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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e257402, 2024. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1355856

ABSTRACT

Abstract Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is an infectious disease predominant in countries located in the tropics. The prediction of occurrence of infectious diseases through epidemiologic modeling has revealed to be an important tool in the understanding of its occurrence dynamic. The objective of this study was to develop a forecasting model for the incidence of VL in Maranhão using the Seasonal Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average model (SARIMA). We collected monthly data regarding VL cases from the National Disease Notification System (SINAN) corresponding to the period between 2001 and 2018. The Box-Jenkins method was applied in order to adjust a SARIMA prediction model for VL general incidence and by sex (male or female) for the period between January 2019 and December 2013. For 216 months of this time series, 10,431 cases of VL were notified in Maranhão, with an average of 579 cases per year. With regard to age range, there was a higher incidence among the pediatric public (0 to 14 years of age). There was a predominance in male cases, 6437 (61.71%). The Box-Pierce test figures for overall, male and female genders supported by the results of the Ljung-Box test suggest that the autocorrelations of residual values act as white noise. Regarding monthly occurrences in general and by gender, the SARIMA models (2,0,0) (2,0,0), (0,1,1) (0,1,1) and (0,1,1) (2, 0, 0) were the ones that mostly adjusted to the data respectively. The model SARIMA has proven to be an adequate tool for predicting and analyzing the trends in VL incidence in Maranhão. The time variation determination and its prediction are decisive in providing guidance in health measure intervention.


Resumo A leishmaniose visceral (LV) é uma doença de natureza infecciosa, predominante em países de zonas tropicais. A predição de ocorrência de doenças infecciosas através da modelagem epidemiológica tem se revelado uma importante ferramenta no entendimento de sua dinâmica de ocorrência. O objetivo deste estudo foi desenvolver um modelo de previsão da incidência da LV no Maranhão usando o modelo de Média Móvel Integrada Autocorrelacionada Sazonal (SARIMA). Foram coletados os dados mensais de casos de LV através do Sistema de Informação de Agravos de Notificação (SINAN) correspondentes ao período de 2001 a 2018. O método de Box-Jenkins foi aplicado para ajustar um modelo de predição SARIMA para incidência geral e por sexo (masculino e feminino) de LV para o período de janeiro de 2019 a dezembro de 2023. Durante o período de 216 meses dessa série temporal, foram registrados 10.431 casos de LV no Maranhão, com uma média de 579 casos por ano. Em relação à faixa etária, houve maior registro no público pediátrico (0 a 14 anos). Houve predominância do sexo masculino, com 6437 casos (61,71%). Os valores do teste de Box-Pierce para incidência geral, sexo masculino e feminino reforçados pelos resultados do teste Ljung-Box sugerem que as autocorrelações de resíduos apresentam um comportamento de ruído branco. Para incidência mensal geral e por sexo masculino e feminino, os modelos SARIMA (2,0,0) (2,0,0), (0,1,1) (0,1,1) e (0,1,1) (2, 0, 0) foram os que mais se ajustaram aos dados, respectivamente. O modelo SARIMA se mostrou uma ferramenta adequada de previsão e análise da tendência de incidência da LV no Maranhão. A determinação da variação temporal e sua predição são determinantes no norteamento de medidas de intervenção em saúde.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Leishmaniasis, Visceral/diagnosis , Leishmaniasis, Visceral/epidemiology , Seasons , Brazil/epidemiology , Incidence , Models, Statistical
2.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e249911, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1339366

ABSTRACT

Abstract Hematological and hematopoietic cells malignancies of the genes and hematopoietic cells are associated with the genetic mutation, often at the chromosomal level. The standard cytogenetic study is widely accepted as one of the main diagnostics and prognostic determinants in patients. Therefore, the current descriptive and cross-sectional study sought to determine the cytogenetic analysis of frequent hematological malignancies in Pakistan. A total of 202 peripheral bone marrow or blood samples from patients with benign and malignant hematological malignancy were taken using a conventional G-banding technique. Among enrolled patients, the mean age was 21.5 years ± 23.4, and gender-wise distribution showed a marked predominance of the male 147 (73%) population compared to the female 55 (27%). Patients in the age group (2-10 years) had the highest frequency, 48 (24%), of hematological neoplasms, followed by age (11-20 years) with 40 (20%). Normal karyotypes (46, XX/46, XY) was found in 51% (n=103) patients. Furthermore, the frequency of complex karyotype was 30 (15%), while normal was seen in 171 (85%) patients. Pre-B Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia (Pre-B ALL) was the most prevalent malignancy of 66 (33%), followed by Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia (CML) of 41 (20%) and Acute Lymphocytic Leukemia of 29 (14%). Translocation was the most prevalent 50 (25%), followed by hypotriploidy 14 (7%) and monosomy 8 (4%) on chromosome aberration analysis. In addition, t(9:22) translocation was found to be 20 (10%) in CML, with the majority in the age group (31-40 years). This study recommends that karyotyping should be tested frequently in hematological conditions because it may provide insight into the relative chromosomal changes associated with particular malignancies.


Resumo As neoplasias hematológicas e de células hematopoiéticas dos genes e as células hematopoiéticas estão associadas à mutação genética, geralmente em nível cromossômico. O estudo citogenético padrão é amplamente aceito como um dos principais determinantes diagnósticos e prognósticos em pacientes. Portanto, o presente estudo descritivo e transversal buscou determinar a análise citogenética de neoplasias hematológicas frequentes no Paquistão. Um total de 202 amostras de medula óssea periférica ou sangue de pacientes com malignidade hematológica benigna e maligna foi coletado usando uma técnica convencional de banda G. Entre os pacientes inscritos, a média de idade foi de 21,5 anos ± 23,4, e a distribuição por gênero mostrou uma marcada predominância da população masculina de 147 (73%) em comparação com a feminina de 55 (27%). Pacientes na faixa etária (2-10 anos) tiveram a maior frequência, 48 (24%), de neoplasias hematológicas, seguida da idade (11-20 anos) com 40 (20%). Cariótipos normais (46, XX / 46, XY) foram encontrados em 51% (n = 103) dos pacientes. Além disso, a frequência de cariótipo complexo foi de 30 (15%), enquanto normal foi observada em 171 (85%) pacientes. Leucemia linfoblástica aguda pré-B (LLA Pré-B) foi a doença maligna mais prevalente de 66 (33%), seguida por leucemia mieloide crônica (LMC) de 41 (20%) e leucemia linfocítica aguda de 29 (14%). A translocação foi o 50 mais prevalente (25%), seguido por hipotriploidia 14 (7%) e monossomia 8 (4%) na análise de aberração cromossômica. Além disso, a translocação t (9:22) encontrada foi de 20 (10%) na LMC, com a maioria na faixa etária (31-40 anos). Este estudo recomenda que o cariótipo deve ser testado com frequência em condições hematológicas porque pode fornecer informações sobre as alterações cromossômicas relativas associadas a doenças malignas específicas.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Young Adult , Chromosome Aberrations , Hematologic Neoplasms/genetics , Hematologic Neoplasms/epidemiology , Pakistan/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Karyotyping
3.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e246062, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1339355

ABSTRACT

Abstract A group of inherited blood defects is known as Thalassemia is among the world's most prevalent hemoglobinopathies. Thalassemias are of two types such as Alpha and Beta Thalassemia. The cause of these defects is gene mutations leading to low levels and/or malfunctioning α and β globin proteins, respectively. In some cases, one of these proteins may be completely absent. α and β globin chains form a globin fold or pocket for heme (Fe++) attachment to carry oxygen. Genes for alpha and beta-globin proteins are present in the form of a cluster on chromosome 16 and 11, respectively. Different globin genes are used at different stages in the life course. During embryonic and fetal developmental stages, γ globin proteins partner with α globin and are later replaced by β globin protein. Globin chain imbalances result in hemolysis and impede erythropoiesis. Individuals showing mild symptoms include carriers of alpha thalassemia or the people bearing alpha or beta-thalassemia trait. Alpha thalassemia causes conditions like hemolytic anemia or fatal hydrops fetalis depending upon the severity of the disease. Beta thalassemia major results in hemolytic anemia, growth retardation, and skeletal aberrations in early childhood. Children affected by this disorder need regular blood transfusions throughout their lives. Patients that depend on blood transfusion usually develop iron overload that causes other complications in the body systems like renal or hepatic impairment therefore, thalassemias are now categorized as a syndrome. The only cure for Thalassemias would be a bone marrow transplant, or gene therapy with currently no significant success rate. A thorough understanding of the molecular basis of this syndrome may provide novel insights and ideas for its treatment, as scientists have still been unable to find a permanent cure for this deadly disease after more than 87 years since it is first described in 1925.


Resumo Um grupo de defeitos sanguíneos hereditários é conhecido como talassemia e está entre as hemoglobinopatias mais prevalentes do mundo. As talassemias são de dois tipos, como talassemia alfa e beta. As causas desses defeitos são as mutações genéticas que levam a níveis baixos e/ou proteínas de globina com mau funcionamento, respectivamente. Em alguns casos, uma dessas proteínas pode estar completamente ausente. As cadeias de globina α e β formam uma dobra ou bolsa de globina para a fixação de heme (Fe ++) para transportar oxigênio. Os genes das proteínas alfa e beta globina estão presentes na forma de um cluster nos cromossomos 16 e 11, respectivamente. Diferentes genes de globina são usados ​​em diferentes estágios do curso de vida. Durante os estágios de desenvolvimento embrionário e fetal, as proteínas γ globina se associam à α globina e, posteriormente, são substituídas pela proteína β globina. Os desequilíbrios da cadeia de globina resultam em hemólise e impedem a eritropoiese. Indivíduos que apresentam sintomas leves incluem portadores de talassemia alfa ou as pessoas com traços de talassemia alfa ou beta. A talassemia alfa causa condições como anemia hemolítica ou hidropsia fetal fatal, dependendo da gravidade da doença. A beta talassemia principal resulta em anemia hemolítica, retardo de crescimento e aberrações esqueléticas na primeira infância. As crianças afetadas por esse distúrbio precisam de transfusões de sangue regulares ao longo da vida. Os pacientes que dependem de transfusão de sangue geralmente desenvolvem sobrecarga de ferro que causa outras complicações nos sistemas do corpo, como insuficiência renal ou hepática, portanto as talassemias agora são classificadas como uma síndrome. A única cura para as talassemias seria um transplante de medula óssea ou terapia genética sem atualmente uma taxa de sucesso significativa. Uma compreensão completa da base molecular dessa síndrome pode fornecer novos insights e ideias para seu tratamento, já que os cientistas ainda não conseguiram encontrar uma cura permanente para essa doença mortal depois de mais de 87 anos desde que foi descrita pela primeira vez em 1925.


Subject(s)
Humans , Child, Preschool , Thalassemia/genetics , beta-Thalassemia/genetics , Hemoglobins
4.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e248717, 2023. graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1339344

ABSTRACT

Abstract The human respiratory syncytial virus (hRSV) is the most common cause of severe lower respiratory tract diseases in young children worldwide, leading to a high number of hospitalizations and significant expenditures for health systems. Neutrophils are massively recruited to the lung tissue of patients with acute respiratory diseases. At the infection site, they release neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) that can capture and/or inactivate different types of microorganisms, including viruses. Evidence has shown that the accumulation of NETs results in direct cytotoxic effects on endothelial and epithelial cells. Neutrophils stimulated by the hRSV-F protein generate NETs that are able to capture hRSV particles, thus reducing their transmission. However, the massive production of NETs obstructs the airways and increases disease severity. Therefore, further knowledge about the effects of NETs during hRSV infections is essential for the development of new specific and effective treatments. This study evaluated the effects of NETs on the previous or posterior contact with hRSV-infected Hep-2 cells. Hep-2 cells were infected with different hRSV multiplicity of infection (MOI 0.5 or 1.0), either before or after incubation with NETs (0.5-16 μg/mL). Infected and untreated cells showed decreased cellular viability and intense staining with trypan blue, which was accompanied by the formation of many large syncytia. Previous contact between NETs and cells did not result in a protective effect. Cells in monolayers showed a reduced number and area of syncytia, but cell death was similar in infected and non-treated cells. The addition of NETs to infected tissues maintained a similar virus-induced cell death rate and an increased syncytial area, indicating cytotoxic and deleterious damages. Our results corroborate previously reported findings that NETs contribute to the immunopathology developed by patients infected with hRSV.


Resumo O vírus sincicial respiratório humano (hRSV) é a causa mais comum de doenças graves do trato respiratório inferior em crianças pequenas em todo o mundo, resultando em grande número de hospitalizações e gastos significativos para os sistemas de saúde. Neutrófilos são recrutados em massa para o tecido pulmonar de pacientes com doenças respiratórias agudas. No local da infecção, eles liberam armadilhas extracelulares de neutrófilos (NETs) que podem capturar e/ou inativar diferentes tipos de microrganismos, incluindo vírus. Evidências demonstraram que o acúmulo de NETs resulta em efeitos citotóxicos diretos nas células endoteliais e epiteliais. Os neutrófilos estimulados pela proteína F do vírus sincicial respiratório (hRSV-F) geram NETs que são capazes de capturar partículas virais, reduzindo assim sua transmissão. No entanto, a produção maciça de NETs obstrui as vias aéreas e aumenta a gravidade da doença. Assim, um maior conhecimento sobre os efeitos das NETs durante as infecções por hRSV é essencial para o desenvolvimento de novos tratamentos específicos e eficazes. Este estudo avaliou os efeitos das NETs no contato prévio ou posterior à infecção de células Hep-2 com hRSV. As células Hep-2 foram infectadas com diferentes quantidades de hRSV (multiplicidade de infecção ou MOI 0,5 ou 1,0), antes ou após a incubação com NETs (0,5-16 μg/mL). Células infectadas e não tratadas mostraram redução da viabilidade celular e intensa coloração com azul de tripano, que foi acompanhada pela formação de sincícios numerosos e grandes. O contato prévio entre as NETs e as células não resultou em efeito protetor. As células em monocamadas mostraram um número e área de sincícios reduzidos, mas a morte celular foi semelhante àquela apresentada por células infectadas e não tratadas. A adição de NETs aos tecidos infectados manteve taxa de morte celular e formação de sincícios semelhantes àqueles induzidos pelo vírus em células não tratadas, indicando danos citotóxicos e deletérios. Nossos resultados corroboram achados relatados anteriormente de que as NETs contribuem para a imunopatologia desenvolvida por pacientes infectados com hRSV.


Subject(s)
Humans , Child, Preschool , Respiratory Syncytial Virus, Human , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections , Extracellular Traps , Epithelial Cells , Lung
5.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e244435, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1285619

ABSTRACT

Abstract Increasing trend in antimicrobial resistance and failure of chemically synthesized antibiotics lead to discover alternative methods for the treatment of bacterial infections. Various medicinal plants are in use traditionally and their active compounds can be further applied for treatment of bacterial diseases. This study was designed to determine the antibacterial activity of Punica granatum (P. granatum L.) (pomegranate) peel extract against Enterobacteriaceae [Escherichia coli (E. coli), Salmonella Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium) and Shigella Dysenteriae (S. Dysenteriae)] and gram-positive bacterium [Staphylococcus aureus (Staph aureus)]. Methanolic extract of P. granatum L. peel was prepared by Soxhlet apparatus method. Total flavonoid and phenolic contents from the extract were determined by High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC). The antibacterial activity of P. granatum L. peel extract was evaluated through agar well diffusion method. HPLC showed the range of phenolics (gallic acid, caffeic acid, benzoic acid, cinnamic acid) and flavonoid compounds. The chemical structures of flavonoid and phenolics found in the methanolic extract of P. granatum L. peel have been reported for the first time. The methanolic peel extract (50 ul) of yellow P. granatum L. showed 26, 10, 10 and 9mm zones of inhibition (ZOI) against S. aureus, S. Typhimurium, S. Dysenteriae and E. coli, respectively. The methanolic extract of red P. granatum L. (100 ul) showed 27, 8, 12 and 15 mm ZOI against Staph. aureus, S. Typhimurium, S. Dysenteriae and E. coli, respectively. Highest ZOI was observed against Staph. aureus. Many of the bacteria studied in the present work may cause serious gastrointestinal infections, which can lead to hemorrhagic diarrhea in children. These infections can be life-threatening to young children and the elderly. There is an incentive to find alternative control measures, such as plant and herbal extracts, especially in lesser-developed countries where traditional antibiotics may not be readily available.


Resumo A tendência crescente na resistência antimicrobiana e na falha dos antibióticos sintetizados quimicamente leva à descoberta de métodos alternativos para o tratamento de infecções bacterianas. Várias plantas medicinais estão em uso tradicionalmente e seus compostos ativos podem ser posteriormente aplicados para o tratamento de doenças bacterianas. Este estudo foi desenhado para determinar a atividade antibacteriana do extrato de casca de Punica granatum (P. granatum L.) (romã) contra Enterobacteriaceae [Escherichia coli (E. coli), Salmonella Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium) e Shigella Dysenteriae (S. Dysenteriae) ] e bactéria gram-positiva [Staphylococcus aureus (Staph aureus)]. O extrato metanólico da casca de P. granatum L. foi preparado pelo método do aparelho de Soxhlet. O conteúdo total de flavonoides e fenólicos do extrato foi determinado por cromatografia líquida de alta eficiência (HPLC). A atividade antibacteriana do extrato da casca de P. granatum L. foi avaliada através do método de difusão em ágar. HPLC mostrou a gama de compostos fenólicos (ácido gálico, ácido cafeico, ácido benzoico, ácido cinâmico) e flavonoides. As estruturas químicas de flavonoides e fenólicos encontradas no extrato metanólico da casca de P. granatum L. foram relatadas pela primeira vez. O extrato metanólico da casca (50 ul) de P. granatum L. amarelo apresentou zonas de inibição (ZOI) de 26, 10, 10 e 9mm contra S. aureus, S. Typhimurium, S. Dysenteriae e E. coli, respectivamente. O extrato metanólico de P. granatum L. vermelho (100 ul) apresentou 27, 8, 12 e 15 mm IOI contra Staph. aureus, S. Typhimurium, S. Dysenteriae e E. coli, respectivamente. O ZOI mais alto foi observado contra Staph. aureus. Muitas das bactérias estudadas no presente trabalho podem causar infecções gastrointestinais graves, que podem levar à diarreia hemorrágica em crianças. Essas infecções podem ser fatais para crianças pequenas e idosos. Há um incentivo para encontrar medidas de controle alternativas, como extratos de plantas e ervas, especialmente em países menos desenvolvidos, onde os antibióticos tradicionais podem não estar prontamente disponíveis.


Subject(s)
Humans , Child, Preschool , Child , Aged , Pomegranate , Staphylococcus aureus , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Escherichia coli , Anti-Infective Agents
6.
Health sci. dis ; 24(1): 77-81, 2023. figures, tables
Article in French | AIM | ID: biblio-1411352

ABSTRACT

Introduction. La limbo-conjonctivite endémique des tropiques (LCET) est une kérato-conjonctivite allergique récidivante du jeune enfant qui s'améliore après la puberté mais peut persister. Le but de cette étude était de déterminer le profil évolutif de la LCETdans notre pratique. Méthodologie. Étude longitudinale descriptive menée dans l'unité d'ophtalmologie de l'Hôpital Gynéco-Obstétrique et Pédiatrique de Yaoundé. Tous les dossiers de LCET reçus de janvier 2011 à décembre 2019 avec un recul d'aumoins deux ans de suivi ont été recensés. Les patients qui ont accepté de participer après apptéléphonique ont été inclus de janvier à mai 2021.Les variables d'étudeétaient: âge, sexe, acuité visuelle (AV), caractéristiques de la LCET selon Diallo, pronostic fonctionnel et anatomique en post puberté (plus de 15 ans). Résultats. Au total,30 patients (60 yeux) ont été étudiés. Le sex-ratio était de 2. La moyenne d'âge était de 15 ans ± 9 ans. Initialement, le prurit était le maitre symptôme (96,7%). Après un recul moyen de cinq ans, l'AV était utile chez tous les patients (100%) et la LCET stade 2 plus représentée (60%). Le nombre moyen de récidives était de trois. Les patients post pubertaires on eu une amélioration anatomique dans 56.7% des caset une aggravation dans 10%des casConclusion. Notre travail confirme l'amélioration post pubertaire globale de la LCET, nonobstant quelques formes graves depronosticpéjoratif pour la fonction visuelle.


Introduction. Tropical endemiclimbo-conjunctivitis (TELC) is a recurrent allergic kerato-conjunctivitis in young children which improves after puberty but may persist. The aim of this study was to determine the evolutionof TELCin our setting. Methodology. This was a longitudinal descriptive study conducted in the ophthalmology unit of the Yaoundé Gyneco-Obstetric and Pediatric Hospital. All TELC files received from January 2011 to December 2019 with a follow-up of at least two years of follow-up were identified. Patients who agreed to participate after a phone call were included from January to May 2021. The variables of interest were: age, sex, visual acuity (VA), TELC classification according to Diallo, functional and anatomical prognosis in post puberty (more than 15 years).A totalof30 patients (60 eyes) were recruited. The sex ratio was 2. The average age was 15 ± 9 years. Initially, pruritus was the main symptom (96.7%). After an average follow-up of five years, VA was usefulin all patients (100%) and TELCstage 2 was the most frequent stage (60%). The mean number of recurrences was three. Postpubertal patients had anatomical improvement in 56.7% of cases and worsening in 10%of cases. Conclusion. Our study confirms the overall postpubertal improvement ofTELC, except some serious forms with poor prognosis ofvisual function


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Conjunctivitis, Allergic , Conjunctivitis , Endemic Diseases , Diagnosis, Differential , Epidemiology
7.
Health sci. dis ; 24(1): 17-25, 2023. figures, tables
Article in French | AIM | ID: biblio-1411404

ABSTRACT

Introduction. Les pathologies neurochirurgicales sont un ensemble d'affections qui touche le cerveau, la moelle épinière, et les paires crâniennes nécessitant une prise en charge médico-chirurgicale. Leur incidence en Afrique sub-saharienne et plus particulièrement au Gabon est mal connue. Objectif. Décrire les aspects épidémiologiques et évolutifs des pathologies neurochirurgicales chez l'enfant de moins 5 ans à Libreville. Patients et méthodes. Il s'agit d'une étude rétrospective descriptive et analytique, multicentrique portant sur des patients de moins de 5ans pris en charge pour une affection neurochirurgicale de Janvier 2019 à Décembre 2021 à Libreville. Résultats. Sur 4811 enfants hospitalisés, 130 répondaient aux critères d'inclusion (prévalence : 2,7%). L'âge moyen était de 13,1 mois. Le sex-ratio était de 1,3. Les grossesses étaient mal suivies dans 72,2% des cas. Les pathologies neurochirurgicales malformatives représentaient 63,5%. L'hydrocéphalie était la plus observée dans 71,2%. Sur les 115 enfants, 71 ont bénéficié d'un traitement chirurgical, soit un taux de 61,7% et le taux de mortalité globale était de 6,1%. Dans le groupe des enfants présentant une malformation congénitale, 8,2% n'avaient pas été traités, le taux de mortalité était de 8,2%. Les complications à court termes étaient dominées par les infections. Conclusion. Les pathologies neurochirurgicales sont en fréquentes dans notre contexte. Une prise en charge immédiate reste de mise, nécessitant donc un plateau technique de pointe pour améliorer l'évolution à court terme voire à moyen et long terme de ces affections.


Introduction. Neurosurgical pathologies are a set of conditions that affect the brain, spinal cord, and cranial pairs requiring medical and surgical management. Their incidence in subSaharan Africa and more particularly in Gabon is poorly known. Objective. To describe the epidemiological and evolutionary aspects of neurosurgical pathologies in children under 5 years old in Libreville. Patients and methods. This is a retrospective descriptive and analytical, multicenter study of patients under 5 years of age treated for a neurosurgical condition from January 2019 to December 2021 in Libreville. Results. Of the 4811 hospitalized children, 130 met the inclusion criteria (prevalence of 2.7%) and 15 were excluded for incomplete records. The average age was 13.1 months. The age group of 28 days-1 year was the most observed. The sex ratio was 1.3. Pregnancies were poorly followed in 72.2% of cases. Malformative neurosurgical pathologies accounted for 63.5% of cases. Hydrocephalus was the most observed in 71.2%. Of the 115 children, 71 received surgical treatment, a rate of 61.7% and the overall mortality rate was 6.1%. In the group of children with congenital malformation, 8.2% had not been treated, the mortality rate was 8.2%. Short-term complications were dominated by infections. Conclusion. Neurosurgical pathologies are frequent in our context. Immediate care remains essential, therefore requiring a cutting-edge technical platform to improve the short-term or even medium- and long-term evolution of these conditions.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child, Preschool , Spinal Dysraphism , Neurosurgical Procedures , Craniocerebral Trauma , Hydrocephalus , Neurosurgery
8.
Rev. ecuat. pediatr ; 23(3): 170-173, 12 de Diciembre del 2022.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1411201

ABSTRACT

Las Enfermedades No Transmisibles (ENT) constituyen la mayor causa de morbilidad y mortalidad en las Américas y que la salud de las generaciones futuras comienza a forjarse desde antes de la concepción declara que los presidentes de las filiales se comprometen a trabajar en la prevención de Enfermedades No Transmisibles promoviendo: - Hábitos saludables de las mujeres y sus parejas antes, durante y después del embarazo. - Una adecuada atención prenatal y perinatal, procurando el acceso de la madre y el recién nacido a instituciones categorizadas por nivel de complejidad y riesgo. - Lactancia materna exclusiva durante el primer semestre y LM continuada hasta los 2 años o más, con la incorporación de una alimentación complementaria saludable y adecuada a partir de los 6 meses y reforzado la importancia del vínculo afectivo madre-hijo, - El crecimiento y desarrollo saludable de la niñez, reforzando el conocimiento de las herramientas para la detección precoz de sus alteraciones, -La difusión del concepto del origen fetal y de las etapas tempranas del desarro-llo del niño en la enfermedad del adulto, en el equipo de salud del primer nivel de atención, de manera de fundamentar las actividades de prevención en el cuidado de la salud de las mujeres y niños. -La implementación de programas de educación comunitaria brindando a la población conocimientos para proteger la salud materno infantil y preservar el ambiente. - Ambientes saludables, evitando las exposiciones tóxicas y reforzando la importancia de garantizar a la embarazada y el niño una buena calidad de aire, agua y alimentos. -La inclusión de temas relacionados con los riesgos de enfermedades del adulto a partir de exposiciones prenatales o de la infancia en los ejes de capacitación y las actividades científicas. - Investigaciones para lograr diagnósticos locales y regionales de estos temas. -La abogacía por el cumplimiento del Código de comercialización de sucedáneos de la leche materna. -La creación de medidas eficaces en políticas públicas en resguardo de la salud de las generaciones presentes y futuras. Sabemos que la mejor manera de avanzar en la prosecución de estos objetivos es actuar en forma interdisciplinaria e intersectorial, con la articulación e integración entre los profesionales y distintos actores sociales interesados en el cui-dado de la madre y el niño, según las posibilidades y la idiosincrasia de cada país. Como Sociedades Científicas comprometemos nuestros esfuerzos en la prevención de ENT, ratificando nuestra responsabilidad de velar por el bienestar de la niñez y adolescencia en nuestra región y por una mejor salud para las futuras ge-neraciones.


Noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) constitute the most significant cause of morbidity and mortality in the Americas, and the health of future generations begins to be forged before conception declares the following, the presidents of the affiliates commit to working on the prevention of noncommunicable diseases by promoting the following: - Healthy habits of women and their partners before, during, and after pregnancy. - Adequate prenatal and perinatal care, ensuring access for the mother and the newborn to institutions categorized by level of complexity and risk. - exclusive breastfeeding during the first semester and continued breastfeeding for up to 2 years or more, with the incorporation of a healthy and adequate complementary diet from 6 months and reinforcing the importance of the mother-child affective bond, - The growth and healthy development of childhood, reinforcing the knowledge of the tools for the early detection of its alterations, -Dissemination of the concept of fetal origin and the early stages of child development in adult disease in the health team at the first level of care to base prevention activities on women's health care. Women and children- -The implementation of community education programs providing the population with the knowledge to protect maternal and child health and preserve the environment. - Healthy environments, avoiding toxic exposures and reinforcing the importance of guaranteeing good air, water, and food quality for pregnant women and children. -The inclusion of issues related to the risks of adult diseases from prenatal or childhood exposures in the training axes and scientific activities. - Research to achieve local and regional diagnoses of these issues. -Advocacy for compliance with the Code for the Marketing of Breast Milk Substitutes. -The creation of effective measures in public policies to safeguard the health of present and future generations. We know that the best way to advance in pursuing these objectives is to act in an interdisciplinary and intersectoral manner, with the articulation and integration between professionals and different social actors interested in the care of mothers and children, according to the possibilities and idiosyncrasies of each country. As Scientific Societies, we commit our efforts to prevent NCDs, confirming our responsibility to ensure the well-being of children and adolescents in our region and for better health for future generations.


Subject(s)
Humans , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Breast Feeding , Consensus Development Conference , Noncommunicable Diseases , International Acts
9.
Rev. ecuat. pediatr ; 23(3): 183-191, 12 de Diciembre del 2022.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1411207

ABSTRACT

Introducción: Hasta el 20% de pacientes que acuden a emer-gencias pediátricas presentan alza térmica, al cual tiene efectos fisiológicos sobre la frecuencia cardiaca, respiratoria y presión arterial. El objetivo del presente estudio fue medir la influencia de la temperatura sobre la saturación de oxígeno en niños con fiebre, que viven en Quito (2800 msnm), atendidos en un hospital de segundo nivel. Métodos: El presente estudio observacional-cruzado, se realizó en el Hospital Pablo Arturo Suárez, en el período Julio a diciembre del 2019. Con muestra no probabilística se incluyeron niños con fiebre y se registraron edad, temperatura, frecuencia cardíaca, frecuencia respiratoria, tensión arterial, saturación de oxígeno al ingreso y 1 hora luego del tratamiento antipirético. Se comparan promedios con T de student; la asociación se presenta con el coeficiente de correlación de Spearman (R) y Odds ratio. Resultados: Se incluyeron 196 pacientes. Hubo una disminución de la saturación ante el aumento de la temperatura en niños lactantes menores, lactantes mayores y pre-escolares. Este efecto no ocurre en niños escolares y tampoco en pre-adolescentes o adolescentes. El punto de corte a partir del cual ocurre este evento es 38.35°C con un OR de 3.33 y un OR de 22 cuando la hipertermia ocurre en etapa pre-escolar. El cambio de disminución -1.26±0.03°C, incrementa 1.28 ±0.98% la saturación de oxígeno. Conclusión: La temperatura >38.4°C disminuye la saturación de oxígeno en niños pre-escolares, lactantes menores y mayores.


Introduction: Up to 20% of patients who come to pediatric emergencies have a temperature rise, which has physiological effects on heart rate, respiratory rate, and blood pressure. The objective of this study was to measure the influence of temperature on oxygen saturation in children with fever living in Quito (2800 masl) treated in a second-level hospital. Methods: The present observational-crossover study was carried out at the Pablo Arturo Suárez Hospital from July to December 2019. With a nonprobabilistic sample, children with fever were included; age, temperature, heart rate, respiratory rate, blood pressure, and oxygen saturation were recorded on admission and 1 hour after antipyretic treatment. Means are compared with Student's t test; the association is presented with Spearman's (R) correlation coefficient and odds ratio. Results: A total of 196 patients were included. There was a decrease in saturation with increasing temperature in younger infants, older infants, and preschool children. This effect does not occur in school children or in preadolescents or adoles-cents. The cutoff point from which this event occurs is 38.35°C with an OR of 3.33 and an OR of 22 when hyperthermia occurs in the preschool stage. The decrease of -1.26 ± 0.03°C°C increases oxygen saturation by 1.28 ± 0.98%. Conclusion: Temperature >38.4°C decreases oxygen saturation in preschool children and younger and older infants.


Subject(s)
Humans , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Oxygen Level , Fever , Child , Hypoxia
10.
Rev. ecuat. pediatr ; 23(3): 201-207, 12 de Diciembre del 2022.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1411240

ABSTRACT

Introducción: Los trastornos del sueño en niños, tienen un impacto en el desarrollo, afecta el comportamiento, el estado de ánimo, las funciones cognitivas, disminuyendo la atención selectiva y la memoria. El objetivo del presente estudio fue determinar las alteraciones del sueño en niños con trastorno del espectro autista (TEA), su afectación individual y familiar en el Centro Regional de Autismo Delicias Chihuahua. Métodos: El presente estudio transversal, incluye niños con TEA en quienes se determinó alguna alteración del sueño y se buscó su relación con la afectación individual y familiar, además se evaluaron, edad, sexo, grado escolar, nivel funcional de TEA, afectaciones familiares. Se aplicó el cuestionario de cribado del sueño en niños con TEA, el cuestionario adaptado para niños con TEA -BRUNI y el cuestionario de satisfacción sobre las actividades de los padres, cuidadores primarios y familiares de primera línea. Se usa estadística descriptiva y en un segundo análisis se usa Razón de Momios de Prevalencia (RMP). Resultados: Se analizan 57 pacientes, 43 (75.4%) hombres, 28 (49.1%) en grado 1 de nivel funcional TEA, 16 (28.1%) tenían mal desempeño individual, 56 (98.2%) sus familiares referían mal desempeño, 43 (75.4%) tenían alteraciones del sueño. Los niños preescolares tienen 2.5 veces riesgo de tener afec-tación individual. Los pacientes en nivel funcional TEA grado 3 tienen 2.15 veces riesgo de tener afectación individual. Los que despiertan cansados tienen 5.93 veces riesgo de tener afectación individual. Conclusión: La afectación familiar del desempeño es mucho mayor a la afectación individual de los niños con TEA, lo cual genera alteraciones en la dinámica familiar.


Introduction: Sleep disorders in children impact development, affecting behavior, mood, and cognitive functions and decreasing selective attention and memory. This study aimed to determine sleep disturbances in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and their individual and family involvement at the Delicias Chihuahua Regional Autism Center. Methods: This cross-sectional study included children with ASD in whom some sleep disturbance was determined, and its relationship with individual and family affectation was sought; in addition, age, sex, school grade, functional level of ASD, and family affectations were evaluated. The sleep screening questionnaire for children with ASD, the adapted questionnaire for children with ASD -BRUNI, and the satisfaction questionnaire on the activities of parents, primary caregivers, and first-line family members were applied. Descriptive statistics were used, and the prevalence odds ratio (MPR) was used in a second analysis. Results: A total of 57 patients were analyzed; 43 (75.4%) were men, 28 (49.1%) were at the grade 1 ASD functional lev-el, 16 (28.1%) had poor individual performance, 56 (98.2%) their relatives reported poor performance, and 43 (75.4%) had sleep disturbances. Preschool children have a 2.5 times higher risk of having individual involvement. Patients in functional level ASD grade 3 have a 2.15 times higher risk of having individual involvement. Those who wake up tired have a 5.93 times higher risk of having individual involvement. Conclusion: The family affectation of performance is much greater than the personal affectation of children with ASD, which generates changes in family dynamics.


Subject(s)
Humans , Child, Preschool , Child , Autistic Disorder , Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders , Night Terrors , Cognitive Dysfunction
11.
Rev. ecuat. pediatr ; 23(3): 208-216, 12 de Diciembre del 2022.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1411244

ABSTRACT

Introducción: La fibrosis quística (FQ), afecta el epitelio exocrino, formando una mucosidad espesa que obstruye los conductos de los diferentes órganos, siendo el pulmón y páncreas los más afectados. El objetivo del presente estudio fue determinar la asociación entre los factores clínicos y las complicaciones, así como la supervivencia de pacientes con FQ atendidos en un centro de referencia pediátrica en México. Métodos: El presente estudio observacional, longitudinal, fue realizado en el Instituto Nacional de Pediatría en México, de abril del 2012, a abril del 2022. Con una muestra no probabilística ingresaron al estudio niños con fibrosis quística. Las variables fueron: demográficas, complicaciones pulmonares, extrapulmonares y mortalidad. Se realiza la asociación con chi-cuadrado y la supervivencia con Kaplan-Meir. Resultados: Se analizan 71 pacientes, lactantes menores 41 casos (62%), pre-escolares 12 casos (16.9%). Fueron 40 hom-bres (56.3%). 57 casos (80.3%) tuvieron exacerbación infecciosa, 11 casos (15.5%) aspergi-losis broncopulmonar, 9 casos (12.7%) con hipertensión pulmonar, 5 casos (7%) con neumotórax, 12 casos (16.9%) con ventilación mecánica, 70 casos (98.5) con insuficiencia pancreática, 10 casos (14%) con enfermedad hepatobiliar. Hubo asociación de complica-ciones extrapulmonares con el fenotipo F508. La supervivencia global fue de 150 meses. En pacientes con ventilación mecánica invasiva la supervivencia fue de 55 meses (P<0.001), en pacientes con ventilación mecánica no invasiva fue de 106 meses (P<0.001), en pacientes con neumotórax fue de 25 meses P<0.001, en pacientes con aspergilosis bronco-pulmonar alérgica fue de 125 meses P<0.01. Conclusión: la mayor compli-cación extrapulmonar de pa-cientes con FQ es la insuficien-cia pancreática. La presencia de neumotórax disminuye la supervivencia.


Introduction: Cystic fibrosis (CF) affects the exocrine epithelium, forming a thick mucus that obstructs the ducts of the different organs, with the lungs and pancreas being the most affected. This study aimed to determine the association between clinical factors and complications, as well as the survival of CF patients treated at a pediatric reference center in Mexico. Methods: This observational, longitudinal study was conducted at the National Institute of Pediatrics in Mexico from April 2012 to April 2022. Children with cystic fibrosis were entered into the study with a nonprobabilistic sample. The variables were demographic, pulmonary and extrapulmonary complications and mortality. The association was made with chi-square and survival with Kaplan- Meir. Results: Seventy-one patients were analyzed, including 41 infants (62%) and 12 preschoolers (16.9%). There were 40 men (56.3%). Fifty-seven cases (80.3%) had an infectious exacerbation, 11 cases (15.5%) had allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis, 9 cases (12.7%) had pulmonary hypertension, 5 cases (7%) had pneumothorax, 12 cases (16.9%) had mechanical ventilation, 70 cases (98.5%) had pancreatic insufficiency, and 10 cases (14%) had hepatobiliary disease. There was an association of extrapulmonary complications with the F508 phenotype. Overall survival was 150 months. In patients with invasive mechanical ventilation, survival was 55 months (P<0.001); in patients with noninvasive mechanical ventilation, it was 106 months (P<0.001); in patients with pneumothorax, it was 25 months (P<0.001); and in patients with allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis, it was 125 months (P<0.01). Conclusion: The most significant extrapulmonary complication in CF patients is pancreatic insufficiency. The presence of pneumothorax markedly decreases survival.


Subject(s)
Humans , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Child , Survival Rate , Cystic Fibrosis , Exocrine Pancreatic Insufficiency , Pneumothorax
12.
Rev. ecuat. pediatr ; 23(3): 217-224, 12 de Diciembre del 2022.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1411252

ABSTRACT

Introducción: La Neumonía Adquirida en la Comunidad (NAC) es considerada un problema de salud pública, afecta especialmente a niños menores de 5 años. Los episodios que requieren hospitalización generan importantes gastos económicos institucionales. El objetivo del presente estudio fue describir los resultados clínicos y el costo directo del tratamiento de la NAC en dos hospitales de referencia de Quito-Ecuador. Métodos: El presente estudio transversal, se realizó en niños >28 días y < 5 años, hospitali-zados en dos instituciones de salud pública en la ciudad de Quito, Ecuador, con NAC. Va-riables fueron: descripciones demográficas, resultado clínico, costo del tratamiento. Se presentan los datos con estadística descriptiva. Resultados: Se analizan 355 casos, 190 hombres (53.5%). Lactantes menores 95 casos (26.8%), lactantes mayores 130 casos (36.6%) y escolares 130 casos (36.6%). Los síntomas principales fueron la hipoxemia 353 casos (99.4%), taquipnea 239 casos (67.3%) y taquicardia 177 casos (49.9%). Con dificultas respiratoria leve 268 casos (75.5%). El tratamiento principalmente fue con analgésicos 345 casos (97.2%), antibióticos 335 casos (94.4%), nebulización con bronco dilatador 207 casos (58.3), líquidos parenterales 203 casos (57.2%) y oxígeno en 107 casos (30.1%). El costo promedio de la atención hospitalaria de una NAC fue de 736.18 ± 320.51 USD. No existió diferencia de costos entre instituciones (P >0.05). Conclusión: El costo sanitario de la atención médica en Ecuador es de aproximadamente 2 salarios mínimos vitales. Los tratamientos están ajustados a las guías de práctica médica vigentes.


Introduction: Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is a public health problem mainly affecting children under five. Episodes that require hospitalization generate high institutional financial costs. The objective of this study was to describe the clinical results and the direct cost of CAP treatment in two reference hospitals in Quito-Ecuador. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted in children >28 days and <5 years hospitalized in two public health institutions in Quito, Ecuador, with CAP. Variables were demographic descriptions, clinical outcomes, and cost of treatment. The data are presented with descriptive statistics. Results: A total of 355 cases were analyzed, including 190 men (53.5%). Younger infants had 95 cases (26.8%), older infants 130 cases (36.6%), and schoolchildren 130 cases (36.6%). The main symptoms were hypoxemia in 353 cases (99.4%), tachypnea in 239 cases (67.3%), tachycardia in 177 cases (49.9%), and mild respiratory difficulties in 268 cases (75.5%). Treatment was mainly with analgesics in 345 cases (97.2%), antibiotics in 335 cases (94.4%), bronchodilator nebulization in 207 cases (58.3), par-enteral fluids in 203 cases (57.2%), and oxygen in 107 cases (30.1%). The average cost of hospital care for CAP was 736.18 ± 320.51 USD. There was no cost difference between institutions (P >0.05). Conclusion: The health cost of medical care in Ecuador is approximately two times the minimum living wage, and treatments are adjusted to current medical practice guidelines.


Subject(s)
Humans , Infant , Child, Preschool , Pneumonia , Child , Costs and Cost Analysis , Tachypnea , Hypoxia
13.
Rev. ecuat. pediatr ; 23(3): 239-248, 12 de Diciembre del 2022.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1411268

ABSTRACT

Introducción: Las dificultades del aprendizaje son las alteraciones de mayor presencia en las aulas escolares y sus indicadores pueden diagnosticarse y prevenirse desde edades tempranas. El objetivo de esta investigación fue validar el Test para la detección temprana de las dificultades en el aprendizaje de la lectura y escritura. Métodos: El enfoque de la investigación fue cuantitativo, descriptivo y de corte transversal. Se utilizó la validez de constructo acorde con la propuesta original del test y de fiabilidad a través del Alpha de Cronbach en una muestra de 501 niños ecuatorianos de cuatro años. Resultados: La validación del instrumento evidencia una moderada correlación entre las sub-tareas y alta correlación entre las sub-tareas y el puntaje total. La fiabilidad es buena, α= 0.71, muy próxima a la de la población española α= 0.73. Por lo que, la prueba puede ser utilizada en el contexto ecuatoriano en su versión original, adecuando en las instrucciones dos palabras a la realidad lingüística del país y para la calificación los puntos de corte de dificultad. Conclusión: Considerando su valor y fácil aplicación se recomienda el uso de la prueba de lectura en contextos educativos y de salud.


Introduction: Learning difficulties are the alterations with the most significant presence in school classrooms, and their indicators can be diagnosed and prevented early. This research aimed to validate the test for the early detection of difficulties in learning to read and write. Methods: The research approach was quantitative, descriptive, and cross-sectional. Construct validity was used according to the original proposal of the test and reliability through Cronbach's alpha in a sample of 501 four-year-old Ecuadorian children. Results: The validation of the instrument shows a moderate correlation between the subtasks and a high correlation between the subtasks and the total score. The reliability is good, α = 0.71, very close to that of the Spanish population α = 0.73. Therefore, the test can be used in the Ecuadorian context in its original version, adapting two words in the instructions to the linguistic reality of the country and for the qualification of the cutoff points of difficulty. Conclusion: With the easy application of the "test of reading" in 4-year-old children, the authors recommended its application for the identification of dyslexia and phonological processing deficits in school children in Ecuador. The reading test's validity allows its application at a regional level.


Subject(s)
Humans , Child, Preschool , Articulation Disorders , Reading , Comprehension , Open Reading Frames , Reading Frames , Dyslexia
14.
Arch. argent. pediatr ; 120(6): 384-390, dic. 2022. tab, graf
Article in English, Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1397702

ABSTRACT

Introducción. El dengue es un problema de salud pública a nivel mundial. Confinado en sus orígenes a las zonas tropicales y subtropicales, en la actualidad se presenta en otras regiones como Argentina. Desde el año 2008 se presenta con brotes epidémicos en la Ciudad Autónoma de Buenos Aires, con escasos reportes en niños. Objetivo. Analizar y comparar las características clínicas, epidemiológicas, de laboratorio y evolutivas de los dos últimos brotes de dengue fuera del área endémica. Población y métodos. Estudio de series temporales. Se incluyeron pacientes menores de 18 años con dengue probable o confirmado, evaluados en un hospital pediátrico de la Ciudad de Buenos Aires durante los períodos 2015-2016 y 2019-2020. Resultados. Se incluyeron 239 pacientes, 29 (12 %) con antecedente de viaje. La mediana de edad fue de 132 meses (rango intercuartílico: 102-156). Todos tuvieron fiebre. Otros síntomas fueron: cefalea en 170 (71 %), mialgias en 129 (54 %) y exantema en 122 (51 %). Cuarenta pacientes (17 %) tenían comorbilidades. Presentaron signos de alarma 79 pacientes (33 %) y 14 (6 %) tenían dengue grave. Requirieron internación 115 pacientes (45 %) y ninguno falleció. El serotipo DENV-1 fue el más frecuente. El antecedente de viaje y la necesidad de internación predominaron en el primer período; el dengue grave y la infección previa, en el segundo. Conclusiones. Ningún paciente falleció de dengue en los períodos estudiados. Se observaron diferencias estadísticamente significativas en la frecuencia de internación; el antecedente de viaje fue más frecuente en el período 2015-2016 y el dengue grave, en el 2019-2020.


Introduction. Dengue is a public health problem worldwide. It was originally confined to tropical and subtropical areas, but it is now present in other regions, such as Argentina. Epidemic outbreaks have been observed in the City of Buenos Aires since 2008, with few reports in children. Objective. To analyze and compare the clinical, epidemiological, laboratory, and evolutionary characteristics of the latest 2 dengue outbreaks outside the endemic area. Population and methods. Time-series study. Patients under 18 years of age with probable or confirmed dengue and evaluated in a children's hospital of the City of Buenos Aires during the periods 2015-2016 and 2019-2020 were included. Results. A total of 239 patients were included; 29 (12%) had a history of travel. Their median age was 132 months (interquartile range: 102156). All had a fever. Other symptoms included headache in 170 (71%), myalgia in 129 (54%), and rash in 122 (51%). Forty patients (17%) had comorbidities. Warning signs were observed in 79 patients (33%); 14 (6%) developed severe dengue; 115 (45%) were hospitalized; none died. DENV-1 was the most common serotype. A history of travel and hospitalization prevailed in the first period; severe dengue and prior infection, in the second period. Conclusions. No patient died due to dengue in either study period. Statistically significant differences were observed in the frequency of hospitalization; a history of travel was more common in the 2015-2016 period and severe dengue, in the 2019-2020 period.


Subject(s)
Humans , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Severe Dengue/epidemiology , Dengue/diagnosis , Dengue/epidemiology , Exanthema , Disease Outbreaks , Hospitals, Pediatric
15.
Arch. argent. pediatr ; 120(6): 391-397, dic. 2022. tab
Article in English, Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1397709

ABSTRACT

Introducción. Los trastornos en el neurodesarrolloinfantil constituyen un 10 % de las causasde discapacidad en la niñez. La búsquedade atención médica configura itinerariosterapéuticos, entendidos como los procesos de búsqueda y atención para el cuidado de la salud, donde surgen oportunidades de diagnósticoy tratamiento. El objetivo fue explorar dichos itinerarios para comprender las oportunidades y barreras que se presentan para instaurarterapias y pautas de crianza que promuevan el neurodesarrollo. Población y métodos. Estudio cualitativomediante entrevistas en profundidad a madres y padres de niños (de junio de 2018 a noviembre de 2019). El análisis se realizó sobre la base del modelo social de la discapacidad y del de desarrollo infantil propuesto por Vygotsky. Resultados. Se realizaron 16 entrevistas.Considerando la edad de inicio de los itinerarios terapéuticos y el diagnóstico, se identificaron dos grupos: aquellos que los comenzaron desde el nacimiento hasta los 2 años (inicio precoz) y quienes lo hicieron a partir de los 3 años (inicio en la primera infancia e infancia tardía). En el primero se habilita tempranamente la búsqueda de tratamiento, mientras que en el segundo se prolongaron en el tiempo las decisiones sobre el inicio y/o el tipo de terapias. El inicio tardío se acompañó de dificultades en la escuela, períodosde incertidumbre, angustia y/o conflictosfamiliares por las complejidades de la crianza. Conclusiones. Los itinerarios terapéuticos seiniciaron en forma precoz en algunos casos y tardía en otros. El inicio de tratamientos permitióincorporar herramientas para acortar la brecha de incongruencia entre las líneas biológica y cultural de desarrollo.


Introduction. Childhood neurodevelopmental disorders account for 10% of the causes of childhood disability. The search for medical care leads to therapeutic itineraries routes taken by individuals to seek health care where diagnostic and treatment opportunities arise. Our objective was to explore these itineraries in order to understand the opportunities and barriers to the implementation of therapies and child rearing patterns promoting neurodevelopment. Population and methods. Qualitative study using in-depth interviews with children's parents (between June 2018 and November 2019). The analysis was based on the social model of disability and Vygotsky's approach to child development. Results. A total of 16 interviews were conducted. Considering the time of diagnosis and the age when the therapeutic itinerary started, 2 groups were identified: those who started from birth to 2 years old (early initiation) and those who started from 3 years old (late childhood initiation). In the first group, the search for treatment starts at an early stage, while in the other group, decisions on the initiation and/or type of treatments are prolonged over time. Late initiation was accompanied by difficulties in school, periods of uncertainty, distress and/or family conflicts due to the complexities of parenting. Conclusions. Therapeutic itineraries started early in some cases and at a later stage in others. The initiation of treatments made it possible to use tools to bridge the gap of discrepancies between the biological and cultural lines of development.


Subject(s)
Humans , Child, Preschool , Child , Disabled Children , Neurodevelopmental Disorders/etiology , Neurodevelopmental Disorders/therapy , Parents , Child Rearing , Parenting
16.
Arch. argent. pediatr ; 120(6): 405-414, dic. 2022. tab, graf
Article in English, Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1398281

ABSTRACT

Introducción. El sobrecrecimiento lateral aislado (SLA), antes denominado hemihiperplasia/ hemihipertrofia, se refiere al sobrecrecimiento corporal lateral en ausencia de un patrón reconocible de malformaciones o síndromes genéticos. El objetivo fue analizar el crecimiento y las características clínico-radiológicas de pacientes con SLA en seguimiento en un hospital de tercer nivel en Argentina entre 1993 y 2020. Población y métodos. Estudio retrospectivo, observacional, de una cohorte de pacientes con SLA. Resultados. Se incluyeron 76 casos, 41 varones. Mediana de años de seguimiento: 5,85 (rango intercuartílico [RIC] 2,60-10,96), máximo 15,76 años. Cuarenta y ocho de 76 pacientes presentaron sobrecrecimiento en más de un segmento corporal (SLA complejo). El puntaje Z promedio de peso al nacer de niñas de término con SLA complejo fue +0,51 (desviación estándar [DE] 0,91) (p 0,022). El crecimiento en estatura de la mayoría de los niños se ubicó entre los centilos 50 y 97 de la población de referencia. La mediana de asimetría de longitud de miembros inferiores fue 1,5 cm (RIC 1,01-2,2) en pacientes con tratamiento médico y 3,70 cm (RIC 2,953,98 cm) en aquellos que requiriero epifisiodesis. El 75 % mostró una progresión de la asimetría menor o igual a 2 cm. Ocho casos presentaron asimetría renal mayor o igual a 1 cm; 2 casos presentaron nefroblastoma: edad promedio al diagnóstico 0,75 años. Conclusiones. El crecimiento prenatal de niños con SLA es normal, excepto en niñas con SLA complejo en quienes tiende a estar aumentado. La estatura promedio se ubica en centilos altos con crecimiento normal. Se recomienda realizar cribado de tumores embrionarios en este grupo de niños.


Introduction. Isolated lateralized overgrowth (ILO), formerly referred to as hemihyperplasia/hemihypertrophy, is the overgrowth of one-half of the body to its contralateral in the absence of a recognizable pattern of malformations or genetic syndromes. Our objective was to analyze the growth clinical and radiological characteristics of patients with ILO under follow-up in a tertiary care hospital in Argentina between 1993 and 2020. Population and methods. Retrospective, observational, single cohort study of patients with ILO. Results. A total of 76 cases were included; 41 were males. Median years of follow-up: 5.85 (interquartile range [IQR]: 2.60­10.96), maximum: 15.76 years. Forty-eight of 76 patients had overgrowth compromising more than 1 body segment (complex ILO). The mean birth weight Z-score of term girls with complex ILO was +0.51 (standard deviation [SD]: 0.91) (p 0.022). Most children grew between the 50th and 97th centile of the Argentinian population height reference. The median leg length discrepancy was 1.5 cm (IQR: 1.01­2.2) in patients receiving medical treatment and 3.70 cm (IQR: 2.95­3.98 cm) in those who required epiphysiodesis. Progression of discrepancy ≤ 2 cm was observed in 75% of cases. Renal asymmetry ≥ 1 cm was observed in 8 cases; Wilms tumor was noted in 2 cases: mean age at diagnosis: 0.75 years. Conclusions. Prenatal growth of children with ILO is normal, except in girls with complex ILO, in whom it tends to be increased. The average height of boys and girls tends to be located in high centiles with normal growth over time. Embryonal tumor screening is recommended in this group of children.


Subject(s)
Humans , Pregnancy , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Wilms Tumor , Kidney Neoplasms , Body Height , Retrospective Studies , Cohort Studies , Hypertrophy
17.
Arch. argent. pediatr ; 120(6): 415-419, dic. 2022. tab, graf
Article in English, Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1398285

ABSTRACT

Introducción. El uso del Doppler transcraneal (DTC) en pacientes neurocríticos se reporta cada vez más en las terapias intensivas pediátricas. El objetivo de esta encuesta es conocer los usos y prácticas del DTC en la atención neurocrítica y el proceso de formación del personal que realiza el estudio. Materiales y métodos. Encuesta a profesionales de 23 unidades de terapia intensiva pediátrica de Argentina. Resultados. Porcentaje de respuesta del 86 %. Se utilizó en sospecha de muerte encefálica (n = 20), trauma de cráneo (n = 16) y accidente cerebrovascular (n = 16). El intensivista pediátrico es quien realiza los estudios (n = 13/20). Los encuestados utilizan el Doppler para decidir conductas y tratamientos, comenzar el proceso de evaluación de muerte encefálica, solicitar tomografía de cerebro y manejar la presión de perfusión cerebral con vasopresores. Conclusión. Todos los encuestados utilizan los hallazgos del DTC para guiar tratamientos o conductas. La mitad de los encuestados está poco conforme con la capacitación recibida.


Introduction. The use of transcranial Doppler (TCD) ultrasoundin neurocritical patients is reported to be increasingly common in pediatric intensive care units. The objective of this survey was to know about the use and practice of TCD ultrasound in neurocritical care and the training process of staff members performing it. Materials and methods. Survey administered to providers from 23 pediatric intensive care units of Argentina. Results. The percentage of response was 86%. TCD ultrasound was used for suspected brain death (n = 20), head injury (n = 16), and stroke (n = 16). Pediatric intensivists perform the test (n = 13/20). Surveyed participants use TCD ultrasound to decide on treatment and management, start brain death assessment, request brain computed tomography, and manage cerebral perfusion pressure with vasopressors. Conclusion. All surveyed participants use TCD ultrasound findings to guide management or treatments. Half of surveyed participants are little satisfied with their training.


Subject(s)
Humans , Child, Preschool , Child , Brain Death , Critical Care/methods , Argentina , Intensive Care Units, Pediatric , Ultrasonography, Doppler, Transcranial/methods
18.
Arch. argent. pediatr ; 120(6): e255-e263, dic. 2022. tab, graf
Article in English, Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1398308

ABSTRACT

Los cuidados paliativos pediátricos pretenden mejorar la atención y la calidad de vida de los niños en situación terminal o con una enfermedad de pronóstico letal. En el contexto hospitalario, las decisiones y tratamientos vinculados al final de la vida se realizan de forma frecuente en las unidades de cuidados intensivos. Es por esto que la integración de los cuidados paliativos en estos servicios constituye una evolución lógica del abordaje clínico del niño grave. Se realiza en este trabajo una actualización acerca de las indicaciones y particularidades del enfoque paliativo en el contexto de los cuidados intensivos pediátricos. Se contemplan el inicio del enfoque paliativo, la toma de decisiones, los aspectos comunicativos, el tratamiento farmacológico, el manejo de síntomas y la sedación paliativa.


Pediatric palliative care aims at improving the care and quality of life of children who are terminally ill or have a fatal prognosis. In the hospital setting, end-of-life decisions and treatments are common in intensive care units. This is why the integration of palliative care in these units is a logical evolution of the clinical approach to severely ill children. This study provides an update on the indications and characteristics of the palliative care approach in the context of pediatric intensive care. Here we describe palliative care approach initiation, decision-making, communicative aspects, drug treatment, symptom management, and palliative sedation.


Subject(s)
Humans , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Palliative Care , Quality of Life , Intensive Care Units, Pediatric , Communication , Terminally Ill , Intensive Care Units
19.
Arch. argent. pediatr ; 120(6): e268-e271, dic. 2022. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1399717

ABSTRACT

El diagnóstico del síndrome de Alport supone un reto en la edadpediátrica, debido a la ausencia de fenotipos clínicos esperados de la enfermedad, su clásica caracterización de entidad rara y la práctica muy restringida de biopsias renales con análisis rutinario de la muestra por microscopía electrónica durante la infancia. Se presentan las características clínicas y genéticas de 6 pacientes pediátricos (4 mujeres) diagnosticados de síndromede Alport en dos centros hospitalarios entre 2018 y 2021. Todos los pacientes presentaron un debut clínico claramente diferente y ninguno presentó complicaciones auditivas nioftalmológicas. La mitad carecía de antecedentes familiares de enfermedad renal crónica. Ninguna biopsia renal realizada confirmó el diagnóstico. Todos los pacientes fueron confirmadosgenéticamente y fueron el caso índice del estudio familiar. Esta serie ilustra la presencia de fenotipos clínicos inesperados en el síndrome de Alport y refleja la necesidad de incorporar el estudio genético para su diagnóstico.


The diagnosis of Alport syndrome is a challenge in the pediatric age, due to the absence of expected clinical phenotypes of the disease, its classic characterization of a rare disease and the very restricted practice of renal biopsies with routine analysis of the sample by electron microscopy during infancy. The clinical and genetic characteristics of 6 pediatric patients (4 women) diagnosed with Alport syndrome in two hospital centers between 2018 and 2021 are reported. All patients presented a clearly different clinical debut and none presented auditory or ophthalmological complications. Half had no family history of chronic kidney disease. No kidney biopsy performed confirmed the diagnosis. All patients were genetically confirmed and were the index case in the family study. This series illustrates the presence of unexpected clinical phenotypes in Alport syndrome and reflects the need for the incorporation of the genetic study for its diagnosis.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child, Preschool , Child , Nephritis, Hereditary/complications , Nephritis, Hereditary/diagnosis , Nephritis, Hereditary/genetics , Phenotype , Genetic Testing , Medical History Taking
20.
J. Health Biol. Sci. (Online) ; 10(1): 1-4, 01/jan./2022. ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1368288

ABSTRACT

Introdução: Osteogênese Imperfeita (OI) é uma doença genética rara com fragilidade óssea. A classificação inclui muitos tipos. Além do risco de recorrência, o manejo pode variar com o tipo de OI. Relato do caso: Apresentamos um paciente do sexo masculino nascido com 39 semanas, de pais não consanguíneos e saudáveis. A hidrocefalia foi diagnosticada no pré-natal. Com 50 dias de vida, detectamos muitas fraturas e calos ósseos. O teste molecular identificou uma deleção em homozigose do éxon 4 do gene WNT1. Considerações finais: Concluímos que o caso apresentado tinha características clínicas de OI XV, e o teste molecular foi fundamental para o diagnóstico preciso e aconselhamento genético.


Introduction: Osteogenesis Imperfecta (OI) is a rare genetic disease with bone fragility. The classification includes many types. In addition, the risk of a recurrence, the management can vary with the kind of OI. Case report: We report a male patient born at 39 weeks from non-consanguineous healthy parents. The patient was diagnosed with Hydrocephalus at prenatal. At 50 days of life, we detected many fractures and bone calluses. The molecular test identified a homozygous deletion of exon 4 of the WNT1 gene. Final considerations: We conclude this case had clinical features of OI XV, and the molecular test was fundamental for the precise diagnosis and the genetic counseling.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Child, Preschool , Osteogenesis Imperfecta/diagnosis , Osteogenesis , Prenatal Care , Infant, Premature , Fractures, Bone , Genetic Counseling , Genetics , Genetic Diseases, Inborn , Hydrocephalus
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