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1.
Rev. chil. infectol ; 36(3): 292-298, jun. 2019. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1013786

ABSTRACT

Resumen Introducción: La mujer embarazada está expuesta anumerosas infecciones de transmisión sexual (ITS), las que pueden producir aborto, enfermedad en el feto y/o en el recién nacido, además de alteraciones en el curso normal del embarazo. Objetivo: Realizar tamizaje de infección cervical asintomática en mujeres embarazadas y su relación con la microbiota. Pacientes y Métodos: Se enrolaron 85 mujeres embarazadas sin cervicitis clínica que consultaron en control de rutina de embarazo (47 pacientes) o que fueron derivadas a una unidad de ITS (38 pacientes). Se tomaron muestras de fondo de saco vaginal, que fueron analizadas por técnicas clásicas de microscopía y cultivo corriente y reacción de polimerasa en cadena para Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Trichomonas vaginalis y Chlamydia trachomatis. Resultados: Se encontró 12,9% de infección por C. trachomatis, 2,4% de T. vaginalis. En este estudio no se encontró N. gonorrhoeae. El 23,3% de pacientes con microbiota alterada (vaginosis bacteriana y microbiota intermedia) fue positiva para C. trachomatis. Conclusión: En este trabajo, encontramos una alta frecuencia de infección por C. trachomatis, que se relaciona en forma significativa con la presencia de microbiota alterada. Esta alta frecuencia debería promover estrategias preventivas en los controles de salud de la mujer embarazada.


Background: Pregnant woman is exposed to many sexual transmitted infections (STI). Many of these infections may produce diseases in the fetus and newborn, and also alteration in the normal course of the pregnancy. Aim: Screening of asymptomatic cervical infection in pregnant woman and its relationship with the vaginal microbiota. Patients and Methods: 85 pregnant women without clinical cervicitis who consult in the routine pregnant control (47 patients) and women derived from STI service (38 patients). The samples were obtained from the vaginal fund sac and were analyzed with optic microscopy, cultures and PCR of Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Trichomonas vaginalis and Chlamydia trachomatis. Results: 12,9% of the enrolled women were positive for C. trachomatis, 2,4% for T. vaginalis. In this study, we did not found N. gonorrhoeae. We observed 23,3% of patients with altered microbiota (bacterial vaginosis and intermediate microbiota) was positive for C. trachomatis. Conclusions: In this study, we found a high frequency of C. trachomatis infection, that correlates with the presence of altered microbiota. This high frequency would promote preventive strategies in the pregnant women routine controls.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Adolescent , Adult , Young Adult , Trichomonas Infections/microbiology , Trichomonas vaginalis/isolation & purification , Vagina/microbiology , Sexually Transmitted Diseases, Bacterial/diagnosis , Chlamydia Infections/microbiology , Chlamydia trachomatis/isolation & purification , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/diagnosis , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/microbiology , Socioeconomic Factors , Trichomonas Infections/diagnosis , Sexually Transmitted Diseases, Bacterial/microbiology , Chlamydia Infections/diagnosis , Mass Screening , Age Distribution , Asymptomatic Infections , Microbiota
2.
Adv Rheumatol ; 59: 50, 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1088605

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background: To evaluate human papillomavirus (HPV), Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) and Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG) infections in juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) patients. Methods: After exclusion, 33 female adolescent and young JIA patients (ILAR criteria) and 28 healthy controls were selected for this study. Demographic data, gynecological, sexual function, cervical cytology and histological abnormalities were evaluated. JIA clinical/laboratorial parameters and treatment were also assessed. HPV-DNA, CT-DNA and NG-DNA testing in cervical specimens were performed by Hybrid Capture 2 assays. Results: The mean current age was similar in JIA patients and controls (23.3 ± 6.24 vs. 26.1 ± 6.03 years, p = 0.09). The frequencies of sexual intercourse (76% vs. 89%, p = 0.201) and abnormal cervical cytology (24% vs. 11%, p = 0.201) were similar in JIA compared to controls. The higher frequency of HPV infection in JIA patients than controls (30% vs. 11%, p = 0.155) did not reach statistical significance. CT (0% vs. 7%, p = 0.207) and NG infections (0% vs. 4%, p = 0.459) were also alike in both groups. Further evaluation of JIA patients with abnormal and normal cervical cytology showed that the former group had a higher frequency of HPV infection (87% vs. 12%, p = 0.0002) with a low frequency of HPV vaccination (0% vs. 8%, p = 1.0). No differences were evidenced between these two JIA groups regarding demographic data, sexual function and clinical/laboratorial parameters. The frequencies of methotrexate (p =0.206) and biological agent use (p =0.238) were similar in both JIA groups. Conclusions: To our knowledge, this was the first study to assess lower genital infections in JIA patients allowing the identification of HPV as main cause of cervical dysplasia. Methotrexate and biological agents do not seem to increase risk of lower genital tract infections in JIA patients.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Arthritis, Juvenile/physiopathology , Chlamydia Infections/diagnosis , Gonorrhea/diagnosis , Papillomaviridae/isolation & purification , Chlamydia trachomatis/isolation & purification , Neisseria gonorrhoeae/isolation & purification
3.
Rev. chil. infectol ; 35(4): 371-376, ago. 2018. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-978047

ABSTRACT

Resumen Introducción: La infección endocervical por Chlamydia trachomatis es considerada una de las principales causas de infertilidad en todo el mundo. Durante el embarazo puede conducir a complicaciones graves como la ruptura prematura de membranas y los partos prematuros. Objetivo: Determinar la prevalencia de infección genital por C. trachomatis en mujeres embarazadas e infértiles de la Ciudad de México. Métodos: La detección de C. trachomatis fue mediante reacción de polimerasa en cadena tiempo real (RPC-TR) con el kit comercial COBAS® TaqMan CT Test v2,0 (Roche Molecular System). Resultados: Se analizaron 2.352 muestras; 102 fueron positivas (4,3%). La prevalencia por edad mostró que las adolescentes embarazadas (15 a 19 años) fueron las de mayor riesgo de infección (10,9%, RR = 3,23 [IC 95%: 1,79-5,84]), seguido de mujeres jóvenes de 20 a 24 años, con prevalencia de 5,6% (RR = 1,65 [IC 95%: 0,82-3,34]). Discusión: Los resultados indican que la prevalencia está dentro del rango reportado en el concierto mundial. Sin embargo, las adolescentes embarazadas tuvieron mayor prevalencia que las mujeres infértiles. Conclusión: Es imperioso realizar un rastreo sistemático de infección por C. trachomatis en mujeres bajo 24 años de edad, y en mujeres embarazadas para disminuir los casos de infertilidad y las complicaciones perinatales.


Background: Endocervical infection by Chlamydia trachomatis is considered one of the leading causes of infertility worldwide. During pregnancy, it can lead to serious complications such as premature rupture of membranes and premature births. Aim: To determine the prevalence of genital infection by C. trachomatis in pregnancy and infertile women from Mexico City. Methods: The detection of C. trachomatis was performed by real-time PCR with the commercial kit COBAS® TaqMan CT Test v2.0 (Roche Molecular System). Results: We analyzed 2,352 endocervical swabs; 102 were positive (4.3%). Age prevalence showed that pregnant adolescents (15 to 19 years of age) had the highest risk of infection (10.9%, RR = 3.23 [95% IC: 1.79-5.84]), followed by young women aged 20 to 24 years, with a prevalence of 5.6% (RR = 1.65 [95% IC: 0.82-3.34]). Discussion: The results indicate that the prevalence is within the range reported worldwide. However, pregnant adolescents were those with a higher prevalence than infertile women were. Conclusion: A systematic screening of C. trachomatis infection in women younger than 24 years of age, and in pregnant women is necessary to reduce the incidence of infertility and perinatal complications.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Adolescent , Adult , Young Adult , Chlamydia Infections/epidemiology , Genital Diseases, Female/epidemiology , Perinatology , Chlamydia Infections/diagnosis , Chlamydia Infections/microbiology , Chlamydia trachomatis/isolation & purification , Prevalence , Prospective Studies , Age Factors , Academies and Institutes , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Genital Diseases, Female/diagnosis , Infertility, Female/etiology , Infertility, Female/microbiology , Mexico/epidemiology
4.
An. bras. dermatol ; 92(6): 779-784, Nov.-Dec. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-887127

ABSTRACT

Abstract: Background: Urethral discharge syndrome (UDS) is characterized by the presence of purulent or mucopurulent urethral discharge.The main etiological agents of this syndrome are Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Chlamydia trachomatis. Objectives: To evaluate the effectiveness of the syndromic management to resolve symptoms in male urethral discharge syndrome cases in Manaus, Amazonas, Brazil. Methods: Retrospective cohort of male cases of urethral discharge syndrome observed at a clinic for sexually transmitted disease (STD) in 2013. Epidemiological and clinical data, as well as the results of urethral swabs, bacterioscopy, hybrid capture for C.trachomatis, wet-mount examination, and culture for N.gonorrhoeae, were obtained through medical chart reviews. Results: Of the 800 urethral discharge syndrome cases observed at the STD clinic, 785 (98.1%) presented only urethral discharge syndrome, 633 (79.1%) returned for follow-up, 579 (91.5%) were considered clinically cured on the first visit, 41(6.5 %) were considered cured on the second visit, and 13(2.0%) did not reach clinical cure after two appointments. Regarding the etiological diagnosis, 42.7% of the patients presented a microbiological diagnosis of N.gonorrhoeae, 39.3% of non-gonococcal and non-chlamydia urethritis, 10.7% of C.trachomatis and 7.3% of co-infection with chlamydia and gonococcus. The odds of being considered cured in the first visit were greater in those who were unmarried, with greater schooling, and with an etiological diagnosis of gonorrhea. The diagnosis of non-gonococcal urethritis reduced the chance of cure in the first visit. Study limitation: A study conducted at a single center of STD treatment. Conclusion: Syndromic management of male urethral discharge syndrome performed in accordance with the Brazilian Ministry of Health STD guidelines was effective in resolving symptoms in the studied population. More studies with microbiological outcomes are needed to ensure the maintenance of the syndromic management.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Young Adult , Urethral Diseases/microbiology , Urethral Diseases/drug therapy , Chlamydia Infections/complications , Gonorrhea/complications , Disease Management , Socioeconomic Factors , Suppuration , Syndrome , Brazil , Chlamydia Infections/drug therapy , Gonorrhea/drug therapy , Chlamydia trachomatis/isolation & purification , Multivariate Analysis , Retrospective Studies , Treatment Outcome , Neisseria gonorrhoeae/isolation & purification
5.
Braz. j. infect. dis ; 20(6): 569-575, Nov.-Dec. 2016. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-828154

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Background: Infections caused by Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae are the most common bacterial sexually transmitted infections throughout the world. These sexually transmitted infections are a growing problem in people living with HIV/AIDS. However, the presence of these agents in extra genital sites, remains poorly studied in our country. The objective of this study was to estimate the prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae anal and genital infection in people living with HIV/AIDS followed in a reference center in Salvador, Brazil. Methods: Cross-sectional study, from June 2013 to June 2015. Proven HIV-infected people attending this reference center were invited. Clinical and epidemiological data were obtained through interview with standardized form. Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae screening was performed using qPCR (COBAS 4800® Roche). Results: The frequency of positive cases of Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae was 12.3% in total, 9.2% cases amongst women and 17.1% amongst men. We found 14.0% of positive cases in anus and 3.1% in genital region in men, while 5.6% and 3.6%, in women, respectively. Among men, anal infection was associated with age <29 years (p = 0.033), report of anal intercourse (p = 0.029), pain during anal intercourse (p = 0.028). On the other hand, no association between genital infection and other variables were detected in bivariate analysis. Among women, we detected an association between Chlamydia trachomatis genital infection and age <29 years (p < 0.001), younger age at first sexual intercourse (p = 0.048), pregnancy (p < 0.001), viral load >50 copies/mL (p = 0.020), and no antiretroviral use (p = 0.008). Anal infection in women was associated with age <29 years old (p < 0.001) and pregnancy (p = 0.023), and was not associated with report of anal intercourse (p = 0.485). Conclusion: Missed opportunities for diagnosis in extra genital sites could impact on HIV transmission. The extra genital sites need to be considered to break the HIV and bacterial sexually transmitted infections chain-of-transmission.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Pregnancy , Adult , Rectum/microbiology , Chlamydia Infections/epidemiology , Gonorrhea/epidemiology , AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections/epidemiology , Genitalia, Female/microbiology , Socioeconomic Factors , Brazil/epidemiology , Chlamydia Infections/diagnosis , Gonorrhea/diagnosis , Chlamydia trachomatis/isolation & purification , Prevalence , Cross-Sectional Studies , AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections/diagnosis , AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections/microbiology , Neisseria gonorrhoeae/isolation & purification
6.
Rev. chil. infectol ; 33(6): 619-627, dic. 2016. ilus, graf, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-844415

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Chlamydia trachomatis infection constitutes the most common sexual transmitted disease (STD) among young women. International studies demonstrate that prevalence changes over time and also according to places. Aims: To estimate the prevalence of this infection among asymptomatic Chilean women (15 to 24 years old) and correlating with risk factor occurrence. Methods: Transversal cohort study to identify C. trachomatis infection through a diagnostic kit designed to detect and amplify cryptic plasmid DNA by quantitative PCR from endocervical sample. Results: 181 women were screened during the period of study. The overall prevalence estimate was 5.5% and founding significant estimate variations (0% to 14.6%) between recruiting centers. There was difference in number of sexual partners (4.1 vs 2.5; p<0.05) between positive and negative women. No difference was observed in age of first coitus, STD history, the use of barrier method or socioeconomic level. However, the probability of being carrier increases as greater is the number of sexual partners, especially when the use of barrier method is low. The latest is not related to the socioeconomic level. Conclusions: One of 12 to 18 women at this age range will have asymptomatic infection. The current prevalence and its variability substantiates the C. trachomatis screening and periodic surveillance.


Introducción: La infección por Chlamydia trachomatis constituye la infección de transmisión sexual (ITS) más común en población femenina joven. Estudios internacionales demuestran que su prevalencia cambia con el tiempo y en diferentes lugares. Objetivos: Estimar la prevalencia de esta infección en mujeres jóvenes chilenas (15 a 24 años), asintomáticas, y correlacionarla con factores de riesgo. Métodos: Estudio de corte transversal para detección de C. trachomatis mediante kit diagnóstico basado en amplificación de ADN plasmidial críptico y uso de RPC cuantitativa en secreción endocervical. Resultados: En el período de estudio fueron tamizadas 181 mujeres. La prevalencia global fue 5,5%, observándose variaciones significativas (0% hasta 14,6%) entre centros. Hubo diferencia en el número de parejas (4,1 vs 2,5; p = 0,04) entre infectadas o no. No hubo diferencia en edad de inicio de actividad sexual, historia de ITS, uso de preservativo o nivel socio-económico. Sin embargo, el riesgo de infección asintomática aumenta a mayor número de parejas sexuales y cuando el uso de método de barrera es infrecuente durante el coito, independiente del nivel socio-económico. Conclusiones: Una de cada 12 a 18 mujeres a esta edad presenta infección asintomática de C. trachomatis. La prevalencia actual y su variabilidad justifican el tamizaje y la vigilancia periódica de C. trachomatis.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Young Adult , Sexual Behavior/statistics & numerical data , Chlamydia Infections/epidemiology , Chlamydia trachomatis/isolation & purification , Asymptomatic Infections/epidemiology , Chlamydia Infections/diagnosis , Chile/epidemiology , Mass Screening , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Prevalence , Risk Factors , Cohort Studies
7.
Cad. Saúde Pública (Online) ; 32(10): e00101015, Oct. 2016. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-797013

ABSTRACT

Abstract: Screening for Chlamydia trachomatis is not routinely offered to young asymptomatic women in Brazil. This study evaluated the performance, usefulness, and operational suitability of the Digene Hybrid Capture II (HCII) CT-ID DNA-test as an opportunistic screening tool to detect C. trachomatis in the public health system in Manaus, Amazonas State. Women aged 14-25 years who attended primary health care services were interviewed and one cervical specimen was collected during cytological screening. The HCII CT test was evaluated for its ability to detect the presence of C. trachomatis and against real-time PCR (q-PCR) in a subset of samples. Operational performance was assessed through interviews with providers and patients. Overall, 1,187 women were screened, and 1,169 had a HCII CT-ID test result (292 of these were also tested by q-PCR). Of those, 13.1% (n = 153) were positive. The sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values of HCII CT were 72.3% (95%CI: 65.4-78.6), 91.3% (95%CI: 84.1-95.9), 93.8% (95%CI: 88.5-97.1), and 64.4% (95%CI: 56.0-72.1), respectively. Sample collection caused discomfort in 19.7% of women. Among health professionals (n = 52), the main barriers reported included positive cases who did not return for results (56.4%), unwillingness to screen without an appointment (45.1%), and increase in their workload (38.8%). HCII CT-ID identified a high proportion of C. trachomatis cases among young women in Manaus. However, its moderate sensitivity limits its use as an opportunistic screening tool in primary health care settings in Manaus. Screening was well accepted although the barriers we identified, especially among health professionals, challenge screening detection and treatment efforts.


Resumo: O rastreamento de Chlamydia trachomatis não é feito de rotina em mulheres jovens assintomáticas no Brasil. O estudo avaliou o desempenho, utilidade e adequação operacional do teste de DNA Digene Hybrid Capture II (HCII) CT-ID como ferramenta de rastreamento oportunista para detectar C. trachomatis no sistema público de saúde em Manaus, Amazonas. Mulheres entre 14 e 25 anos de idade que frequentavam serviços de atenção básica foram entrevistadas, com a coleta de uma amostra cervicouterina durante o rastreamento citológico. O teste HCII CT foi avaliado em relação à capacidade de detectar a presença de C. trachomatis, e comparado à PCR em tempo real (q-PCR) em um sub-conjunto de amostras. O desempenho operacional foi avaliado através de entrevistas com profissionais e pacientes. Foram examinadas 1.187 mulheres, das quais 1.169 tiveram um resultado de teste HCII CT-ID (destas, 292 foram testadas também com q-PCR). Um total de 153 mulheres (13,1%) testaram positivas para C. trachomatis. A sensibilidade, especificidade e valores preditivos positivo e negativo do HCII CT foram 72,3% (IC95%: 65,4-78,6), 91,3% (IC95%: 84,1-95,9), 93,8% (IC95%: 88,5-97,1) e 64,4% (IC95%: 56,0-72,1), respectivamente. A coleta de amostras provocou desconforto em 19,7% das mulheres. As principais barreiras relatadas pelos profissionais de saúde (n = 52) eram casos positivos que não retornavam para os resultados (56,4%), falta de disponibilidade de realizar o rastreamento sem consulta agendada (45,1%) e aumento da carga de trabalho (38,8%). O HCII CT-ID identificou alta prevalência de C. trachomatis em mulheres jovens de Manaus. Entretanto, a sensibilidade moderada limita o uso como ferramenta de rastreamento oportunista em serviços de atenção básica naquela cidade. O rastreamento era bem-recebido, mas as barreiras identificadas, principalmente entre profissionais de saúde, limitam a detecção através do rastreamento e as iniciativas de tratamento.


Resumen: Los exámenes de control de Chlamydia trachomatis no se ofrecen habitualmente a las mujeres jóvenes asintomáticas en Brasil. Este estudio evaluó los resultados, utilidad e idoneidad operativa del test Digene Hybrid Capture II (HCII) CT-ID DNA como una herramienta de examen apropiada para detectar la C. trachomatis en el sistema de salud público de Manaus, Amazonas. Las mujeres con una edad comprendida entre los 14-25 años que asistieron a un centro de atención primaria fueron entrevistadas, y se recogió una muestra cervical durante el examen citológico. Se evaluó el test HCII CT, debido a su habilidad para detectar la presencia de C. trachomatis, frente al realtime PCR (q-PCR) en un subconjunto de muestras. El resultado operativo fue evaluado mediante entrevistas con proveedores y pacientes. Globalmente, se examinaron a 1.187 mujeres, y 1.169 de ellas contaban con los resultados de la prueba HCII CT-ID (a 292 de las cuales también se les aplicó el test q-PCR). Entre ellas, un 13,1% (n = 153) eran positivo. La sensibilidad, especificidad, los valores predictivos positivos y negativos del HCII CT fueron 72,3% (IC95%: 65,4-78,6), 91,3% (IC95%: 84,1-95,9), 93,8% (IC95%: 88,5-97,1), y 64,4% (IC95%: 56,0-72,1), respectivamente. La toma de muestras resultó incómoda en un 19,7% de las mujeres. Entre los profesionales de la salud (n = 52), las barreras principales informadas incluyeron casos positivos que no volvieron a recoger los resultados (56,4%), reticencia a realizarse el examen sin cita previa (45,1%), e incremento en su carga laboral (38,8%). El HCII CT-ID identificó un alto porcentaje de casos de C. trachomatis entre mujeres jóvenes en Manaus. No obstante, su moderada sensibilidad limita su uso como una herramienta idónea en los centros de atención primaria en Manaus. El examen fue bien aceptado, pese a que identificamos obstáculos, especialmente entre los profesionales de salud, lo que supone un desafío para la detección de la enfermedad que requiere esfuerzos para su tratamiento.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Young Adult , Chlamydia Infections/diagnosis , Chlamydia trachomatis/isolation & purification , Primary Health Care , Vaginal Smears , Brazil , Chlamydia trachomatis/genetics , Mass Screening/standards , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Sensitivity and Specificity
8.
Rev. chil. infectol ; 33(5): 505-512, oct. 2016. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-844400

ABSTRACT

Background: Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) affect sexual and reproductive health of millions of men. Pathogens such as human papillomavirus (HPV), herpes simplex virus type 1 and 2 (HSV-1 y HSV-2), Chlamydia trachomatis,Mycoplasmagenitalium,Mycoplasma hominis and Ureaplasma urealyticum are associated with STIs. Aim: To detect pathogens associated with STIs in symptomatic men and its relationship with sexual behavior. Methodology: DNA was obtained from exfoliated cells of penis from 20 symptomatic men. Pathogens were detected using qPCR or PCR followed by reverse line blot. Sexual behavior was evaluated through a survey. Results: Two or more infectious agents were detected in 50% of samples. U. urealyticum was found in 25%, meanwhile C. trachomatis and M. hominis were detected in 15%. VHS-1, VHS-2 andM. genitalium were detected only in 5%. HPV was found in all samples. The most frequent HPV genotypes were VPH 16, 11, 70. There were no statistical link found between sexual behavior and the studied microorganisms Conclusion: Infectious agents associated with STIs were detected in symptomatic men. HPV was the most frequent pathogen and it was detected in multiple genotypes. It is necessary to increase the sample size to associate significantly the sexual behavior with the results.


Introducción: Las infecciones de transmisión sexual (ITS) afectan la salud sexual y reproductiva de millones de hombres. Patógenos como virus papiloma humano (VPH), virus herpes simplex (VHS-1 y VHS-2), Chlamydia trachomatis, Mycoplasma genitalium, Mycoplasma hominis y Ureaplasma urealyticum están asociados a ITS. Objetivo: Detectar patógenos asociados a ITS en hombres sintomáticos y relacionarlos con su conducta sexual. Metodología: Se obtuvo ADN de exfoliado celular del pene de 20 hombres sintomáticos de ITS. Los patógenos fueron detectados por RPC cuantitativa o RPC seguida de reverse line blot. La conducta sexual se evaluó mediante una encuesta. Resultados: En 50% de las muestras se detectaron dos o más agentes infecciosos; U. urealyticum fue detectado en 25% de los casos, mientras que C. trachomatis y M. hominis en 15%. VHS-1, VHS-2 y M. genitalium sólo en 5%. VPH se encontró en todas las muestras y los genotipos más frecuentes fueron VPH 16, 11, 70. No se encontró relación estadística entre los microorganismos estudiados y la conducta sexual de los encuestados. Conclusión: Se detectaron agentes infecciosos asociados a ITS en hombres sintomáticos, siendo VPH el más frecuente y encontrándose en múltiples genotipos. Es necesario aumentar el tamaño de muestra para asociar significativamente la conducta sexual a los resultados.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Young Adult , Sexual Behavior/statistics & numerical data , Ureaplasma/genetics , Sexually Transmitted Diseases/microbiology , Sexually Transmitted Diseases/virology , Chlamydia trachomatis/genetics , Herpes Simplex/genetics , Mycoplasma/genetics , Ureaplasma/isolation & purification , Chlamydia trachomatis/isolation & purification , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Mycoplasma/isolation & purification
9.
Rev. bras. oftalmol ; 75(3): 181-184, tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-787701

ABSTRACT

RESUMO O tracoma, tido equivocadamente como erradicado em nosso meio, encontra-se na lista de doenças negligenciadas. Trata-se da maior causa de cegueira evitável do mundo, sendo encontrado predominantemente nos países subdesenvolvidos. Diversos trabalhos têm demonstrado que esta doença atualmente se faz presente em todas as regiões do Brasil, o que evidencia que tanto o governo (nas esferas federal, estadual e municipal), quanto a academia devem continuar a considerar o tracoma entre as causas de cegueira em nosso meio. Neste trabalho, procurou-se levantar a prevalência de tracoma entre as crianças de sete a quinze anos matriculadas nas escolas da rede pública do município de Turmalina, MG. A pesquisa foi realizada neste município, situado no Vale do Jequitinhonha, considerando que existem nele regiões com populações em situação de alta vulnerabilidade social, portanto com características propícias para o surgimento da doença. Participaram da pesquisa seis médicos e onze enfermeiros com atuação na atenção primária, capacitados e padronizados para tal. Os profissionais de saúde realizaram o exame de 635 estudantes entre 7 a 15 anos nas escolas públicas de Turmalina, MG. Os estudantes com diagnóstico clínico de tracoma foram submetidos à raspagem de conjuntiva com swab e o material enviado para análise laboratorial. Todos os estudantes diagnosticados com tracoma foram tratados no Sistema Único de Saúde (SUS). Os dados coletados foram analisados com auxílio do software Statistical Package for Social Sciences, IBM Inc., USA - SPSS, versão 22.0. Entre os estudantes foi encontrada uma prevalência do tracoma de 4,7%, com predomínio nas áreas rurais.


ABSTRACT Trachoma has been mistakenly assumed as having been eradicated, but is on the list of neglected diseases. It is the leading cause of preventable blindness in the world, being found predominantly in developing countries. Several studies have shown that this disease is currently present in all regions of Brazil, which shows that both the government (at the federal, state and municipal levels) and academia must continue to treat trachoma as one of the causes of blindness. In this study, we sought to identify the prevalence of trachoma among schoolchildren aged between seven and 15 years from public schools in the municipality of Turmalina, Minas Gerais state. The survey was conducted in this municipality, located in the Jequitinhonha Valley, a region that contains populations who live in situations of high social vulnerability, and thus display the characteristics that are conducive to the emergence of the disease. The participants were six doctors and 11 nurses working in primary healthcare, trained and standardized to do so. Health professionals examined 635 students aged 7-15 years in the public schools of Turmalina. Students with a clinical diagnosis of trachoma underwent conjunctiva scraping with a swab and the material was sent for laboratory analysis. All school children diagnosed with trachoma were treated at the Unified Health System (SUS). The collected data were analyzed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences software, IBM Inc., USA - SPSS, version 22.0. Among the students, a 4.7% prevalence rate of trachoma was found, predominantly in rural areas.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Adolescent , Students/statistics & numerical data , Chlamydia trachomatis/isolation & purification , Trachoma/epidemiology , Trachoma/classification , Trachoma/diagnosis , Trachoma/microbiology , Blindness/prevention & control , Prevalence , Cross-Sectional Studies , Fluorescent Antibody Technique, Direct , Education, Primary and Secondary
10.
Rev. chil. infectol ; 33(3): 287-292, jun. 2016. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-791021

ABSTRACT

Introducción: El virus papiloma humano (VPH) y Chlamydia trachomatis son las infecciones de transmisión sexual (ITS) más frecuentes, en adolescentes y jóvenes, con factores de riesgo: vida sexual activa y múltiples parejas. Chlamydia trachomatis puede favorecer el ingreso de VPH y éste el desarrollo del cáncer cérvico uterino. Ambas infecciones pueden dejar secuelas en la salud sexual y reproductiva. Objetivo: Determinar frecuencias VPH y C trachomatis en estudiantes universitarias asinto-máticas bajo 25 años, asociándolas con número de parejas sexuales (n°PSx) y tiempo de actividad sexual (TASx). Material y Método: Se procesaron 151 muestras/exo y endo cervicales para VPH y C. trachomatis, mediante reacción de polimerasa en cadena convencional y en tiempo real. Resultados: La frecuencia fue: VPH 21,8%, C. trachomatis 11,2% y co-infección 4,6%. De las jóvenes con infección por VPH, 80,6% presentó VPH alto riesgo oncogénico. El n°PSx se asoció fuertemente a VPH. Entre las jóvenes con co-infección VPH/C. trachomatis, 71,4% tenían tres o más PSx. Según TASx, C. trachomatis fue más frecuente (64,7%) entre 3-5 años que VPH. Conclusión: Se observó alta prevalencia de VPH y C trachomatis. Mujeres jóvenes con co-infección VPH/C. trachomatis podrían ser un grupo de alto riesgo con necesidad de mo-nitorear sus infecciones. Es sugerida la implementación de programas universitarios en educación, orientación y prevención en ITS.


Background: Human papilloma virus (HPV) and Chlamydia trachomatis are the most prevalent sexually transmitted infections (STIs), among teenagers and young people, with risk factors: active sex life and multiple partners. Chlamydia trachomatis infection may favor HPV infection and this, the development of cervical cancer. Both infections can lead to consequences on sexual and reproductive health. Objective: To determine frequency of HPV and C. trachomatis in asymptomatic university women less than 25 years, associating them with number of sexual partners (n°SxP) and time of sexual activity (TSxA). Material andMethods: 151 cervical samples for HPV and C. trachomatis, were processed by conventional and in real time reaction polymerase chain. Results: HPV 21, 8%, C. trachomatis 11, 2% and co-infection (HPV/C.trachomatis), 4.6%. Aimong HPV +, 80, 6% showed high risk HPV. The n°SxP was strongly associated with HPV. Aimong young coinfected HPV/C. trachomatis, 71.4% had 3 or more PSx. Chlamydia trachomatis was more frequent (64,7%) that HPV within range of 3-5 years according to the TSxA, Discussion: A high prevalence of HPV and C. trachomatis was observed. Young women with coinfection HPV/C. trachomatis could be a high-risk group need to monitor their infections. It suggests the implementation of university programs in education, counseling and prevention in sexual health.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Young Adult , Papillomaviridae/isolation & purification , Students/statistics & numerical data , Sexual Partners , Chlamydia Infections/epidemiology , Chlamydia trachomatis/isolation & purification , Papillomavirus Infections/epidemiology , Sexual Behavior/statistics & numerical data , Universities , DNA, Viral , Cervix Uteri/virology , Chile/epidemiology , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Risk Factors
11.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 111(2): 106-113, Feb. 2016. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-772612

ABSTRACT

The influence of different infectious agents and their association with human papillomavirus (HPV) in cervical carcinogenesis have not been completely elucidated. This study describes the association between cytological changes in cervical epithelium and the detection of the most relevant aetiological agents of sexually transmitted diseases. Samples collected from 169 patients were evaluated by conventional cytology followed by molecular analysis to detect HPV DNA, Chlamydia trachomatis, herpes simplex virus 1 and 2,Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Mycoplasma genitalium, Trichomonas vaginalis, andTreponema pallidum, besides genotyping for most common high-risk HPV. An association between cytological lesions and different behavioural habits such as smoking and sedentariness was observed. Intraepithelial lesions were also associated with HPV and C. trachomatis detection. An association was also found between both simple and multiple genotype infection and cytological changes. The investigation of HPV and C. trachomatisproved its importance and may be considered in the future for including in screening programs, since these factors are linked to the early diagnosis of patients with precursor lesions of cervical cancer.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adult , Female , Humans , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Cervix Uteri/microbiology , Chlamydia trachomatis/isolation & purification , DNA, Viral/isolation & purification , Papillomaviridae/isolation & purification , Squamous Intraepithelial Lesions of the Cervix/microbiology , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/prevention & control , Carcinogenesis , Coinfection , Cross-Sectional Studies , Cytopathogenic Effect, Viral , Cervix Uteri/pathology , Chlamydia Infections/complications , Chlamydia Infections/epidemiology , Early Detection of Cancer/methods , Epithelium/virology , Genotype , Genotyping Techniques , Herpesvirus 1, Human/isolation & purification , /isolation & purification , Molecular Typing , Mycoplasma genitalium/isolation & purification , Neisseria gonorrhoeae/isolation & purification , Papillomaviridae/classification , Papillomavirus Infections/complications , Papillomavirus Infections/epidemiology , Risk Factors , Treponema pallidum/isolation & purification , Trichomonas vaginalis/isolation & purification , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/microbiology
12.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 49(10): e5303, 2016. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-792526

ABSTRACT

The shipment and storage conditions of clinical samples pose a major challenge to the detection accuracy of Chlamydia trachomatis (CT), Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG), and Ureaplasma urealyticum (UU) when using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). The aim of the present study was to explore the influence of storage time at 4°C on the DNA of these pathogens and its effect on their detection by qRT-PCR. CT, NG, and UU positive genital swabs from 70 patients were collected, and DNA of all samples were extracted and divided into eight aliquots. One aliquot was immediately analyzed with qRT-PCR to assess the initial pathogen load, whereas the remaining samples were stored at 4°C and analyzed after 1, 2, 3, 7, 14, 21, and 28 days. No significant differences in CT, NG, and UU DNA loads were observed between baseline (day 0) and the subsequent time points (days 1, 2, 3, 7, 14, 21, and 28) in any of the 70 samples. Although a slight increase in DNA levels was observed at day 28 compared to day 0, paired sample t-test results revealed no significant differences between the mean DNA levels at different time points following storage at 4°C (all P>0.05). Overall, the CT, UU, and NG DNA loads from all genital swab samples were stable at 4°C over a 28-day period.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Chlamydia trachomatis/genetics , DNA, Bacterial/isolation & purification , Neisseria gonorrhoeae/genetics , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods , Specimen Handling , Ureaplasma urealyticum/genetics , Bacterial Load , Chlamydia trachomatis/isolation & purification , Genitalia/microbiology , Neisseria gonorrhoeae/isolation & purification , Reference Values , Time Factors , Ureaplasma urealyticum/isolation & purification
13.
Rev. panam. salud pública ; 38(1): 86-86, jul. 2015.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-761801

Subject(s)
Adult , Female , Humans , Male , Arginase/metabolism , Arthritis, Reactive/microbiology , Arthritis, Reactive/virology , Leukocytes, Mononuclear/microbiology , Leukocytes, Mononuclear/virology , Nitric Oxide Synthase Type III/metabolism , Nitric Oxide/metabolism , Arthritis, Reactive/complications , Arthritis, Reactive/immunology , Bacterial Infections/complications , Bacterial Infections/immunology , Bacterial Infections/microbiology , Case-Control Studies , Chlamydia trachomatis/classification , Chlamydia trachomatis/isolation & purification , Female Urogenital Diseases/complications , Female Urogenital Diseases/immunology , Female Urogenital Diseases/microbiology , Female Urogenital Diseases/virology , Gastrointestinal Diseases/complications , Gastrointestinal Diseases/immunology , Gastrointestinal Diseases/microbiology , Gastrointestinal Diseases/virology , Hepacivirus/classification , Hepacivirus/isolation & purification , Hepatitis B virus/classification , Hepatitis B virus/isolation & purification , Hepatitis/complications , Hepatitis/immunology , Hepatitis/virology , Leukocytes, Mononuclear/immunology , Male Urogenital Diseases/complications , Male Urogenital Diseases/immunology , Male Urogenital Diseases/microbiology , Male Urogenital Diseases/virology , Nasopharyngeal Diseases/complications , Nasopharyngeal Diseases/immunology , Nasopharyngeal Diseases/microbiology , Nasopharyngeal Diseases/virology , Primary Cell Culture , Streptococcus pyogenes/classification , Streptococcus pyogenes/isolation & purification
14.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 48(2): 170-174, mar-apr/2015. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-746230

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Chlamydia infection is associated with debilitating human diseases including trachoma, pneumonia, coronary heart disease and urogenital diseases. Serotypes of C. trachomatis show a fair correlation with the group of diseases they cause, and their distribution follows a well-described geographic pattern. Serotype A, a trachoma-associated strain, is known for its limited dissemination in the Middle East and Northern Africa. However, knowledge on the spread of bacteria from the genus Chlamydia as well as the distribution of serotypes in Brazil is quite limited. METHODS: Blood samples of 1,710 individuals from ten human population groups in the Amazon region of Brazil were examined for antibodies to Chlamydia using indirect immunofluorescence and microimmunofluorescence assays. RESULTS: The prevalence of antibodies to Chlamydia ranged from 23.9% (Wayana-Apalai) to 90.7% (Awa-Guaja) with a mean prevalence of 50.2%. Seroreactivity was detected to C. pneumoniae and to all serotypes of C. trachomatis tested; furthermore, we report clear evidence of the as-yet-undescribed occurrence of serotype A of C. trachomatis. CONCLUSIONS: Specific seroreactivity not only accounts for the large extent of dissemination of C. trachomatis in the Amazon region of Brazil but also shows an expanded area of occurrence of serotype A outside the epidemiological settings previously described. Furthermore, these data suggest possible routes of Chlamydia introduction into the Amazon region from the massive human migration that occurred during the 1,700s. .


Subject(s)
Humans , Chlamydia Infections/epidemiology , Chlamydia trachomatis/genetics , Antibodies, Bacterial/blood , Brazil/epidemiology , Chlamydia Infections/microbiology , Chlamydia Infections/transmission , Chlamydia trachomatis/isolation & purification , Fluorescent Antibody Technique, Indirect , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Prevalence , Serotyping
15.
EJMM-Egyptian Journal of Medical Microbiology [The]. 2015; 24 (2): 35-38
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-171474

ABSTRACT

Is to detect Chlamydia Trachomatis organism in cervical swabs obtained from patients with unexplained infertility [UI] and to compare its incidence in infertile compared to fertile females in reproductive age. The study design was a case control observational study, done in Cairo University Hospitals. One hundred females diagnosed as unexplained infertility and 100 normal fertile females were included in the study for detection of Chlamydia trachomatis by using polymerase chain reaction [PCR] of cervical swab samples. Fifteen females were positive for Chlamydia trachomatis in infertile group while only 2were positive in healthy fertile group with p value of 0.002. The Incidence of Chlamydia trachomatis in cervical swabs was significantly higher in unexplained infertile females compared with the control group


Subject(s)
Adult , Female , Humans , Chlamydia trachomatis/isolation & purification , Case-Control Studies , Polymerase Chain Reaction
17.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-7387

ABSTRACT

Trichomonas vaginalis, a causative agent of trichomoniasis, may trigger symptomatic or asymptomatic nongonococcal urethritis and chronic prostatitis in men. Despite the availability of highly sensitive diagnostic tests, such as nucleic acid amplification tests, including PCR, few prospective studies present data on male T. vaginalis infection in South Korea. In the present study, the prevalence of T. vaginalis and associated clinical conditions were evaluated in 201 male patients from a primary care urology clinic in South Korea. The prevalence of T. vaginalis infection in our cohort was 4% (8/201) by PCR. T. vaginalis infection was common in men older than 40 years (median age, 52 years). Among the 8 Trichomonas-positive patients, 87.5% (7/8) had prostatic diseases, such as prostatitis and benign prostatic hyperplasia, and 25.0% (2/8) and 12.5% (1/8) were coinfected with Chlamydia trachomatis and Mycoplasma genitalium, respectively. Our results suggest that T. vaginalis infection is not rare in men attending primary care urology clinics in South Korea, especially in those older than 40 years, in whom it may explain the presence of prostatic disease. The possibility of T. vaginalis infection should be routinely considered in older male patients with prostatic diseases in South Korea.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Child , Chlamydia Infections/parasitology , Chlamydia trachomatis/isolation & purification , Coinfection , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Mycoplasma Infections/parasitology , Mycoplasma genitalium/isolation & purification , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Prostatitis/epidemiology , Republic of Korea/epidemiology , Trichomonas Infections/diagnosis , Trichomonas vaginalis/isolation & purification , Young Adult
18.
Rev. chil. infectol ; 30(6): 611-615, dic. 2013. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-701708

ABSTRACT

Background: Chlamydia trachomatis infection is the most commonly reported sexually transmitted bacterial infection worldwide. Between 70 and 90% of women are asymptomatic, however, untreated and persistent infections can lead to the development of urethritis, pelvic inflammatory disease, infertility and ectopic pregnancy. Aims: To determine C. trachomatis infection frequency in a group of women in Chile, using quantitative real time PCR (qPCR) and to compare the usefulness of endocervical and urine samples for C. trachomatis detection. Methods: 87 asymptomatic women aged 15-64 years were included. Every woman donated one endocervical sample and one urine sample. Detection and quantification of C. trachomatis was performed by qPCR. Results: Of 87 endocervical samples, the frequency was 11.49% (n = 10). Of these samples, 5 cases were found in women < 35 years old. About urine samples, 16 samples were positive (18.39%). Ten women < 35 years old yielded positive urine samples. Only four women had both samples positive for C. trachomatis (4.6%). There was no statistically significant relationship between age and C. trachomatis infection. Cryptic plasmid quantification was found between 3.55 - 96.050 copies/μL for endocervical samples and 7.22-633.1 copies/μL for urine samples. Conclusion: Estimated frequency of C. trachomatis in Chilean women was higher than previous Chilean studies. Both types of samples are complementary for screening and diagnosis strategies using sensitive techniques, because silent infection can be present in either urinary or genital tract or in both in women.


Introducción: La infección por Chlamydia trachomatis es la infección bacteriana de transmisión sexual más frecuente en el mundo. Entre 70 y 90% de las mujeres son asintomáticas; sin embargo, las infecciones sin tratar y persistentes permiten el desarrollo de uretritis, enfermedad inflamatoria pélvica, infertilidad y embarazo ectópico. Objetivos: Determinar la frecuencia de infección por C. trachomatis en un grupo de mujeres chilenas, mediante RPC en tiempo real cuantitativa (qPCR) y comparar la utilidad de muestras endo-cervicales y de orina para la detección de C. trachomatis. Metodología: Participaron 87 mujeres asintomáticas (15-64 años). Cada mujer donó una muestra endo-cervical y una de orina. Se realizó detección y cuantificación C. trachomatis mediante qPCR. Resultados: La frecuencia de infección por C. trachomatis en muestras endo-cervicales fue de 11,49% (n: 10) y en muestras de orina de 18,39% (n: 16). El mayor número de casos se encontró en mujeres < 35 años. Sólo en cuatro mujeres se detectó C. trachomatis en ambas muestras (4,6%). La cuantificación de plásmido críptico se encontró en un rango 3,55 - 96.050 copias/μL. Conclusión: La frecuencia estimada de C. trachomatis fue más alta que en otros estudios chilenos. Ambos tipos de muestra deberían ser complementarias para estrategias de tamizaje y diagnóstico de C. trachomatis usando técnicas sensibles de detección, ya que la infección puede desarrollarse en el tracto genital y/o en el tracto urinario en mujeres.


Subject(s)
Adult , Female , Humans , Pregnancy , Chlamydia Infections/epidemiology , Chlamydia trachomatis/isolation & purification , Age Factors , Chile/epidemiology , Chlamydia Infections/diagnosis , Chlamydia trachomatis/genetics , DNA, Bacterial/analysis , Prevalence , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction
19.
Braz. j. infect. dis ; 17(5): 545-550, Sept.-Oct. 2013. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-689879

ABSTRACT

There are limited data regarding prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis infection among northern Brazilian pregnant women. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to estimate the prevalence of chlamydial infection among pregnant women in their third trimester and to determine the repercussion of this infection on their offspring. METHODS: In the first phase of this study 100 pregnant women receiving prenatal care in a local public university hospital were examined to assess the prevalence of genital C. trachomatis infection by polymerase chain reaction technique. In the second phase, 88 pregnant women were prospectively evaluated for premature rupture of membranes, puerperal consequences associated with chlamydial infection, and neonates were checked for low-birth weight. RESULTS: The prevalence rate of chlamydial infection was 11%, and 72.7% of the positive participants were predominantly less than 30 years of age (p = 0.1319). A total of 36.4% of the participants had premature rupture of membranes (p = 0.9998). Neither low-birth weight infants nor preterm delivery were observed. A cohort of 16 newborn babies were followedup up to 60 days of life to ascertain outcome: 50% had respiratory symptoms. Neonates born to infected mothers had a higher risk to develop respiratory symptoms in the first 60 days of life. CONCLUSION: The scarcity of data about the effects of chlamydial infection on pregnancy and neonatal outcomes justified this study. Diagnosing and treating chlamydial infection during the third trimester of pregnancy may prevent neonate infection. Therefore, preventive screening should be seen as a priority for early detection of asymptomatic C. trachomatis infection as part of local public health strategies.


Subject(s)
Adult , Female , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Pregnancy , Chlamydia Infections/epidemiology , Chlamydia trachomatis/isolation & purification , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/epidemiology , Prenatal Diagnosis/statistics & numerical data , Brazil/epidemiology , Chlamydia Infections/diagnosis , Fetal Membranes, Premature Rupture/microbiology , Infant, Low Birth Weight , Infant, Premature , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Pregnancy Outcome , Prevalence , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/diagnosis
20.
Rev. chil. infectol ; 30(5): 489-493, oct. 2013. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-691153

ABSTRACT

Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae are responsible for 3-10% of sexually transmitted diseases in adolescents. 75% are asymptomatic. International standards recommend annual screening for C. trachomatis in sexually active women under 26 years. Self-collected vaginal swab is one of the less invasive screening methods, it is well accepted by patients and rarely used in our country. Aim: To determine the frequency of C. trachomatis and N. gonorrhoeae by a self-sampling method of vaginal swab and its acceptability in a group of adolescents and young adults. Patients and Methods: Women 18 to 25 years old. Vaginal samples were processed by nucleic acid amplification tests, Gen Probe APTIMA Combo2. Data were collected on sexual behavior and perception of self-sampling by survey. Results: We studied 344 patients with an average age of 21.7 years. Detection of C. trachomatis was positive in 7.9% women and it was not found in any of the patients studied for N. gonorrhoeae. 98% considered self-sampling instructions easy to understand, 87.5% felt comfortable taking the sample. Conclusions: Prevalence of C. trachomatis in the study population was similar to that described in other national and international studies. N. gonorrhoeae was not found in this series, which is consistent with literature reports. The self-sampling technique of vaginal sample was well accepted by the patients. However, they were anxious about the quality of the sample. According to our results, it is important to emphasize the importance of annual detection of these pathogens and that self-sampling technique is a valid alternative.


Chlamydia trachomatis y Neisseria gonorrhoeae son causantes de 3 a 10% de las infecciones de transmisión sexual en adolescentes. Las normas internacionales recomiendan su detección anual en mujeres sexualmente activas menores de 26 años. La adherencia a este tamizaje en mujeres jóvenes está limitada por el temor al examen ginecológico y alto costo del examen. Objetivo: Determinar la frecuencia de detección de C. trachomatis y N. gonorrhoeae por un método de auto-toma de muestra vaginal y su aceptabilidad en un grupo de adolescentes y jóvenes adultas. Pacientes y Método: Se incluyeron mujeres de 18 a 25 años atendidas en Clínica Las Condes y el Servicio de Salud Estudiantil de la Universidad de Chile, que fueron instruidas para autotoma de muestra vaginal. Luego de dar su consentimiento, las muestras fueron estudiadas mediante reacción de polimerasa en cadena para la detección de C. trachomatis y N. gonorrhoeae. Se recopilaron datos sobre conductas sexuales y percepción de la autotoma mediante encuesta. Se determinó la relación entre estos factores y la aceptabilidad del método. Resultados: Se reclutaron 344 mujeres, con una edad promedio de 21,7 años. La detección de C. trachomatis fue de 7,9% y no se encontró muestra positiva para N. gonorrhoeae. El reporte de flujo vaginal por la paciente se asoció a 1,5 veces mayor riesgo de C. trachomatis. El 98% consideró las instrucciones de la autotoma fáciles de entender, 87,5% se sintió cómoda al tomar la muestra. Conclusiones: La prevalencia de C. trachomatis en la población estudiada fue similar a lo descrito en otras series nacionales e internacionales; no se encontró N. gonorrhoeae en esta serie, lo que coincide con lo reportado en el extranjero. La técnica de autotoma de muestra vaginal fue bien aceptada por las pacientes; sin embargo, manifestaron ansiedad acerca de la seguridad de una toma adecuada. De acuerdo a nuestros resultados, es importante insistir en la detección anual de estos patógenos siendo la técnica de autotoma una alternativa válida.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adult , Female , Humans , Young Adult , Chlamydia Infections/diagnosis , Chlamydia trachomatis/isolation & purification , Gonorrhea/diagnosis , Neisseria gonorrhoeae/genetics , Self Care/methods , Specimen Handling/methods , Cross-Sectional Studies , Chile/epidemiology , Chlamydia Infections/epidemiology , Chlamydia trachomatis/genetics , Gonorrhea/epidemiology , Neisseria gonorrhoeae/isolation & purification , Prevalence
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