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1.
Ciênc. Saúde Colet ; 25(2): 665-672, Feb. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1055817

ABSTRACT

Resumo A dengue ocorre no Timor-Leste desde 2005, porém não existe um programa de monitoramento e controle do "Aedes aegypti". O objetivo deste estudo foi de avaliar a armadilha ovitrampa iscada com atraente natural como uma possível ferramenta para monitorar o vetor das arboviroses: Dengue (DENV), Chikungunya (CHIKV) e Zika (ZIKV). O estudo foi realizado na cidade de Dili, capital do Timor-Leste, entre as semanas epidemiológicas 32 (02/08) a 48 (02/12) de 2016. Foram instaladas 70 armadilhas Ovitrampa, em residências de 15 sucos (ruas), de quatro Postos Administrativos (bairros) da cidade. Para as analises dos dados utilizou-se os indicadores entomológicos: Índice de Positividade de Ovitrampa (IPO), Índice de Densidade Vetorial (IDV) e Índice de Densidade de Ovos (IDO). Durante o experimento foram coletados 158.904 ovos de Aedes spp.. O IPO demonstrou que todas as áreas tiveram 98% a 100% de armadilhas contendo ovos de Aedes spp.. Os indicadores IDO e IPO apresentaram correlações positivas e significativa com a temperatura. A defasagem de duas e três semanas para precipitação indicou correlação positiva significativa para IDV e IDO. Portanto, a armadilha ovitrampa é uma ferramenta que pode integrar as ações de um programa de monitoramento e controle de Aedes spp. no Timor-Leste.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Female , Mosquito Control/methods , Aedes/virology , Mosquito Vectors/virology , Oviposition , Chikungunya virus/isolation & purification , Aedes/physiology , Dengue/prevention & control , Dengue/transmission , Dengue Virus/isolation & purification , Timor-Leste , Chikungunya Fever/prevention & control , Chikungunya Fever/transmission , Zika Virus/isolation & purification , Zika Virus Infection/prevention & control , Zika Virus Infection/transmission
2.
Rev. bras. oftalmol ; 78(5): 338-341, Sept.-Oct. 2019.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1042383

ABSTRACT

Resumo A febre Chikungunya é um problema de saúde pública mundial, com potencial para gerar epidemias de alta morbidade, visto que elevado número de pacientes pode apresentar sequelas articulares prolongadas e alterações oftalmológicas. As manifestações oftalmológicas podem estar presentes na fase aguda da doença ou ter início após várias semanas da instalação do quadro. Na literatura mundial é descrito desde alterações mais comuns e de fácil tratamento como conjuntivites até alterações mais complexas e que podem cursar com sequelas visuais graves como a retinite e neurite óptica.


Abstract Chikungunya fever is a world public health problem with the potential to generate epidemics of high morbidity, since a high number of patients may present prolonged joint sequelae and ophthalmological alterations. Ophthalmologic manifestations may be present in the acute phase of the disease or begin after several weeks of the onset of the disease. In the world literature is described from more common and easy to treat changes such as conjunctivitis to more complex changes and that can occur with severe visual sequelae such as retinitis and optic neuritis.


Subject(s)
Humans , Eye Diseases/etiology , Chikungunya Fever/complications , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Serologic Tests/methods , Chikungunya virus/isolation & purification , Chikungunya virus/immunology , Chloroquine/therapeutic use , Adrenal Cortex Hormones/therapeutic use , Eye Diseases/diagnosis , Eye Diseases/drug therapy , Chikungunya Fever/diagnosis , Chikungunya Fever/drug therapy , Chikungunya Fever/blood , Chikungunya Fever/epidemiology , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/therapeutic use
3.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 52(11): e8339, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1039262

ABSTRACT

A progressive increase in the circulation of arboviruses in tropical countries has been observed, accounting for 700,000 yearly deaths in the world. The main objective of this article was to identify the presence of Zika (ZIKV), dengue (DENV), and Chikungunya (CHIKV) viruses in immature stages of Aedes aegypti and Ae. albopictus. Household collections of immature phases of the vectors were carried out in the years 2015 and 2016. A total of 2902 dwellings were visited and the rate of infestation with larvae and pupae of Aedes mosquitoes was 283/1462 (19.4%) in March 2015 and 55/1440 (3.8%) in June 2015. In March 2015, 907 larvae/pupae were collected (583 or 64.3% of Ae. aegypti and 324 or 35.7% of Ae. albopictus) while in June 2015 there was a reduction in the number of immature forms found: 197 larvae/pupae (121 or 61.4% of Ae. aegypti and 76 or 38.6% of Ae. albopictus). This reduction was accompanied by a decrease in suspected human ZIKV cases from March to June 2015. The RT-qPCR performed in 18 pools identified that three (two of Ae. aegypti and one of Ae. albopictus) were positive for ZIKV, and none were positive for DENV or CHIKV. Our findings demonstrated that ZIKV was present in immature stages of insect vectors in the study region at least five months prior to the peak of ZIKV associated cases. Xenomonitoring of immature phases of the vectors may prove useful for predicting outbreaks.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Chikungunya virus/isolation & purification , Aedes/virology , Dengue Virus/isolation & purification , Zika Virus/isolation & purification , Mosquito Vectors/virology , Seasons , RNA, Viral/analysis , Aedes/classification , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Zika Virus Infection/transmission , Mosquito Vectors/classification
4.
Rev. Assoc. Med. Bras. (1992) ; 64(1): 63-70, Jan. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-896413

ABSTRACT

Summary Introduction: Chikungunya (CHIK) is a tropical arbovirus, transmitted by the female mosquito Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus. In Brazil, there have been cases reported since 2014. The initial manifestations of this virus are sudden onset high fever, headache, chills, rashes, myalgia and intense joint pain. Usually, CHIK presents the acute and chronic phases, the latter characterized by bilateral polyarthralgia, which can last for months or even years. During this period, autoimmune diseases can be triggered, making the picture even more complicated. Method: A systematic review was performed on the PubMed and Scielo databases in January 2017. Clinical trials, cohorts, case-control and case reports were included in the study. Expert opinions, societal consensuses and literary reviews were exclusion criteria. Studies were conducted in English, Spanish and Portuguese. The studies were descriptively analyzed and the data was grouped according to methodological similarity. Results: Twenty-four (24) articles were selected and, in compliance with the inclusion and exclusion criteria, 18 were eliminated, with six studies remaining in the present review: five clinical trials and one case report. Conclusion: When the manifestations of CHIK become chronic and, the longer they last, more complications arise. Polyarthralgia can be immaterial, distancing individuals from their daily-life activities. Anti-inflammatory drugs (either steroid or not), in addition to immunosuppressants, homeopathy and physiotherapy are measures of treatment that, according to the literature, have been successful in relieving or extinguishing symptoms. However, it is fundamental that studies of CHIK treatment be further developed.


Resumo Introdução: A chikungunya é uma arbovirose tropical, transmitida pela fêmea dos mosquitos Aedes aegypti e Aedes albopictus. No Brasil, existem casos relatados desde 2014. As manifestações iniciais dessa virose são: febre alta de início súbito, cefaleia, calafrios, erupções cutâneas, mialgia e dor articular intensa. Normalmente, a chikungunya apresenta as fases aguda e crônica, sendo a última caracterizada pela poliartralgia bilateral, que pode durar meses e até anos. Durante esse período, doenças autoimunes podem ser desencadeadas, tornando o quadro ainda mais complicado. Método: Foi realizada uma revisão sistemática nos bancos de dados PubMed e Scielo em janeiro de 2017. Ensaios clínicos, coortes, casos-controle e relatos de caso foram incluídos na pesquisa. Opiniões de especialista, consensos de sociedades e revisões literárias foram critérios de exclusão. Foram avaliados estudos nas línguas inglesa, espanhola e portuguesa. Os estudos foram analisados descritivamente, e os dados agrupados, conforme semelhança metodológica. Resultados: Foram selecionados 24 artigos; em obediência aos critérios de inclusão e exclusão, 18 foram eliminados, restando seis estudos na presente revisão: cinco ensaios clínicos e um relato de caso. Conclusão: Quando as manifestações da chikungunya se tornam crônicas, quanto mais tempo duram, mais complicações surgem. A poliartralgia pode ser incapacitante, afastando os indivíduos das suas atividades de vida diária. Anti-inflamatórios (esteroides ou não), somados a imunossupressores, homeopatia e fisioterapia são medidas de tratamento que, conforme a literatura, têm alcançado êxito no alívio ou na extinção dos sintomas. Todavia, é fundamental que os estudos do tratamento da chikungunya sejam mais aprofundados.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Arthritis/therapy , Arthritis, Infectious/therapy , Chikungunya Fever/therapy , Arthritis/virology , Arthritis, Infectious/virology , Chikungunya virus/isolation & purification , Chikungunya Fever/complications
6.
Rev. panam. salud pública ; 41: e61, 2017. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1043211

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT This report describes the outbreak of chikungunya virus (CHIKV) in Sint Maarten, a constituent country of Kingdom of the Netherlands comprising the southern part of the Caribbean island of Saint Martin, from 22 December 2013 (first reported case) through 5 December 2014. The outbreak was first reported by the French overseas collectivity of Saint-Martin in the northern part of the island—the first site in the Americas to report autochthonous transmission of CHIKV. By 5 December 2014, Sint Maarten had reported a total of 658 cases—an overall attack rate of 1.76%. Actual prevalence may have been higher, as some cases may have been misdiagnosed as dengue. Fever and arthralgia affected 71% and 69% of reported cases respectively. Of the 390 laboratory-confirmed cases, 61% were female and the majority were 20-59 years old (mean: 42; range: 4-92). The spread of CHIKV to Sint Maarten was inevitable given the ease of movement of people, and the vector, island-wide. Continuing their history of collaboration, the French and Dutch parts of the island coordinated efforts for prevention and control of the disease. These included a formal agreement to exchange epidemiological information on a regular basis and provide alerts in a timely manner; collaboration among personnel through joint island-wide planning of mosquito control activities, especially along borders; notification of all island visitors, upon their arrival at airports and seaports, of preventative measures to avoid being bitten by mosquitoes; dissemination of educational materials to the public; and island-wide public awareness campaigns, particularly in densely populated areas, for both residents and visitors. The information provided in this report could help increase understanding of the epidemiological characteristics of CHIKV and guide other countries dealing with vector-borne epidemics.(AU)


RESUMEN En el presente artículo se describe el brote del virus del chikungunya (CHIKV) que tuvo lugar entre el 22 de diciembre del 2013 (primer caso notificado) y el 5 de diciembre del 2014 en Sint Maarten, uno de los países integrantes del Reino de los Países Bajos, que comprende la parte sur de la isla caribeña de San Martín. El brote fue notificado primero por la colectividad de ultramar francesa de Saint-Martin, que ocupa la parte norte de la isla, convirtiéndose en la primera zona de las Américas en describir la transmisión autóctona del CHIKV. El 5 de diciembre del 2014, Sint Maarten había notificado 658 casos, equivalentes a una tasa de ataque del 1,76%, si bien la prevalencia real quizá haya sido mayor, puesto que algunos casos pueden haberse confundido por dengue. El 71% y el 69% de los casos notificados cursaron con fiebre y artralgias, respectivamente. De los 390 casos confirmados por laboratorio, el 61% eran mujeres y la mayoría tenían entre 20 y 59 años de edad (media: 42; intervalo: 4-92). Era inevitable que el CHIKV pasara a Sint Maarten, dadas la facilidad de movimiento de las personas y la extensión del vector por toda la isla. Siguiendo la tradición de cooperación mutua, las partes francesa y holandesa de la isla coordinaron las actuaciones de prevención y control, que consistieron en: la formalización de un convenio para intercambiar datos epidemiológicos de forma regular y emitir alertas puntualmente; la colaboración del personal de uno y otro lado para planificar, en todo el territorio insular, las actividades de control de mosquitos, sobre todo a lo largo de las fronteras; la notificación a todos los viajeros en arribo, a su llegada a los puertos y aeropuertos, de las medidas preventivas para evitar la picadura de los mosquitos; la difusión de materiales didácticos; y la realización de campañas públicas de concientización por toda la isla, en particular en las áreas de mayor densidad demográfica, dirigidas tanto a residentes como a turistas. La información expuesta en este informe puede ayudar a conocer mejor las características epidemiológicas del CHIKV y servir de orientación para otros países que hagan frente a epidemias transmitidas por vectores.(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Chikungunya virus/isolation & purification , Communicable Diseases, Emerging/epidemiology , Chikungunya Fever/epidemiology , Americas/epidemiology , Caribbean Region/epidemiology
7.
Rev. panam. salud pública ; 41: e62, 2017. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1043200

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT The emergence of chikungunya virus in the Americas means the affected population is at risk of developing severe, chronic, rheumatologic disease, even months after acute infection. Accurate diagnostic methods for past infections are essential for differential diagnosis and consequence management. This study evaluated three commercially-available chikungunya Immunoglobulin G immunoassays by comparing them to an in-house Enzyme-Linked ImmunoSorbent Assay conducted by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (Atlanta, Georgia, United States). Results showed sensitivity and specificity values ranging from 92.8% - 100% and 81.8% - 90.9%, respectively, with a significant number of false-positives ranging from 12.5% - 22%. These findings demonstrate the importance of evaluating commercial kits, especially regarding emerging infectious diseases whose medium and long-term impact on the population is unclear.(AU)


RESUMEN Como consecuencia de la aparición del virus del chikungunya en las Américas, la población afectada corre el riesgo de padecer reumatismos crónicos graves, aun meses después de la infección aguda. Es fundamental contar con métodos precisos para diagnosticar los antecedentes de la infección a fin de elaborar un diagnóstico diferencial y abordar las manifestaciones de la fase crónica. Se han estudiado tres inmunoensayos comercializados de detección de inmunoglobulinas G para el diagnóstico del chikungunya, comparándolos con el enzimoinmunoanálisis de adsorción (ELISA) propio. Los resultados señalan valores de sensibilidad del 92,8% al 100% y de especificidad del 81,8% al 90,9%, así como un número significativo de falsos positivos, de entre el 12,5% y el 22%.(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Reagent Kits, Diagnostic , Immunoglobulin G , Chikungunya virus/isolation & purification , Fluorescence Polarization Immunoassay , Immunoenzyme Techniques , Chikungunya Fever/diagnosis , Americas , Caribbean Region
8.
Rev. panam. salud pública ; 41: e58, 2017. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1043197

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN El 6 de diciembre de 2013, la Organización Panamericana de la Salud (OPS) y la Organización Mundial de la Salud (OMS) notificaron la confirmación de los dos primeros casos de transmisión autóctona en la Región de las Américas de fiebre chikungunya (CHIK) en la isla de Saint Martin (Antillas Neerlandesas). Para el período 2013-2014, el total de casos confirmados fue de 25 627 distribuidos en 43 países, donde México reportó 155 casos en cinco estados. La información de los casos de CHIK en México se obtuvo de la base de datos de la Dirección General de Epidemiología, dependiente de la Secretaría de Salud de México. La distribución por sexo de los casos autóctonos confirmados de CHIK para el año 2015 indica 64% para el sexo femenino (5 583) y 36% para el sexo masculino (3 085). Los síntomas más frecuentes fueron: fiebre en 98% de los casos (8 564), seguido por cefalea con 91,6% (7 941), mialgias en 89,9% (7 792), artralgias leves en 73,5% (6 367), poliartralgias graves en 72,6% (6 295) y exantema en 58% (5 032). La presentación clínica de los casos autóctonos de CHIK en México ha mostrado algunas características clínicas diferentes de las que se han observado en los brotes de los países africanos, asiáticos y otras regiones de América, como por ejemplo un mayor porcentaje de casos con cefalea y mialgias y un menor porcentaje de casos con artralgias.(AU)


ABSTRACT On 6 December 2013, the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) and the World Health Organization (WHO) reported confirmation of the first two cases of indigenous transmission of chikungunya fever (CHIK) in the Region of the Americas on the island of Sint Maarten (Netherlands Antilles). For the period 2013-2014, a total of 25 627 confirmed autochthonous cases were distributed in 43 countries, with Mexico reporting 155 cases in five states. Information on cases of CHIK in Mexico was obtained from the database of the General Directorate of Epidemiology (Ministry of Health of Mexico). The distribution of confirmed autochthonous cases of CHIK for 2015, by sex, was 64% female (5 583) and 36% male (3 085). The most frequent symptoms were fever in 98% of cases (8 564), followed by headache in 91.6% (7 941), myalgia in 89.9% (7 792), mild arthralgias in 73.5% (6 367), severe polyarthralgia in 72.6% (6 295), and exanthema in 58% (5 032). The clinical presentation of autochthonous cases of CHIK in Mexico has shown several clinical manifestations different from those seen in outbreaks in African and Asian countries and other regions in the Americas; for example, a greater percentage of cases with headache and myalgia and a smaller percentage of cases with arthralgia.(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Chikungunya virus/isolation & purification , Chikungunya Fever/diagnosis , Chikungunya Fever/epidemiology , Mexico/epidemiology
9.
Rev. panam. salud pública ; 41: e65, 2017. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1043194

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Understanding the ability of the chikungunya virus (CHIKV) to be transmitted by Aedes vectors in the Americas is critical for assessing epidemiological risk. One element that must be considered is the minimum infectious dose of virus that can lead to transmission following the extrinsic incubation period. This study aimed to determine the minimum infection rate for the two Aedes species studied. The results revealed that doses as low as 3.9 log10 plaque-forming units per mL (pfu/mL) of an Asian genotype CHIKV strain can lead to transmission by Ae. albopictus, and doses of at least 5.3 log10 pfu/mL from the same strain are needed for transmission from Ae. aegypti. These low infecting doses suggest that infected individuals may be infectious for almost the entire period of their viremia, and therefore, to prevent further cases, measures should be taken to prevent them from getting bitten by mosquitoes during this period.(AU)


RESUMEN Comprender la capacidad del virus del chikungunya (CHIKV) de ser transmitido por los vectores del género Aedes en la Región de las Américas es fundamental para evaluar el riesgo epidemiológico. Un elemento que debe tenerse en cuenta es la dosis infecciosa mínima de virus que posibilita la transmisión después del período de incubación extrínseco. El objetivo de este estudio ha sido determinar la tasa de infección mínima para las dos especies del género Aedes estudiadas. Los resultados indican que bastan dosis de tan solo 3,9 log10 unidades formadoras de placas por mililitro (ufp/ml) de una cepa de CHIKV del genotipo asiático para que se produzca la transmisión por Ae. albopictus, en tanto que para la transmisión por Ae. aegypti se necesitan dosis de al menos 5,3 log10 ufp/ml de la misma cepa. Estas dosis bajas indican que las personas infectadas podrían conservar el potencial infeccioso prácticamente durante todo el período de viremia y, por consiguiente, a fin de prevenir más casos, habría que tomar medidas para impedir que reciban picaduras de mosquitos durante ese período.(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Chikungunya virus/isolation & purification , Aedes/virology , Chikungunya Fever/transmission , Chikungunya Fever/epidemiology , Americas/epidemiology
10.
Rev. chil. infectol ; 33(4): 464-467, ago. 2016. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-830116

ABSTRACT

The recent outbreaks of Chikungunya (CHIK-V) virus in endemic areas of dengue (DEN-V) could increase the risk of co-infection. CHIK infection has been considered not severe and with very unusual mortality, however DEN is associated with severe manifestations and increased mortality. Little is known about coinfection. It is possible that co-infection could generate severe cases. We present a case report of co-infection DEN-V -3 and CHIK-V in an elderly patient who developed acute renal failure, dengue shock syndrome (DSS), progresses to multiple organ failure and died. With the recent emergence of CHIK-V in Colombia, the possibility of co-infection with DEN-V should be suspected, especially in severe cases.


La aparición reciente del virus Chikungunya (CHIK-V) en áreas endémicas de dengue (DEN-V) podría aumentar el riesgo de co-infección. Generalmente, se considera que la infección por CHIK-V es de menor gravedad y mortalidad que DEN-V. Poco se conoce sobre la co-infección de DEN-V y CHIK-V, sin embargo, se ha planteado que la co-infección podría ser de mayor gravedad. Se presenta un caso clínico de co-infección por DENV-3 y CHIK-V en un adulto mayor quien desarrolló falla renal aguda, síndrome de choque del dengue, progresión a disfunción orgánica múltiple y muerte. Con la reciente emergencia de CHIK-V en Colombia, es necesario estar atentos ante la posibilidad de co-infección con DEN-V, en especial en casos graves.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Aged , Dengue/epidemiology , Coinfection/epidemiology , Chikungunya Fever/epidemiology , Chikungunya virus/isolation & purification , Colombia/epidemiology , Viral Load , Dengue/blood , Dengue/virology , Dengue Virus/isolation & purification , Coinfection/virology , Chikungunya Fever/blood , Chikungunya Fever/virology , Multiple Organ Failure/virology
11.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 111(5): 347-348, May 2016. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-782053

ABSTRACT

Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is a mosquito-borne pathogen that emerged in Brazil by late 2014. In the country, two CHIKV foci characterized by the East/Central/South Africa and Asian genotypes, were established in North and Northeast regions. We characterized, by phylogenetic analyses of full and partial genomes, CHIKV from Rio de Janeiro state (2014-2015). These CHIKV strains belong to the Asian genotype, which is the determinant of the current Northern Brazilian focus, even though the genome sequence presents particular single nucleotide variations. This study provides the first genetic characterisation of CHIKV in Rio de Janeiro and highlights the potential impact of human mobility in the spread of an arthropod-borne virus.


Subject(s)
Humans , Chikungunya virus/genetics , Brazil , Chikungunya Fever/transmission , Chikungunya virus/isolation & purification , Phylogeny
12.
Rev. saúde pública (Online) ; 50: 36, 2016. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-962190

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Environmental modification by anthropogenic actions, disordered urban growth, globalization of international exchange and climate change are some factors that help the emergence and dissemination of human infectious diseases transmitted by vectors. This review discusses the recent entry of three arboviruses in Brazil: Chikungunya, West Nile, and Zika virus, focusing on the challenges for the Country's public health. The Brazilian population is exposed to infections caused by these three arboviruses widely distributed on the national territory and associated with humans. Without effective vaccine and specific treatment, the maintainance and integration of a continuos entomological and epidemiological surveillance are important so we can set methods to control and prevent these arboviruses in the Country.


RESUMO A modificação do ambiente por ações antrópicas, o crescimento urbano desordenado, o processo de globalização do intercâmbio internacional e as mudanças climáticas são alguns fatores que vêm facilitando a emergência e disseminação de doenças infecciosas humanas transmitidas por vetores. Este comentário aborda a recente entrada de três arbovírus no Brasil, Chikungunya (CHIKV), West Nile (WNV) e Zika (ZIKV), com enfoque nos desafios para a Saúde Pública do País. Transmitidos por mosquitos vetores amplamente distribuídos no território nacional e associados ao homem, a população brasileira encontra-se exposta à infecção por esses três arbovírus. Na ausência de vacina eficaz e tratamento específico, são importantes a manutenção e integração de uma vigilância entomológica e epidemiológica contínua, a fim de direcionarmos métodos de controle e prevenção contra essas arboviroses no País.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Male , Female , Flavivirus Infections/prevention & control , Communicable Diseases, Emerging/prevention & control , Chikungunya Fever/prevention & control , Zika Virus Infection/prevention & control , Insect Vectors , Arboviruses , Brazil/epidemiology , Chikungunya virus/isolation & purification , Flavivirus Infections/epidemiology , Aedes , Culex , Communicable Diseases, Emerging/epidemiology , Flavivirus/isolation & purification , Chikungunya Fever/epidemiology , Zika Virus/isolation & purification , Zika Virus Infection/epidemiology , Anopheles
13.
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-139000

ABSTRACT

Background & objectives: A retrospective study on chikungunya outbreak in India in five States viz. Delhi, Madhya Pradesh, Orissa, Maharashtra and Kerala was conducted in 2007-2008 to know the distribution and determinants of chikungunya fever outbreak in India. Methods: On the basis of high and low incidence of chikungunya fever, two districts from each State and two wards from the selected district were taken for random selection of 1000 households from 10 districts and 5 States. Semi-structured questionnaires were administered to individuals, patients, qualified health professionals and to stakeholders for collecting information. Results: The educational background and occupation of the respondents showed variations across the study States. Only in high incidence ward of Maharashtra, water storage period for 3-6 days and emptying, drying of water containers on weekly basis was noted. The study through knowledge, attitude, belief, practice (KABP) obtained individual's perception of chikungunya fever, its prevention and control. Patients’ expenditure on treatment was mainly recorded less than Rs 500 across study States. Health facility survey obtained an overview of the capacity of local health facilities. Stakeholders’ perception regarding chikungunya fever was also noted. Interpretation & Conclusions: The study revealed differences in awareness of chikungunya, cause of the disease, vector responsible, mode of transmission, biting time and elimination of breeding of mosquitoes statistically significant among high and low incidence wards of all the States. Expenditure on treatment was independent of economically active status and loss of man-days across all the States. Education and occupation did not have any relation with emptying/drying of water containers in high incidence wards. Strengthening of surveillance, information, education and communication (IEC) activities along with case management facilities may be provided by the State health department for prevention of chikungunya outbreaks in future. Stakeholders should be more involved in outbreak management and future planning.


Subject(s)
Alphavirus Infections/epidemiology , Chikungunya virus/isolation & purification , Disease Outbreaks , Humans , Incidence , India/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , Urban Population
14.
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-135391

ABSTRACT

Background & objectives : A large number of cases of undiagnosed fever and joint pain were reported from different parts of the State of Orissa since February 2006. Epidemiological and laboratory investigation were carried out to confirm the cause of emerging illness, which was provisionally suspected as Chikungunya (CHIK) fever. Methods: Upon getting the reports of suspected CHIK like illness in different parts of the State, epidemic investigations were carried out in the outbreak affected villages. Case history was recorded, clinical examination undertaken and blood samples collected for seroconfirmation for CHIK IgM antibody using ELISA based kit. Simultaneously vector survey was also carried out. Results: With no previous record of CHIK infection in the State, the first outbreak was confirmed during February 2006. Subsequently, the infection spread to 13 of 30 districts in different episodes covering 79 villages till November 2007. Attack rate was 9-43 per cent in the different outbreaks with average seropositivity of 24 per cent to CHIK specific IgM. Morbidity was high though no deaths were recorded. Aedes aegypti and Ae. albopictus were identified as the possible vectors for transmission. Interpretation & conclusions : The report confirmed emergence of CHIK infection in the State of Orissa, India, and its spread to a larger geographic zone in a short period which warrants public health measures to control further spread.


Subject(s)
Alphavirus Infections/diagnosis , Alphavirus Infections/epidemiology , Alphavirus Infections/transmission , Chikungunya virus/isolation & purification , Clinical Laboratory Techniques , Disease Outbreaks , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Humans , India/epidemiology
15.
Indian J Med Sci ; 2011 Mar; 65(3) 83-91
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-145595

ABSTRACT

Chikungunya (CHIK) fever is a re-emerging Aedes mosquito-transmitted viral disease caused by CHIK virus belonging to the Togaviridae family of genus Alphavirus. The disease is almost self-limiting, occurs with characteristic triad of sudden onset fever, rash and arthritis. During the recent outbreak CHIKV was also found to cause long-term arthralgia, severe neurological disease and even fatalities. Although there are no antiviral or vaccines available for CHIKV, still there are several advantages to diagnose the infection. The present article provides an overview of various diagnostic modalities available and its significance by searching PubMed MeSH terms "Chikungunya virus" and "Diagnosis" for recent articles. The gold standard of CHIKV diagnosis is culture, yet requires facilities and skills. Highly sensitive and specific PCR assays for CHIKV have been developed, but the reagents and equipment are costly for widespread use. Serological diagnosis by detecting IgM antibody is most widely used as it is relatively cheaper and easier to perform. Disadvantages of antibody testing are cross-reactivity with other alpha viruses, cannot differentiate between recent past and acute infection, and its sensitivity varies in clinical settings. When tested for diagnosing acute CHIKV disease, sensitivities were just 4 to 22% and after 1 week rose to more than 80%. As most acutely infected patients seek medical attention within the first few days of illness, the ideal test should detect RNA or antigen. Therefore, the more realistic aim would be to develop a reliable antigen detection assay that could be used in rural areas, where CHIKV infection often occurs.


Subject(s)
Alphavirus Infections/diagnosis , Chikungunya virus/analysis , Chikungunya virus/isolation & purification , Clinical Laboratory Techniques/instrumentation , Clinical Laboratory Techniques/methods , Diagnosis , Diagnostic Techniques and Procedures , Immunoglobulin M/isolation & purification , Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods
16.
Indian J Pediatr ; 2009 Feb; 76(2): 151-5
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-81611

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To define the clinical manifestations of Chikungunya infection in infants. METHODS: The inclusion criteria was fever (defined as axillary temperature > 99.6 degrees F) with any one of the following features; seizure, loose stools, peripheral cyanosis, skin manifestations or pedal edema in children less than one year. Details of disease from onset of illness till admission were noted and a thorough clinical examination was done at the time of admission. Daily follow-up was performed and the serial order of appearance of clinical features was noted till complete recovery. The sera collected from patients after the 7th day of onset of fever was analyzed for specific chikungunya antibody by IgM antibody capture enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). RESULTS: Fifty six (56) infants were laboratory confirmed for chikungunya, consisting of 34 (60.71%) males and 22 (39.29%) females. 4 (7.14%) infants were less than 1 month of age, 39 (69.64%) 2-6 months old and 13 (23.21%) 7-12 months old. Fever was invariably present, but associated constitutional symptoms in infants consisted of lethargy or irritability and excessive cry. The most characteristic feature of the infection in infants was acrocyanosis and symmetrical superficial vesicobullous lesions were noted in most infants. Erythematous asymmetrical macules and patches were observed which later progressed to morbiliform rashes. The face and oral cavity was spared in all observed patients. CONCLUSION: An entirely different spectrum of disease is seen in infants with chikungunya as compared to older children who need to be carefully observed for. The morbidity and mortality of the disease may be avoided by the rational use of drugs and close monitoring of all infants.


Subject(s)
Alphavirus Infections/diagnosis , Alphavirus Infections/immunology , Chikungunya virus/isolation & purification , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Female , Humans , Immunoglobulin M , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Male , Skin Diseases/diagnosis , Skin Diseases/immunology
17.
Indian J Pediatr ; 2009 Feb; 76(2): 185-9
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-81028

ABSTRACT

Chikungunya fever is caused by Chikungunya virus (CHIK) and spread by Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus. The median incubation period is 2 to 4 days. Vertical transmission of disease from mother to child has also been documented. Clinical manifestations are very variable, from asymptomatic illness to severe debilitating disease. Children are among the group at maximum risk for severe manifestations of the disease and some clinical features in this group are distinct from those seen in adults. Common clinical features include: abrupt onset high grade fever, skin rashes, minor hemorrhagic manifestations, arthralgia/ arthritis, lymphadenopathy, conjunctival injection, swelling of eyelids and pharyngitis. Unusual clinical features include: neurological manifestations including seizures, altered level of consciousness, blindness due to retrobulbar neuritis and acute flaccid paralysis. Watery stools may be seen in infants. Treatment is symptomatic. Generally non- steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs are avoided. Paracetamol may be used for pain and fever. However, NSAIDS may be required for relief of severe arthralgia during convalescent phase.


Subject(s)
Alphavirus Infections/epidemiology , Alphavirus Infections/physiopathology , Arthritis/epidemiology , Chikungunya virus/isolation & purification , Child , Hemorrhagic Fevers, Viral/epidemiology , Hemorrhagic Fevers, Viral/physiopathology , Humans
19.
Indian J Ophthalmol ; 2008 Jul-Aug; 56(4): 329-31
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-71292

ABSTRACT

A 35-year-old male with a history of chikungunya fever, presented with diminution of vision in the right eye of one-week duration. His best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) was counting fingers 2 meters and 20/20 (Snellens) in the right and left eyes respectively. A diagnosis of neuroretinitis was made in the right eye while left eye showed features of retinitis. ELISA (serum) and polymerase chain reaction (aqueous) were positive for herpes simplex virus. The lesions did not show any response to antiviral or steroid treatment and appeared to be self-limiting. At five months follow-up, lesions had resolved well with BCVA of 20/120 and 20/20 in the right and left eyes respectively.


Subject(s)
Acyclovir/therapeutic use , Adult , Alphavirus Infections/diagnosis , Chikungunya virus/isolation & purification , Drug Therapy, Combination , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Eye Infections, Viral/diagnosis , Fluorescein Angiography , Functional Laterality , Ganciclovir/therapeutic use , Glucocorticoids/therapeutic use , Humans , Male , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Retinitis/diagnosis , Tomography, Optical Coherence
20.
J Vector Borne Dis ; 2008 Jun; 45(2): 157-63
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-117999

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND & OBJECTIVES: An outbreak of chikungunya fever occurred in Malegaon town of Nasik district of Maharashtra state, India during February and March 2006. A total of 4530 fever cases were reported during this period including 1781 cases which were admitted in different hospitals of the town. An entomological and epidemiological investigation was carried out in the affected villages during the outbreak to study the possible causes of the outbreak and to isolate the virus responsible. METHODS: Entomological evaluation was done as per WHO guidelines. Sera samples were collected by venipuncture from clinically suspected chikungunya patients in hospitals and also during house-to-house survey in affected villages. IgM antibodies to dengue virus were detected using IgM capture ELISA (PANBIO) and by "Haemagglutination inhibition test" for detection of antibodies against Chikungunya virus. Acute sera samples were inoculated in cell lines for virus isolation. The isolates were confirmed by RT-PCR. RESULTS: On investigation, it was found that water storage containers like cement tanks, plastic containers or earthen pots placed in front of the individual houses were the potential breeding sites for Aedes aegypti. Entomological survey carried out in the most affected areas revealed high Aedes indices. House, container and breteau indices were found to be 27.2, 16.19 and 35.1, respectively. Out of the 13 acute sera samples collected, virus was isolated in 10 samples. The isolates were confirmed by RT-PCR and sequencing using primers from nsP1 gene of Chikungunya virus (CHIKV, Accession No. EF077609, EF077610). Of the 17 convalescent sera tested, significant level of HI antibodies to CHIKV was detected in five samples. One sample was positive for IgM antibodies against dengue virus. Based on clinico-epidemiological features and laboratory findings, the illness was confirmed to be of chikungunya viral disease. CONCLUSION: Control measures targeting the vector population and personal protective measures against the mosquito bites were instituted. Extensive IEC campaign with the involvement of community and religious leaders helped in containment of the disease.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Alphavirus Infections/epidemiology , Animals , Chikungunya virus/isolation & purification , Child , Child, Preschool , Disease Outbreaks , Female , Humans , India/epidemiology , Infant , Male , Middle Aged , Mosquito Control/methods , Water Supply
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