field-collected females. This paper demonstrates the mosquito's role in transmission of both dengue and chikungunya on the island, and also highlights a tool that public health authorities can use for preventing outbreaks.(AU)


RESUMEN Los virus del dengue y del chikungunya se transmiten a través de los mosquitos del género Aedes. Se da por supuesto que en Martinica, en las Antillas francesas, Aedes aegypti es el vector de ambos arbovirus, puesto que en la isla no hay Aedes albopictus. Durante el brote concomitante del 2013 al 2015, los autores recogieron muestras de poblaciones salvajes de A. aegypti y, por primera vez, detectaron virus del dengue y del chikungunya en las hembras obtenidas en el terreno. En el presente artículo se demuestra que el mosquito actúa en la isla como transmisor tanto del dengue como del chikungunya y se describe, además, una herramienta que las autoridades de salud pública pueden utilizar para prevenir los brotes.(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Aedes/virology , Vector Control , Dengue/transmission , Chikungunya Fever/transmission , West Indies/epidemiology , Caribbean Region/epidemiology , Martinique/epidemiology
14.
Rev. panam. salud pública ; 41: e65, 2017. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1043194

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Understanding the ability of the chikungunya virus (CHIKV) to be transmitted by Aedes vectors in the Americas is critical for assessing epidemiological risk. One element that must be considered is the minimum infectious dose of virus that can lead to transmission following the extrinsic incubation period. This study aimed to determine the minimum infection rate for the two Aedes species studied. The results revealed that doses as low as 3.9 log10 plaque-forming units per mL (pfu/mL) of an Asian genotype CHIKV strain can lead to transmission by Ae. albopictus, and doses of at least 5.3 log10 pfu/mL from the same strain are needed for transmission from Ae. aegypti. These low infecting doses suggest that infected individuals may be infectious for almost the entire period of their viremia, and therefore, to prevent further cases, measures should be taken to prevent them from getting bitten by mosquitoes during this period.(AU)


RESUMEN Comprender la capacidad del virus del chikungunya (CHIKV) de ser transmitido por los vectores del género Aedes en la Región de las Américas es fundamental para evaluar el riesgo epidemiológico. Un elemento que debe tenerse en cuenta es la dosis infecciosa mínima de virus que posibilita la transmisión después del período de incubación extrínseco. El objetivo de este estudio ha sido determinar la tasa de infección mínima para las dos especies del género Aedes estudiadas. Los resultados indican que bastan dosis de tan solo 3,9 log10 unidades formadoras de placas por mililitro (ufp/ml) de una cepa de CHIKV del genotipo asiático para que se produzca la transmisión por Ae. albopictus, en tanto que para la transmisión por Ae. aegypti se necesitan dosis de al menos 5,3 log10 ufp/ml de la misma cepa. Estas dosis bajas indican que las personas infectadas podrían conservar el potencial infeccioso prácticamente durante todo el período de viremia y, por consiguiente, a fin de prevenir más casos, habría que tomar medidas para impedir que reciban picaduras de mosquitos durante ese período.(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Chikungunya virus/isolation & purification , Aedes/virology , Chikungunya Fever/transmission , Chikungunya Fever/epidemiology , Americas/epidemiology
16.
Buenos Aires; GCBA. Gerencia Operativa de Epidemiología; 23 sept. 2016. a) f: 21 l:24 p. mapas, tab.(Boletín Epidemiológico Semanal: Ciudad Autónoma de Buenos Aires, 1, 5).
Monography in Spanish | LILACS, InstitutionalDB, BINACIS, UNISALUD | ID: biblio-1116240

ABSTRACT

La Fiebre Chikungunya es una enfermedad provocada por el virus Chikungunya (CHIKV) que pertenece al género Alphavirus (familia Togaviridae). A partir de 2004 se produjeron epidemias en África, Asia y Europa, con las que se inició una expansión global de la infección. Desde finales de 2013 la enfermedad está presente en las Américas, y no existe hasta el momento vacuna ni tratamiento con medicamentos antivirales contra esta enfermedad. El presente informe analiza sus vías de transmisión, manifestaciones clínicas, la situación epidemiológica internacional, argentina, y en Ciudad de Buenos Aires


Subject(s)
Epidemiologic Studies , Alphavirus Infections/epidemiology , Disease Transmission, Infectious/statistics & numerical data , Chikungunya Fever/diagnosis , Chikungunya Fever/pathology , Chikungunya Fever/prevention & control , Chikungunya Fever/transmission , Chikungunya Fever/epidemiology , Hospitals, Municipal/statistics & numerical data
18.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 111(5): 347-348, May 2016. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-782053

ABSTRACT

Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is a mosquito-borne pathogen that emerged in Brazil by late 2014. In the country, two CHIKV foci characterized by the East/Central/South Africa and Asian genotypes, were established in North and Northeast regions. We characterized, by phylogenetic analyses of full and partial genomes, CHIKV from Rio de Janeiro state (2014-2015). These CHIKV strains belong to the Asian genotype, which is the determinant of the current Northern Brazilian focus, even though the genome sequence presents particular single nucleotide variations. This study provides the first genetic characterisation of CHIKV in Rio de Janeiro and highlights the potential impact of human mobility in the spread of an arthropod-borne virus.


Subject(s)
Humans , Chikungunya virus/genetics , Brazil , Chikungunya Fever/transmission , Chikungunya virus/isolation & purification , Phylogeny
19.
Rev. salud pública ; 18(3): 1-1, mayo-jun. 2016. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-784954

ABSTRACT

Objetivo Caracterizar el proceso de preparación y respuesta de las entidades territoriales en aspectos clave de salud pública ante la fase de introducción de virus inusitados: Chikungunya en Colombia 2014. Metodología Se realizó un estudio transversal por medio de una encuesta, dirigida a los coordinadores de salud pública o referente de enfermedades transmitidas por vectores de las entidades territoriales de salud del país. Resultados Un total de 23, de las 35 entidades territoriales en riesgo de transmisión de Chikungunya, accedieron a responder la encuesta. Al revisar los puntajes de la encuesta para cada eje evaluado de una forma global, se evidenciaron mejores desempeños en los ejes de gestión del conocimiento, atención integral de casos, Inteligencia epidemiológica y promoción de la salud. El sistema de vigilancia epidemiológica durante la epidemia de Chikungunya, de acuerdo a los resultados de este estudio, tuvo baja aceptabilidad y flexibilidad, contribuyendo posiblemente a un subregistro de casos. Conclusiones Se evidencia a nivel general conocimiento y ejecución por parte de las entidades territoriales de salud de la estrategia de gestión integrada EGI para las enfermedades transmitidas por vectores en los ejes evaluados en esta investigación, no obstante es necesario fortalecer los ejes de comunicación del riesgo, laboratorio y el manejo de brotes y contingencias presentadas ante la introducción de nuevos virus.(AU)


Objective To describe the process of preparation and response of local health authorities in key public health issues while facing the introduction stage of an unusual virus: Chikungunya in Colombia in 2014. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted using a survey that was developed for this study and sent to Public Health coordinators and to the person in charge of vector borne-diseases in the country's territorial entities. Results 23 out of the 35 territories at risk from the transmission of Chikungunya agreed to answer the survey. A global review of the survey scores for each evaluated section shows better performances in the areas of knowledge management, comprehensive patient care, epidemiological intelligence, and health promotion. According to the results of this study, the epidemiological surveillance system during the Chikungunya epidemic had a low acceptability and flexibility, possibly contributing to the underreporting of cases. Conclusions In general, knowledge and implementation by local authorities of the Integrated Health Strategy- EGI (Estrategia de Gestión Integral, by its Spanish acronym)- for vector-borne diseases was evident from the themes evaluated in this study. However, it is necessary to reinforce the communication of risks, laboratory, and outbreak and contingencies management areas faced during the introduction of new viruses.(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Risk Management/organization & administration , Chikungunya Fever/transmission , Chikungunya Fever/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies/instrumentation , Surveys and Questionnaires , Colombia/epidemiology
20.
Medicina (B.Aires) ; 76(2): 93-97, abr. 2016.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-841549

ABSTRACT

Los responsables de la actual pandemia de Chikungunya (alfavirus), dengue y Zika (flavivirus) son virus trasmitidos por artrópodos, arbovirus. Su importancia aumentó en las Américas en los últimos 20 años. Los vectores principales son Aedes aegypti y A. albopictus. La infección por dengue provee inmunidad duradera al serotipo específico y temporaria a otros tres. La posterior infección por otro serotipo determina mayor gravedad. Existe una vacuna contra dengue registrada, Dengvaxia (Sanofi Pasteur). Otras dos (Butantan y Takeda) comienzan la Fase III en 2016. La infección por Zika suele ser asintomática, o presentarse con exantema, conjuntivitis y fiebre no muy elevada. No existen vacunas ni tratamiento específico. Se puede transmitir por vía parental, sexual y por transfusión sanguínea. Se la ha asociado con microcefalia. Chikungunya causa artralgias prolongadas, con respuesta inmune persistente. Hay dos vacunas candidatas en Fase II. El diagnóstico directo del dengue se realiza por cultivo, RT-PCR y ELISA para detección del antígeno NS1; los métodos indirectos son ELISA-IgM (reacción cruzada con otros flavivirus), MAC-ELISA, y neutralización en placas, que diferencia los 4 serotipos DENV y otros flavivirus. Zika se diagnostica por RT-PCR y aislamiento del virus. El diagnóstico serológico presenta reacciones cruzadas con otros flavivirus. Para CHIKV se emplean cultivo y RT-PCR, MAC-ELISA y neutralización en placas. Contra Aedes se emplean larvicidas organofosforados (temefos), insecticidas organofosforados (malation y fenitrotion) y piretroides (permetrina y deltametrina). Puede haber resistencia. Los derivados vegetales son menos costosos y biodegradables, entre ellos el aceite de cetronela, que microencapsulado se preserva de la evaporación.


Arboviruses are transmitted by arthropods, including those responsible for the current pandemic: alphavirus (Chikungunya) and flaviviruses (dengue and Zika). Its importance increased in the Americas over the past 20 years. The main vectors are Aedes aegypti and A. albopictus. Dengue infection provides long lasting immunity against the specific serotype and temporary to the other three. Subsequent infection by another serotype determines more serious disease. There is a registered vaccine for dengue, Dengvaxia (Sanofi Pasteur). Other two (Butantan and Takeda) are in Phase III in 2016. Zika infection is usually asymptomatic or occurs with rash, conjunctivitis and not very high fever. There is no vaccine or specific treatment. It can be transmitted by parental, sexual and via blood transfusion. It has been associated with microcephaly. Chikungunya causes prolonged joint pain and persistent immune response. Two candidate vaccines are in Phase II. Dengue direct diagnosis is performed by virus isolation, RT-PCR and ELISA for NS1 antigen detection; indirect methods are ELISA-IgM (cross-reacting with other flavivirus), MAC-ELISA, and plaque neutralization. Zika is diagnosed by RT-PCR and virus isolation. Serological diagnosis cross-reacts with other flavivirus. For CHIKV culture, RT-PCR, MAC-ELISA and plaque neutralization are used. Against Aedes organophosphate larvicides (temephos), organophosphorus insecticides (malathion and fenitrothion) and pyrethroids (permethrin and deltamethrin) are usually employed. Resistance has been described to all these products. Vegetable derivatives are less expensive and biodegradable, including citronella oil, which microencapsulated can be preserved from evaporation.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Dengue/diagnosis , Dengue/prevention & control , Dengue/transmission , Chikungunya Fever/diagnosis , Chikungunya Fever/prevention & control , Chikungunya Fever/transmission , Americas/epidemiology , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Viral Vaccines/therapeutic use , Chikungunya virus/immunology , Aedes/virology , Dengue Virus/immunology , Dengue Vaccines/therapeutic use , Zika Virus/immunology , Zika Virus Infection/transmission , Insect Vectors/physiology , Insecticides
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