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Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 2463-2473, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-887812


The hydroponic culture test method was used to study the physiological and biochemical responses of Paulownia fortunei seedlings under Zn stress, Cd stress, and combined Zn and Cd stress as well as changes in the enrichment and transfer characteristics of heavy metals. Under single and combined heavy metal stress, the biomass, plant height, and peroxidase (POD) activity of P. fortunei decreased as the treatment concentration increased. Combined Zn and Cd affected adversely plant height and biomass. As the concentration of Zn increased when applied alone, the chlorophyll content and catalase (CAT) activity of P. fortunei first increased and then decreased, the superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity increased, and the aboveground malondialdehyde (MDA) content first decreased and then increased. As the concentration of Cd increased when applied alone, chlorophyll content and CAT activity increased, and SOD activity and aboveground MDA content first increased and then decreased. Under both Cd and Zn, the physiological response was more complex. Cd in the seedlings of P. fortunei was concentrated in the root. In contrast, Zn was concentrated in the upper part of the ground, and its transfer coefficient was greater than 1.00. Thus, the addition of Zn promotes the transfer of heavy metals to the above-ground portions of plants. Generally, P. fortunei can effectively promote ecological restoration under complex forms of heavy metal pollution.

Cadmium , Chlorophyll , Metals, Heavy , Plant Roots/chemistry , Seedlings , Soil Pollutants , Stress, Physiological , Superoxide Dismutase , Zinc
Biosci. j. (Online) ; 36(6): 2032-2040, 01-11-2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1148051


Nematodes of the genus Meloidogyne spp. are one of the tomato culture's main pathogens. According to their soil infestation level, physiological changes may occur. Consequently, it is extremely important to employ given products to minimize their effect. A feasible option is the salicylic acid, a phytohormone that can induce into resistance due to its ability to increase the production level of some pathogenicity proteins. Therefore, the purpose hereof was to assess the effect of salicylic acid on the physiology of tomato plants subject to different populational densities of Meloidogyne javanica. The design employed was one of randomized blocks, in an incomplete factorial scheme, using the Box Central Compound (BCC) matrix with five nematode populational densities (PD) (0; 5815; 20000; 34184; and 40000 eggs per plant) and five salicylic acid doses (0.0; 0.29; 1.0; 1.71; and 2.0 mM), with four repetitions and two plants per experimental patch. The gas exchanges, fluorescence, and chlorophyll levels were evaluated 45 days after the transplant and soil infestation. The data were submitted for analysis of variance through the F test and, in the significance cases, the polynomial regression analysis was performed. For stomatal conductance, a greater reduction was seen at the PD of 21755 eggs per plant, a fact that might have decreased the liquid assimilation of CO2 and the efficiency of carboxylation. The salicylic acid (SA) affected the CO2 liquid assimilation and the efficiency of carboxylation. The infestation of M. javanica in tomato plants negatively affected the gas exchange and the chlorophyll levels because the SA application did not mitigate the negative effect thereof.

Os nematoides do gênero Meloidogyne spp. são um dos principais patógenos na cultura do tomate, podendo causar alterações fisiológicas em função do nível de infestação do solo. O uso de produtos que minimize seus efeitos é de suma importância, nesse sentido, o ácido salicílico pode ser uma alternativa viável, visto que, esse fitormônio pode induzir a resistência devido à capacidade de proporcionar um aumento na produção de algumas proteínas de patogenicidade. Com isso, objetivou-se avaliar o efeito do ácido salicílico na fisiologia do tomateiro submetido a diferentes densidades populacionais de Meloidogyne javanica. O delineamento utilizado foi o de blocos casualizados, em esquema fatorial incompleto, utilizando-se a matriz Composto Central de Box (CCB) com cinco densidades populacionais (DP) de nematoides (0; 5815; 20000; 34184 e 40000 ovos por planta) e cinco doses de ácido salicílico (0,0; 0,29; 1,0; 1,71 e 2,0 mM), com quatro repetições e duas plantas por parcela experimental. Foram avaliadas as trocas gasosas, fluorescências e índices de clorofilas aos 45 dias após o transplantio e infestação do solo. Os dados foram submetidos à análise de variância pelo teste F e nos casos de significância foi realizada análise de regressão polinomial. Para a condutância estomática, observou-se uma maior redução na DP de 21755 ovos por planta, fato que pode ter ocasionado reduções na assimilação líquida de CO2 e na eficiência de carboxilação. O ácido salicílico (AS) influenciou na assimilação líquida de CO2 e eficiência de carboxilação. A infestação por M. javanica em plantas de tomateiro influenciou negativamente nas trocas gasosas e nos teores de clorofila, sendo que a aplicação do AS não atenuou os efeitos negativos desses patógenos.

Tylenchoidea , Chlorophyll , Lycopersicon esculentum , Salicylic Acid
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 53(1): e8389, Jan. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1055479


Photodynamic therapy (PDT) promotes cell death, and it has been successfully employed as a treatment resource for neuropathic complications of diabetes mellitus (T1DM) and hepatocellular carcinoma. The liver is the major organ involved in the regulation of energy homeostasis, and in pathological conditions such as T1DM, changes in liver metabolic pathways result in hyperglycemia, which is associated with multiple organic dysfunctions. In this context, it has been suggested that chlorophyll-a and its derivatives have anti-diabetic actions, such as reducing hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia, and hypertriglyceridemia, but these effects have not yet been proven. Thus, the biological action of PDT with chlorophyll-a on hepatic parameters related to energy metabolism and oxidative stress in T1DM Wistar rats was investigated. Evaluation of the acute effects of this pigment was performed by incubation of isolated hepatocytes with chlorophyll-a and the chronic effects were evaluated by oral treatment with chlorophyll-based extract, with post-analysis of the intact liver by in situ perfusion. In both experimental protocols, chlorophyll-a decreased hepatic glucose release and glycogenolysis rate and stimulated the glycolytic pathway in DM/PDT. In addition, there was a reduction in hepatic oxidative stress, noticeable by decreased lipoperoxidation, reactive oxygen species, and carbonylated proteins in livers of chlorophyll-treated T1DM rats. These are indicators of the potential capacity of chlorophyll-a in improving the status of the diabetic liver.

Animals , Male , Rats , Chlorophyll/analogs & derivatives , Photosensitizing Agents/administration & dosage , Oxidative Stress/drug effects , Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental/drug therapy , Glycolysis/drug effects , Liver/physiopathology , Photochemotherapy , Chlorophyll/administration & dosage , Rats, Wistar , Oxidative Stress/physiology , Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental/pathology , Drug Therapy, Combination , Energy Metabolism/drug effects , Glycolysis/physiology , Liver/pathology
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-828379


Magnolia officinalis is a traditional Chinese medicine,with many years of cultivating process, M. officinalis leaves show more differentiation types due to the exchange of seeds from different provenances. "Da Ao"(DA), "Xiao Ao"(XA), "Chuan Hou"(CH),and "Liu Ye"(LY)are the main types of M. officinalis in Sichuan province of China,and there were obvious differences in growth rate,chemical composition,leaf shape and leaf colour. This study selected different types of M. officinalis leaves(DA,XA,LY and CH)from Sichuan to determine their chlorophyll content. Transcriptomic level sequencing of different types of M. officinalis leaf tissues was by high-throughput sequencing analysis and proteomics used an integrated approach involving TMT labelling and LC-MS/MS to quantify the dynamic changes of the whole proteome of M. officinalis. The results showed that CH had the lowest chlorophyll content while DA had the highest chlorophyll content. Furthermore,transcriptome and proteomics results showed that chlorophyll synthesis pathway in DA glutamine-tRNA reductase,urinary porphyrins decarboxylase(UROD),oxygen-dependent protoporphyrin(ODCO),the original-Ⅲ oxidase protoporphyrin oxidase(PPO),magnesium chelating enzyme subunit ChlD,protoporphyrin magnesium Ⅸ monomethyl ester [oxidative] cyclase(MPPMC)were significantly higher than CH,XA and LY,consistent in the results of determination of chlorophyll content(chlorophyll content was highest of 37.56 mg·g~(-1) FW). Some rate-limiting enzymes related to the chlorophyll synthesis,such as ODCO,PPO and MPPMC were tested by Parallel Reaction Monitoring(PRM),and the results showed that the rate-limiting enzyme content in DA was higher than that in other three types. Therefore,based on the differences in leaf color of four types of M. officinalis,the research conducted a preliminary study on the chlorophyll metabolism pathway in leaves of different types of M. officinalis,and explored relevant genes and proteins causing leaf color differences from the molecular level,so as to lay a foundation for studying the differences in growth and development of different types of M. officinalis.

China , Chlorophyll , Chromatography, Liquid , Magnolia , Plant Leaves , Proteome , Tandem Mass Spectrometry , Transcriptome
Biosci. j. (Online) ; 35(3): 691-704, may./jun. 2019. graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1048627


The occurrence of seasonal droughts is one of the main factors that limit the sugarcane ratoon cycles, compromising sugarcane field longevity. The aim of this study was to evaluate the biochemical responses of sugarcane cultivars to drought stress in ratoon crop. Six cultivars were used: RB72910, RB99382, RB72454, RB92579, RB855536 and RB931011, and three water regimes based on soil available water content(SAWC) and defined as: control, 80 to 100% (SAWC); moderate water stress, 40 to 60% (SAWC), and severewater stress, 0 to 20% (SAWC). Cultivar RB72454 was most sensitive to water deficit. When under stress, this cultivar showed an increased production of hydrogen peroxide, but without concomitant increase in the activity of the antioxidant enzymes ascorbate peroxidase, catalase and superoxide dismutase. Oxidative stress led to lipid peroxidation and chlorophyll degradation, resulting in higher photochemical photoinhibition. On the other hand, cultivar RB92579 was the most tolerant to drought, with increased activity of antioxidant enzymes, which led to low lipid peroxidation, maintenance of photosynthetic pigments and photochemical activity. The antioxidant defense system triggered by ascorbate peroxidase, catalase and superoxide dismutase enzymes appears to be a key protection factor to photochemical complexes of chloroplast of sugarcane plants under water stress. The increase in the antioxidant system as well as the maintenance of photosynthetic pigments and cell membranes served as important criteria to indicate cultivars more tolerant to drought stress.

A ocorrência de secas sazonais é um dos principais fatores que limitam a longevidade do canavial. Esse trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar as respostas bioquímicas de cultivares de cana-de-açúcar em seu segundo ciclo de cultivo a condições de estresse hídrico. Para tanto, foram utilizadas seis cultivares: RB72910, RB99382, RB72454, RB92579, RB855536 e RB931011, e três regimes hídricos, baseado na capacidade de água disponível (CAD) e definidos como: controle, 80 a 100% (CAD); estresse hídrico moderado, 40 a 60% (CAD), e estresse hídrico severo, 0 a 20% (CAD). A cultivar RB72454 se mostrou a mais sensível ao déficit hídrico. Essa cultivar mostrou aumento na produção de peróxido de hidrogênio, mas sem aumento concomitante das enzimas antioxidantes ascorbato peroxidase, catalase e superóxido dismutase. Esse estresse oxidativo levou a peroxidação de lipídeos das membranas e degradação das clorofilas, resultando na diminuição da eficiência fotoquímica do PSII. Por outro lado, a cultivar RB92579 foi a mais tolerante à seca, com aumento de atividade das enzimas antioxidantes, que levou a baixa peroxidação de lipídeos, manutenção dos pigmentos fotossintéticos e da eficiência fotoquímica do PSII. O sistema de defesa antioxidante desencadeado pelas enzimas ascorbato peroxidase, catalase e superóxido dismutase parece ser o fator chave de proteção à fotoinibição de plantas de cana-de-açúcar sob estresse hídrico. O aumento do sistema antioxidante, bem como a manutenção dos pigmentos fotossintéticos e das membranas celulares serviram como critérios importantes para indicar cultivares mais tolerantes ao estresse hídrico.

Photosynthesis , Chlorophyll , Photooxidation , Dehydration , Saccharum
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-774581


The study is aimed to investigate the effects of light intensities on growth,photosynthetic physiology,antioxidant systems and chemical composition of Viola yedoensis and provide cultivation references for V.yedoensis.Five groups of V.yedoensis were planted under five light intensities conditions,namely 100%,80%,50%,35%,5%of full sunlight,and then morphological index,growth,chlorophyll fluorescence parameters,photosynthetic parameters and antioxidant enzyme system indexes were measured during harvest.The results showed that there was no significant difference in the biomass of V.yedoensis among 35% -100%full sunlight,but the biomass of those were significantly higher than that in the 5%full sunlight treatment(P<0.05).The net photosynthetic rate,transpiration rate,stomatal conductance,intercellular CO_2 concentration and water use efficiency increased firstly and then decreased with the decrease of light intensity;F_m,F_v/F_mand Yield in 5% full sunlight treatment were significantly lower than those in the other four groups(P<0.05).The structure of chloroplast was normal under light intensity ranged from 50%to 100% full sunlight.The lamellar concentration of chloroplast matrix decreased and the starch granules decreased in 35% full sunlight treatment,and the margin of lamellar layer of chloroplast and substrate were blurred,and the starch granules were small and the number of starch granules decreased significantly under 5% full sunlight.MDA content in 5%full sunlight treatment was significantly higher than those in the other four groups(P<0.05).The total coumarin content and total flavonoid content decreased with the decrease of light intensity.In summary,the light in-tensity range suitable for the growth of V.yedoensis is wide(ranging from 35% to 100% full sunlight).The content of flavonoids and coumarins is positively correlated with light intensity.

Biomass , Chlorophyll , Chloroplasts , Photosynthesis , Plant Leaves , Sunlight , Viola
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-774555


As an important signal molecule, extracellular ATP(eATP) can regulate many physiological and biochemical responses to plant stress. In this study, the regulation of extracellular ATP(eATP) on chlorophyll content and chlorophyll fluorescence parameters of Angelica sinensis seedlings were studied under drought and low temperature stress. The results showed that all the chlorophyll content, the actual photochemical efficiency [Y(Ⅱ)], the electron transfer rate(ETR), the photochemical quenching coefficient(qP and qL) of A. sinensis leaves were significantly decreased under drought and low temperature stress, respectively. At the same time, non-photochemical quenching(NPQ and qN) were also all significantly increased, respectively. The application of eATP alleviated the decrease of chlorophyll content, Y(Ⅱ), ETR, qP and qL of A. sinensis leaves under drought and low temperature stress, and eliminated the increase of qN and NPQ. The results indicated that eATP could effectively increase the open ratio of PSⅡ reaction centers, and improve the electron transfer rate and light energy conversion efficiency of PSⅡ of A. sinensis leaves under drought and low temperature stress. It is beneficial to enhance the chlorophyll synthesis and the adaptability of PSⅡ about A. sinensis seedlings to drought and low temperature stress.

Adenosine Triphosphate , Pharmacology , Angelica sinensis , Chemistry , Physiology , Chlorophyll , Cold Temperature , Droughts , Fluorescence , Photosynthesis , Plant Leaves , Chemistry , Seedlings , Chemistry , Physiology , Stress, Physiological , Water
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-774525


Exogenous calcium can enhance the resistance of certain plants to abiotic stress. However,the role of calcium insaltstressed honeysuckle is unclear. The study is aimed to investigate the effects of exogenous calcium on the biomass,chlorophyll content,gas exchange parameters and chlorophyll fluorescence of honeysuckle under salt stress. The results showed that the calcium-treated honeysuckle had better photochemical properties than the salt-stressed honeysuckle,such as PIABS,PItotal,which represents the overall activity of photosystemⅡ(PSⅡ),and related parameters for characterizing electron transport efficiency φP0,ψE0,φE0,σR,and φR are significantly improved. At the same time,the gas exchange parameters Gs,Ci,Trare also maintained at a high level. In summary,exogenous calcium protects the activity of PSⅡ,promotes the transmission of photosynthetic electrons,and maintains a high Ci,therefore enhances the resistance of honeysuckle under salt stress.

Calcium , Pharmacology , Chlorophyll , Lonicera , Physiology , Photosynthesis , Plant Leaves , Salt Stress
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-771517


The purpose of this experiment was to study the effects of different shading conditions on the growth,physiological characteristics and biomass allocation of Polygonatum cyrtonema,which offered a theoretical basis for its cultivation.Different light environments(100%,80%,60% and 35% light transmittance) were simulated with shading treatments.Growth and photosynthetic indexes of P.cyrtonema were measured and the variances were analyzed.The results show that shading decreased superoxide anion radical(O-·2)production rate and hydrogen peroxide(H_2O_2) accumulation,kept the activity of SOD,POD and CAT enzyme at a high level.Furthermore,The content of chlorophyll a and chlorophyll b,net photosynthetic rate(Pn),stomatal conductance(Gs),transpiration rate(Tr),maximal photochemical efficiency of photosystem Ⅱ(Fv/Fm),photochemical quenching index(q P) and effective quantum yield of photosystem II(ΦPSⅡ) of P.cyrtonema were increased while the intercellular CO2 concentration(Ci),Foand NPQ were decreased by shading.Shading is beneficial to P.cyrtonema growth,can increase the total biomass P.cyrtonema.The allocation proportion of biomass on the aerial portion of P.cyrtonema increased but underground parts decreased with increasing shading conditions.In this study,P.cyrtonema can grow well in shading conditions,shading is beneficial to the formation of the yield and quality of the rhizomes of P.cyrtonema,especially in 65% light transmittance.

Biomass , Chlorophyll , Chlorophyll A , Photosynthesis , Plant Leaves , Plant Stomata , Plant Transpiration , Polygonatum , Physiology , Sunlight
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-773263


Chlorophyll content,leaf mass to per area,net photosynthetic rate and bioactive ingredients of Asarum heterotropoides var. mandshuricum,a skiophyte grown in four levels of solar irradiance were measured and analyzed in order to investigate the response of photosynthetic capability to light irradiance and other environmental factors. It suggested that the leaf mass to per area of plant was greatest value of four kinds of light irradiance and decreasing intensity of solar irradiance resulted in the decrease of leaf mass to per area at every phenological stage. At expanding leaf stage,the rate of Chla and Chlb was 3. 11 when A. heterotropoides var. mandshuricum grew in full light irradiance which is similar to the rate of heliophytes,however,the rate of Chla and Chlb was below to 3. 0 when they grew in shading environment. The content of Chla,Chlb and Chl( a+b) was the greatest value of four kinds of light irradiance and decreasing intensity of solar irradiance resulted in its decreasing remarkably( P<0. 05). The rate of Chla and Chlb decreased but the content of Chla,Chlb and Chl( a+b) increased gradually with continued shading. The maximum value of photosynthetically active radiation appeared at 10: 00-12: 00 am in a day. The maximum value of net photosynthetic rate appeared at 8: 30-9: 00 am and the minimum value appeared at 14: 00-14: 30 pm at each phenological stage if plants grew in full sunlight. However,when plants grew in shading,the maximum value of net photosynthetic rate appeared at about 10: 30 am and the minimum value appeared at 12: 20-12: 50 pm at each phenological stage. At expanding leaf stage and flowering stage,the average of net photosynthetic rate of leaves in full sunlight was remarkably higher than those in shading and it decreased greatly with decreasing of irradiance gradually( P < 0. 05). However,at fruiting stage,the average of net photosynthetic rate of leaves in full sunlight was lower than those in 50% and 28% full sunlight but higher than those in 12% full sunlight. All photosynthetic diurnal variation parameters of plants measured in four kinds of different irradiance at three stages were used in correlation analysis. The results suggested that no significant correlation was observed between net photosynthetic rate and photosynthetically active radiation,and significant negative correlation was observed between net photosynthetic rate and environmental temperature as well as vapor pressure deficit expect for 12% full sunlight. Positive correlation was observed between net photosynthestic rate and relative humidity expect for 12% full sunlight. Significant positive correlation was observed between net photosynthetic rate and stomatal conductance in the four light treatments. Only,in 12% full sunlight,the net photosynthetic rate was significantly related to photosynthetically active radiation rather than related to environmental temperature,vapor pressure deficit and relative humidity. In each light treatment,a significant positive correlation was observed between environmental temperature and vapor pressure deficit,relative humidity as well as stomatal conductance. Volatile oil content was 1. 46%,2. 16%,1. 56%,1. 30% respectively. ethanol extracts was 23. 44%,22. 45%,22. 18%,21. 12% respectively. Asarinin content was 0. 281%,0. 291%,0. 279% and 0. 252% respectively. The characteristic components of Asarum volatile oil of plant in different light treatments did not change significantly among different groups.

Asarum , Physiology , Radiation Effects , Chlorophyll , Photosynthesis , Plant Leaves , Radiation Effects , Sunlight
Mycobiology ; : 126-133, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-760518


Isaria javanica pf185 is an important entomopathogenic fungus with potential for use as an agricultural biocontrol agent. However, the effect of I. javanica pf185 on plant growth is unknown. Enhanced tobacco growth was observed when tobacco roots were exposed to spores, cultures, and fungal cell-free culture supernatants of this fungus. Tobacco seedlings were also exposed to the volatiles of I. javanica pf185 in vitro using I-plates in which the plant and fungus were growing in separate compartments connected only by air space. The length and weight of seedlings, content of leaf chlorophyll, and number of root branches were significantly increased by the fungal volatiles. Heptane, 3-hexanone, 2,4-dimethylhexane, and 2-nonanone were detected, by solid-phase micro-extraction and gas chromatography-mass spectrophotometry, as the key volatile compounds produced by I. javanica pf185. These findings illustrate that I. javanica pf185 can be used to promote plant growth, and also as a biocontrol agent of insect and plant diseases. Further studies are necessary to elucidate the mechanisms by which I. javanica pf185 promotes plant growth.

Chlorophyll , Fungi , In Vitro Techniques , Insecta , Plant Diseases , Plants , Seedlings , Spectrophotometry , Spores , Tobacco
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-740552


PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to estimate the antioxidant activities of 50%, 70%, and 100% ethanol extracts of Lycium barbarum leaf and chlorophyll removal extract. METHODS: The antioxidant activities were estimated by measuring total polyphenol content and by assays of 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and 2,2′-azino-bis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfate) (ABTS) radical scavenging activities and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP). In addition, reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, DNA fragmentation, and antioxidant enzyme (superoxide dismutase and catalase) activities of the extracts were measured in hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-stressed HepG2 cells. RESULTS: The total polyphenol content, DPPH and ABTS radical scavenging activities, and FRAP value of the extracts increased in an ethanol concentration-dependent manner. The antioxidant activities of the chlorophyll-removal extracts were much higher than those of the chlorophyll-containing extracts. Cytotoxicity was not observed in HepG2 cells with extracts up to 1,000 µg/mL. All extracts inhibited ROS production in a concentration-dependent manner from 31.3 µg/mL and inhibited DNA damage at 250 µg/mL. The SOD and catalase activities of cell lines treated with the extracts and H2O2 were similar to those of normal cells, indicating a strong protective effect. CONCLUSION: Lycium barbarum leaf extracts had high antioxidant activities and protected H2O2-stressed HepG2 cells. Since the chlorophyll-removal extract exhibited higher antioxidant activities than the chlorophyll-containing ones and the cytoprotective effect was similar, chlorophyll removal extract of Lycium barbarum leaf could be developed as ingredients of functional food and cosmetics.

Catalase , Cell Line , Chlorophyll , DNA Damage , DNA Fragmentation , Ethanol , Functional Food , Hep G2 Cells , Hydrogen Peroxide , Lycium , Reactive Oxygen Species
Braz. j. biol ; 78(3): 509-516, Aug. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-951583


Abstract Typha domingensis (cattail) is a native macrophyte known by its capacity to tolerate several heavy metals effects and the potential use for phytoremediation. However, in despite that cadmium (Cd) is one of the most toxic pollutants; its effects in T. domingensis biology remain uninvestigated. Thus, the objective of this study was to study the tolerance of T. domingensis to cadmium contamination by evaluating its growth, Cd uptake, leaf anatomy and gas exchange. The experiment was designed using three cadmium concentrations (0, 10 and 50 µM) and ten replicates for 90 days. The cadmium uptake, growth, gas exchange, chlorophyll content and leaf anatomy were evaluated. Data was submitted to ANOVA and Scott-Knott test for P<0.05. Typha domingensis accumulates Cd proportionally to its concentration on the solution and the content of this metal was higher in roots as compared to shoots. Plants showed no significant modifications on growth parameters such as the biomass production, number of leaves, number of clones and the biomass allocation to organs. The photosynthesis, transpiration and chlorophyll content were not modified by Cd. Most anatomical traits evaluated were not modified by the metal but the stomatal density and the proportion of vascular tissues were reduced under 50 µM of Cd. In despite, the leaf anatomy showed no toxicity evidences for any Cd level. The absence of growth reduction and the stability of anatomical and physiological traits give insight about the Cd tolerance of this species. Therefore, T. domingensis is able to overcome Cd toxicity and shows potential for phytoremediation.

Resumo A espécie Typha domingensis (taboa) é uma macrófita nativa conhecida por sua tolerância a vários metais pesados e potencial uso na fitorremediação. Contudo, apesar de que o Cd é um dos poluentes mais tóxicos; Seus efeitos em T. domingensis ainda não foram investigados. Assim, o objetivo desse estudo foi avaliar a tolerância de T. domingensis ao cádmio, avaliando o crescimento, absorção de Cd, anatomia foliar e trocas gasosas. O experimento foi conduzido utilizando três concentrações de Cd (0, 10 e 50 µM) e dez repetições por 90 dias.. O crescimento, trocas gasosas e o teor de clorofila e anatomia foliar foram avaliados. Os dados foram submetidos à ANOVA e ao teste de Scott-Knott para P<0,05. A absorção de cádmio, crescimento, trocas gasosas, teor de clorofila e anatomia foliar foram analisados. As plantas de T. domingensis podem acumular Cd proporcionalmente à sua concentração na solução e o teor deste metal foi maior nas raízes em comparação com a parte aérea. As plantas não apresentam modificações significativas nos parâmetros de crescimento como produção de biomassa, número de folhas, número de clones produzidos e alocação de biomassa nos órgãos. A fotossíntese, transpiração e conteúdo de clorofila não foram afetados de forma significativa pelo Cd. A maioria das características anatômicas avaliadas não apresentou diferenças, mas houve redução na densidade estomática e na proporção de tecidos vasculares na concentração de 50 µM de Cd. A anatomia foliar não mostrou evidências de toxicidade em nenhum dos níveis de Cd. A ausência de redução de crescimento e estabilidade das características anatômicas e fisiológicas caracteriza alta tolerância da espécie ao Cd. Portanto, T. domingensis é capaz de superar a toxicidade do Cd e demostra potencial para fitorremediação.

Cadmium/metabolism , Plant Leaves/metabolism , Typhaceae/growth & development , Typhaceae/metabolism , Photosynthesis/physiology , Biodegradation, Environmental , Cadmium/toxicity , Chlorophyll/metabolism , Chlorophyll/chemistry , Plant Roots/metabolism , Plant Roots/chemistry , Plant Leaves/chemistry , Biomass , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug
Braz. j. biol ; 78(3): 579-587, Aug. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-951578


Abstract Current study investigated the effectiveness of different macrophytes as culture media for Ankistrodesmus gracilis in laboratory conditions. Significant difference (p < 0.05) was reported in cell density with regard to conventional culture medium (CHU12) and macrophytes culture media. Mean cell density in NPK, Eichhornia crassipes and E. azurea media was higher (p < 0.05) than in conventional culture medium. Chlorophyll-a was higher than 1 g.L-1, except in CHU12 (0.7 ± 0.4 g.L-1) and T. domingensis (0.8 ± 0.3 g.L-1) media. Nitrate decreased sharply as from the 7th-day of the experiment. Ammonium and total phosphorus were highest in culture media and ranged between 0.4 g.L-1 (P. cordata medium) and 1.7 g.L-1 (CHU12 medium) for ammonium, and between 0.8 g.L-1 (CHU12 medium) and 1.9 g.L-1 (T. domingensis medium) for total phosphorus. Results revealed inorganic fertilizer and macrophytes combined with vitamins may be effective as culture media and strongly supports the growth of Ankistrodesmus gracilis, since cell density and biochemical composition are similar to or higher than conventional culture medium (CHU12). Macrophyte is a tool for aquaculture since biological wastes may be used with nutrients to improve the cultivation of microalgae.

Resumo O presente estudo investigou a eficácia na utilização de diferentes macrófitas como meio de cultura para Ankistrodesmus gracilis em condições laboratoriais. Foi observada diferença significativa (p < 0,05) entre a densidade celular em relação aos meios de cultura convencional (CHU12) e de macrófitas. Os meios de cultura com Eichhornia crassipes, E. azurea e NPK apresentaram densidade celular maiores (p < 0,05) que o meio de cultura convencional. Os teores de clorofila-a foram superiores a 1 g.L-1, exceto nos meios de cultura CHU12 (0.7 ± 0.4 g.L-1) e de T. domingensis (0.7 ± 0.3 g.L-1). O nitrato diminuiu acentuadamente a partir do 7º dia de experimento. Dentre os nutrientes, amônia e o fósforo total foram os mais elevados nos meios de cultura, variando entre 0.4 g.L-1 (meio de P. cordata) a 1,7 g.L-1 (meio CHU12) para amônia e, entre 0.8 g.L-1 (meio CHU12) e 1,9 gL-1 (meio de T. domingensis) para o fósforo total. Os resultados do presente estudo mostraram que o uso de fertilizantes inorgânicos e macrófitas, combinados com vitaminas, pode ser eficaz como meio de cultura no crescimento de Ankistrodesmus gracilis, uma vez que a densidade celular e a composição bioquímica foram semelhantes ou superiores ao meio de cultura convencional (CHU12). As macrófitas são ferramentas a serem adotadas na aquicultura, desde que os resíduos biológicos podem ser usados como nutrientes para melhorar o cultivo de microalgas.

Aquaculture , Culture Media/chemistry , Chlorophyta/growth & development , Microalgae/growth & development , Waste Water/chemistry , Phosphorus , Brazil , Chlorophyll/analogs & derivatives , Chlorophyta/chemistry , Microalgae/chemistry , Fertilizers , Waste Water/analysis , Chlorophyll A , Nitrates , Nutritive Value
Biosci. j. (Online) ; 34(6): 1649-1662, nov.-dec. 2018. tab, graf, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-968965


Abiotic stresses in plants have aroused great research interest, unceasingly seeking for more productive cultivars under unfavorable cultivation conditions. Water deficiency and soil salinity are the most studied aspects, due to their strong impact on the growth and productivity of plants. The objective of this study was to evaluate accessions of different sugarcane species (Saccharum spp., S. robustum, S. officinarum) regarding tolerance to in vitrosalinity, from changes in physiological, anatomical, biochemical and biometric parameters, to assist in breeding programs. To this end, shoots were used, grown on Murashige and Skoog medium, supplemented with 2% of sucrose and 4 g.L-1Phytagel, in the presence of five concentrations 0, 50, 100, 150, 200 mM NaCl. Shoots length, roots length, shoots number, roots number, fresh weight, dry weight, proline content in leaves, total chlorophyll content, and morphological changes to the leaf tissue were analyzed. The in vitro growth of accessions Saccharum robustum, Saccharum spp. and Saccharum officinarum are affected by salinity induced by NaCl. The proline accumulation and chlorophyll decrease are intensified in Saccharum spp., in addition to changes in cell's anatomy, characterized as more sensitive to salt.(AU)

Os estresses abióticos em plantas têm despertado grande interesse da pesquisa, que tem buscado incessantemente por cultivares mais produtivas sob condições desfavoráveis de cultivo. A deficiência hídrica e a salinidade do solo são os mais estudados, em razão de seu forte impacto sobre o crescimento e a produtividade das plantas. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar acessos de diferentes espécies de cana-de-açúcar (Saccharum robustum, Saccharum spp., S. officinarum), quanto a tolerância à salinidade in vitro, a partir de alterações nos parâmetros fisiológicos, anatômicos, bioquímicos e biométricos, para auxiliar em futuros programas de melhoramento. Para tanto foram utilizadas brotações, cultivadas em meio Murashige e Skoog, suplementado com 2% de sacarose e 4 g.L-1 de Phytagel, na presença de cinco concentrações 0, 50, 100, 150, 200 mM de NaCl. Comprimento das brotações e da raiz, número de brotações e de raízes, peso fresco, peso seco, teor de prolina nas folhas, conteúdo de clorofila total e alterações morfológicas dos tecidos foliares foram analisados. O crescimento in vitro dos acessos Saccharum robustum, Saccharum spp. e Saccharum officinarum é afetado pela salinidade induzida por NaCl. O acúmulo de prolina e decréscimo de clorofila é intensificado em Saccharumspp., além de mudança na anatomia de células, caracterizando-se como mais sensível ao sal.(AU)

In Vitro Techniques , Water , Saccharum , Salinity , Soil , Stress, Physiological , Chlorophyll
Biosci. j. (Online) ; 34(4): 858-867, july/aug. 2018. tab, graf, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-967025


Product efficacy testing during 2006 to 2010 with SBAJA (a novel scientifically formulated foliar-spray growth and yield enhancer) in the greenhouse and multi-location field trials registered measurable increase in chlorophyll contents, robust and healthier crop growth and increased yield and biomass production. In field trial, rice plants receiving normal NPK fertilizer at the rates of 100:50:30 served as control and spray treated with SBAJA at 40 and 60 days after sowing (DAS). All the experiments were laid out in Randomized Complete Block (RCB) Design and replicated five times. Tiller number and panicle characteristics; length, weight, number of grains, number of filled grains were significantly increased with 1:300 SBAJA treatment. In addition, 1000 grain weight and rice yield increased significantly with SBAJA treatments. Normal fertilizer applications in field trials augmented with SBAJA in 2008-2010 in the Selangor North West Project (SNWP), registered measurable increase in rice yields by 25-30% from 6.2 - 6.5 tons/ha to 7.8 - 8.9 tons/ha. It is concluded that foliar spraying with SBAJA at 40 and 60 days after sowing increased growth and yield of rice under green house and field conditions.

Os testes de eficácia do produto durante 2006 a 2010 com SBAJA (um novo spray foliar cientificamente formulado) em estufa e ensaios de campo em várias localizações registraram aumento mensurável nos teores de clorofila, crescimento robusto e mais saudável das culturas e aumento do rendimento e da produção de biomassa. No ensaio de campo, plantas de arroz recebendo adubo NPK normal nas doses de 100:50:30 serviram como controle e foram tratadas com SBAJA aos 40 e 60 dias após a semeadura (DAS). Todos os experimentos foram dispostos no formato Randomized Complete Block (RCB) e replicados cinco vezes. Número de perfilhos e características da panícula; comprimento, peso, número de grãos, número de grãos preenchidos foram significativamente aumentados com o tratamento com 1:300 SBAJA. Além disso, o peso de 1000 grãos e o rendimento de arroz aumentaram significativamente com os tratamentos da SBAJA. Aplicações normais de fertilizantes em testes de campo aumentados com a SBAJA em 2008-2010 no Projeto Selangor North West (SNWP), registraram aumento mensurável na produção de arroz de 25-30% de 6,2 a 6,5 toneladas/ha para 7,8 a 8,9 toneladas/ha. Conclui-se que a pulverização foliar com SBAJA aos 40 e 60 dias após a semeadura aumentou o crescimento e o rendimento do arroz em estufa e em campo.

Oryza , Agricultural Cultivation , Chlorophyll
Biosci. j. (Online) ; 34(4): 907-916, july/aug. 2018. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-967038


In order to study the growth and physiology of citrus rootstocks under saline water irrigation, during formation of rootstocks, an assay was carried out in a factorial scheme, 2 x 6, corresponding to two levels of salinity of the nutrient solution: 0.3 and 4.0 dS m-1 and six genotypes provided by the Citrus Breeding Program of Embrapa Cassava & Fruits-CBP, distributed in randomized block design with three replications. The genotypes were: 1.'Santa Cruz Rangpur' lime (SCRL) (Citrus limonia Osbeck), 2. 'Florida Rough' lemon (FRL) (Citrus jambhiri Lush.), 3. 'Volkamer' lemon (VKL) (C. volkameriana V. Ten. &Pasq.), 4. CSM x SWC- 028, 5. CSM x SWC- 033 and 6.CSM x SWC-041, the last three hybrids of common 'Sunki' mandarin (CSM) [C.sunki (Hayata) hort. ex Tanaka] with 'Swingle' citrumelo (SWC) [C. paradisi Macfad. x Poncirus trifoliata (L.) Raf.]. Nucellar plants from these genotypes were grown in alternative hydroponic system, using Leonard jars. Application of nutrient solution made with saline water started from 90 days after sowing until 120 days, when the growth and physiology parameters of plants were evaluated. Salt stress influenced the growth and physiological parameters in all genotypes. Salt stress did not influence the chlorophyll a fluorescence in the genotypes VKL and CSM x SWC- 041, indicating no damage to the photosynthetic apparatus. The CSM x SWC- 041, 'Santa Cruz Rangpur' lime, 'Florida Rough' lemon and 'Volkamer' lemon are the more tolerant genotypes to salinity based on growth rate.

A fim de estudar o crescimento e a fisiologia de porta-enxertos de citros sob irrigação com água salina, durante a formação de porta-enxertos, realizou-se um ensaio fatorial 2 x 6, correspondente a dois níveis de salinidade da solução nutritiva: 0,3 e 4,0 dS m-1 e seis genótipos fornecidos pelo Programa de Melhoramento de Citros da Embrapa Mandioca & Fruticultura-PMGC, distribuídos em delineamento em blocos casualizados com três repetições. Os genótipos foram: 1. 'limoeiro Cravo Santa Cruz' (LCRSTC) (Citrus limonia Osbeck), 2. 'limoeiro Rugoso da Flórida' (LRF) (Citrus jambhiri Lush.), 3. 'limoeiro Volkameriano' (LVK) (C. Volkameriana V. Ten. & Pasq.), 4. CSM x SWC- 028, 5. CSM x SWC- 033 e 6. CSM x SWC-041, os últimos três híbridos de tangerineira 'Sunki' comum (CSM) [C. sunki (Hayata) hort. Ex Tanaka] com citrumelo 'Swingle' (SWC) [C. Paradisi Macfad. x Poncirus trifoliata (L.) Raf.] Plantas de origem nucelar desses genótipos foram cultivadas em sistema hidropônico alternativo, utilizando vasos Leonard. A aplicação de solução nutritiva feita com água salina iniciou-se a partir de 90 dias após a semeadura até 120 dias, quando foram avaliados os parâmetros de crescimento e fisiologia das plantas. O estresse salino influenciou o crescimento e os parâmetros fisiológicos em todos os genótipos. O estresse salino não influenciou a fluorescência da clorofila a nos genótipos VKL e CSM x SWC-041, indicando não haver danos ao aparelho fotossintético. O CSM x SWC-041, 'limoeiro Cravo Santa Cruz', 'limoeiro Rugoso da Flórida' e 'limoeiro Volkameriano' são os genótipos mais tolerantes à salinidade com base na taxa de crescimento.

Citrus , Salinity , Agricultural Irrigation , Saline Waters , Chlorophyll , Fluorescence
Biosci. j. (Online) ; 34(3): 556-564, mai/jun. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-966898


Tannery wastewater sludge is an industrial residue that can be used in the pure form or associated to other residues, such as byproduct production from cultivated plants. The objective of the present study was to assess substrate composition for producing conilon coffee stem cuttings, varying increasing tannery wastewater sludge doses. A randomized block design was used with four treatments, three increasing doses of tannery wastewater sludge and one conventional treatment. The stem cuttings were assessed for parameters related to photosystem II functioning and biometry. The results indicated that substrates consisting of tannery wastewater sludge, humus and subsoil promote, in general, improvement in plant growth compared to conventional substrates, highlighting the Dickson quality index. Both chlorophyll fluorescence parameters and chlorophyll contents estimates were not affected by using tannery wastewater sludge in the mixture to formulate substrate for conilon coffee stem cuttings.

O lodo de curtume é um resíduo industrial que pode ser aproveitado de forma pura ou associado a outros resíduos, como na produção de substratos de plantas cultivadas. Neste sentido, o objetivo desse trabalho foi avaliar a composição de substrato para a produção de mudas de café conilon, variando doses crescentes de lodo de curtume. O delineamento utilizado foi em blocos casualizados, com quatro tratamentos, sendo três doses crescentes de lodo e um tratamento convencional. As mudas foram avaliadas em relação aos parâmetros relacionados ao funcionamento do fotossistema II e a biometria. Os resultados indicam que substratos compostos por lodo, húmus e terra de subsolo promoveram, em geral, melhoria no crescimento das mudas quando comparados aos substratos convencionais, destacandose o índice de qualidade de Dickson. Os parâmetros de fluorescência e estimativas do teor de clorofila não foram afetados pela utilização do lodo de curtume na mistura para formulação de substrato de mudas de café conilon.

Soil , Tanning , Coffee , Coffea , Chlorophyll , Metals, Heavy , Fluorescence , Industrial Waste
An. acad. bras. ciênc ; 90(1): 485-494, Mar. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-886916


ABSTRACT Soybean (Glycine max L.) seed contains amounts of protein, lipid, carbohydrate and mineral elements, which protein and lipid have been known as a main part for soybean's trade value. In this study, in order to investigate the effect of ferrous nano-oxide particles on nutritional compounds of soybean seed, an experiment with 5 treatments and 3 replications was conducted as a randomized complete block design. Treatments were 5 concentrations of ferrous nano-oxide particles including 0, 0.25, 0.5, 0.75 and 1 g L-1 which were sprayed 3 times at 4 and 8 leaves stage and pod initiation. Lipid and protein contents, fatty acids profile, some of mineral elements such as Fe, Mg, Ca and P, chlorophyll a, b and total chlorophyll content were determined. Results showed that solution containing ferrous nano-oxide particles had significant effect on nutritional compounds of soybean seed (P<0.01) compared to control. The highest content of lipid and protein (25.4 and %33.8, respectively) observed by applying 0.75 g L-1 of ferrous nano-oxide and the lowest content was also in control. Changes in the trends of fatty acids profile (palmitic, oleic, linoleic and linolenic acids), some of mineral elements (Fe, Mg, Ca and P) and chlorophyll contents were similar to lipid and protein levels which by increasing in concentration of ferrous nano-oxide from 0 to 0.75 g L-1 all measured parameters also increased, but reduction in all parameters was observed in concentration from 0.75 to 1 g L-1. In conclusion, application of 0.75 to 1 g L-1 ferrous nano-oxide had the best effect on the nutrient composition of soybean seed.

Seeds/drug effects , Seeds/chemistry , Soybeans/drug effects , Soybeans/chemistry , Ferrous Compounds/pharmacology , Metal Nanoparticles/chemistry , Reference Values , Seeds/physiology , Soybeans/physiology , Trace Elements/analysis , Proteins/analysis , Random Allocation , Chlorophyll/analysis , Regression Analysis , Reproducibility of Results , Fatty Acids/analysis , Fertilizers , Lipids/analysis
Biosci. j. (Online) ; 34(1): 75-87, jan./feb. 2018. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-966612


One way to minimize the impacts caused by water deficit (WD) in agriculture is the use of tolerant cultivars. The physiological evaluation of plants through the potential quantum efficiency of photosystem II (Fv/Fm) and estimated chlorophyll content (SPAD index) can be an effective tool in the selection and recommendation of water deficit-tolerant cultivars. Within this context, the aim of this study was to evaluate the physiological responses of sugarcane cultivars classified as tolerant or susceptible to water deficit. The experiment was carried out near the city of Jaú, SP, Brazil in a greenhouse, between July and December 2013. The experimental design was completely randomized in a 4 x 2 factorial arrangement, with four replications. We studied four sugarcane cultivars: RB72454, RB855453 (prone to WD), SP81-3250 and SP83-2847 (WD-tolerant) in two water management regimes (with and without deficit). WD reduced stems dry mass of all cultivars, however, the greatest decreases were observed in susceptible cultivars to WD, where the decrease was 58.3 and 74.5% for cultivars RB855443 and RB72454, respectively. As for the SP81-3250 and SP83-2847 cultivars (tolerant), the reduction was 44.1 and 47.7%, respectively. For water deficit-tolerant cultivars, there was lower reduction in potential quantum efficiency of photosystem II and SPAD index; therefore, the physiological characteristics (Fv/Fm and SPAD index) are features that can aid the identification and selection of water deficit tolerant cultivars, and also help the recommendation of these cultivars for harsh environments, minimizing the effects of water deficit on stem yield on the sugarcane crop.

Uma forma de minimizar os impactos causados pelo déficit hídrico (DH) na agricultura é o uso de cultivares tolerantes. A avaliação fisiológica das plantas através da eficiência quântica potencial do fotossistema II (Fv/Fm) e do índice SPAD pode se tornar uma ferramenta eficiente na seleção e recomendação de cultivares tolerantes ao déficit hídrico. Com base nesse contexto, o objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar as respostas fisiológicas de cultivares de cana-de-açúcar classificadas como tolerantes e susceptíveis ao déficit hídrico. O experimento foi realizado na região do município de Jaú/SP/Brasil em casa de vegetação, entre os meses de julho e dezembro de 2013. O delineamento experimental foi inteiramente casualizado no esquema fatorial 4 x 2, com quatro repetições. Foram estudadas quatro cultivares de cana-de-açúcar: RB72454, RB855453 (susceptíveis ao DH), SP81-3250 e SP83-2847 (tolerantes ao DH) em dois regimes hídricos (com e sem déficit). O DH reduziu a massa seca dos colmos de todas cultivares, porém, as maiores quedas foram observadas nas cultivares susceptíveis ao DH, em que nas cultivares RB855443 e RB72454 a queda foi de 58,3 e 74,5%, respectivamente. Já para as cultivares SP81-3250 e SP83-2847 (tolerantes), a redução foi de 44,1 e 47,7%, respectivamente. As cultivares tolerantes ao déficit hídrico tiveram menor redução na eficiência quântica potencial do fotossistema II e no índice SPAD, demonstrando, portanto, que os parâmetros fisiológicos (Fv/Fm e índice SPAD) são características que podem auxiliar a identificação e seleção de cultivares tolerantes ao déficit hídrico, e ainda, auxiliar a recomendação dessas cultivares para ambientes desfavoráveis, minimizando os efeitos do déficit hídrico sobre o rendimento de colmos na cultura da cana-de-açúcar.

Agricultural Cultivation , Chlorophyll , Dehydration , Saccharum , Fluorescence