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2.
Rev. bras. anal. clin ; 53(3): 239-244, 20210930.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1368574

ABSTRACT

A OMS estima que mais de 1 milhão de infecções sexualmente transmissíveis é adquirido todos os dias em todo o mundo. Dentre as ISTs, a clamídia é a principal causa da doença inflamatória pélvica e de infertilidade em mulheres em todo o mundo. Para esta pesquisa foi realizada uma revisão sistemática. O processo de revisão foi realizado através de uma busca na base de dados eletrônica, como PubMed, Scielo, Google Acadêmico, e em livros didáticos, utilizando os descritores infertilidade, IST, Chlamydia trachomatis. O objetivo deste estudo é buscar na literatura estudos que relatam a relação da Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) com problemas de infertilidade e os melhores métodos de diagnósticos e custo/benefício. O estudo concluiu que a CT é uma IST bastante prevalente no mundo e preocupante devido às complicações que muitas vezes são irreversíveis, como a infertilidade. Dentre os testes existentes no mercado, a PCR e a captura híbrida foram os que apresentaram melhor sensibilidade e especificidade.


The WHO estimates that more than 1 million sexually transmitted infections are acquired every day worldwide. Among STIs, chlamydia is the main cause of pelvic inflammatory disease and infertility in women worldwide. For this research a systematic review was carried out. The review process was carried out through a search in the electronic database, such as Pubmed, Scielo, Google Scholar and in textbooks, using the descriptors infertility, IST, Chlamydia trachomatis. The aim of this study is to search the literature for studies that report the relationship between CT and infertility problems and the best diagnostic methods and cost benefit. The study concludes that CT is an STI that is quite prevalent in the world and worrisome due to complications that are often irreversible such as infertility. Among the tests on the market, PCR and hybrid capture showed the best sensitivity and specificity.


Subject(s)
Sexually Transmitted Diseases/diagnosis , Chlamydia trachomatis , Pelvic Inflammatory Disease/diagnosis , Infertility
3.
Rev. Méd. Inst. Mex. Seguro Soc ; 59(4): 281-289, 01/07/2021. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1358424

ABSTRACT

Introducción: la Chlamydia trachomatis es la principal causa de infecciones bacterianas de transmisión sexual a nivel mundial. Se estima que cada año se producen 131 millones de casos. Cursa de manera asintomática, pero la infección ascendente en mujeres puede conducir a la enfermedad inflamatoria pélvica, embarazo ectópico e infertilidad. Objetivo: determinar la prevalencia de C. trachomatis en mujeres de población abierta que acuden al Hospital General de Zona No. 29. Material y métodos: se realizó la identificación de C. trachomatis por pruebas de PCR a 200 muestras de exudado vaginal y se determinó su genotipo. Paralelamente, se realizó el diagnóstico microbiológico de rutina. Resultados: la prevalencia de C. trachomatis fue del 8.5% (17/200) con una concomitancia significativa de p = 0.006 con Gardnerella vaginalis (riesgo relativo de 2.871, IC95%: 1.574-5.236). Asimismo, se identificó C. trachomatis en cinco muestras como el único agente etiológico. Dieciséis cepas de C. trachomatis pertenecieron al genotipo F. Una cepa identificada de C. trachomatis presentó motivos genéticos similares a la variante mexicana reportada en 2019. Conclusiones: la prevalencia de C. trachomatis en la población estudiada nos indica la necesidad de implementar técnicas de diagnóstico para esta bacteria. El uso de la PCR permite realizar una determinación genotípica rápida, que explicaría el comportamiento epidemiológico de la C. trachomatis y representaría una mejora significativa de la calidad de vida de la paciente.


Background: Chlamydia trachomatis is the main cause of sexually transmitted bacterial infections worldwide. An estimated of 131 million cases occur each year. It is asymptomatic, but ascending infection in women can lead to pelvic inflammatory disease, ectopic pregnancy, and infertility. Objective: To determine the prevalence of C. trachomatis in open population women who attend the Hospital General de Zona No. 29. Material and methods: Identification of C. trachomatis was carried out by PCR testing of 200 vaginal exudate samples and its genotype was determined. In parallel, a routine microbiological diagnosis was carried out. Results: The prevalence of C. trachomatis was 8.5% (17/200) with a significant concomitance of p = 0.006 with Gardnerella vaginalis (relative risk of 2.871, 95%CI: 1.574- 5.236). Likewise, C. trachomatis was identified in 5 samples as the only etiological agent. Sixteen strains of C. trachomatis belong to genotype F. An identified strain of C. trachomatis presented genetic motifs similar to the Mexican variant repor- ted in 2019. Conclusions: The prevalence of C. trachomatis in the studied population indicates the need to implement diagnostic techniques for this bacterium. The use of PCR allows a rapid genotypic determination that would explain the epidemiological behavior of C. trachomatis and would represent a sig- nificant improvement in the quality of life of the patient.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Bacterial Infections , Women , Chlamydia trachomatis , Gardnerella vaginalis , Pelvic Inflammatory Disease , Pregnancy, Ectopic , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Prevalence , Hospitals, General , Mexico
4.
An. bras. dermatol ; 96(2): 176-183, Mar.-Apr. 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1248741

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background: Sexually transmitted infections (STI) are a global public health problem. Urethritis are among the most common STIs, and can cause several complications and facilitate the transmission of the HIV virus. Objectives: To investigate the main etiologic agents of urethritis in 170 men treated at Fundação Alfredo da Matta. Methods: To identify the agents, urethral exudate and urine were collected. Gram and culture tests were performed in Thayer-Martin medium for Neisseria gonorrhoeae and polymerase chain reaction for Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Chlamydia trachomatis, Trichomonas vaginalis, Ureaplasma urealyticum, Ureaplasma parvum, Mycoplasma hominis, Mycoplasma genitalium, and herpes simplex types 1 and 2. Results: N. gonorrhoeae were identified in 102 (60.0%) patients, C. trachomatis in 50 (29.4%), U. urealyticum in 29 (17.0%), M. genitalium in 11 (6.5 %), U. parvum in ten (5.9%), and M. hominis in seven (4.1%). Herpes simplex type 2 was diagnosed in 24 (21.6%) of the 111 patients who underwent PCR for this pathogen. In 69 cases there was co-infection; the most frequent were: N. gonorrhoeae and C. trachomatis in 21 (14.7%) patients; N. gonorrhoeae and C. trachomatis in 21 (12.4%) patients; N. gonorrhoeae and herpes simplex type 2 in 11 (6.5%), and N. gonorrhoeae and U. urealyticum in nine (5.3%). Study limitations: Not relevant. Conclusion: N. gonorrhoeae, C. trachomatis, U. urealyticum, and herpes simplex type 2 were the pathogens most frequently identified in the present study. The main coinfection found was N. gonorrhoeae and C. trachomatis. T. vaginalis and herpes simplex type 1 were not identified in any of the patients.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Urethritis , Mycoplasma genitalium , Mycoplasma Infections , Brazil/epidemiology , Chlamydia trachomatis
5.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1344286

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) is a sexually transmitted bacterium that is highly prevalent in young patients. Chlamydial infections during the gestational period have been associated with adverse obstetric outcomes, such as spontaneous preterm birth (sPTB). However, results in the literature are inconclusive. Objective: To evaluate the association between CT infection and sPTB. Methods: This was a case-control study nested in the cohort of the prospective Brazilian Ribeirão Preto and São Luís birth cohort study. Pregnant patients were recruited in private and public health clinics in São Luís and Ribeirão Preto, Brazil. At the gestational age of 20-25 weeks, cervicovaginal fluid samples were collected for the diagnosis of CT using a polymerase chain reaction. Plasma levels of Transforming Growth Factor-α (TGF- α), Interferon-γ (IFN- γ), Interleukin-10 (IL-10), IL-13, IL-1α, IL-1ß, IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-8, Tumor Necrosis Factor-α (TNF- α), and TNF-ß were measured using a multiplex assay. Results: Of the 561 pregnant patients evaluated, 121 had sPTB and 440 had a full-term delivery (control group). According to our results, CT infection was not associated with sPTB (odds ratio, 1.13; 95% confidence interval, 0.50­2.56); however, it was more frequent among younger patients (p=0.0078), unmarried patients (p=0.0144), and those with multiple sexual partners (p=0.0299). There were no significant differences in the immune mediators between patients with sPTB or full-term deliveries, or between patients with or without a CT infection. Conclusion: In conclusion, CT infection was not associated with sPTB in our study. However, its correlation with younger pregnant patients suggests that these patients require careful clinical management.


Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) é uma bactéria sexualmente transmissível com alta prevalência em mulheres jovens. As infecções por CT durante o período gestacional têm sido associadas com desfechos obstétricos adversos como o parto pré-termo espontâneo (PPTe). No entanto, os achados na literatura sobre essa temática ainda são inconclusivos. Objetivo: Avaliar a associação entre infecção por CT e PPTe. Métodos: Trata-se de um estudo caso-controle aninhado na coorte prospectiva de nascimentos de Ribeirão Preto e São Luís (acrônimo BRISA em inglês). As gestantes incluídas foram recrutadas com idade gestacional entre 20 e 25 semanas em serviços de saúde públicos e privados de São Luis e Ribeirão Preto, Brasil. O diagnóstico de CT foi feito por reação em cadeia da polimerase em amostras de conteúdo cervicovaginal coletadas no momento da inclusão no estudo. Também foram dosados os níveis séricos de fator transformador de crescimento-α (TGF- α), interferon-γ (IFN-γ), interleucina-10 (IL-10), IL-13, IL-1α, IL-1ß, IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-8, fator de necrose tumoral-α (TNF-α) e TNF-ß por ensaio multiplex. Resultados: Das 561 gestantes avaliadas, 121 tiveram PPTe e 440 tiveram parto a termo (grupo controle). De acordo com nossos resultados, a infecção por CT não esteve associada ao PPTe (odds ratio 1,13; intervalo de confiança de 95%, 0,50­2,56); no entanto, ela foi mais frequente entre as gestantes mais jovens (p=0,0078), solteiras e divorciadas (p=0,0144) e aquelas com múltiplos parceiros sexuais (p=0,0299). Não houve diferença significativa quanto aos imunomediadores entre o grupo com PPTe e controle nem entre as gestantes com diagnóstico positive para CT e as que não apresentavam a infecção. Conclusão: No presente estudo, a infecção por CT não esteve associada ao PPTe, no entanto sua relação com gestantes jovens sugere que essa população requeira maiores cuidados e atenção no manejo clínico.


Subject(s)
Humans , Chlamydia trachomatis , Pregnant Women , Premature Birth , Bacteria , Women , Reproductive Tract Infections
6.
Cad. Saúde Pública (Online) ; 37(2): e00174919, 2021. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153689

ABSTRACT

Resumo: O objetivo do estudo foi estimar a prevalência de infecções sexualmente transmissíveis (IST) e fatores associados sobre mulheres quilombolas no Brasil. Trata-se de estudo transversal de base populacional com mulheres quilombolas no período de março de 2017 a janeiro de 2019. Utilizou-se um questionário com informações sociodemográficas, comportamentais e clínicas. Foi realizado exame ginecológico para coleta de células cervicais para citologia oncótica e para detecção de Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Trichomonas vaginalis e papilomavírus humano (HPV), por meio de teste de reação em cadeia pela polimerase. Foi realizado teste rápido para HIV e sífilis. O desfecho principal foi definido como a infecção por um ou mais agentes infecciosos de transmissão sexual. Para a análise, utilizou-se o teste do qui-quadrado e regressão logística hierárquica. De um total de 380 mulheres, 352 (92,6%) foram incluídas no estudo. A prevalência de, pelo menos, uma IST foi de 18,5% (IC95%: 14,76-22,85). A maior prevalência foi de 11,1% por HPV, seguido de 6,3% por T. vaginalis e de 4,3% por C. trachomatis. Não houve nenhum caso de N. gonorrhoeae. Para o HIV, a prevalência foi de 0,3%, e de sífilis foi de 4,3%. A citologia cervicovaginal estava alterada em 7,7%. A detecção de uma ou mais IST foi significativamente associada a idade entre 25 e 44 anos (OR = 2,33; IC95%: 1,05-5,18), a consumo de álcool (OR = 1,96; IC95%: 1,06-3,64), a resultado alterado da citologia (OR = 3,96; IC95%: 1,65-9,48) e a vaginose bacteriana (OR = 3,61; IC95%: 2,01-6,47). Em mulheres quilombolas houve elevada prevalência de uma ou mais IST, o que torna importante a elaboração de estratégias de prevenção direcionadas a essas mulheres.


Abstract: The study aimed to estimate the prevalence of sexually transmissible infections (STIs) and associated factors in women in quilombola (maroon) communities in Brazil. This was a population-based cross-sectional study of quilombola women from March 2017 to January 2019. A questionnaire was used with sociodemographic, behavioral, and clinical information. A gynecological examination was performed for the collection of uterine cervical cells for oncotic cytology and the detection of Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Trichomonas vaginalis, and human papillomavirus (HPV) via polymerase chain reaction. Rapid tests for HIV and syphilis were performed. The main outcome was defined as infection with one or more sexually transmissible pathogens. The analysis used chi-square test and hierarchical logistic regression. From a total of 380 women, 352 (92.6%) were included in the study. Prevalence of at least one STI was 18.5% (95%CI: 14.76-22.85). The highest prevalence was for HPV, with 11.1%, followed by 6.3% for T. vaginalis and 4.3% for C. trachomatis. There were no cases of N. gonorrhoeae. Prevalence was 0.3% for HIV and 4.3% for syphilis. Cervical-vaginal cytology was altered in 7.7% of the women. Detection of one or more STIs was significantly associated with age 25 to 44 years (OR = 2.33; 95%CI: 1.05-5.18), alcohol consumption (OR = 1.96; 95%CI: 1.06-3.64), altered cervical cytology (OR = 3.96; 95%CI: 1.65-9.48), and bacterial vaginosis (OR = 3.61; 95%CI: 2.01-6.47). Quilombola women showed high prevalence of one or more STIs, emphasizing the importance of organizing prevention strategies targeted to these women.


Resumen: El objetivo del estudio fue estimar la prevalencia de enfermedades de transmisión sexual (ETS) y sus factores asociados en mujeres quilombolas en Brasil. Estudio transversal de base poblacional con mujeres quilombolas durante el período de marzo de 2017 a enero de 2019. Se utilizó un cuestionario con información sociodemográfica, comportamental y clínica. Se realizó un examen ginecológico, a fin de recoger células cervicales para la citología oncótica, así como para la detección de Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Trichomonas vaginalis, y virus del papiloma humano (VPH) mediante un test de reacción en cadena de la polimerasa. Se realizó un test rápido para VIH y sífilis. El resultado principal, se definió como infección por uno o más agentes infecciosos de transmisión sexual. Para el análisis, se utilizó el test de chi-cuadrado y regresión logística jerárquica. De un total de 380 mujeres, 352 (92,6%) se incluyeron en el estudio. La prevalencia de por lo menos una ETS fue de 18,5% (IC95%: 14,76-22,85). La mayor prevalencia fue por VPH 11,1%, seguida de 6,3% por T. vaginalis y 4,3% por C. trachomatis. No hubo casos de N. gonorrhoeae. Para el VIH, la prevalencia fue de 0,3% y de sífilis fue de 4,3%. La citología cérvico-vaginal estaba alterada en un 7,7%. La detección de una o más ETS estuvo significativamente asociada con la edad entre 25 a 44 años (OR = 2,33; IC95%: 1,05-5,18), el consumo de alcohol (OR = 1,96; IC95%: 1,06-3,64), resultado alterado de la citología (OR = 3,96; IC95%: 1,65-9,48) y vaginosis bacteriana (OR = 3,61; IC95%: 2,01-6,47). Las mujeres quilombolas presentaron una elevada prevalencia por una o más ETS, por lo que es importante la elaboración de estrategias de prevención dirigidas a estas mujeres.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adult , Chlamydia Infections/diagnosis , Chlamydia Infections/epidemiology , Gonorrhea/diagnosis , Gonorrhea/epidemiology , Sexually Transmitted Diseases/epidemiology , Brazil/epidemiology , Chlamydia trachomatis , Prevalence , Cross-Sectional Studies
7.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 54(supl.1): e2020602, 2021. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1250845

ABSTRACT

Abstract Pelvic Inflammatory Disease is a topic included in the Clinical Protocol and Therapeutic Guidelines for Comprehensive Care for People with Sexually Transmitted Infections, published by the Brazilian Ministry of Health in 2020. Pelvic inflammatory disease is an upper female genital tract acute infection due to canalicular spread of endogenous cervicovaginal microorganisms and especially the sexually transmitted microorganisms. Standing out among the etiological agents involved are Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae. The main sequelae are chronic pelvic pain, infertility, and ectopic pregnancy. Clinical diagnosis is the most important practical approach. Antibiotic treatment must start immediately after the clinical suspicion. Guidelines for health service managers and health professionals on diagnostic tests, treatment, follow-up, counseling, notification, handling sexual partners and special populations are described. Given the increased availability of the molecular biology techniques in Brazil, C. trachomatis and N. gonorrhoeae screening are recommended as a disease prevention strategy.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Chlamydia Infections/diagnosis , Chlamydia Infections/drug therapy , Gonorrhea , Sexually Transmitted Diseases/diagnosis , Sexually Transmitted Diseases/prevention & control , Pelvic Inflammatory Disease/diagnosis , Brazil , Chlamydia trachomatis , Mass Screening
8.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1292001

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Infections caused by Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) and Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) are among the most prevalent sexually transmitted infections (STIs) worldwide. CT infection in women living with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) can facilitate HIV transmission by increasing HIV shedding in cervicovaginal secretions. The prevalence of Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is higher in women living with HIV when compared to HIVnegative women, even when comparing those with the same sociodemographic characteristics. Generally, they have a high viral load and a higher persistence of viral infection, which increases the risk of developing premalignant and malignant lesions in the lower genital tract. Objective: To evaluate the frequency of CT and High-Risk HPV (HR-HPV) infection among women living with HIV and the association with sociodemographic, behavioral and clinical characteristics. Methods: Cross-sectional study carried out with a population of 66 non-pregnant women aged between 18 and 70 years living with HIV and/or acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) at the Hospital Universitário Antônio Pedro, Universidade Federal Fluminense (UFF), Niterói (RJ), Brazil, between the period of March 1, 2018 and October 31, 2018. A standardized questionnaire was applied including sociodemographic and behavioral characteristics, and clinical information (use of oral contraceptives, Antiretroviral Therapy (ART), cluster of differentiation 4 (CD4) cell count, and viral load). Endocervical samples were collected for CT (COBAS 4800® system, Roche) and HPV (COBAS® HPV test, Roche) detection. Fisher's Exact Test was used to assess the association between variables. Regression analyses were performed using the logistic model in order to identify the factors associated with the outcomes of interest. Results: A frequency of 1.5% for CT and 21.2% for HR-HPV was found. Age was the single factor that presented statistical significance associated with HR-HPV infection. Conclusion: Our study showed that some women living with HIV promote risky behavior which could facilitate the acquisition of other STIs, such as HPV and CT infection. Some of them, with detected viral load, were not using condoms even with HIV-negative partners. These results may suggest that in addition to treatment and follow-up of women living with HIV, STIs counseling and guidance may play an important role in the control of STIs in this population


Introdução: As infecções causadas por Chlamydia trachomatis e por papilomavírus humano (HPV) estão entre as infecções sexualmente transmissíveis (IST) mais prevalentes em todo o mundo. A infecção por Chlamydia trachomatis em mulheres que vivem com HIV pode facilitar a transmissão do HIV, aumentando a disseminação do HIV cérvico-vaginal. A prevalência da infecção pelo HPV é maior em mulheres vivendo com HIV quando comparadas às mulheres HIV negativas, mesmo quando comparadas àquelas com as mesmas características sociodemográficas. Geralmente apresentam carga viral elevada e maior persistência de infecção viral, o que aumenta o risco de desenvolver lesões pré-malignas e malignas no trato genital inferior. Objetivo: Avaliar a frequência de infecção por Chlamydia trachomatis e HPV de alto risco (HR-HPV) em mulheres vivendo com HIV e sua associação com características sociodemográficas, comportamentais e clínicas. Métodos: Estudo transversal realizado com uma população de 66 mulheres não gestantes de 18 a 70 anos vivendo com HIV e/ou AIDS no Hospital Universitário Antônio Pedro, Universidade Federal Fluminense ­ Niterói (RJ), Brasil, entre 1º de março e 31 de outubro de 2018. Aplicou-se um questionário padronizado incluindo características sociodemográficas e comportamentais e informações clínicas (uso de anticoncepcionais orais, terapia antirretroviral, contagem de células CD4 e carga viral). Amostras endocervicais foram coletadas para detectar Chlamydia trachomatis (COBAS 4800® Roche) e HPV (COBAS ® HPV Roche). O teste exato de Fisher avaliou a associação entre as variáveis. As análises de regressão foram realizadas por meio do modelo logístico, a fim de identificar os fatores associados aos desfechos de interesse. Resultados: Encontrou-se frequência de 1,5% para Chlamydia trachomatis e 21,2% para HR-HPV. A idade foi o único fator que apresentou significância estatística associada à infecção por HR-HPV. Conclusão: Nosso estudo mostra que algumas mulheres vivendo com HIV praticam comportamentos de risco que podem facilitar a aquisição de outras IST, como a infecção por HPV e Chlamydia trachomatis. Algumas delas com carga viral detectada não usavam preservativo, mesmo com parceiros HIV negativos. Esses resultados podem sugerir que, além do tratamento e acompanhamento de mulheres vivendo com HIV, o aconselhamento e a orientação para IST podem desempenhar um papel importante no controle das IST nessa população.


Subject(s)
Humans , Papillomaviridae , Chlamydia trachomatis , HIV , Women , Sexually Transmitted Diseases , Condoms
9.
Ciênc. Saúde Colet ; 25(10): 3809-3819, Out. 2020. tab
Article in Portuguese | ColecionaSUS, LILACS, ColecionaSUS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1132991

ABSTRACT

Resumo O objetivo do presente estudo foi identificar as dimensões da vulnerabilidade de mulheres que fazem sexo com mulheres associadas às infecções sexualmente transmissíveis. Estudo transversal com 150 mulheres, entre 2015-2017. Aplicou-se questionário estruturado, realizou-se exame ginecológico para diagnóstico de Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Trichomonas vaginalis, papiloma vírus humano e coleta de sangue periférico para detecção de HIV, hepatite B e sífilis. A variável desfecho foi a ocorrência de infecção sexual e as variáveis independentes compõem o referencial da vulnerabilidade, nas dimensões individual, social e programática. Análise de dados foi realizada por modelo de regressão logística. Os resultados mostraram alta prevalência das infecções (47,3%) e apenas variáveis relacionadas à vulnerabilidade individual se associaram de forma independente ao desfecho: chance de infecção foi quatro vezes maior entre mulheres com antecedente de infecção; nunca ter realizado exame sorológico aumentou a chance em quase três vezes e ter tido relação sexual com homem nos últimos 12 meses aumentou em quase nove vezes a chance do desfecho. Concluiu-se que essas mulheres são vulneráveis às infecções sexualmente transmissíveis em decorrência da vulnerabilidade individual.


Abstract The scope of this study was to assess the degree of vulnerability to sexually transmitted infections of women who have sex with women. It involved a cross-sectional study of 150 women between 2015 and 2017. A structured questionnaire was applied, and a gynecological examination was performed to diagnose Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Trichomonas vaginalis and papillomavirus. Blood tests were conducted to detect HIV, hepatitis B and syphilis. The outcome variable was sexual infection and the independent variables comprised the vulnerability level in the individual, social and programmatic dimensions. Data analyses were performed through logistic regression. The results showed a high prevalence of infections (47.3%) and only variables of individual vulnerability were associated with the outcome. The incidence of infection was four times higher among women who had had prior infections. The fact of never having had a blood test tripled the chance of having sexually transmitted infections. The fact of also having sexual intercourse with men in the previous 12-month-period increased the risk of the outcome by a factor of approximately nine. The conclusion drawn is that these women are vulnerable to sexually transmitted infections due to their individual vulnerability.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Sexually Transmitted Diseases/epidemiology , HIV Infections , Sexual and Gender Minorities , Chlamydia trachomatis , Prevalence , Cross-Sectional Studies , Risk Factors , Coitus
10.
Ortodoncia ; 84(167): 36-41, jun. 2020. tab, ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1147664

ABSTRACT

Los tejidos que conforman la articulación temporomandibular (ATM) pueden verse afectados como cualquier otra articulación del cuerpo. Entre los factores etiológicos, podemos nombrar los traumáticos, infecciosos, autoinmunes y oclusales. El diagnóstico de las patologías de la ATM debe incluir una completa historia clínica, estudios de laboratorios y de imágenes. El objetivo del siguiente trabajo es describir características de una serie de pacientes que concurrieron a la consulta con signos y síntomas de patologías de la ATM a un consultorio particular en el sur de la provincia de Buenos Aires. Se estudió a 30 pacientes que concurrieron a la consulta con signos y síntomas de patología de la ATM; se completaron historias clínicas, se solicitaron estudios de laboratorio para la detección de anticuerpos específicos contra bacterias y resonancia nuclear magnética. La edad promedio de la población fue de 35 años, 26 eran mujeres y 25 tuvieron resultados de estudios bacteriológicos positivos. Sobre un total de 60 articulaciones, 54 presentaron alteración en la forma y de la posición del disco articular. Se verificó la importancia en la solicitud y asociación de estudios para el diagnóstico diferencial(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Adult , Temporomandibular Joint , Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy , Temporomandibular Joint Disorders , Temporomandibular Joint Disorders/diagnosis , Temporomandibular Joint Disorders/diagnostic imaging , Chlamydia trachomatis , Chlamydophila pneumoniae , Antistreptolysin
11.
Rev. argent. coloproctología ; 30(2): 57-64, Jun. 2019. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1025559

ABSTRACT

Introducción: Las infecciones transmisibles sexualmente (ITS) son motivo de consulta frecuente, encontrándose Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) entre las prevalentes. Este germen provoca proctitis de diversa gravedad según el biovar involucrado. Los casos más floridos suelen ser ocasionados por el biovar LGV, responsable de la entidad linfogranuloma venéreo. Se desconocen la prevalencia de CT como causa de proctitis en Argentina y los biovares implicados. Con el objetivo de estudiar estas variables, se diseñó un protocolo para detectar y genotipificar CT en pacientes con proctitis infecciosa. Pacientes y métodos: Se incluyeron pacientes mayores de 18 años con cuadro de proctitis infecciosa atendidos en un centro público y otro privado. Se excluyeron pacientes con enfermedad inflamatoria intestinal y radioterapia pelviana. El estudio fue aprobado por un Comité de Ética y los pacientes firmaron un consentimiento informado. En las muestras de hisopado anal se realizó detección y tipificación molecular de CT. Resultados: Entre 31de agosto de 2017 y 31 de mayo de 2018, se incluyeron 56 pacientes (1 mujer, 53 hombres, 2 mujeres trans), 79% HIV+. En 29 casos (52%) se detectó CT. Todos eran hombres que tienen sexo con hombres (HSH) y refirieron practicar sexo anal u oral receptivo no protegido. La mediana de edad de este subgrupo fue de 31 años; 83% HIV+ en tratamiento antirretroviral y mediana de CD4 637 cel/mm3. La coinfección con otras ITS fue del 41% (siendo las más frecuentes HPV, gonococia y sífilis). Los motivos de consulta más frecuentes fueron proctorragia, pujo y tenesmo, proctalgia y secreción. Las manifestaciones clínicas fueron variadas: proctitis, úlcera perianal, tumor endoanal/rectal y absceso/fístula. El 86% de las proctitis correspondió al biovar LGV, siendo 62% moderadas a graves. La mediana de tiempo de evolución hasta el diagnóstico fue 21 días. Los casos más prolongados correspondieron a cuadros clínicos y endoscópicos más graves. La duración del tratamiento se adecuó al biovar involucrado. Todos los pacientes respondieron favorablemente; sin embargo, las dos fístulas perianales requirieron resolución quirúrgica. Conclusiones: Proctitis, úlceras y fístulas son manifestaciones inespecíficas; el hallazgo clínico y endoscópico per se no son suficientes para definir la etiología; sólo una anamnesis minuciosa permite presumir una ITS como agente causal. La tipificación logra definir el biovar, dato fundamental para adecuar el tratamiento, cortar la cadena de transmisión y contar con datos epidemiológicos a nivel local. Como resultado de esta investigación, el Ministerio de Salud de Nación proyectó la emisión de una alerta sobre la presencia de LGV en nuestro medio. Tipo de estudio: Observacional, transversal, analítico, multicéntrico.


Introduction: Sexually transmitted infections (STI) are a frequent reason for consultation, being Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) among the most prevalent ones. It causes proctitis of varying severity depending on the biovar involved. The most severe cases are usually caused by the LGV biovar, responsible for the entity called lymphogranuloma venereum. The prevalence of CT as a cause of proctitis in Argentina and the biovars involved are unknown. In order to study these variables, a protocol was designed to detect and genotype CT in patients with infectious proctitis. Patients and methods: Patients over 18 years old with infectious proctitis were attended in a public and private center. Patients with inflammatory bowel disease and pelvic radiation therapy were excluded. The study was approved by an Ethics Committee and the patients signed an informed consent. The detection and molecular typing of CT was performed in anal swab samples. Results: Between 31-08-2017 and 31-05-2018, 56 patients were included (1 woman, 53 men, 2 trans women), 79% HIV +. In 29 cases (52%) CT was detected. All were MSM and reported to practice unprotected receptive oral or anal sex. The median age of this subgroup was 31 years; 83% HIV + on antiretroviral treatment and median CD4 637 cel / mm3. The coinfection with other STIs was present 41% (the most frequent were HPV, gonococcal and syphilis). The most frequent symptoms were bleeding, tenesmus, proctalgia and secretion. The clinical manifestations were varied: proctitis, perianal ulcer, endoanal / rectal tumor and abscess / anal fistula. 86% of the proctitis corresponded to the LGV biovar, being 62% moderate to severe. The median time of evolution until the diagnosis was 21 days. The most prolonged cases corresponded to more severe clinical and endoscopic symptoms. The duration of the treatment was adapted to the biovar involved. All patients responded favorably; however, the two perianal fistulas required surgical resolution. Conclusions: Proctitis, ulcers and fistulas are nonspecific manifestations; the clinical and endoscopic findings per se are not sufficient to define the etiology; only a meticulous anamnesis allows us to presume an STI as a causative agent. The typification allows to define the biovar, a fundamental data to adapt the treatment, stop chain of transmission and provides local epidemiological data. As a result of this investigation, the Ministry of Health of the Argentina issued an alert about the presence of LGV in our country. Type of study: Observational, cross-sectional, analytical, multicenter study.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Young Adult , Proctitis/etiology , Proctitis/epidemiology , Chlamydia Infections , Chlamydia trachomatis/pathogenicity , Rectal Diseases/etiology , Rectal Diseases/epidemiology , Lymphogranuloma Venereum/etiology , HIV Infections/complications , Prevalence , Homosexuality, Male
12.
Rev. chil. infectol ; 36(3): 292-298, jun. 2019. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1013786

ABSTRACT

Resumen Introducción: La mujer embarazada está expuesta anumerosas infecciones de transmisión sexual (ITS), las que pueden producir aborto, enfermedad en el feto y/o en el recién nacido, además de alteraciones en el curso normal del embarazo. Objetivo: Realizar tamizaje de infección cervical asintomática en mujeres embarazadas y su relación con la microbiota. Pacientes y Métodos: Se enrolaron 85 mujeres embarazadas sin cervicitis clínica que consultaron en control de rutina de embarazo (47 pacientes) o que fueron derivadas a una unidad de ITS (38 pacientes). Se tomaron muestras de fondo de saco vaginal, que fueron analizadas por técnicas clásicas de microscopía y cultivo corriente y reacción de polimerasa en cadena para Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Trichomonas vaginalis y Chlamydia trachomatis. Resultados: Se encontró 12,9% de infección por C. trachomatis, 2,4% de T. vaginalis. En este estudio no se encontró N. gonorrhoeae. El 23,3% de pacientes con microbiota alterada (vaginosis bacteriana y microbiota intermedia) fue positiva para C. trachomatis. Conclusión: En este trabajo, encontramos una alta frecuencia de infección por C. trachomatis, que se relaciona en forma significativa con la presencia de microbiota alterada. Esta alta frecuencia debería promover estrategias preventivas en los controles de salud de la mujer embarazada.


Background: Pregnant woman is exposed to many sexual transmitted infections (STI). Many of these infections may produce diseases in the fetus and newborn, and also alteration in the normal course of the pregnancy. Aim: Screening of asymptomatic cervical infection in pregnant woman and its relationship with the vaginal microbiota. Patients and Methods: 85 pregnant women without clinical cervicitis who consult in the routine pregnant control (47 patients) and women derived from STI service (38 patients). The samples were obtained from the vaginal fund sac and were analyzed with optic microscopy, cultures and PCR of Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Trichomonas vaginalis and Chlamydia trachomatis. Results: 12,9% of the enrolled women were positive for C. trachomatis, 2,4% for T. vaginalis. In this study, we did not found N. gonorrhoeae. We observed 23,3% of patients with altered microbiota (bacterial vaginosis and intermediate microbiota) was positive for C. trachomatis. Conclusions: In this study, we found a high frequency of C. trachomatis infection, that correlates with the presence of altered microbiota. This high frequency would promote preventive strategies in the pregnant women routine controls.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Adolescent , Adult , Young Adult , Trichomonas Infections/microbiology , Trichomonas vaginalis/isolation & purification , Vagina/microbiology , Sexually Transmitted Diseases, Bacterial/diagnosis , Chlamydia Infections/microbiology , Chlamydia trachomatis/isolation & purification , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/diagnosis , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/microbiology , Socioeconomic Factors , Trichomonas Infections/diagnosis , Sexually Transmitted Diseases, Bacterial/microbiology , Chlamydia Infections/diagnosis , Mass Screening , Age Distribution , Asymptomatic Infections , Microbiota
13.
Rev. méd. panacea ; 8(1): 4-11, ene.-abr. 2019. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LIPECS, LILACS, LIPECS | ID: biblio-1016315

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: Determinar la prevalencia de Chlamydia trachomatis y sus factores condicionantes en mujeres en etapa reproductiva con actividad sexual. Materiales y métodos: Después de ser instruidas acerca del estudio, las pacientes acordaron su participación voluntaria y brindaron la información para el llenado de la ficha de recolección de datos. Se estimó un mínimo de 90 pacientes a incluir en el estudio que fueron seleccionadas por un muestreo por conveniencia. Se extrajo una muestra sanguínea y se utilizó el método de ELISA para determinar la presencia de anticuerpos IgG anti-Ch. trachomatis. Resultados: Se evidenció una prevalencia de infección del 10%. La frecuencia de infección se asoció a ser soltera, al cambio de pareja y la ausencia de leucorrea inespecífica. La edad, el grado de instrucción y la procedencia no tuvieron significancia estadística. Conclusiones: Se debe descartar el diagnóstico presuntivo de infección por Ch. trachomatis. Asimismo, su detección debería ser incluida dentro de los análisis requeridos por los consultorios de ginecología para lograr un diagnóstico que permita un tratamiento oportuno. (AU)


Objective: To determine the prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis and its conditioning factors in reproductive stage women with sexual activity. Materials and methods: After being instructed about the study, the patients agreed to their voluntary participation and provided the information for filling out the data collection form. We estimated a minimum of 90 patients to be included in the study who were selected by a convenience sampling. A blood sample was taken and the ELISA method was used to determine the presence of anti-Ch trachomatis IgG antibodies. Results: An infection prevalence of 10% was evidenced. The frequency of infection was associated with being single, changing partners and the absence of nonspecific leucorrhoea. The age, the level of education and the origin did not have statistical significance. Conclusions: The presumptive diagnosis of Ch. trachomatis infection should be ruled out. Likewise, its detection should be included in the analyzes required by the gynecology offices to achieve a diagnosis that allows timely treatment. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Sexually Transmitted Diseases , Chlamydia trachomatis
15.
Afr. j. lab. med. (Online) ; 8(1): 1-6, 2019. tab
Article in English | AIM, AIM | ID: biblio-1257327

ABSTRACT

Background: The Presto combined qualitative real-time assay for Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae (Presto CT/NG PCR assay) is appealing for developing countries, because it can be used with multiple DNA extraction methods and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) platforms.Objectives: The objective of the study was to implement and evaluate the Presto CT/NG PCR assay at the National Reference Laboratory (NRL) in Kigali, Rwanda, where no real-time PCR assays for the detection of C. trachomatis or N. gonorrhoeae were available.Methods: The Presto CT/NG PCR assay was first evaluated at the Institute of Tropical Medicine (ITM) in Antwerp, Belgium. Next, NRL laboratory technicians were trained to use the assay on their ABI PRISM 7500 real-time PCR instrument and their competencies were assessed prior to trial initiation. During the trial, endocervical swabs were tested at the NRL, with bi-monthly external quality control testing monitored by the ITM. The final NRL results were evaluated against extended gold standard testing at the ITM, consisting of the Abbott m2000 RealTime System with confirmation of positive results by an in-house real-time PCR assay for C. trachomatis or N. gonorrhoeae.Results: Of the 192 samples analysed using the Presto assay at the NRL, 16 samples tested positive for C. trachomatis and 17 tested positive for N. gonorrhoeae; four of these were infected with both. The sensitivity and specificity of the Presto assay were 93.3% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 68.1% ­ 99.8%) and 99.4% (95% CI: 96.8% ­ 100%) for C. trachomatis and 100% (95% CI: 76.8% ­ 100%) and 98.8% (95% CI: 95.8% ­ 99.9%) for N. gonorrhoeae.Conclusion: C. trachomatis and N. gonorrhoeae testing with the Presto assay was feasible in Kigali, Rwanda, and good performance was achieved


Subject(s)
Biological Assay , Chlamydia trachomatis , Molecular Diagnostic Techniques/methods , Neisseria gonorrhoeae
16.
Esc. Anna Nery Rev. Enferm ; 23(1): e20180212, 2019.
Article in English | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-975238

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective: To analyze the knowledge and practice of nursing professionals about the prophylaxis of ophthalmia neonatorum. Method: Descriptive study, of qualitative approach, carried out in the first semester of 2018, in a city hall hospital located in the lake area of the Rio de Janeiro's state, through semi-structured interviews with 14 Nursing professionals participating in the care of the newborn, whose data were submitted to the Thematic Analysis. Results: From the three emerging thematic categories, there are gaps in knowledge related to ophthalmia neonatorum, silver nitrate and the instillation procedure of this prophylactic solution, as well as differences in care practice regarding care before, during and after the procedure. Conclusion and implications for practice: The data point to the importance of training the Nursing team in the prophylaxis of ophthalmia neonatorum, the revision of guidelines and procedures aimed at standardizing the procedure, as well as emphasizing the need for adequate follow-up of pregnant women in prenatal care.


Resumen Objetivo: Analizar el conocimiento y la práctica de los profesionales de Enfermería sobre la profilaxis de la oftalmía neonatal. Método: Estudio descriptivo, de naturaleza cualitativa, realizado en el primer semestre de 2018, en un hospital municipal ubicado en la bajada costera del estado de Río de Janeiro, a través de entrevistas semiestructuradas desarrolladas con 14 profesionales de Enfermería, que participan en la asistencia al recién nacido, cuyos datos se sometieron al análisis temático. Resultados: A partir de las tres categorías temáticas emergentes se evidencian lagunas en el conocimiento relacionadas a la oftalmía neonatal, al nitrato de plata y al procedimiento de instilación de esa solución profiláctica, además de divergencias en la práctica asistencial en cuanto a los cuidados antes, durante y después de la realización del procedimiento. Conclusión y las implicaciones para la práctica: Los datos apuntan a la importancia de la capacitación del equipo de Enfermería para la realización de la profilaxis de la oftalmia neonatal, de la revisión de directrices y conductas que visen la estandarización del procedimiento, además de resaltar la necesidad de un acompañamiento adecuado de las gestantes en el prenatal.


Resumo Objetivo: Analisar o conhecimento e a prática de profissionais de Enfermagem sobre profilaxia da oftalmia neonatal. Método: Estudo descritivo, de natureza qualitativa, realizado no primeiro semestre de 2018, em um hospital municipal localizado na baixada litorânea do estado do Rio de Janeiro, por meio de entrevistas semiestruturadas com 14 profissionais de Enfermagem, que participam da assistência ao recém-nascido, cujos dados foram submetidos à Análise Temática. Resultados: A partir das três categorias temáticas emergentes evidenciaram-se lacunas no conhecimento relacionadas à oftalmia neonatal, ao nitrato de prata e ao procedimento de instilação dessa solução profilática, além de divergências na prática assistencial quanto aos cuidados antes, durante e após a realização do procedimento. Conclusão e implicações para a prática: Os dados apontam para a importância da capacitação da equipe de Enfermagem para a realização da profilaxia da oftalmia neonatal, da revisão de diretrizes e condutas que visem a padronização do procedimento, além de ressaltar a necessidade de um acompanhamento adequado das gestantes no pré-natal.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant, Newborn , Adult , Middle Aged , Ophthalmia Neonatorum/nursing , Neonatal Nursing , Professional Practice , Silver Nitrate/administration & dosage , Silver Nitrate/adverse effects , Silver Nitrate/toxicity , Silver Nitrate/therapeutic use , Sexually Transmitted Diseases/diagnosis , Chlamydia trachomatis , Ophthalmia Neonatorum/prevention & control , Ophthalmia Neonatorum/therapy , Conjunctivitis, Viral , Blindness/complications , Qualitative Research , Corneal Injuries/complications , Neisseria gonorrhoeae
17.
Adv Rheumatol ; 59: 50, 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1088605

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background: To evaluate human papillomavirus (HPV), Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) and Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG) infections in juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) patients. Methods: After exclusion, 33 female adolescent and young JIA patients (ILAR criteria) and 28 healthy controls were selected for this study. Demographic data, gynecological, sexual function, cervical cytology and histological abnormalities were evaluated. JIA clinical/laboratorial parameters and treatment were also assessed. HPV-DNA, CT-DNA and NG-DNA testing in cervical specimens were performed by Hybrid Capture 2 assays. Results: The mean current age was similar in JIA patients and controls (23.3 ± 6.24 vs. 26.1 ± 6.03 years, p = 0.09). The frequencies of sexual intercourse (76% vs. 89%, p = 0.201) and abnormal cervical cytology (24% vs. 11%, p = 0.201) were similar in JIA compared to controls. The higher frequency of HPV infection in JIA patients than controls (30% vs. 11%, p = 0.155) did not reach statistical significance. CT (0% vs. 7%, p = 0.207) and NG infections (0% vs. 4%, p = 0.459) were also alike in both groups. Further evaluation of JIA patients with abnormal and normal cervical cytology showed that the former group had a higher frequency of HPV infection (87% vs. 12%, p = 0.0002) with a low frequency of HPV vaccination (0% vs. 8%, p = 1.0). No differences were evidenced between these two JIA groups regarding demographic data, sexual function and clinical/laboratorial parameters. The frequencies of methotrexate (p =0.206) and biological agent use (p =0.238) were similar in both JIA groups. Conclusions: To our knowledge, this was the first study to assess lower genital infections in JIA patients allowing the identification of HPV as main cause of cervical dysplasia. Methotrexate and biological agents do not seem to increase risk of lower genital tract infections in JIA patients.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Arthritis, Juvenile/physiopathology , Chlamydia Infections/diagnosis , Gonorrhea/diagnosis , Papillomaviridae/isolation & purification , Chlamydia trachomatis/isolation & purification , Neisseria gonorrhoeae/isolation & purification
18.
Rev. chil. infectol ; 35(4): 371-376, ago. 2018. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-978047

ABSTRACT

Resumen Introducción: La infección endocervical por Chlamydia trachomatis es considerada una de las principales causas de infertilidad en todo el mundo. Durante el embarazo puede conducir a complicaciones graves como la ruptura prematura de membranas y los partos prematuros. Objetivo: Determinar la prevalencia de infección genital por C. trachomatis en mujeres embarazadas e infértiles de la Ciudad de México. Métodos: La detección de C. trachomatis fue mediante reacción de polimerasa en cadena tiempo real (RPC-TR) con el kit comercial COBAS® TaqMan CT Test v2,0 (Roche Molecular System). Resultados: Se analizaron 2.352 muestras; 102 fueron positivas (4,3%). La prevalencia por edad mostró que las adolescentes embarazadas (15 a 19 años) fueron las de mayor riesgo de infección (10,9%, RR = 3,23 [IC 95%: 1,79-5,84]), seguido de mujeres jóvenes de 20 a 24 años, con prevalencia de 5,6% (RR = 1,65 [IC 95%: 0,82-3,34]). Discusión: Los resultados indican que la prevalencia está dentro del rango reportado en el concierto mundial. Sin embargo, las adolescentes embarazadas tuvieron mayor prevalencia que las mujeres infértiles. Conclusión: Es imperioso realizar un rastreo sistemático de infección por C. trachomatis en mujeres bajo 24 años de edad, y en mujeres embarazadas para disminuir los casos de infertilidad y las complicaciones perinatales.


Background: Endocervical infection by Chlamydia trachomatis is considered one of the leading causes of infertility worldwide. During pregnancy, it can lead to serious complications such as premature rupture of membranes and premature births. Aim: To determine the prevalence of genital infection by C. trachomatis in pregnancy and infertile women from Mexico City. Methods: The detection of C. trachomatis was performed by real-time PCR with the commercial kit COBAS® TaqMan CT Test v2.0 (Roche Molecular System). Results: We analyzed 2,352 endocervical swabs; 102 were positive (4.3%). Age prevalence showed that pregnant adolescents (15 to 19 years of age) had the highest risk of infection (10.9%, RR = 3.23 [95% IC: 1.79-5.84]), followed by young women aged 20 to 24 years, with a prevalence of 5.6% (RR = 1.65 [95% IC: 0.82-3.34]). Discussion: The results indicate that the prevalence is within the range reported worldwide. However, pregnant adolescents were those with a higher prevalence than infertile women were. Conclusion: A systematic screening of C. trachomatis infection in women younger than 24 years of age, and in pregnant women is necessary to reduce the incidence of infertility and perinatal complications.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Adolescent , Adult , Young Adult , Chlamydia Infections/epidemiology , Genital Diseases, Female/epidemiology , Perinatology , Chlamydia Infections/diagnosis , Chlamydia Infections/microbiology , Chlamydia trachomatis/isolation & purification , Prevalence , Prospective Studies , Age Factors , Academies and Institutes , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Genital Diseases, Female/diagnosis , Infertility, Female/etiology , Infertility, Female/microbiology , Mexico/epidemiology
19.
Medicina (B.Aires) ; 78(3): 207-210, jun. 2018. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-954980

ABSTRACT

Desde 2003, en los países desarrollados han aumentado las comunicaciones sobre casos de linfogranuloma venéreo con cuadros clínicos diferentes de la forma inguinal clásica. Las presentaciones anorrectales, hasta hace poco atípicas, predominan en hombres infectados por HIV que tienen sexo con hombres. El objetivo de este trabajo es informar sobre la presencia de esta infección en la Ciudad Autónoma de Buenos Aires y describir sus variadas manifestaciones clínicas. En el contexto de una pesquisa sistemática de la infección rectal por clamidias, en apenas un trimestre fueron identificados ocho casos de linfogranuloma venéreo por Chlamydia trachomatis biovar LGV en hombres HIV positivos que tienen sexo con hombres. Las manifestaciones anorrectales más frecuentes fueron pujo, tenesmo, urgencia evacuatoria y secreción mucosa o hemopurulenta. En su mayoría presentaban proctitis leve o moderada, acompañada en algunos casos de lesiones perianales. Dados el polimorfismo y la inespecificidad de las manifestaciones clínicas del linfogranuloma venéreo rectal, se advierte sobre la circulación de esta infección en nuestro medio. En caso de detectar Chlamydia trachomatis, es importante genotipificarla para el correcto diagnóstico y tratamiento de la enfermedad y también para su vigilancia epidemiológica. Si la genotipificación no es posible, se debe considerar el caso como producido por el biovar LGV y aplicar el tratamiento correspondiente.


From 2003 to date there has been a rising number of reports from developed countries on cases of lymphogranuloma venereum with anorectal localization in HIV-infected men who have sex with men. This localization differs from the classical inguinal abscesses which are typical of the disease in the tropics. The objective of this work is to document the presence of anorectal lymphogranuloma venereum in Buenos Aires and to describe its varied clinical manifestations. In the context of a systematic survey of rectal chlamydial infection, in just one trimester, eight cases of lymphogranuloma venereum caused by Chlamydia trachomatis biovar LGV were identified in HIV-infected men who have sex with men. The most frequent anorectal manifestations were pus, tenesmus, rectal urgency, and mucous or haemopurulent discharge. The proctitis was mostly mild or moderate and, in some cases, it was accompanied by perianal lesions. Given the great polymorphism and unspecificity of the clinical manifestations of the disease, we warn on the presence of this form of rectal lymphogranuloma venereum in our setting. If Chlamydia trachomatis is detected, it should be genotyped, not only for the correct diagnosis and treatment but also for epidemiological surveillance. Where genotyping is not available, the disease must be considered as caused by the LGV biovar and treated accordingly.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Proctitis/diagnosis , Lymphogranuloma Venereum/diagnosis , Chlamydia trachomatis/genetics , AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections/diagnosis , Sexual and Gender Minorities , Polymorphism, Genetic , Proctitis/microbiology , Lymphogranuloma Venereum/microbiology , Prospective Studies , AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections/microbiology
20.
Physis (Rio J.) ; 28(4): e280410, 2018.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-984778

ABSTRACT

Resumo No início do século XX o tracoma, enfermidade oftálmica contagiosa, tornou-se endêmica no interior do estado de São Paulo. Em 1906, mediante a infecção de quase 40% da população rural examinada, o governo estadual implantou 25 postos de tratamento em diversos municípios. Foi uma campanha audaciosa, dispendendo recursos com equipes médicas, transporte e medicação. O objetivo desta pesquisa é analisar por que o Serviço Sanitário interviu sobre o tracoma, num período em que as ações profiláticas estavam restritas às áreas urbanas. O recorte temporal se inicia em 1898, quando o primeiro artigo médico foi publicado, e termina em 1906, com a formação dos postos tracomatosos. Como fontes, foram utilizados relatórios governamentais, revistas médicas, teses e jornais. Concluímos que a pressão exercida por médicos e imprensa, concomitante à proteção do setor agroexportador, influenciaram a implantação das comissões.


Abstract At the beginning of the 20th century, trachoma, a contagious ophthalmic disease, became endemic in the interior of the state of São Paulo. In 1906, through the infection of almost 40% of the rural population examined, the state government implemented 25 treatment stations in several municipalities. It was an audacious campaign, spending resources with medical staff, transportation and medication. This research aimed to analyze why the Health Service intervened on trachoma in a period in which prophylactic actions were restricted to urban areas. The temporal cut begins in 1898, when the first medical article was published, and ends in 1906, with the formation of trachomatous posts. As sources, government reports, medical journals, theses and journals were used. We conclude that the pressure exerted by doctors and the press, concomitant to the protection of the agroexport sector, influenced the implementation of the commissions.


Subject(s)
Humans , History, 19th Century , History, 20th Century , Rural Population , Health Surveillance , Brazil , Chlamydia trachomatis , Trachoma/prevention & control , Public Health , Epidemics
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