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1.
Interface (Botucatu, Online) ; 25: e210117, 2021.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1346364

ABSTRACT

El propósito del presente trabajo es analizar la cultura de la salud promovida en las escuelas primarias españolas bajo el ideario del régimen franquista (1936-1975). Para ello, hemos indagado en los manuales escolares del periodo, recursos fundamentales en el proceso de enseñanza-aprendizaje, con los que se trató de modificar la conducta de la población en relación con la salud y la enfermedad. Desde un enfoque etnográfico hemos analizado tanto el discurso sobre las prácticas infantiles, como el ideario de cuerpo y salud promovido. Si bien, disciplina y control social propios del régimen dejaron su impronta en la salud enseñada, las transformaciones sociales y políticas lo fueron modulando hacia una noción de salud menos moralizadora pero más deudora del discurso experto. (AU)


O objetivo deste trabalho é analisar a cultura da saúde promovida nas escolas primárias espanholas sob a ideologia do regime franquista (1936-1975). Para este fim, investigamos os livros escolares do período, recursos fundamentais no processo ensino-aprendizagem, que foram utilizados para tentar modificar o comportamento da população em relação à saúde e à doença. A partir de uma abordagem etnográfica, analisamos tanto o discurso sobre as práticas das crianças quanto à ideologia do corpo e da saúde promovida. Embora a disciplina e o controle social do regime tenham deixado sua marca na saúde ensinada, as transformações sociais e políticas o modulavam no sentido de uma noção menos moralizadora de saúde, mas mais endividada com o discurso dos especialistas. (AU)


The purpose of this paper is to analyse the culture of health promoted in Spanish primary schools under the ideology of the Franco regime (1936-1975). To this end, we have investigated the school textbooks of the period, fundamental resources in the teaching-learning process, which were used to try to modify the behaviour of the population in relation to health and illness. From an ethnographic approach, we have analysed both the discourse on children's practices and the ideology of body and health promoted. Although the regime's own discipline and social control left their mark on the health taught, social and political transformations gradually modulated it towards a less moralising notion of health that was more indebted to expert discourse. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Teaching , Textbooks as Topic/history , Child Rearing/ethnology , Health Education , Spain , History of Homeopathy, 20th Century
2.
Rev. chil. pediatr ; 91(1): 27-33, feb. 2020. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1092784

ABSTRACT

Resumen: Introducción: El lenguaje es una de las tareas cognitivas más relevantes en el desarrollo infantil cuya adquisición está mediada, entre otros, por factores étnicos y culturales. Objetivo: Caracterizar las prácticas y creencias sobre la enseñanza y estrategias de estimulación del lenguaje de niños/as Mapuche rurales de 0 a 4 años desde una perspectiva intracultural. Sujetos y Método: Estudio cualitativo basado en Teoría Fundamentada que produce una comprensión del problema a partir de las percepciones de los suje tos de investigación. Se utilizaron técnicas etnográficas como observación y notas de campo además de 20 entrevistas en profundidad y 4 grupos focales con cuidadores (madres, padres, abuelos/as), educadores interculturales, asesores culturales y agentes ancestrales de la cultura (longko y machi). Participaron 41 personas Mapuche de los territorios rurales de Ercilla, Curarrehue, Puerto Saave dra, Cholchol y Boroa de la región de La Araucanía/Chile. Resultados: Se obtuvieron 4 dimensiones que caracterizaban las prácticas y creencias en torno a la adquisición y uso del lenguaje en niños/as Mapuche: a) los/as niños/as y el aprendizaje de la lengua representan la mantención de la identidad Mapuche; b) el habla es un proceso concreto y pragmático; c) existen técnicas tradicionales para estimulación del habla, y d) existen dificultades y facilidades para el desarrollo de la lengua indígena en los niños/as pequeños. Conclusiones: La mantención y recuperación de la lengua indígena es un proceso de reforzamiento de la identidad cultural para el pueblo Mapuche, que no ha sido valorado como un patrimonio cultural en la sociedad nacional.


Abstract: Introduction: Language is one of the most relevant cognitive tasks in child development and its acquisition is me diated, among others, by ethnic and cultural factors. Objective: To characterize the practices and be liefs about language teaching and stimulation strategies of rural Mapuche Children aged between 0 to 4 years from an intracultural perspective. Subjects and Method: Qualitative study based on Groun ded Theory, which generates an understanding of the study issue from the perceptions of the research subjects. Ethnographic techniques such as observation and field notes were used, and 20 in-depth in terviews and four focus groups were conducted with caregivers (mothers, fathers, and grandparents), intercultural teachers and people with cultural roles (longkos, machis, and intercultural facilitators). 41 Mapuche people from the Ercilla, Curarrehue, Puerto Saavedra, Cholchol and Boroa territories of the Araucanía region, Chile participated. Results: Four dimensions were obtained that characte rized the practices and beliefs regarding the acquisition and use of language in Mapuche children: a) Mapuche culture transcends through children and language, b) speech is a concrete and pragmatic process, c) there are traditional techniques for speech stimulation, and d) there are difficulties and easiness for the development of the indigenous language in young children. Conclusions: The preser vation and recovery of the indigenous language is a process of reinforcing the cultural identity for the Mapuche people, which has not been valued as a cultural heritage in the national society.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Child, Preschool , Rural Population , Teaching/psychology , Indians, South American/psychology , Child Rearing/ethnology , Cultural Characteristics , Language Development , Interviews as Topic , Focus Groups , Qualitative Research , Grounded Theory , Anthropology, Cultural
3.
Rev. cuba. salud pública ; 42(3)jul.-set. 2016.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: lil-791563

ABSTRACT

Este trabajo es el resultado de un estudio sobre la crianza en familias en condiciones de desigualdad e iniquidad social, se pretende contribuir a la teoría de la salud pública. Se argumenta que la salud pública anglosajona convencional hegemónica ha excluido la crianza como asunto fundamental de su praxis. Se construye una argumentación teórica acerca de la relevancia de la crianza vista desde una salud pública que resignifique la salud como vida. Se utilizó el método etnográfico cuyo desarrollo teórico se hizo a partir de la relación argumentada entre los conceptos crianza, salud, salud pública y justica social. De acuerdo a la revisión realizada se demostró que la salud pública anglosajona, convencional y hegemónica no concibe la crianza como una categoría central para su pensar y accionar. Perspectivas alternativas de la salud pública, que conciben la salud como la vida misma, facilitan asumir la crianza como un proceso favorable para su praxis. En conclusión, con base en la relevancia de la crianza para el sujeto y la sociedad -concebida como fenómeno sociocultural, histórico y ontológico y reconocida como asunto también público-, se formula que la crianza demanda un abordaje transdisciplinar de la salud pública que asuma una concepción de ciencia promotora del diálogo de saberes y una racionalidad dialéctica que supere las dicotomías sujeto/sociedad y clínica/salud pública para responder a las regularidades de lo universal y a las contingencias de lo singular(AU)


This paper is the result of a research project on upbringing in families living in social inequality and inequity conditions and is aimed to contribute to public health theory. It stated that the hegemonic conventional Anglo-Saxon approach to public health has excluded upbringing as a fundamental area of its praxis. A theoretical argumentation about the relevance of upbringing is created from the viewpoing of a public health that gives a new meaning to health as part of life. An ethnographic method was used with a theoretical development, on the basis of the substantiated relationship among the concepts of upbrinding, health, public health and social Justice. According to this review, it was proved that Anglo-Saxon public health, with the above-mentioned characteristics, does not conceive upbringing as a central category for thinking and acting. Alternative perspectives of public health, which see health as if it was life, facilitate taking upbringing as a favorable process for practice. It is concluded that upbringing, conceived as sociocultural, historical and ontological phenomenon, as well as a public issue, is relevant for public health. It is stated that upbringing demands a transdisciplinary approach of public health that involves conceptualization of science promoting dialogue of know-hows and a dialectic rationality that goes beyond the subject/society and clinical/public health dichotomies in order to respond to the regularities of universality and the contingencies of singularity(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Child , Child Rearing/ethnology , Health Education/methods , Health Equity , Colombia
4.
Asian Nursing Research ; : 104-108, 2015.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-7886

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to examine the levels of parenting efficacy and health-promoting behaviors for children of mothers, and to explore the relationships between parenting efficacy and the behaviors of mothers from native and multicultural families in South Korea. METHODS: Data was collected by a self-report questionnaire completed by 258 mothers who had 6-month to 36-month-old children attending kindergartens or multicultural family support centers located in Seoul and in Gyeounggi Province, South Korea. RESULTS: No significant difference in parenting efficacy was found, depending on the maternal country of origin. However, Chinese mothers performed health-promoting behaviors more frequently for their children than Korean and Vietnamese mothers did (F = 6.87, p < .001). The significant positive correlations between parenting efficacy and maternal health-promoting behaviors for children were found, regardless of maternal country of origin (r = .57, p < .001 for Korean, r = .42, p < .001 for Chinese, and r= .40, p < .001 for Vietnamese mothers). CONCLUSIONS: Since maternal health-promoting behaviors were different depending on the native country of the mothers, maternal country of origin should be considered in designing programs for improving maternal health-promoting behaviors for their children. In addition, increasing the level of parenting efficacy can be an effective way for improvement of maternal health-promoting behaviors.


Subject(s)
Adult , Asians/ethnology , Child Rearing/ethnology , Child, Preschool , Cross-Sectional Studies , Cultural Diversity , Female , Health Behavior/ethnology , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice/ethnology , Health Promotion , Humans , Infant , Male , Mothers , Parenting/ethnology , Republic of Korea , Surveys and Questionnaires , Young Adult
5.
Movimento (Porto Alegre) ; 19(1): 55-71, jan.-mar. 2013.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-688906

ABSTRACT

Esta é uma investigação sobre como ocorrem às experiências de movimento corporal das crianças em um Centro de Educação Infantil. Constitui uma pesquisa etnográfica que utiliza a observação compreensivo-crítica como abordagem teórico-metodológica. A observação permitiu perceber que as experiências de movimento corporal das crianças tendem a ser interditadas pela cultura de escolarização; que as crianças não têm direito a movimentar a si e ao seu mundo como precisam e têm interesse de fazê-lo; que quando a criança move a si e ao seu mundo provoca forte conflito entre sua perspectiva ética estética e a ordem cultural escolar.


This is an investigation about how the experiences of the corporal movement of children happen in an Infant Education Center. Constitutes an ethnographic research that utilizes comprehensive critical observation as theoretical-methodological approach. The observation of the children allowed to notice that corporal movement experiences of the children tend to be interdicted by the culture of institutional schooling; that children at school do not have the right to move themselves and in their world the way they need and would like to do; that when children move themselves and their own world, it provokes strong conflict between the ethical esthetical perspective and the school cultural order.


Esta es una investigación sobre cómo se dan las experiencias de movimiento corporal de niños en un Centro de Educación Infantil. Se trata de uma investigación etnográfica, con observación comprensiva-crítica como abordaje teóricometodológico. La observación permitió percibir que las experiencias de movimiento corporal de niños tienden a ser interdichas por la cultura institucional; que los niños no tienen derecho a moverse a sí mismos y a su mundo como necesitan y les gustaría hacerlo; que cuando el niño se mueve a sí y a su mundo provoca fuerte conflicto entre su perspectiva ética estética y el orden cultural escolar.


Subject(s)
Child, Preschool , Child , Child Rearing/ethnology , Movement , Observation/methods , Exercise Movement Techniques
7.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-51520

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: This study was conducted to compare the paternal rearing behavior and rearing stress level between fathers with a preschooler and fathers with school children so that it can be utilized as a basic source for developing parental rearing education programs. METHODS: A descriptive comparative method was conducted to identify the paternal rearing behavior and paternal rearing stress. Respondents were 361 fathers who had either preschoolers (n=189) or children of elementary age (n=172). RESULTS: Comparing the two group's means, the rearing activity score and rearing stress there were significant differences. In the school children's group's father, 'outdoor activity' and 'guidance on discipline activity' were significantly higher than the other group. In the preschool children's fathers group, 'play interaction activity' was statistically significant higher than the other, and the child-part mean score of paternal rearing stress was significantly higher than the other group. The correlation between paternal rearing behavior and paternal rearing stress, indicates that more paternal rearing behavior means less paternal rearing stress. CONCLUSION: These results of this study will help design more effective rearing programs for fathers that have either preschool children or school children by providing the basic data for paternal rearing behaviors and paternal rearing stress.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adult , Age Factors , Analysis of Variance , Child , Child Rearing/ethnology , Child, Preschool , Father-Child Relations/ethnology , Fathers/education , Gender Identity , Health Services Needs and Demand , Health Surveys , Humans , Korea/epidemiology , Middle Aged , Nursing Methodology Research , Paternal Behavior/ethnology , Play and Playthings , Surveys and Questionnaires , Risk Factors , Severity of Illness Index , Social Support , Stress, Psychological/ethnology
8.
Aletheia ; (16): 71-82, jul.-dez. 2002. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-404012

ABSTRACT

Esta pesquisa insere-se dentro da perspectiva da Teoria dos Sistemas Ecológicos proposta por Bronfenbrenner (1996). Desta forma, passa-se a buscar uma compreensão dinâmica e relacional de como interagem com a cultura majoritária e, de que maneira se delineia o processo de inserção cultural (aculturação) de trinta e dois (32) escolares imigrantes no contexto porto-alegrense. Para tanto, necessita-se de esclarecimento dos termos e conceitos aqui empregados, além da análise da Short Acculturation Scale (adaptada para a realidade local) respondida pelos participantes. Os dados indicam haver um processo aculturativo de orientação integrativa, pois parecem conviver elementos da cultura brasileira com elementos culturais dos países de origem das crianças participantes


Subject(s)
Humans , Child , Adolescent , Acculturation , Adaptation, Psychological , Child , Child Rearing/ethnology , Culture , Emigration and Immigration , Psychosocial Impact
11.
EMHJ-Eastern Mediterranean Health Journal. 1995; 1 (1): 27-34
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-156330

ABSTRACT

The health profiles of children can provide an insight into demographic characteristics, morbidity and mortality, attitudes and practices, people's resources and their motivation to stay healthy. Such studies help policy planners and health administrators in establishing priorities and help in defining objectives for the paediatric education of physicians. However, such studies are scarce. This presentation is part of an integrated multidisciplinary effort by a team of investigators at King Faisal University. The data were collected by trained medical students, technicians and social workers during 1983


Subject(s)
Humans , Child Rearing/ethnology , Child Health Services/statistics & numerical data
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